WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathode ray tube digitizers

  1. Field emission digital display tube with nano-graphite film cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicai Deng; Zhanling Lu; Binglin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The field emission digital display tube with a nano-crystalline graphite cold cathode is designed and fabricated. Under the control of the driving circuits, a dynamic digital display with uniform luminance distribution is realized. The luminance of the character segments is 190 cd/m2 at the operating voltage of 900 V. And the stable emission is attained with a fluctuation of about 3% at an average segment current of 75 μA. The results demonstrate that nano-crystalline graphite film is a promising material for cold cathode.

  2. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Microcalcifications: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Pathology, and Breast Center, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Background: A recent study using dedicated contrast-detail phantoms showed that the image quality of a 3-megapixel (M) monitor can approach that of a 5M monitor in digital mammography. Purpose: To compare a 5M cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor with a 3M liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of microcalcifications in a clinical setting. Material and Methods: 100 screen-detected microcalcification lesions (34 malignant and 66 benign) without mass that had been evaluated with 11-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or definitive surgery were recruited into the study. One radiologist analyzed the soft-copy mammograms on a 5M CRT monitor and a 3M LCD monitor with 5 months between interpretations and scored the likelihood of malignancy and calcification distribution on a five-point scale. Calcification morphology and breast density were scored on a four-point scale. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated on the basis of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in the likelihood of malignancy (P = 0.655), calcification morphology (P = 0.168), calcification distribution (P = 0.11), and breast density (P = 0.0608). The PPV and NPV of soft-copy reading on the 5M CRT monitor was 57% (30/53) and 91% (43/47), respectively, identical to the results using the 3M LCD monitor. The total interpretation time averaged 88 s for the 5M CRT monitor and 67 s for the 3M LCD monitor (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Soft-copy reading of a digital mammography of microcalcifications with a 3M LCD monitor was similar in diagnostic performance to a 5M CRT monitor in this study.

  3. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube yarn for micro-resolution X-ray tube cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Won; Mo, Chan Bin; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Seongwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio for X-ray tube cathode. However, CNT field emission cathode has been shown unstable field emission and short life time due to field evaporation by high current density and detachment by electrostatic force. An alternative approach in this direction is the introduction of CNT yarn, which is a one dimensional assembly of individual carbon nanotubes bonded by the Van der Waals force. Because CNT yarn is composed with many CNTs, CNT yarns are expected to increase current density and life time for X-ray tube applications. In this research, CNT yarn was fabricated by spinning of a super-aligned CNT forest and was characterized for application to an X-ray tube cathode. CNT yarn showed a high field emission current density and a long lifetime of over 450 hours. Applying the CNT yarn field emitter to the X-ray tube cathode, it was possible to obtain micro-scale resolution images. The relationship between the field emission properties and the microstructure evolution was investigated and the unraveling effect of the CNT yarn was discussed.

  4. Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniaghe, Paschal O; Adie, Gilbert U

    2015-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes are image display units found in computer monitors and televisions. In recent years, cathode ray tubes have been generated as waste owing to the introduction of newer and advanced technologies in image displays, such as liquid crystal displays and high definition televisions, among others. Generation and subsequent disposal of end-of-life cathode ray tubes presents a challenge owing to increasing volumes and high lead content embedded in the funnel and neck sections of the glass. Disposal in landfills and open dumping are anti-environmental practices considering the large-scale contamination of environmental media by the potential of toxic metals leaching from glass. Mitigating such environmental contamination will require sound management strategies that are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. This review covers existing and emerging management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tubes. An in-depth analysis of available technologies (glass smelting, detoxification of cathode ray tube glass, lead extraction from cathode ray tube glass) revealed that most of the techniques are environmentally friendly, but are largely confined to either laboratory scale, or are often limited owing to high cost to mount, or generate secondary pollutants, while a closed-looped method is antiquated. However, recycling in cementitious systems (cement mortar and concrete) gives an added advantage in terms of quantity of recyclable cathode ray tube glass at a given time, with minimal environmental and economic implications. With significant quantity of waste cathode ray tube glass being generated globally, cementitious systems could be economically and environmentally acceptable as a sound management practice for cathode ray tube glass, where other technologies may not be applicable.

  5. A Century-Old Question: Does a Crookes Paddle Wheel Cathode Ray Tube Demonstrate That Electrons Carry Momentum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, T. E.; Calisa, Vaishnavi

    2014-01-01

    In 1879, in the midst of the debate between English and continental scientists about the nature of cathode rays, William Crookes conducted an experiment in which a small mill or "paddle wheel" was pushed along tracks inside a cathode ray tube (CRT) (similar to that shown in Fig. 1) when connected to a high-voltage induction coil. Crookes…

  6. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass.

  7. The chemistry of artificial lighting devices lamps, phosphors and cathode ray tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    1993-01-01

    Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufactur

  8. 40 CFR 261.41 - Notification and Recordkeeping for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse. 261.41 Section 261.41 Protection of... Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse. (a) Persons who export used, intact CRTs for reuse must send a one-time... to export used, intact CRTs for reuse, the notifier's name, address, and EPA ID number (if...

  9. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  10. Novel Low-Cost, Low-Power Miniature Thermionic Cathode Developed for Microwave/Millimeter Wave Tube and Cathode Ray Tube Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1999-01-01

    A low cost, small size and mass, low heater power, durable high-performance barium dispenser thermionic cathode has been developed that offers significant advancements in the design, manufacture, and performance of the electron sources used in vacuum electronic devices--such as microwave (and millimeter wave) traveling-wave tubes (TWT's)--and in display devices such as high-brightness, high-resolution cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The lower cathode heater power and the reduced size and mass of the new cathode are expected to be especially beneficial in TWT's for deep space communications, where future missions are requiring smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. Also expected to benefit are TWT's for commercial and government communication satellites, for both low and geosynchronous Earth orbit, with additional benefits offered by lower cost and potentially higher cathode current loading. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (MPM), which is a hybrid microwave (or millimeter wave) amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid state driver, a vacuum power booster (small TWT), and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package. The attributes of compactness and potentially high electrical efficiency make the MPM very attractive for many commercial and government (civilian and defense) applications in communication and radar systems. The MPM is already finding application in defense electronic systems and is under development by NASA for deep space communications. However, for the MPM to become competitive and commercially successful, a major reduction in cost must be achieved.

  11. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  12. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-03

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  13. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2(2) full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H2O2 concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70°C and 3h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2(2) full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2-2.5% and 10-12%v/v of Na2S concentrated solution at 10%w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15-20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75-80%.

  14. 40 CFR 261.39 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Broken Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complete until any such claim is resolved in accordance with 40 CFR 260.2. (v) The export of CRTs is... CFR part 266, subpart C instead of the requirements of this section. ... Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. 261.39 Section 261.39 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet...

  16. Full-color laser cathode ray tube (L-CRT) projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskiy, Vladimir; Nasibov, Alexander S.; Popov, Yuri M.; Reznikov, Parvel V.; Skasyrsky, Yan K.

    1995-04-01

    A full color TV projector based on three laser cathode-ray tubes (L-CRT) is described. A water-cooled laser screen (LS) is the radiation element of the L-CRT. We have produced three main colors (blue, green and red) by using the LS made of three II-VI compounds: ZnSe ((lambda) equals 475 nm), CdS ((lambda) equals 530 nm) and ZnCdSe (630 nm). The total light flow reaches 1500 Lm, and the number of elements per line is not less than 1000. The LS efficiency may be about 10 Lm/W. In our experiments we have tested new electron optics: - (30 - 37) kV are applied to the cathode unit of the electron gun; the anode of the e-gun and the e-beam intensity modulator are under low potential; the LS has a potential + (30 - 37) kV. The accelerating voltage is divided into two parts, and this enables us to diminish the size and weight of the projector.

  17. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  18. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  19. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  20. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-30

    Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  1. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Carbonari; Luciane Gonçalves; Daniela Roth; Patrick Moreira; Ricardo Fernández; Maria da Graça Martino-Roth

    2005-01-01

    It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs) has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs ...

  2. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-15

    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.

  3. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by generating the sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is an environmental problem of old television sets. Removal of the lead from CRT funnel glass can prevent its release into the environment and allow its reuse. In this research, we reference the dry progress productive technology of sodium silicate, the waste CRT glass was dealt with sodium silicate frit melted and sodium silicate frit dissolved. Adding a certain amount of Na ₂CO₃to the waste CRT glass bases on the material composition and content of it, then the specific modulus of sodium silicate frit is obtained by melting progress. The silicon, potassium and sodium compounds of the sodium silicate frit are dissolved under the conditions of high temperature and pressure by using water as solvent, which shows the tendency that different temperature, pressure, liquid-solid ratio and dissolving time have effect on the result of dissolving. At 175°C(0.75MPa), liquid-solid ratio is 1.5:1, the dissolving time is 1h, the dissolution rate of sodium silicate frit is 44.725%. By using sodium sulfide to separate hydrolysis solution and to collect lead compounds in the solution, the recovery rate of lead in dissolving reached 100% and we can get clean sodium silicate and high purity of lead compounds. The method presented in this research can recycle not only the lead but also the sodium, potassium and other inorganic minerals in CRT glass and can obtain the comprehensive utilization of leaded glass.

  4. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE. Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009. These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of toxic materials and, at the same time, they are an important source of recyclable materials, and especially valuable metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, Zn. Nowadays there are various approaches for the treatment and recycling of WEEE, involving pyro-, hydro- and bio-metallurgical processes (Cui and Zhang, 2008. Among WEEE, cathode ray tubes (CRT displays, used mainly in computer monitors and television sets, are regarded as the most polluting fraction of all WEEE (Nnorom et al., 2011. CRT recycling represents a challenge due to their high accumulation rate, proportional to the evolution of modern technologies (flat panel displays, their high content of toxic and noxious substances (heavy metals and organic compounds, improper storage, and the lack of a complete, pollution-free recycling solution. Previous studies have shown that some CRT metallic components (electron gun - EG, shadow mask contain important amounts of Ni (25 – 45% and Fe (50 – 70%, and small quantities of Mn, Co and Cr (Robotin et al., 2011. Ni and Ni alloys play an important role in modern technology, especially due to their magnetic and anticorrosion properties. Unfortunately, when exposed inappropriately, Ni can have negative environmental effects and can be harmful to human health (Denkhaus and Salnikow, 2002. In this context, Ni recycling from electronic waste is important for environmental and health reasons, and, at the same time, Ni recycling could be financially sustainable due to an

  5. Reddish Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence in KY3F10:Sm3+for X-Ray or Cathode Ray Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Su; ZHONG Hai-Yang; SUN Jia-Shi; CHENG Li-Hong; LI Xiang-Ping; CHEN Bao-Jiu

    2012-01-01

    We report a reddish orange long-lasting phosphor of KY3F10:Sm3+ synthesized by a solid-state reaction for applications in x-ray or cathode-ray tubes.The spectrum contains a group of reddish orange emission lines originating from 4G5/2 → 6HJ transitions of Sm3+.The Judd-Ofelt theory is introduced to analyze the optical transitions of the Sm3+ ions.Moreover,phosphorescence characteristics are discussed.The energy charging and release processes of the phosphor are measured and the phosphorescence decay time with 10% of initial intensity is about 40.7 seconds.The order of kinetics and the activation energy are obtained according to the thermoluminescence curve.The phosphorescence mechanism is proposed based on structural analysis and thermoluminescence glow curve measurement.%We report a reddish orange long-lasting phosphor of KY3F10:Sm3+ synthesized by a solid-state reaction for applications in x-ray or cathode-ray tubes. The spectrum contains a group of reddish orange emission lines originating from 4G5/2 → 6Hj transitions of Sm3+. The Judd-Ofelt theory is introduced to analyze the optical transitions of the Sm3+ ions. Moreover, phosphorescence characteristics are discussed. The energy charging and release processes of the phosphor are measured and the phosphorescence decay time with 10% of initial intensity is about 40.7 seconds. The order of kinetics and the activation energy are obtained according to the thermoluminescence curve. The phosphorescence mechanism is proposed based on structural analysis and thermoluminescence glow curve measurement.

  6. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonari Karina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs and 20 unexposed control subjects matched for age and sex. Genetic damage was assessed by examining the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities such as binucleated and broken egg cells. Although there were no differences regarding binucleated cells between exposed and control individuals our analysis revealed a significantly higher frequency of micronuclei (p < 0.001 and broken egg cells (p < 0.05 in individuals exposed to VDMs as compared to unexposed. We also found that the differences between individuals exposed to VDMs were significantly related to the sex of the individuals and that there was an increase in skin, central nervous system and ocular disease in the exposed individuals. These preliminary results indicate that microcomputer workers exposed to VDMs are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage and should periodically undergo biological monitoring.

  7. A digital miniature x-ray tube with a high-density triode carbon nanotube field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Kim, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated a digital miniature x-ray tube (6 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length) with a high-density triode carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter for special x-ray applications. The triode CNT emitter was densely formed within a diameter of below 4 mm with the focusing-functional gate. The brazing process enables us to obtain and maintain a desired vacuum level for the reliable electron emission from the CNT emitters after the vacuum packaging. The miniature x-ray tube exhibited a stable and reliable operation over 250 h in a pulse mode at an anode voltage of above 25 kV.

  8. A digital miniature x-ray tube with a high-density triode carbon nanotube field emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Woo; Song, Yoon-Ho [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Device Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seungjoon [Nano Electron-source Creative Research Center, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, 218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Sun Moon University, Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myoon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-14

    We have fabricated a digital miniature x-ray tube (6 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length) with a high-density triode carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter for special x-ray applications. The triode CNT emitter was densely formed within a diameter of below 4 mm with the focusing-functional gate. The brazing process enables us to obtain and maintain a desired vacuum level for the reliable electron emission from the CNT emitters after the vacuum packaging. The miniature x-ray tube exhibited a stable and reliable operation over 250 h in a pulse mode at an anode voltage of above 25 kV.

  9. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk, E-mail: radiosugar@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye-Seul, E-mail: radiohesugar@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywchoi@keri.re.kr [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, JaeGu, E-mail: jgchoi88@paran.com [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Yong-Chun, E-mail: ycrhee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging.

  10. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  11. X-ray tubes study and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, D

    1990-01-01

    This thesis contain both theoretical and experimental works. Theoretical aspect includes X-Ray tubes case study and design principles, in the introduced design process, anode-cathode distance, vacuum needed, filament size, anode face angle and shape and size of focusing electrodes can be found. A method for specification of tungsten lager thickness on anode is also introduced. Using computer simulation, electron trajectory between cathode-anode is obtained, This work is presented in the first International Conference on Control and Modeling, Tehran, 1990. Experimental work contains manufacturing more than 10 tubes and test each of them. One of these tubes can with stand up to 50 KV. Filament can be heated by passing a 2.1 A current. In these conditions anode current is 1.2 m A. Using this tube, some radiographs have been taken.

  12. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  13. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  14. 阴极射线管锥玻璃真空碳热还原除铅机理研究%Vacuum Carbonthermic Reduction Analysis for Removing Lead from Cathode Ray Tube Funnel Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波; 陈梦君; 张付申; 朱建新

    2013-01-01

    Lead teachability of cathode ray tube(CRT) identifies that CRT is a kind of hazardous waste with extremely low added value, and safe treatment of CRT is listed as priority in electronic waste treatment, with focus on safe disposal of leaded funnel glass. According to the compositions of funnel glass, the possibility and feasibility of lead removal by vacuum carbonthermic reduction was analyzed, and results showed that lead could be removed by vacuum carbonthemic reduction, and lead removal rate was up to 93.53% under the conditions of temperature 900 ℃, pressure 10 Pa and reaction time 4 h, ? with mass fraction of lead in the residue as 0.9%. The findings would provide a new concept to safe disposal of hazardous e-waste CRT glass thus has a high application value.%阴极射线管(cathode ray tube,CRT)玻璃附加值极低,毒性浸出实验表明CRT玻璃为危险废物,是当前我国电子垃圾处理处置中首要的必须解决的难题.废弃CRT玻璃安全处理处置的关键在于其含铅锥玻璃的处理处置.文章从锥玻璃的组成出发,探讨真空碳热还原除铅的可能性及可行性,计算表明真空碳热还原除铅完全可能,实验结果表明900℃,10 Pa下反应4h铅的去除率可达93.53%,残余物中铅的质量分数仅为0.9%.该法为解决废弃危险电子垃圾CRT玻璃问题提供了新的思路,具有较强的应用价值.

  15. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kalyan S.; Ghosh, Sumana; Dandapat, Nandadulal [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Datta, Someswar, E-mail: sdatta@cgcri.res.in [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Raju, R.S. [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doped alumina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-shrinkable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispenser cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  16. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Marzec, J; Pawlowski, Z; Konarzewski, B

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. We have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, our approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors. (7 refs).

  17. Corrosion Potential Profile Simulation in a Tube under Cathodic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ohanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential distribution in tubes of a heat exchanger is simulated when applying cathodic polarization to its extremes. The comparison of two methods to achieve this goal is presented: a numeric solution based on boundary elements carried out with the commercial software Beasy-GID and a semianalytical method developed by the authors. The mathematical model, the simplifications considered, and the problem solving are shown. Since both approaches use polarization curves as a boundary condition, experimental polarization curves (voltage versus current density were determined in the laboratory under flow conditions and cylindrical cell geometry. The results obtained suggest the impossibility of extending the protection along the whole tube length; therefore, other protection methods are considered.

  18. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  19. Development of an X-ray tube for irradiation experiments using a field emission electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hidetoshi, E-mail: katou-h@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation (RIMA), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST, Tsukuba-Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); O' Rourke, Brian E.; Suzuki, Ryoichi [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation (RIMA), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST, Tsukuba-Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Wang, Jiayu; Ooi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hidetoshi [Pureron Japan Co., Ltd., 1-37 Yoshima Industrial Park, Iwaki, Fukushima, 970-1144 (Japan)

    2016-01-21

    A new X-ray tube using a ring-shaped emitter as a field emission electron source has been developed. By using a ring shaped cathode, X-rays can be extracted along the axial direction through the central hole. This cylindrically symmetrical design allows for the tube to be arranged in the axial direction with the high voltage target at one end and the X-ray beam at the other. The newly developed X-ray tube can operate at a tube voltage of more than 100 kV and at a tube current of more than 4 mA, and can be used for irradiation experiments with an irradiation dose range from mGy up to kGy. The X-ray tube can be used immediately after turning on (i.e. there is no stand-by time). In the experimental model, we demonstrated stable electron emission at a tube voltage of 100 kV and at a tube current of 4 mA during a 560 h continuous test.

  20. Using the cathode surface of straw tube for measuring the track coordinates along the wire

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, V A; Kravchuk, N P; Korenchenko, A S; Kuchinskiy, N A; Khomutov, N V; Movchan, S A; Smirnov, V S; Zyazyulya, F E

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the coordinate detectors based on straw tubes are widely used in high energy physics. This is caused by a high accuracy of the radial coordinate measurement using the drift time and a small amount of matter in the way of the measured particles. So far, the remaining problem is the measurement of the coordinate along the wire. This paper proposes a method for measuring the hit coordinates along the wire in a straw tube detector using the signals from the cathodes of the detector.

  1. Design, construction and long life endurance testing of cathode assemblies for use in microwave high-power transmitting tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R.; Marino, D.

    1986-01-01

    The cathode life test program sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center at Watkins-Johnson Company has been in continuous operation since 1972. Its primary objective has been to evaluate the long life capability of barium dispenser cathodes to produce emission current densities of 2 A sq. cm. or more in an operational environment simulating that of a highpower microwave tube. The life test vehicles were equipped with convergent flow electron guns, drift space tubes with solenoid magnets for electron beam confinement and water-cooled depressed collectors. A variety of cathode types has been tested, including GE Tungstate, Litton Impregnated, Philips Type B and M, Semicon types S and M, and Spectra-Mat Type M. Recent emphasis has been on monitoring the performance of Philips Type M cathodes at 2 A sq. cm. and Sprectra-Mat and Semicon Type M cathodes at 4 A sq. cm. These cathodes have been operated at a constant current of 616 mA and a cathode anode voltage on the order of 10 kV. Cathode temperatures were maintained at 1010 C true as measured from black body holes in the backs of the cathodes. This report presents results of the cathode life test program from July l982 through April l986. The results include hours of operation and performance data in the form of normalized emission current density versus temperature curves (Miram plots).

  2. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; 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Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  3. Development of a microfocus x-ray tube with multiple excitation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Shuji; Krämer, Markus; Taniguchi, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    A microfocus x-ray tube with multiple targets and an electron gun with a focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter has been developed. The electron gun contains a LaB6 cathode and an Einzel lens. The x-ray tube can be operated at 50 W (50 kV, 1 mA) and has three targets, namely, Cr, W, and Rh on the anode that can be selected completely by moving the anode position. A focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter can be achieved at 0.5 mA current. As demonstration of the usability of a multiexcitation x-ray tube, the fluorescence x-rays have been measured using a powder specimen mixed of TiO2, Co, and Zr of the same quantity. The differences of excitation efficiency have clearly appeared according to the change in excitation source. From the results discussed here, it can be expected that the presented x-ray tube will be a powerful tool in microx-ray fluorescence spectrometers and various x-ray instruments.

  4. Reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} and X ray tube ionization yield R{sub (TUBE)Q}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: dansq@on.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The operational facility procedures in diagnostic radiology standardization and calibration, through the relation between the X ray tube current and the ionization chamber current in a radiation quality Q, shown the reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} as the reality estimate to the X ray tube ionization yield, R{sub (TUBE)Q} . (author)

  5. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  6. Impulse through-target x-ray tube spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitov, B. I.; Mukhachyov, Yu. S.

    2002-07-01

    At present x-ray compact tubes with pass-through anodes operating either in the pulse mode or in the direct voltage one are applied to the equipment for the shady microscopy, and the local XRF analysis. The report presents the calculated spectral intensity distributions of the bremsstrahlung versus the pass-through anode thickness. The spectral function of the bremsstrahlung Mo tube with the anode thickness over 100 microns is demosntrated to contract to the narrow energy interval lying near the characteristic anode radiation range. However under the same conditions the spectrum of the pulse Cu-anode tube tends to be dichromatic. The spectral distributions of the tube bremsstrahlung operating at the direct current and pulse voltage are compared.

  7. The Direct Digital Modulation of Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamohan, Ranjan S.

    2004-01-01

    Traveling wave tube (TWT) technology, first described by Rudolf Kompfner in the early 1940s, has been a key component of space missions from the earliest communication satellites in the 1960s to the Cassini probe today. TWTs are essentially signal amplifiers that have the special capability of operating at microwave frequencies. The microwave frequency range, which spans from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz, is shared by many technologies including cellular phones, satellite television, space communication, and radar. TWT devices are superior in reliability, weight, and efficiency to solid-state amplifiers at the high power and frequency levels required for most space missions. TWTs have three main components -an electron gun, slow wave structure, and collector. The electron gun generates an electron beam that moves along the length of the tube axis, inside of the slow wave circuit. At the same time, the inputted signal is slowed by its travel through the coils of the helical slow wave circuit. The interaction of the electron beam and this slowed signal produces a transfer of kinetic energy to the signal, and in turn, amplification. At the end of its travel, the spent electron beam moves into the collector where its remaining energy is dissipated as heat or harnessed for reuse. TWTs can easily produce gains in the tens of decibels, numbers that are suitable for space missions. To date, however, TWTs have typically operated at fixed levels of gain. This gain is determined by various, unchanging, physical factors of the tube. Traditionally, to achieve varying gain, an input signal s amplitude has had to first be modulated by a separate device before being fed into the TWT. This is not always desirable, as significant distortion can occur in certain situations. My mentor, Mr. Dale Force, has proposed an innovative solution to this problem called direct digital modulation . The testing and implementation of this solution is the focus of my summer internship. The

  8. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  9. Determination Of X-Ray Tube Potential (kV) Waveform By A Noninvasive Evaluation Of Radiation Output (NERO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Richards, Doug

    1981-07-01

    A method has been developed to noninvasively measure the instantaneous potential (kV) applied to an x-ray tube. The method uses differentially filtered x-ray detectors whose outputs during the exposure are converted to digital signals and stored in a memory array. The conversions are made every 125 microseconds. After the exposure, a microprocessor calculates the ratios of the detector outputs; computes the kV waveform from stored calibration data; and digitally displays the kV value. A resolution of +/-0.5 kV at 110 kV has been achieved.

  10. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energ...

  11. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; 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Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  12. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  13. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  14. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  15. YouTube and Academic Libraries: Building a Digital Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Although still a relatively new technology with less than 10 years of history, YouTube's extensive reach and integration in mainstream society as well as lifelong learning habits of online users cannot be understated. This article examines how the YouTube collection at the University of British Columbia Library's Irving K. Barber Learning Centre…

  16. Development of a new X-ray source using backscattered X-ray with the use of a cold cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Keisuke; Sekiya, Tetsuo; Ohshio, Shigeo; Akasaka, Hiroki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2011-02-01

    The development of an intense X-ray source using backscattered X-ray produced using an advanced electrode configuration is described. The electrodes were composed of field emitters deposited on a wire mounted on a perforated plate as the cathode and a copper plate as the anode. Electrons from these emitters collided with the copper plate and X-ray was generated at collision points. The backscattered X-ray in the direction normal to the electron trajectory through a hole in the anode escaped from the vacuum chamber through a beryllium window. Continuous and characteristic X-rays were detected at an applied voltage lower than that of a conventional X-ray source from 3.0 to 9.4 kV, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray dosage measured with a survey meter reached 0.95 mSv/h at 5.0 kV of applied voltage. The transmission images of three types of material used as an X-ray source for the X-ray imaging system indicate three advantages; low power consumption, focal point controllable by adjusting applied voltage, and photographable motion picture of X-ray transmission.

  17. The use of segmented cathode of a drift tube for designing a track detector with a high rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A

    2013-01-01

    Detector rate capability is one of the main parameters for designing a new detector for high energy physics due to permanent rise of the beam luminosity of modern accelerators. One of the widely used detectors for particle track reconstruction is a straw detector based on drift tubes. The rate capability of such detectors is limited by the parameters of readout electronics. The traditional method of increasing detector rate capability is increasing their granularity (a number of readout channels) by reducing the straw diameter and/or by dividing the straw anode wire into two parts (for decreasing the rate per readout channel). A new method of designing straw detectors with a high rate capability is presented and tested. The method is based on dividing the straw cathode into parts and independent readout of each part.

  18. Avoiding the Digital Abyss: Getting Started in the Classroom with YouTube, Digital Stories, and Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Rebecca; Wedwick, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a rural middle school teacher's use of YouTube, digital stories, and blogs in a language arts curriculum. The authors also share the voices of middle school students as they learn through this technology in the classroom. Although a wide variety of technology integration exists in this middle school language…

  19. Image processing system for digital chest X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocklin, M.; Gourlay, A.; Jackson, P.; Kaye, G.; Miessler, M. (I.B.M. U.K. Scientific Centre, Winchester (UK)); Kerr, I.; Lams, P. (Radiology Department, Brompton Hospital, London (UK))

    1984-01-01

    This paper investigates the requirements for image processing of digital chest X-ray images. These images are conventionally recorded on film and are characterised by large size, wide dynamic range and high resolution. X-ray detection systems are now becoming available for capturing these images directly in photoelectronic-digital form. The hardware and software facilities required for handling these images are described. These facilities include high resolution digital image displays, programmable video look up tables, image stores for image capture and processing and a full range of software tools for image manipulation. Examples are given of the applications of digital image processing techniques to this class of image.

  20. The tubular MFC with carbon tube air-cathode for power generation and N,N-dimethylacetamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiadong; Liu, Lifen; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) was assembled with carbon tube air-cathode and carbon felt anode. The organic solvent N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) was used as the only carbon source for power generation. After the adaptive phase, the cell potential was gradually increased from 0.15 to 0.45 V with 200 Ω of external resistor during 150 h of operation. The calculated power density of this MFC was 100 mW L(-1) when the cell potential was 0.45 V. The reversible redox peaks of carbon tube were obtained in cyclic voltammogram between -0.5 and -0.25 V under aerobic circumstance. The removal rate of DMAC was 15-50% after treatment with hydraulic retention time of 12 min. The results indicated that it is possible to realize the power extraction from DMAC wastewater in the form of electricity by the bioconversion process of MFC.

  1. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  2. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, George J. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Harris, William H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Lombardo, Jeffrey J. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Izzo, Jr., John R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Chiu, W. K. S. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tanasini, Pietro [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Cantoni, Marco [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Van herle, Jan [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Comninellis, Christos [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Andrews, Joy C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liu, Yijin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pianetta, Piero [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chu, Yong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-03-24

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  3. Upgrade of X-band thermionic cathode RF gun for Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Fumito; Natsui, Takuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Hashimoto, Eiko; Lee, KiWoo; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Higo, Toshiyasu; Fukuda, Shigeki; Akemoto, Mitsuo

    2009-09-01

    A Compton scattering X-ray source consisting of an X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator (linac) and Q-switched Nd: YAG laser is currently under development at the University of Tokyo. Monochromatic X-rays are required for a variety of medical and biological applications. The X-ray source produces monochromatic X-rays via collision between a 35-MeV multi-bunch (104 bunches in a 1 μs RF pulse) electron beam and 1.4 J/10 ns (532 nm) Nd: YAG laser pulse. The linac uses an X-band 3.5-cell thermionic cathode RF gun and an alpha magnet as an injector. Until now, electron beam generation (2 MeV, 1 pC/bunch at the exit of the injector), beam acceleration, and X-ray generation have been verified. In order to increase X-ray energy and intensity, we have completed the design and construction of a new RF gun with relevant modifications in some structures. In this paper, we describe the details of the concepts of designing a new RF gun and discuss future works.

  4. Influence of tube voltage on digitized image qualityof patients exposed to occupational dust: phantoms and clinical studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohua; Liu Dongsheng; Xuan Xiao; Duan Jianghui; Yuan Huishu

    2014-01-01

    Background High-voltage analog X-ray examination is a main tool for pneumoconiosis,which is challenged by digital radiography (DR).The tube voltage of DR chest films required for diagnosis and staging of pneumoconiosis is concerned technically.We investigated the influence of the tube voltage on chest X-ray DR image quality of patients exposed to occupational dust.Methods DR images of the CDRAD2.0model,an anatomical chest phantom,and 136 exposed workers were analyzed at different tube voltages by threereaders.Image quality factors (IQF) were calculated and compared using the CDRAD2.0 model.DR images of ten anatomic positions were scored against those of the high-kilovolt chest films in anatomical phantom and clinical cases,and differences in scores were analyzed.Results In the CDRAD2.0 model,all three readers had a minimal IQF at 120 kV (mean:22.25 kV).The differences in the mean IQF of DR images at different tube voltages was significant (F=13.78,P<0.001).The IQF of DR imaging at 120 kV was similar to high kilovolt analog imaging (t=-0.58,P>0.05).In the anatomic phantom and clinical cases,the DR images at 120 kV were closest in anatomical detail to the high W analog images,and the means were similar (P>0.05).Conclusions Among different tube voltages,DR image quality is closest to the high kilovolt analog images at 120 kV in patients exposed to occupational dust.

  5. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  6. Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2005-04-01

    The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

  7. WE-H-204-01: William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-Ray Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, D

    2016-06-01

    "William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube" David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873-1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896. That same year he went to Europe to study under renowned physicists of the time. Coolidge received his Ph.D. summa cum laude from the University of Leipzig in 1899 and soon after joined the staff of MIT. While studying at Leipzig, he met Roentgen. In 1905 he was asked to join the newly established General Electric Research Laboratory in Schenectady, NY. He promptly began fundamental work on the production of ductile tungsten filaments as a replacement for fragile carbon filaments used in incandescent light bulbs. This improved light bulb was brought to market by GE in 1911. It was subsequent application of his tungsten work that led Coolidge to his studies in X ray production. Circa 1910, the state-of-the-art X-ray tube was a "gas tube" or "cold cathode" type tube. These crude X-ray tubes relied on residual gas molecules as a source of electrons for bombardment of low to medium atomic number metal targets. In 1912 Coolidge described the use of tungsten as an improved anode target material for X-ray tubes. Shortly after in 1913 he published a paper in Physical Review describing "A Powerful Roentgen Ray Tube With a Pure Electron Discharge." This tube used a tungsten filament as a thermionic source of electrons under high vacuum to bombard a tungsten anode target. Great improvements in X-ray tube stability, output and performance were obtained with the "hot cathode" or "Coolidge tube." With some variation in filament and target geometry, this 100 year old invention is the same

  8. Digitization and DICOM Standardization of X-ray Image Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; YANG Xuan-dong; LI Kai-yang

    2004-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has played an important role in hospital and developed rapidly in recent years. It is an important part of PACS architecture that X-ray video output connects with PACS. In this paper, a method to digitize the video signals of X-ray facility is introduced. By means of the video capture card, we can acquire digital medical images from X-ray facility. The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) developed a standard for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), this DICOM standard introduces a rule of medical image conversion from conventional format to DICOM one. According to above-mentioned standard, X-ray video signals can be connected to PACS easily. This project has been applied in some hospitals successfully and there is satisfied result.

  9. Inverse heat transfer problem in digital temperature control in plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Dawid; Sury, Adam

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a steady-state inverse heat transfer problem for plate-fin and tube heat exchangers. The objective of the process control is to adjust the number of fan revolutions per minute so that the water temperature at the heat exchanger outlet is equal to a preset value. Two control techniques were developed. The first is based on the presented mathematical model of the heat exchanger while the second is a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. The first procedure is very stable. The digital PID controller becomes unstable if the water volumetric flow rate changes significantly. The developed techniques were implemented in digital control system of the water exit temperature in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger. The measured exit temperature of the water was very close to the set value of the temperature if the first method was used. The experiments showed that the PID controller works also well but becomes frequently unstable.

  10. Measuring equipment for controlling the anode current during training and testing of the X-ray tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Vasquez, N. O.; Kostrin, D. K.; Uhov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the features of controlling of the anode current of the X-ray tubes during their training and testing are described. Requirements for developing of the control and measuring equipment are given. In detail are shown the approaches to the development of two types of microammeters with optical signal transmission: analog, with compensation of the nonlinearity of the transfer characteristics with the use of the optical negative feedback, and digital, in which the values of anodic current are transfered using a microcontroller.

  11. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  12. X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-02-01

    Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

  13. High Power Experiment of X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun for Compton Scattering X-ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Meng, De; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Matsuo, Kenichi; Sakae, Hisaharu; Yamamoto, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron collision. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly-stable-system, we adopt an X-band multi-bunch liner accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch laser. The X-ray yields by the multi-bunch electron beam and Q-switch Nd: YAG laser of 1.4 J/10 ns (FWHM) (532 nm, second harmonic) is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec for 10 Hz operation). The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and an alpha magnet. So far we have achieved beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun. The peak beam energy is 2 MeV. This experimental high energy (˜2 MeV) beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun is the first in the world. In this paper, we describe the system of the Compton scattering X-ray source based on the X-band linac, experimental results of X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and the details of the experimental setup for Compton scattering X-ray generation that are under construction.

  14. X-ray Diffraction Studies of the Structure and Thermochemistry of Alkaline-Earth Oxide-Coated Thermionic Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, E. K.; Bassey, E.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1998-01-01

    NASA LeRC has a broad, active cathode technology development program in which both experimental and theoretical studies are being employed to further development of thermionic cathodes for use as electron sources in vacuum devices for communications and other space applications. One important type of thermionic cathode under development is the alkaline-earth oxide-coated (BaO, SrO, CaO) cathode. Significant improvements in the emission characteristics of this cathode have been obtained through modification of the chemical composition and morphology of the oxide coating, with the best result thus far coming from the addition of In2O3 and Sc2O3. Whereas the In2O3 produces a finer, more uniform particle structure, the exact chemical state and role of the Sc2O3 in the emission enhancement is unknown. The purpose of this cooperative agreement is to combine the studies of the surface chemistry and electron emission at NASA LeRC of chemically modified oxide coatings with a study of the thermochemistry and crystal structure using X-ray diffraction equipment and expertise at Clark Atlanta University (CAU). The study at CAU is intended to provide the description and understanding of the structure and thermochemistry needed for further improvement and optimization of the modified coatings. A description of the experimental procedure, preliminary X-ray diffraction test results, together with the design of an ultrahigh vacuum chamber necessary for high temperature thermochemistry studies will be presented.

  15. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A

    2003-06-15

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  16. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  17. X-ray tube current modulation and patient doses in chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjun; Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; Tavrides, Emily; Yao, Hai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how patient effective doses vary as a function of X-ray tube projection angle, as well as the patient long axis, and quantify how X-ray tube current modulation affects patient doses in chest CT examinations. Chest examinations were simulated for a gantry CT scanner geometry with projections acquired for a beam width of 4 cm. PCXMC 2.0.1 was used to calculate patient effective doses at 15° intervals around the patient's isocentre, and at nine locations along the patient long axis. Idealised tube current modulation schemes were modelled as a function of the X-ray tube angle and the patient long axis. Tube current modulations were characterised by the modulation amplitude R, which was allowed to vary between 1.5 and 5. Effective dose maxima occur for anteroposterior projections at the location of the (radiosensitive) breasts. The maximum to minimum ratio of effective doses as a function of the patient long axis was 4.9, and as a function of the X-ray tube angle was 2.1. Doubling the value of R reduces effective doses from longitudinal modulation alone by ∼4% and from angular modulation alone by ∼2%. In chest CT, tube current modulation schemes currently have longitudinal R values of ∼2.2, and angular R values that range between 1.5 and 3.4. Current X-ray tube current modulation schemes are expected to reduce patient effective doses in chest CT examinations by ∼10%, with longitudinal modulation accounting for two-thirds and angular modulation for the remaining one-third.

  18. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  19. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gallio

    Full Text Available Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  20. Direct Measurement of Mammographic X-Ray Spectra with a Digital CdTe Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Raso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP system, for high-rate X-ray spectroscopy in mammography (1–30 keV. The DPP system performs a height and shape analysis of the detector pulses, sampled and digitized by a 14-bit, 100 MHz ADC. We show the results of the characterization of the detection system both at low and high photon counting rates by using monoenergetic X-ray sources and a nonclinical X-ray tube. The detection system exhibits excellent performance up to 830 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.5% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Direct measurements of clinical molybdenum X-ray spectra were carried out by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. A comparison with the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured and simulated spectra, from an ionization chamber and from a solid state dosimeter, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research, calibration of dosimeters and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  1. Digital Slot Radiography Based On A Linear X-Ray Image Intensifier And Two-Dimensional Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerlage, M. J. M.; Levels, H. P. L.; Mulder, H.

    1986-06-01

    Apart from providing the inherent benefits of digital imaging, a digital chest system should preferably be superior to large-size film with respect to diagnostic quality. Systems, demonstrated until now, tend to fail in that respect. Here we describe a system -under development- that combines the advantages of film (e.g. high resolution), area detectors (wide sensor dynamic range) and slit detectors (efficient reduction of scattered radiation, high contrast resolution and instantaneous image availibility). Thereby the system is low-dose, compact and operating at standard X-ray tube loading.

  2. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Piper; A Preston; S Cho; A DeMasi; J Laverock; K Smith; L Miara; J Davis; S Basu; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The evolution of the Mn charge state, chemical composition, and electronic structure of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) cathodes during the catalytic activation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been studies using X-ray spectroscopy of as-processed, exposed, and activated dense thin LSMO films. Comparison of O K-edge and Mn L{sub 3,2}-edge X-ray absorption spectra from the different stages of LSMO cathodes revealed that the largest change after the activation occurred in the Mn charge state with little change in the oxygen environment. Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mn L{sub 3} resonant photoemission spectroscopy studies of exposed and as-processed LSMO determined that the SOFC environment (800 C ambient pressure of O{sub 2}) alone results in La deficiency (severest near the surface with Sr doping >0.55) and a stronger Mn{sup 4+} contribution, leading to the increased insulating character of the cathode prior to activation. Meanwhile, O K-edge X-ray absorption measurements support Sr/La enrichment nearer the surface, along with the formation of mixed Sr{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} and/or passive MnO{sub x} and SrO species.

  3. K-edge digital subtraction imaging based on a dichromatic and compact x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taibi, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Tuffanelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Baldazzi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 64/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bollini, D [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 64/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rodriguez, A E Cabal [CAEDAN, Havana (Cuba); Gombia, M [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 64/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Prino, F [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale and INFN Sezione di Alessandria, C.so, Borsalino 54, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Ramello, L [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale and INFN Sezione di Alessandria, C.so, Borsalino 54, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Tomassi, E [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale and INFN Sezione di Alessandria, C.so, Borsalino 54, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Gambaccini, M [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2004-07-21

    This work proposes a compact dichromatic imaging system for the application of the K-edge digital subtraction technique based on a conventional x-ray tube and a monochromator system. A quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam at the energy of iodine K-edge is produced by Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal. Two thin adjacent beams with energies that bracket the K-edge discontinuity are obtained from the diffracted beam by means of a proper collimation system. They are then detected using an array of Si detectors. A home-made phantom is used to study the image quality as a function of iodine concentration. Signal and signal-to-noise ratio analysis has also been performed. The results are compared with theoretical expectations.

  4. K-edge digital subtraction imaging based on a dichromatic and compact x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, A.; Taibi, A.; Tuffanelli, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Cabal Rodriguez, A. E.; Gombia, M.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.; Tomassi, E.; Gambaccini, M.

    2004-07-01

    This work proposes a compact dichromatic imaging system for the application of the K-edge digital subtraction technique based on a conventional x-ray tube and a monochromator system. A quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam at the energy of iodine K-edge is produced by Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal. Two thin adjacent beams with energies that bracket the K-edge discontinuity are obtained from the diffracted beam by means of a proper collimation system. They are then detected using an array of Si detectors. A home-made phantom is used to study the image quality as a function of iodine concentration. Signal and signal-to-noise ratio analysis has also been performed. The results are compared with theoretical expectations.

  5. The origins of radiotherapy : Discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienbock's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The discover

  6. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Choudhury, Soumyadip [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Gruber, Katharina [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Cruz, Valene B. [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Fuchsbichler, Bernd [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Jacob, Timo [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Koller, Stefan [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Ionov, Leonid [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one

  7. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; 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Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  8. The use of x-ray micro-digital radiography for clay material inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, Gede B.; Louk, Andreas C.; Kurniasari, Herlina; Wiguna, Gede A.

    2014-06-01

    An x-ray micro-digital radiography (μ-DR) system has been developed at the Gadjah Mada University Indonesia. The μ- DR system was developed as an add-on unit on an x-ray Diffraction (XRD) system using one extra beam-port as its radiation source. A fluorescence screen encapsulated in a dark tube then coupled by a CCD camera was used as an imaging plate. The radiography objects were some sample clays for earthen or ceramic material of handicraft. The clays differ by particle size, namely: 40 mesh, 60 mesh, 80 mesh, and 100 mesh. The objects were put in front of the imaging plate and then they were exposed by x-ray beam. The image formed on the screen was captured by the CCD camera and then it was converted into digital microradiograph of a size of 720x576. Then, after noise suppression process and normalization procedure, the microradiograph were compared each other by considering particle size. This facility can be used as a non-destructive and testing material studies for examining the quality of earthen or ceramic handicraft.

  9. Reconstruction of the X-ray tube spectrum from a scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.fernandez@unibo.it [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Scot, Viviana [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Bare, Jonathan [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Nuclear and Radiological Physics, Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles (ISIB) (Belgium); Tondeur, Francois [Laboratory of Nuclear and Radiological Physics, Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles (ISIB) (Belgium); Gallardo, Sergio; Rodenas, Jose [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain); Rossi, Pier Luca [Operational Unit of Health Physics, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    An inverse technique has been designed to unfold the x-ray tube spectrum from the measurement of the photons scattered by a target interposed in the path of the beam. A special strategy is necessary to circumvent the ill-conditioning of the forward transport algebraic problem. The proposed method is based on the calculation of both, the forward and adjoint analytical solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. After testing the method with numerical simulations, a simple prototype built at the Operational Unit of Health Physics of the University of Bologna was used to test the method experimentally. The reconstructed spectrum was validated by comparison with a straightforward measurement of the X-ray beam. The influence of the detector was corrected in both cases using standard unfolding techniques. The method is capable to accurately characterize the intensity distribution of an X-ray tube spectrum, even at low energies where other methods fail. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complete inverse technique of source unfolding is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X-ray tube spectrum is recovered from a scattering measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ill conditioning of the plain forward transport algebraic problem is avoided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forward and adjoint solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique characterizes X-ray tube spectra even at low energies.

  10. 81.114- University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Support / Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis of Lithioum Ion Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Landsberger, S.

    2006-11-11

    This project focuses on the use of the Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technique available at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin to precisely determine the hydrogen (proton) contents in layered oxide cathode samples obtained by chemical lithium extraction in order to obtain a better understanding of the factors limiting the practical capacities and overall performance of lithium ion battery cathodes. The project takes careful precautionary experimental measures to avoid proton contamination both from solvents used in chemical delithiation and from ambient moisture. The results obtained from PGAA are complemented by the data obtained from other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, redox titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectroscopic analysis of the evolved gas on heating. The research results broaden our understanding of the structure-property-performance relationships of lithium ion battery cathodes and could aid the design and development of new better performing lithium ion batteries for consumer (portable and electric vehicles), military, and space applications.

  11. Miniature X-ray Source for Planetary Exploration Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop a design model for a CNT cold cathode, low power, passively cooled, and grounded-anode X-ray tube that is compatible...

  12. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    . In general CRT consists of two types of glasses: barium/strontium containing glass (panel glass) and lead containing glass (funnel and panel glass). In this work we present the possibility to produce high performance insulation material from the recycled lead-free glass. We studied the influence of foaming...... parameters on the characteristics of foamed glass. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. Activated carbon used as a foaming agent and MnO2 as an ‘oxidizing’ agent were mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Foaming effect was observed in the temperature range...... between 750 and 850°C. We investigated the influence of milling time, particle size, foaming and oxidizing agent concentrations, temperature and time on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. Only moderate foaming was observed in carbon containing samples, while the addition...

  13. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward C.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    A new deflection structure (12) which deflects a beam of charged particles, uch as an electron beam (15), includes a serpentine set (20) for transmitting a deflection field, and a shielding frame (25) for housing the serpentine set (20). The serpentine set (20) includes a vertical serpentine deflection element (22) and a horizontal serpentine deflection element (24). These deflection elements (22, 24) are identical, and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage (75), through which the electron beam (15) passes, and is deflected by the deflection field, so as to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame (25) includes a plurality of ground blocks (26, 28, 30, 32), and forms an internal serpentine trough (77) within these ground blocks, for housing the serpentine set (20). The deflection structure (12) further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors (35, 37, 35I, 37I), which are inserted through the shielding frame (25), and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set (20).

  14. 77 FR 15336 - Revision to the Export Provisions of the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Agency to better track exports of CRTs for reuse and recycling. Additionally, EPA would gather more... information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information... glass for reuse or recycling. This action does not affect households or conditionally exempt...

  15. Foaming of waste cathode ray tube panel glass via CaCO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    of a TV. In general CRT consists of two types of glasses: barium/strontium containing glass (panel glass) and lead containing glass (funnel and panel glass). In this work we present the possibility to produce high quality foam glass from the recycled lead-free glass. We study the influence of foaming...... parameters on the characteristics of foam. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. CaCO3 was used as a foaming agent and was mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Preliminary results show that milling conditions and particle size have a major influence on the foaming...... process and resulting density of samples. We investigate the influence of foaming agent concentration on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. We demonstrate how milling and foaming conditions affect the foam properties for different amounts of CaCO3. A minimum in the density...

  16. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  17. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  18. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  19. MTF Optimization in Digital Dental X-ray Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, E T; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Albuquerque, Jorge Andre Girao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the MTF optimisation relative to the detector aperture of four digital dental X-ray image systems: 1) Digora and Denoptix systems, based on PSPL detectors; 2) CDR and Sens-A-Ray 2000, based on CCD detectors. The MTF was evaluated by ERF method and linearized as a Gaussian process. The CCD based systems presented Gaussian characteristics. The PSPL based systems presented a composition of two Gaussian processes. We conclude that one process is due to the laser and stimulated light scattering inside the PSPL plate and the other is due to the laser beam focal aperture. Matching focal aperture to laser scattering allows the optimization of the PSPL systems resolution. An optimal pixel width found to be 62 um.

  20. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  1. X-ray tube-based diffraction enhanced imaging prototype images of full-thickness breast specimens: reader study evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, L. S.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. J.; Koomen, M.; Kuzmiak, C.; Pavic, D.; Livasy, C. A.; Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Cole, E. B.; Zhong, Z.; Pisano, E. D.

    2009-02-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted and scattered or refracted x-rays. This leads to image blurring and contrast reduction, hindering the early detection of small or otherwise occult cancers. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for dramatically increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging due to monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. Our laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) utilizing a readily available Tungsten xray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60keV. To demonstrate the clinical utility of our DEI-PR, we acquired images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens on synchrotron-based DEI, DEI-PR and digital mammography systems. A reader study was designed to allow unbiased assessment of system performance when analyzing three systems with dissimilar imaging parameters and requiring analysis of images unfamiliar to radiologists. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and histopathology correlation after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. Preliminary data analysis suggests that our DEI system performed roughly equivalently with the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  2. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  3. Verification of a novel method for tube voltage constancy measurement of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chu; Belley, Matthew D. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yoshizumi, Terry, E-mail: yoshi003@mc.duke.edu [Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: For orthovoltage x-ray irradiators, the tube voltage is one of the most fundamental system parameters as this directly relates to the dosimetry in radiation biology studies; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercial portable quality assurance (QA) tool to directly test the constancy of the tube voltage greater than 160 kV. The purpose of this study is to establish the Beam Quality Index (BQI), a quantity strongly correlated to the tube voltage, as an alternative parameter for the verification of the tube voltage as part of the QA program of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators. Methods: A multipurpose QA meter and its associated data acquisition software were used to customize the measurement parameters to measure the BQI and collect its time-plot. BQI measurements were performed at 320 kV with four filtration levels on three orthovoltage x-ray irradiators of the same model, one of which had been recently energy-calibrated at the factory. Results: For each of the four filtration levels, the measured BQI values were in good agreement (<5%) between the three irradiators. BQI showed filtration-specificity, possibly due to the difference in beam quality. Conclusions: The BQI has been verified as a feasible alternative for monitoring the constancy of the tube voltage for orthovoltage irradiators. The time-plot of BQI offers information on the behavior of beam energy at different phases of the irradiation time line. In addition, this would provide power supply performance characteristics from initial ramp-up to plateau, and finally, the sharp drop-off at the end of the exposure.

  4. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation analysis of…

  5. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation…

  6. Numerical computation of the Shock Tube Problem by means of wave digital principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mengel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations can be solved numerically by means of wave digital principles. The great advantage of this method is the simultaneous achievement of high robustness, massive parallelism full localness and high accuracy. Among others this method will be applied in order to solve the Euler-equations according to one dimension in space. Especially the so called Shock Tube Problem will be examined. The analytical solution of this problem contains two discontinuities, namely a shock and a contact discontinuity. These result in oscillations which are due to numerical integration methods of higher order. Also solutions of the Wave Digital Method contain these oscillations, contrary to what had been observed of Yuhui Zhu (2000. This behaviour is also known as Gibbs Phenomena. The Navier-Stokes-equations, which are from a physical point of view more exactly, additionally take viscosity terms into account. This leads to smooth solutions near shocks. It will be shown that this approach leads to the suppression of the oscillations near the shock. Furthermore it will be shown that quite good results for the computation of velocity and pressure can be obtained.

  7. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; 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    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  8. Performance of the CMS drift-tube chamber local trigger with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

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Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the Local Trigger based on the drift-tube system of the CMS experiment has been studied using muons from cosmic ray events collected during the commissioning of the detector in 2008. The properties of the system are extensively tested and compared with the simulation. The effect of the random arrival time of the cosmic rays on the trigger performance is reported, and the results are compared with the design expectations for proton-proton collisions and with previous measurements obtained with muon beams.

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  10. Digital X-ray stereophotogrammetry for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Skinner, M W; Rubinstein, J T; Howard, M A; Vannier, M W

    2000-08-01

    Multielectrode, intracochlear implant systems are effective treatment for profound sensorineural hearing loss. In some cases, these systems do not perform well, which may be partially due to variations in implant location within the cochlea. Determination of each electrode's position in a patient's inner ear provides an in vivo basis for both the cochlear modeling of electrical fields and the future design of electrode arrays that deliver electrical stimulation to surviving auditory neurons, and may improve speech processor programming for better speech recognition. We developed an X-ray stereophotogrammetric approach to localize implanted electrodes in three dimensions. Stereophotogrammetry of implanted electrodes is formulated in weak perspective geometry, with knowledge of a three-dimensional (3-D) reference structure and electrode positions in each of two digital stereo-images. The localization error is theoretically, numerically, and experimentally quantified. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.

  11. [Research of working condition monitoring and analyzing system for rotating anode X-ray tube based on the vibration measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Yan, Yong; Zhang, Shuai; Zu, Hefei; Chen, Weibin

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive detecting and analyzing method which used to monitor the working condition of rotating anode X-ray was proposed. Based on the NI development environment, accelerometer, 24-bit high resolution data acquisition card and personal computer were connected to construct the system for collecting the vibration signal of X-ray tube. Results demonstrate that the system could acquire and store the vibration data of X-ray tube quickly and efficiently. The characteristics of vibration, were extracted and processed, which proposed a new approach to detect the malfunction of rotating anode X-ray early and effectively.

  12. Doses under automatic exposure control (AEC) for direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Louise; Faulkner, Ronan; Clancy, Conor; Gallagher, Aoife; Devine, Mark; Gorman, Dermot; O'Reilly, Geraldine; Dowling, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Current guidelines quote tolerances for automatic exposure control (AEC) device performance for X-ray systems as 'Baseline ± X %'. However, in the situation where a baseline figure has not yet been achieved, as in the case of commissioning assessments, this tolerance is not relevant. The purpose of this work is to provide mean doses for direct digital radiography (DDR) X-ray system, operating in AEC, against which comparisons can be made. Dose measurements have been recorded under AEC operation on 29 DDR detectors from three different manufacturers. Two different testing protocols were examined: (1) water equivalent phantoms in front of the DDR detector and (2) aluminium block at the tube head. The average patient exit dose, using the aluminium block was 4.6 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 4.0 μGy with the grid removed. Using the water phantoms, the average dose was measured at 17.1 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 5.4 μGy with grid removed. Based on these results, it is clear that different testing configurations significantly impact on the measured dose.

  13. kV x-ray dual digital tomosynthesis for image guided lung SBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Boyd, Douglas; Kim, Namho; Hernandez, Andrew; Daly, Megan; Boone, John

    2016-03-01

    Two simulated sets of digital tomosynthesis images of the lungs, each acquired at a 90 degree angle from the other, with 19 projection images used for each set and SART iterative reconstructed, gives dual tomosynthesis slice image quality approaching that of spiral CT, and with a data acquisition time that is 3% of that of cone beam CT. This fast kV acquisition, should allow near real time tracking of lung tumors in patients receiving SBRT, based on a novel TumoTrakTM multi-source X-ray tube design. Until this TumoTrakTM prototype is completed over the next year, its projected performance was simulated from the DRR images created from a spiral CT data set from a lung cancer patient. The resulting dual digital tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the lung tumor were exceptional and approached that of the gold standard Feldkamp CT reconstruction of breath hold, diagnostic, spiral, multirow, CT data. The relative dose at 46 mAs was less than 10% of what it would have been if the digital tomosynthesis had been done at the 472 mAs of the CT data set. This is for a 0.77 fps imaging rate sufficient to resolve respiratory motion in many free breathing patients during SBRT. Such image guidance could decrease the magnitudes of targeting error margins by as much as 20 mm or more in the craniocaudal direction for lower lobe lesions while markedly reducing dose to normal lung, heart and other critical structures. These initial results suggest a wide range of topics for future work.

  14. Influence of tube voltage and current on in-line phase contrast imaging using a microfocus x-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Yu Ai-Min; Li Cheng-Quan

    2007-01-01

    In-line x-ray phase contrast imaging has attracted much attention due to two major advantages:its effectiveness in imaging weakly absorbing materials,and the simplicity of its facilities.In this paper a comprehensive theory based on Wigner distribution developed by Wu and Liu [Med.Phys.31 2378-2384(2004)] is reviewed.The influence of x-ray source and detector on the image is discussed.Experiments using a microfocus x-ray source and a CCD detector are conducted,which show the role of two key factors on imaging:the tube voltage and tube current.High tube current and moderate tube voltage are suggested for imaging.

  15. Cathodic corrosion protection in jacket tube steel pipes. Practical experience after five years of operation, a summary; Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahlrohrleitungen in Mantelrohren. Praxishinweise nach 5 Jahren - eine Zusammenfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemkemeyer, Marc [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netz-service GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In november 2006, the completely revised AfK recommendation No. 1 came into force. It was the first of its kind to contain concrete calculation methods for calculating the effects of cathodic corrosion protection in jacket tubes. In the five years that followed, a large number of jacket tubes was investigated by this method. It was found that some input parameters that are only estimated still require further specification. Further, some further calculation algorithms have been defined. Some of the specifications are described in more detail in this article.

  16. 78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater... after importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players,...

  17. 78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... complaint entitled Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater... importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home...

  18. The effect of magnification on the image quality and the radiation dose in X-ray digital mammography: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung; Park, Hye-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lae; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Seung-Wan; Ryu, Hyun-Ju [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    There have been many efforts to advance the technology of X-ray digital mammography in order to enhance the early detection of breast pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and the radiation dose after magnifying X-ray digital mammography using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). In this study, we simulated a Monte Carlo model of an X-ray digital mammographic system, and we present a technique for magnification and discuss how it affects the image quality. The simulated X-ray digital mammographic system with GATE consists of an X-ray source, a compression paddle, a supporting plate, and an imaging plate (IP) of computed radiography (CR). The degree of magnification ranged from 1.0 to 2.0. We designed a semi-cylindrical phantom with a thickness of 45-mm and a radius of 50-mm in order to evaluate the image quality after magnification. The phantom was made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and contained four spherical specks with diameters of 750, 500, 250, and 100-{mu}m to simulate microcalcifications. The simulation studies were performed with an X-ray energy spectrum calculated using the spectrum processor SRS-78. A combination of a molybdenum anode and a molybdenum filter (Mo/Mo) was used for the mammographic X-ray tubes. The effects of the degree of magnification were investigated in terms of both the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (AGD). The results show that the CNR increased as the degree of magnification increased and decreased as breast glandularity increased. The AGD showed only a minor increase with magnification. Based on the results, magnification of mammographic images can be used to obtain high image quality with an increased CNR. Our X-ray digital mammographic system model with GATE may be used as a basis for future studies on X-ray imaging characteristics.

  19. Structure, principle and application of X-ray tube%X光管的构造、原理及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵欣; 邓玉福; 马跃; 于桂英

    2012-01-01

    The structure and properties of different X-ray tubes are comprehensively described in this paper. We study the conventional X-ray tube in its construction, working principle, as well as the parameter settings which may affect its performance, then we also make a series of instructions of the structure design, the scope of application, and the performance advantages of several special reflection X-ray tubes. We further analyze the structure of the transmission anode X-ray tube which has higher X-ray production and radiation flux density, and discuss the basis of material selection about the target from the perspective of the matching of the thermal expansion coefficient and the lattice constant. The result demonstrates that the structural design of cathode and anode of the X-ray tube influence significantly the performance in the process of improvement. The filament placement and the structure of the anode can directly affect the efficiency of X-ray. All of these modes of the structural design result in more stable X-ray beam, more dexterous and light assembly, more effective irradiation flux and lower power loss.%针对多种不同类型的X光管的结构性能进行了综合阐述.介绍了一般常规的X光管的构造、主要部件的工作原理以及影响其性能的参数设置,并对几种具有特殊结构的反射式X光管的结构设计、适用范围、性能优势等作了系列说明.分析了透射阳极X光管的结构及其具有的较高射线产生率和辐照通量密度的特点,从热膨胀系数及晶格常数匹配角度探讨了靶材选取的依据.研究结果表明,X光管在其发展完善的过程中,阴极和阳极的结构设计会对其性能产生重大的影响,阴极的装配高度和阳极的构造形态会影响到X射线的产生效率,各种结构设计方式终其目的都是要获得更加稳定的X射线束,更加灵巧轻便的装配,以及有效的辐照通量和更低的功率损耗.

  20. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  1. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  2. Evaluation of the effective focal spot size of x-ray tubes by utilizing the edge response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiki, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the effective focal spot size of X-ray tube has been made utilizing the slit or the pin-hole camera, but is not widely used in a daily practice due to the need of specialized tools. The author proposes a simplified method in which only a metal edge and a digital detector are used, together with a process of removing detector blur inherently associated with the adoption of such a detector. The evaluation was made through the OTF (Optical Transfer Function) measurements by using the edge response analysis. Through the whole study, the use of OTF instead of MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) was essential in order to stay within the linear systems theory framework, at cost of handling complex functions. Evaluation steps were as follows; 1. The inherent OTF of the detector (OTFdet) was measured by acquiring an image of the edge being closely contacted to the detector. 2. The second OTF (OTFmulti) was measured with the edge placed apart from the detector so as to implement 2 times geometrical magnification of the edge. OTFmulti is the product of OTFdet and the focal spot OTF (OTFfocus). 3. OTFfocus was obtained by calculating OTFmulti / OTFdet, thus removing the detector blur completely. 4. The LSF of the focal spot was obtained through the inverse Fourier transform of OTFfocus. The resultant LSFfocus was assured to be a real function due to the fact that original LSFdet and LSFmulti were both real functions. Preliminary results well matched those obtained by the pinhole camera.

  3. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  4. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also

  5. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

    2001-09-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

  6. PRELIMINARY IN-SITU X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE EXAMINATION OF PT/C AND PTCO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS IN AN OPERATIONAL POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, B.T.; Myers, D.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art polymer electrolyte fuel cells require a conditioning period to reach optimized cell performance. There is insuffi cient understanding about the behavior of catalysts during this period, especially with regard to the changing environment of the cathode electrocatalyst, which is typically Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/C). The purpose of this research was to record preliminary observations of the changing environment during the conditioning phase using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS was recorded for a Pt/C cathode at the Pt L3-edge and a PtCo/C cathode at both the Pt L3-edge and Co K-edge. Using precision machined graphite cell-blocks, both transmission and fl uorescence data were recorded at Sector 12-BM-B of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source. The fl uorescence and transmission edge steps allow for a working description of the changing electrocatalyst environment, especially water concentration, at the anode and cathode as functions of operating parameters. These features are discussed in the context of how future analysis may correlate with potential, current and changing apparent thickness of the membrane electrode assembly through loss of catalyst materials (anode, cathode, carbon support). Such direct knowledge of the effect of the conditioning protocol on the electrocatalyst may lead to better catalyst design. In turn, this may lead to minimizing, or even eliminating, the conditioning period.

  7. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  8. Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Takman, P. [Excillum AB, Finlandsgatan 14, 164 74 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50–100 μm spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-Kα radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 μm slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm{sup 2} was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented. - Highlights: • Using a new X-ray source for TXRF • Liquid metal jet X-ray source from Excillum • Offers improvements for lab based TXRF spectrometers • Can also be important for related techniques.

  9. Determination of tungsten target parameters for transmission X-ray tube: A simulation study using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, Mohammad M. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Transmission X-ray tubes based on carbon nanotube have attracted significant attention recently. In most of these tubes, tungsten is used as the target material. In this article, the well-known simulator Geant4 was used to obtain some of the tungsten target parameters. The optimal thickness for maximum production of usable X-rays when the target is exposed to electron beams of different energies was obtained. The linear variation of optimal thickness of the target for different electron energies was also obtained. The data obtained in this study can be used to design X-ray tubes. A beryllium window was considered for the X-ray tube. The X-ray energy spectra at the moment of production and after passing through the target and window for different electron energies in the 30-110 keV range were also obtained. The results obtained show that with a specific thickness, the target material itself can act as filter, which enables generation of X-rays with a limited energy.

  10. X-ray detection with a scintillating YAP-window hybrid photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    A YAP(YAlO/sub 3/:Ce)-scintillating window, coated on its inner surface with an S20-photocathode, seals a cross-focusing hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) equipped with a small p-i-n anode of 2-mm diameter. This new radiation detector separates X-ray lines down to about 2-keV peak energy from the HPMT noise. Its detection efficiency for high gamma energies depends on the YAP-window thickness and amounts to about 18% attenuation at 400-keV energy in the present version. Competitive radiation detectors like Si photodiodes and Si drift chambers are discussed and compared to our prototype, with particular attention given to their energy resolution and noise performance, which limits their active area considerably. (19 refs).

  11. Determination of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry following electroenrichment on a copper cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawisza, Beata; Sitko, Rafał

    2007-10-01

    The electrodepositons of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au from aqueous solution of pH = 1 on the cathode surface have been studied for X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). A special holder for a copper electrode has been constructed to perform the electrodeposition process on only one side of the electrode. After electrolysis, the copper electrode can be easily removed from the holder; after rinsing it with water and drying it can be analyzed by XRF. The proposed method of sample preparation and preconcentration of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb, Au provides suitable samples which are devoid of the negative and undesirable effects of XRF analysis, such as particle size and matrix effects. The influence of time on the deposition yield has been examined. The method of preconcentration is efficient. The inhomogeneity of the prepared specimens has been studied using internal standard method. The calibration is based on using synthetic standards, certified reference materials and standard addition method. The best results are achieved by the standard addition method. The agreement between results obtained with XRF analysis and certified values is satisfactory and indicates the usefulness of the proposed method for determination of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au in anode slime.

  12. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  13. X-ray reflectivity analysis of titanium dioxide thin films grown by cathodic arc deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, A; Lamas, D G; Craievich, A F; Márquez, A

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 thin films deposited by a vacuum arc on a glass substrate were characterized by X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several thin films with different amounts of deposited TiO2 mass and different deposition and annealing temperatures were studied. A qualitative analysis of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of the anatase and/or rutile crystalline phases in most of the studied samples. From the analysis of the experimental XRR curves--which exhibited a wide angular range of oscillatory behavior--the thickness, mass density and interface roughness were determined. All XRR patterns were well fitted by modeled curves that assume the presence of a single and homogeneous TiO2 layer over which a very thin H2O layer is adsorbed. The thickest H2O adsorption layers were developed in films with the highest anatase content. Our overall results of the XRR analyses are consistent with those derived from the imaging techniques (SEM and AFM).

  14. Recent developments on ISPA-cameras for gamma ray imaging gamma imaging with an electrostatic crossed focussed ISPA-tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Gys, Thierry; Leutz, H; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    The Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube is a position-sensitive hybrid photon detector. Originally developed for high-energy physics purposes, it has also been used for biomedical applications. Two kinds of ISPA-tube prototypes have been tested successfully in the field of gamma ray imaging. The current developments aim at obtaining a detector dedicated to single-photon emission imaging. In this paper, we present the first use in a gamma camera of a new ISPA-tube prototype having an increased active input surface of 40 mm diameter and a de-magnifying electron optics. The quartz input window of the tube is optically coupled to a 3.5 cm/sup 2/ YAlO/sub 3/:Ce detector array with 0.6 mm/sup 2/ single elements. (11 refs).

  15. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Moorti; A Raghuramaiah; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 1010 photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of ∼ 18 to ∼ 28 ns duration from a source of ∼ 300 m diameter, at ℎ = 4.51 keV ( emission of titanium), with a brightness of ∼ 1020 photons/cm2 /s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to ∼ 10 cm.

  16. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xufei; Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2012-09-01

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

  17. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Satoshi, Ii; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation × 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current.

  18. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...

  19. A novel surface-sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopic detector to study the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takamasa; Okuda, Chikaaki; Oka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Makimura, Yoshinari; Kondo, Yasuhito; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Yoji

    2016-09-01

    A surface-sensitive conversion-electron-yield X-ray absorption fine structure (CEY-XAFS) detector that operates at elevated temperatures is developed to investigate the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The detector enables measurements with the sample temperature controlled from room temperature up to 450 °C. The detector is applied to the LiNi0.75Co0.15Al0.05Mg0.05O2 cathode material at 0% state of charge (SOC) and 50% SOC to examine the chemical changes that occur during heating in the absence of an electrolyte. The combination of surface-sensitive CEY-XAFS and bulk-sensitive transmission-mode XAFS shows that the reduction of Ni and Co ions begins at the surface of the cathode particles at around 150 °C, and propagates inside the particle upon further heating. These changes with heating are irreversible and are more obvious at 50% SOC than at 0% SOC. The fraction of reduced Ni ions is larger than that of reduced Co ions. These results demonstrate the capability of the developed detector to obtain important information for the safe employment of this cathode material in Li-ion batteries.

  20. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  1. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  2. Primordial flares, flux tubes, MHD waves in the early universe and genesis of cosmic gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hiremath, K M

    2009-01-01

    It is conjectured that energy sources of the gamma ray bursts are similar to energy sources which trigger solar and stellar transient activity phenomena like flares, plasma accelerated flows in the flux tubes and, dissipation of energy and acceleration of particles by the MHD waves. Phenomenologically we examine in detail the following energy sources which may trigger gamma ray bursts : (i) cosmic primordial flares which could be solar flare like phenomena in the region of inter galactic or inter galactic cluster regions, (ii) primordial magnetic flux tubes that might have been formed from the convective collapse of the primordial magnetic flux (iii) nonlinear interaction and dissipation of MHD waves that are produced from the perturbations of large-scale inter galactic or inter cluster magnetic field of primordial origin. We examine in detail each of the afore mentioned phenomena keeping in mind that whether such processes are responsible for energy sources of the gamma ray bursts. By considering the similar...

  3. An image processing system for digital chest X-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocklin, M; Gourlay, A; Jackson, P; Kaye, G; Miessler, M; Kerr, I; Lams, P

    1984-01-01

    This paper investigates the requirements for image processing of digital chest X-ray images. These images are conventionally recorded on film and are characterised by large size, wide dynamic range and high resolution. X-ray detection systems are now becoming available for capturing these images directly in photoelectronic-digital form. In this report, the hardware and software facilities required for handling these images are described. These facilities include high resolution digital image displays, programmable video look up tables, image stores for image capture and processing and a full range of software tools for image manipulation. Examples are given of the application of digital image processing techniques to this class of image.

  4. On X-ray tube spectra, the dependence on the angular and electron energy of X-rays from the targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    An algorithm was developed for the theoretical intensities of both X-ray continuum and characteristic K-radiation (K{α 1}, K{α 2}, K{α }, K{β 1}, K{β 2}, K{β 3}, K{β 13}, K{β 4} and K{β 5}) of different target materials (Cr, Cu, Rh, Mo, W, Ag and Au) at different electron incidence angles (0.01circ 90circ), different take-off angles of the photon emission (0.01circ 90circ) and different X-ray tube voltages. It was found that the intensities of continuum and characteristic X-rays increase with increasing take-off angle and the take-off angle is inversely proportional to the absorption path of X-rays in the target. At take-off angles of 20circ or more, the flux of the X-ray spectra remains practically independent of the take-off angle. Furthermore, at the optimum electron incidence angle and take-off angle of emitted X-ray photons, the dependence of X-ray tube spectra on applied voltage was also investigated.

  5. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  6. Optimizing the tube potential for lumbar spine radiography with a flat-panel digital detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, H; Norrman, E; Persliden, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal settings for lumbar spine radiography with a flat-panel detector. A CDRAD contrast-detail phantom was imaged at various tube potentials, system speeds and filtration settings. Factorial experiments yielded a range of optimized exposure settings, which were submitted to visual grading analysis with images of an Alderson phantom. The first optimized settings involved a system speed increase from 400 to 800. For anteroposterior projection, the optimal tube potential was reduced from the default of 77 kV to 60 kV to give the best image quality without increasing the effective dose, or to 66 kV to give the lowest dose without reducing image quality. For lateral projection, the tube potential was similarly reduced from the default of 90 kV to 70 kV or 77 kV. Visual grading analysis confirmed the results, with significantly better image quality when optimizing for image quality. The study thus shows that the tube potential can be reduced as long as the system speed is increased simultaneously. This leads to a lower effective dose and/or increased image quality depending on the settings chosen. The factorial experiments provided a powerful way to evaluate several parameters concomitantly.

  7. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  8. Development of a digital method for neutron/gamma-ray discrimination based on matched filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, S.; Linczuk, M.; Romaniuk, R.; Zychor, I.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron/gamma-ray discrimination is crucial for measurements with detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. Different techniques to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays based on pulse shape analysis are widely used in many applications, e.g., homeland security, radiation dosimetry, environmental monitoring, fusion experiments, nuclear spectroscopy. A common requirement is to improve a radiation detection level with a high detection reliability. Modern electronic components, such as high speed analog to digital converters and powerful programmable digital circuits for signal processing, allow us to develop a fully digital measurement system. With this solution it is possible to optimize digital signal processing algorithms without changing any electronic components in an acquisition signal path. We report on results obtained with a digital acquisition system DNG@NCBJ designed at the National Centre for Nuclear Research. A 2'' × 2'' EJ309 liquid scintillator was used to register mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation from PuBe sources. A dedicated algorithm for pulse shape discrimination, based on real-time filtering, was developed and implemented in hardware.

  9. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity ({approx_equal}1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session.

  10. Report on a new type of trauma full-body digital X-ray machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beningfield, S; Potgieter, H; Nicol, A; van As, S; Bowie, G; Hering, E; Lätti, E

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic equivalence, radiation dose, clinical usefulness and radiographic aspects of a low-dose, full-body digital X-ray machine in a busy trauma unit. A digital trauma X-ray machine known as "LODOX" was compared with conventional radiography between June 1999 and November 2001 in the Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit, Cape Town. Digital images of a variety of body regions commonly imaged in trauma were compared for diagnostic image quality in a number of categories with equivalent conventional radiographs. A seven-point equivalence scoring system ranging from much inferior (-3) through equivalent (0) to much superior (+3) was used in each category. Radiation dose was recorded and compared with that in conventional measurements. Turnaround times of patients undergoing digital and conventional X-rays were evaluated. Clinical and radiographic issues were assessed by staff feedback. The digital images when compared with conventional film had an overall mean equivalence score of -0.429, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.77. The best digital performance was in the mediastinum (mean 0.346, SD 0.49) and the weakest was for bony detail (mean -0.654, SD 0.81). Relative digital radiation dose compared to conventional varied from 72% (chest) to 2% (pelvis), with a simple average of 6%. Radiographic points included full-body imaging capability and differing positioning, penetration, workflow and practicality considerations. The digital images required overall patient times of 5-6 min, compared with 8-48 min for conventional X-rays. New installations are under way, and computed tomography and angiography applications are being explored. FDA approval is awaited. Projected cost is similar to that of flat-panel digital units. This digital unit was felt to be diagnostically substantially equivalent to conventional radiographs, with low-dose full-body imaging, improved workflow, digital technology and long-term cost benefits as

  11. Studying the luminescence efficiency of Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor material for digital X-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, N.; Liaparinos, P.; Michail, C.; David, S.; Fountos, G.; Wójtowicz, M.; Zych, E.; Kandarakis, I.

    2012-01-01

    Scintillator materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with available photoreceptors like radiographic film or photoreceptors suitable for digital imaging like a-Si, charge-coupled devises (CCD), complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and GaAs). In addition, scintillators can be utilized in non-medical imaging detectors such as industrial detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) and detectors used for security purposes (i.e. airport luggage control). Image quality and dose burden in the above applications is associated with the amount of optical photons escaping the scintillator as well as the amount of optical photons captured by the photoreceptor. The former is characterized by the scintillator efficiency and the latter by the spectral matching between the emission spectrum of the scintillator and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. Recently, a scintillator material, europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Eu), has shown improved scintillating properties. Lu2O3:Eu samples of compact nanocrystalline non-agglomerated powder were developed in our laboratory using homogeneous precipitation from a water-toluene solution in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. In order to test their light-emission properties, experimental measurements under the excitation of X-ray spectra with X-ray tube voltages between 50 kVp and 140 kVp were performed. This range of applied voltages is appropriate for X-ray radiology, NDT and security applications. Lu2O3:Eu was evaluated with respect to output yield and spectral compatibility of digital imaging photoreceptors (CCD-based, CMOS-based, amorphous silicon a:Si flat panels, ES20 and GaAs). High light yield and spectral compatibility increase the performance of the medical detector and reduce the dose burden to the personnel involved. In addition a theoretical model was used to determine the values for the Lu2O3:Eu optical photon light propagation parameters. The

  12. 78 FR 56736 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems, tablets and... Hills Media, LLC (``BHM''). 78 FR 29156-57. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of...

  13. Digital radio detection of cosmic rays: achievements, status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, radio detection of cosmic rays has matured from small-scale prototype experiments to installations spanning several km$^2$ with more than a hundred antennas. The physics of the radio signal is well understood and simulations and measurements are in good agreement. We have learned how to extract important cosmic ray parameters such as the geometry of the air shower and the energy of the primary particle from the radio signal, and have developed very promising approaches to also determine the mass of the primary particles. At the same time, limitations have become increasingly clear. I review the progress made in the past decade and provide a personal view on further potential for future development.

  14. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Richard D; Wilde, Jim C H; Douglas, Tania S; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2009-05-01

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the Statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided.

  15. Comarability of digital and analouge x-rays for migration measurements with EBRA

    CERN Document Server

    Brabec, E

    2001-01-01

    EBRA is a computer supported method for measuring the migration of total hip prostheses by using consecutive standard X-rays of the pelvis. PACS is a picture archiving and communication system used to handle digitally taken X-rays. After the installation of a PACS at the University Clinic of Innsbruck it was impossible to compare the digital pictures with the former analogue pictures with EBRA, as they have different scales. By introducing a calibrating step into the EBRA-program it was possible to do measurements on series of pictures containing digital pictures as well as analogue ones. For displaying the failure of EBRA caused by different radiological techniques we did measurements on a series of consecutive X-rays taken of a model made of acrylic glass and simulating the relevant anatomic structures by screws. The migration of the implant was simulated by shifting it in two directions. Whilst using analogue and digital radiological techniques for taking X-rays, the difference in measurement errors of bot...

  16. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, Richard D. [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilde, Jim C.H. [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); University of Amsterdam, Paediatric Surgical Centre of Amsterdam, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Douglas, Tania S. [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); As, Arjan Bastiaan van [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-05-15

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided. (orig.)

  17. Time estimate (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) of shutter of an X-ray equipment using a digital chronometer; Estimativa do tempo (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) do shutter de um equipamento de raios-X utilizando um cronometro digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Oliveira, P.H.T.M.; Gallo, V.F.M.; Jordao, B.O.; Carvalho, R.J., E-mail: dansq@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the measurement of time t{sub opening} + t{sub closing} opening and closing the shutter of Pantak HF160 X-ray equipment was performed. It is understood by the shutter device responsible for allowing or not the flow of X-rays that are produced by the X-ray tube through the orifice of a shield. To estimate the running time for a digital chronometer calibrated in the Time Service Division (DSHO) National Observatory (ON) was used. (author)

  18. Towards standardization of x-ray beam filters in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: Monte Carlo simulations and analytical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography, the x-ray beam filter material and thickness vary between systems. Replacing K-edge filters with Al was investigated with the intent to reduce exposure duration and to simplify system design. Tungsten target x-ray spectra were simulated with K-edge filters (50 µm Rh; 50 µm Ag) and Al filters of varying thickness. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the x-ray scatter from various filters alone, scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) with compressed breasts, and to determine the radiation dose to the breast. These data were used to analytically compute the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) at unit (1 mGy) mean glandular dose (MGD) for W/Rh and W/Ag spectra. At SDNR matched between K-edge and Al filtered spectra, the reductions in exposure duration and MGD were quantified for three strategies: (i) fixed Al thickness and matched tube potential in kilovolts (kV); (ii) fixed Al thickness and varying the kV to match the half-value layer (HVL) between Al and K-edge filtered spectra; and, (iii) matched kV and varying the Al thickness to match the HVL between Al and K-edge filtered spectra. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SPR with and without the breast were not different between Al and K-edge filters. Modelling for fixed Al thickness (700 µm) and kV matched to K-edge filtered spectra, identical SDNR was achieved with 37–57% reduction in exposure duration and with 2–20% reduction in MGD, depending on breast thickness. Modelling for fixed Al thickness (700 µm) and HVL matched by increasing the kV over (0,4) range, identical SDNR was achieved with 62–65% decrease in exposure duration and with 2–24% reduction in MGD, depending on breast thickness. For kV and HVL matched to K-edge filtered spectra by varying Al filter thickness over (700, 880) µm range, identical SDNR was achieved with 23–56% reduction in exposure duration and 2–20% reduction in MGD, depending on breast thickness

  19. 医用诊断X光机管电流测试系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Medical Diagnostic X -ray Machine's Tube Current Testing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平; 方方; 刘志宏

    2011-01-01

    As an important parameter, Medical X-ray tube current control the X - ray intensity, which has been included in the JJG 744 - 2004 " Medical Diagnostic X-ray radiation sources" in the state verification procedures. With the continuous development of the digital diagnosis and treatment, traditional ammeter is not a-ble to measure the X - ray tube current and exposure time accuratly, in order to ensure safety and reliable operation of Medical X - ray machine , improve the corresponding level of digital detection, so designing a verifaction of non - intrusive system of tube current, which include FPGA combination of high speed ADC digital sampling technology, current transformers and Bluetooth technology. The system has obvious advantages on the diversification of measured parameters and the accuracy of data analysising, has more in line with the characteristics of tube current. At the same time with high accuracy and good repeatability, the system meet national requirements of testing procedures.%X光机管电流作为控制X射线强度的重要参数,已被包含在JJG 744 - 2004《医用诊断X射线辐射源》国家计量检定规程中.随着数字诊断治疗水平的不断发展,传统电流表已不能准确测量X光机管电流与曝光时间,为了保障医用X光机安全可靠运行,提高与之相应的数字化检测水平,设计验证了一套包含高速ADC与FPGA结合的数字化采样技术、电流互感器与蓝牙技术的非介入式管电流测试系统,该系统在测量参数多样化、数据分析准确性方面优势明显,较符合X光机管电流特征,具有测量精度高、重复性好等优点,满足国家检定规程要求.

  20. Structure, Principles and Failure Analysis of X-ray Tube%X射线球管的结构、原理及常见故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振光

    2011-01-01

    The article described structure, working principles, specification characteristies and technical parameters of X-ray tube which was important to set the technical parameters of X-ray tube in scientific and rational way, and make X-ray tube maintain in the best condition. Meanwhile. the article 8ummarized the methods about failure analysis and troubleshooting of X-ray tube.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011 , 32 ( 3) : 124-125]%介绍了X射线球管的结构、工作原理、规格特性和技术参数,指出使用中科学合理的设定X射线机技术参数、保持其处于最佳状态具有重要意义.归纳总结了X线球管故障分析和排除常见方法.

  1. Simulations of sonic boom ray tube area fluctuations for propagation through atmospheric turbulence including caustics via a Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Pierce, Allan D.

    1992-01-01

    A theory which gives statistical predictions for how often sonic booms propagating through the earth's turbulent boundary layer will encounter caustics, given the spectral properties of the atmospheric turbulence, is outlined. The theory is simple but approximately accounts for the variation of ray tube areas along ray paths. This theory predicts that the variation of ray tube areas is determined by the product of two similar area factors, psi (x) and phi (x), each satisfying a generic harmonic oscillator equation. If an area factor increases the peak acoustic pressure decreases, and if the factor decreases the peak acoustic pressure increases. Additionally, if an area factor decreases to zero and becomes negative, the ray has propagated through a caustic, which contributes a phase change of 90 degrees to the wave. Thus, it is clear that the number of times that a sonic boom wave passes through a caustic should be related to the distorted boom waveform received on the ground. Examples are given based on a characterization of atmospheric turbulence due to the structure function of Tatarski as modified by Crow.

  2. In Situ X-ray Diffraction and Absorption Studies of the Li_xMn_2O4 Cathode Materials by Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. Q.; Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.; Daroux, M. L.; Xing, X. K.

    1998-03-01

    The structural and electronic states of the Li_xMn_2O4 cathode materials obtained from different commercial sources were studied in situ during charge-discharge cycle using synchrotron radiation. In x-ray diffraction studies, two or three cubic crystal phases with different lattice constants were observed during charge-discharge between 3V and 4.6V vs lithium metal anode. The number of cubic phases depends on the source of the material and the electrochemical history (the first or second cycle) of the cell. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to study the electronic states of the Mn cations during charge-discharge cycles. The relationships between the structural properties of Li_xMn_2O4 and battery performance will be discussed.

  3. Cathodic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bia...

  4. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulos, K.; Belias, A.; Markou, C.; Rapidis, P.; Kappos, E.

    2016-04-01

    GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  5. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  6. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Pan, B.; Tao, R.; Lubineau, G.

    2017-04-01

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging, the heat generated by the x-ray tube changes the imaging geometry of x-ray scanner, and further introduces noticeable errors in DVC measurements. In this work, to provide practical guidance high-accuracy DVC measurement, the errors in displacements and strains measured by DVC due to the self-heating for effect of a commercially available x-ray scanner were experimentally investigated. The errors were characterized by performing simple rescan tests with different scan durations. The results indicate that the maximum strain errors associated with the self-heating of the x-ray scanner exceed 400 µε. Possible approaches for minimizing or correcting these displacement and strain errors are discussed. Finally, a series of translation and uniaxial compression tests were performed, in which strain errors were detected and then removed using pre-established artificial dilatational strain-time curve. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed strain error correction approach.

  7. Measurement of the trailing edge of cosmic-ray track signals from a round-tube drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, M; Odaka, S

    2000-01-01

    The trailing edge of tube drift-chamber signals for charged particles is expected to provide information concerning the particle passage time. This information may be useful for separating meaningful signals from overlapping garbage at high-rate experiments, such as the future LHC experiments. We carried out a cosmic-ray test using a small tube chamber in order to investigate the feasibility of this idea. We achieved a trailing-edge time resolution of 12 ns in rms by applying simple pulse shaping to eliminate a signal tail. A comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation indicates the importance of well-optimized signal shaping to achieve good resolution. The resolution may be further improved with better shaping.

  8. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  9. Overcoming x-ray tube small focal spot output limitations for high resolution region of interest imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandesh K.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    We investigate methods to increase x-ray tube output to enable improved quantum image quality with a higher generalized-NEQ (GNEQ) while maintaining a small focal-spot size for the new high-resolution Micro-angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) Region of Interest (ROI) imaging system. Rather than using a larger focal spot to increase tubeloading capacity with degraded resolution, we evaluated separately or in combination three methods to increase tube output: 1) reducing the anode angle and lengthening the filament to maintain a constant effective small focal-spot size, 2) using the standard medium focal spot viewed from a direction on the anode side of the field and 3) increasing the frame rate (frames/second) in combination with temporal filter. The GNEQ was compared for the MAF for the small focal-spot at the central axis, and for the medium focal-spot with a higher output on the anode side as well as for the small focal spot with different temporal recursive filtering weights. A net output increase of about 4.0 times could be achieved with a 2-degree anode angle (without the added filtration) and a 4 times longer filament compared to that of the standard 8-degree target. The GNEQ was also increased for the medium focal-spot due to its higher output capacity and for the temporally filtered higher frame rate. Thus higher tube output, while maintaining a small effective focal-spot, should be achievable using one or more of the three methods described with only small modifications of standard x-ray tube geometry.

  10. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man [Jeonbuk Technopark, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chon, Kwon-Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics.

  11. Development and evaluation of a four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Yi; Du Hong Lian; Li Yuan Jing; Tian Hui

    2003-01-01

    A four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed in our lab. The four flash X-ray heads and four detectors can be used to obtain four radiographic images at four time intervals of an explosion and ballistic trajectory. The cascaded imaging system mainly consists of three parts: (1) a phosphor screen to convert incident X-rays into visible photons; (2) a lens to efficiently collect visible photons emitted by the phosphor screen; and (3) a charge coupled device image sensor to obtain the visible light image. From the analysis of signal and noise propagation, the system is not X-ray quantum-limited, rather the system has secondary quantum sink at the light collecting stage. The construction of the system, theoretical and experimental analysis of performance are presented.

  12. Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Bie, B. X. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Ran, X. X.; Qi, M. L., E-mail: qiml@whut.edu.cn [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Parab, N.; Sun, J. Z.; Liao, H. J.; Hudspeth, M. C.; Claus, B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Material Science Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gong, X. L., E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation.

  13. Dark output characteristic of γ-ray irradiated CMOS digital imagesensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The quality of dark output images from the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) black and white (B&W) digital image sensors captured before and after γ-ray irradiation was studied. The characteristic parameters of the dark output images captured at different radiation dose, e.g. average brightness and its non-uniformity of dark output images, were analyzed by our test software. The primary explanation for the change of the parameters with the radiation dose was given.

  14. X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Characterization of Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sain, J D; Brown, W D; Chinn, D J; Martz Jr., H E; Morales, K E; Schneberk, D J; Updike, E O

    2008-04-16

    The summary of this report is: (1) The Xradia Micro XCT and LLNL CCAT x-ray systems are used to nondestructively characterize a variety of materials, assemblies, and reference standard components; (2) The digital radiograph (DR) and computed tomography (CT) image data may be used for metrology, quality control, and defect detection; and (3) The ability to detect and characterize imperfections leads to improvements in the manufacturing processes for assemblies.

  15. Feasibility study of on-line digital X-ray imaging for irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthoens, Y.; Gys, A. [Reactor Material Research Department, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Smolders, V. [Industrial Engineer Department, Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Geel (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    At the Reactor Material Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN Xray imaging of the internal parts of irradiated fuel rods is done on silver-halide films using a 420 kV X-ray source. The replacement of the films by an on-line digital X-ray imaging system implies several advantages. Images can be evaluated instantly and source parameters can be optimized more easily. Time consuming film development is superfluous. The images can digitally be enhanced, processed, reported and archived. Within this work the feasibility of four commercial on-line digital X-ray imaging systems were studied for post-irradiation examination on fuel rods in a hot cell environment. The criteria to evaluate the systems were image quality, integration in the existing hot cell infrastructure, durability and cost price. For the evaluation and comparison of the image quality a simulation fuel rod was fabricated. Three systems suffered from lack of sensitivity, contrast and/or resolution. Only the CsI-scintillator coupled to a CCD-camera with image intensifier gave a sufficient image quality. On the other hand the image intensifiers' dimensions are difficult to integrate in the existing hot cell infrastructure. Also the durability of intensifier screens is questionable as they are susceptible to image burn. Smaller image intensifiers easier to integrate are commercial available nowadays.

  16. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2016-01-01

    In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km$^{2}$. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and es...

  17. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... collimations depending on side of radiograph. Results from dose reduction will be presented on the congress Conclusion: Correct positioning and collimation of digital chest radiographs can reduce the radiation dose significant to the patients and by that improve the quality of basic radiography....

  18. The function-transferring model construction for X-ray digital radiographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wang; Yan, Han; Guo, Wenming

    2008-02-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting a renovated model-building method of transfer function for industrial X-ray digital radiography based on the amorphous silicon X-ray flat-panel detector. The system, known as point-spreading function (PSF), is composed of three parts: the system geometrical dispersion with a non-spot power source, the scintillating screen dispersion and the aperture sampling of the pixel detector. For the innovation purpose, we have first of all established a mathematical simulation of the PSF and the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the basis of analyzing the intensity distribution of X-ray penetration area in each part and by taking Gaussian functions as a mathematical equation for depicting the transfer behavior of each part of the system. And, then, we have worked out the approximately effective bandwidth of the system from its half-wave width. And, finally, by taking the digital radiography based on the flat-panel detector for sampling, the paper has provided a theoretical foundation for the industrial X-ray radiographic testing and measurement operation. In addition, the author has also estimated the validation of the model through experiments and proved that the method helps to make high resolutions of the diacritical tiniest details in the work-pieces, which has shown and will show its technical rationality, technical appropriateness and practical working value.

  19. Surface and in-depth characterization of lithium-ion battery cathodes at different cycle states using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Magnus; Schlifke, Annalena [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Falk, Mareike; Janek, Jürgen [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Fröba, Michael, E-mail: froeba@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cathode material LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} for lithium-ion batteries has been studied with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (CMXRF) combined with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the Mn-K edge and the Ni-K edge. This technique allows for a non-destructive, spatially resolved (x, y and z) investigation of the oxidation states of surface areas and to some extent of deeper layers of the electrode. Until now CMXRF-XANES has been applied to a limited number of applications, mainly geo-science. Here, we introduce this technique to material science applications and show its performance to study a part of a working system. A novel mesoporous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} material was cycled (charged and discharged) to investigate the effects on the oxidation states at the cathode/electrolyte interface. With this approach the degradation of Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+} only observable at the surface of the electrode could be directly shown. The spatially resolved non-destructive analysis provides knowledge helpful for further understanding of deterioration and the development of high voltage battery materials, because of its nondestructive nature it will be also suitable to monitor processes during battery cycling. - Highlights: • The potential of confocal micro-XRF-XANES for spatial resolved species analysis in a part of a working system is shown. • The spatial resolution enables differentiation of the oxidized interface from deeper layers. • With the analytical technique confocal micro-XRF-XANES 3D in-situ analyses of working systems are feasible. • The multidimensional and nondestructive analysis of Li-ion battery cathodes is shown. • The analysis will allow for a deeper understanding of processes at interfaces in battery science and others.

  20. Cathodic arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  1. X-ray light valve (XLV): a novel detectors' technology for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovici, Sorin; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Oakham, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A novel method, based on X-ray Light Valve (XLV) technology, is proposed for making good image quality yet inexpensive flat panel detectors for digital mammography. The digital mammography markets, particularly in the developing countries, demand quality machines at substantially lower prices than the ones available today. Continuous pressure is applied on x-ray detectors' manufacturers to reduce the flat panel detectors' prices. XLV presents a unique opportunity to achieve the needed price - performance characteristics for direct conversion, x-ray detectors. The XLV based detectors combine the proven, superior, spatial resolution of a-Se with the simplicity and low cost of liquid crystals and optical scanning. The x-ray quanta absorbed by a 200 μm a-Se produce electron - hole pairs that move under an electric field to the top and bottom of a-Se layer. This 2D charge distribution creates at the interface with the liquid crystals a continuous (analog) charge image corresponding to the impinging radiation's information. Under the influence of local electrical charges next to them, the liquid crystals twist proportionally to the charges and vary their light reflectivity. A scanning light source illuminates the liquid crystals while an associated, pixilated photo-detector, having a 42 μm pixel size, captures the light reflected by the liquid crystals and converts it in16 bit words that are transmitted to the machine for image processing and display. The paper will describe a novel XLV, 25 cm x 30 cm, flat panel detector structure and its underlying physics as well as its preliminary performance measured on several engineering prototypes. In particular, the paper will present the results of measuring XLV detectors' DQE, MTF, dynamic range, low contrast resolution and dynamic behavior. Finally, the paper will introduce the new, low cost, XLV detector based, digital mammography machine under development at XLV Diagnostics Inc.

  2. Determination voltage applied to an X-ray tube using the spectrum; Determinacao da tensao aplicada em um tubo de raios-X usando o espectro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves, E-mail: malbuqueque@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, Guilherme [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work shows the methodology used to determine the voltage applied in an X-ray tube using their spectra. The measurements were made using a detector Cadmium telluride . Before the measurements are carried out detector was calibrated with a source of {sup 241}Am. After obtaining the spectra , the mean energies were calculated , the electron accelerating potential (k Vp ) of each spectrum is constructed a calibration straight for the kVp this tube. (author)

  3. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  4. Analysis of Silicon Photomultiplier Detector Waveforms from Cosmic Rays using Digital Signal Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Silicon photomultiplier detectors exhibit high gain, low operating voltage, are insensitive to magnetic fields, and can detect light at the single photon level, making them very attractive for applications in fields such as particle physics, astrophysics, and medical physics. However, they exhibit effects that may prevent their optimal operation, including thermally induced high dark count rate, after pulse effects, and cross talk produced from photons in nearby pixels. In this presentation, we describe our coincidence setup using two scintillator pads and a Hamamatsu multipixel photon counter (MPPC) to gather cosmic ray produced signal pulses, and our methods of analysis for the detector waveforms. In particular, we discuss our methods of digitization, software implementation of low pass and Gaussian type filters, and the application of a domino ring sampler (DRS4) digitizing board to obtain signal waveforms to determine the operating characteristics for these detectors. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  5. Modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S K; Hollender, L

    1994-03-01

    An impulse train method to control aliasing was used to measure the modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system (RVG 32000 ZHR, Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France). The detector of this system is composed of an intensifying screen, a fiber optics taper, and a charged couple device chip. The modulation transfer function could not be measured by impulse method such as the line spread function or edge response function because of aliasing from undersampling of the digital system. The system modulation transfer function was difficult to recover at the spatial frequencies smaller than the Nyquist frequency. The modulation transfer function beyond the Nyquist frequencies was impossible to recover in this study.

  6. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with respect to voltage, exposure, lateral displacement, supination, combination of lateral displacement and supination or rotation, extension of the wrist, and edge enhancement. Direct digital radiography (Aristos; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was used for image acquisition and dxr-online (Sectra, Linköping, Sweden) for DXR-BMD measurements. The influence of the tested deviations from DIP ranged from 0 to 32.5 mg/cm(2) (0-6.8%). On repetition with the same specimen, none of the deviations resulted in a within-specimen reproducibility error greater than 2 mg/cm(2) (0.4%, equivalent to a T-score of 0.042). Among the tested deviations, all except tube voltage had a magnitude greater than the normal measurement noise for the technique and must therefore be considered when planning a study based on historical images.

  7. [Capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, I M; Mal'ginov, N N; Kiseleva, E V; Cherniaev, S E; Nikulina, O M; Tarasenko, I V; Volozhin, A I

    2008-01-01

    Digital microfocal x-ray study was experimentally studied in animals to examine the time course of changes in their bone regeneration. Sixteen Chinchila rabbits whose bone defect in the angle of the mandibular ramus had been closed with the osteoplastic material Gapcol with the applied allogeneic, autologous stem cells isolated from rabbit adipose tissue and human plasma enriched with thrombocytic growth factors were examined. The capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study versus x-ray computed tomography were compared in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue. The results of radiation studies were verified with the data of scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Comparison of digital signal processing modules in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépy, Marie-Christine; Cissé, Ousmane Ibrahima; Pierre, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Commercial digital signal-processing modules have been tested for their applicability to gamma-ray spectrometry. The tests were based on the same n-type high purity germanium detector. The spectrum quality was studied in terms of energy resolution and peak area versus shaping parameters, using a Eu-152 point source. The stability of a reference peak count rate versus the total count rate was also examined. The reliability of the quantitative results is discussed for their use in measurement at the metrological level.

  9. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  10. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  11. Digital X-ray camera for quality evaluation three-dimensional topographic reconstruction of single crystals of biological macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstahl, Gloria (Inventor); Lovelace, Jeff (Inventor); Snell, Edward Holmes (Inventor); Bellamy, Henry (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital topography imaging system for determining the crystalline structure of a biological macromolecule, wherein the system employs a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with antiblooming circuitry to directly convert x-ray signals to electrical signals without the use of phosphor and measures reflection profiles from the x-ray emitting source after x-rays are passed through a sample. Methods for using said system are also provided.

  12. Development of gas microstrip detectors for digital x-ray imaging and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, M S; Dubeau, J; Gobbi, D G; Johns, P C; Karlen, Dean A; Oakham, F G; Waker, A J

    1998-01-01

    Our recent work in the application of gas microstrip detector (GMD) technology to the fields of digital X-ray imaging and radiation dosimetry Is described. The GMD can measure the position and the energy of individual photons at the high counting rates encountered in X-ray imaging. GMD-based imaging systems have high detective quantum efficiency and permit improvement of image quality and contrast using display windowing and measured energy information. Results are presented on the performance of a prototype GMD imaging system operated with a xenon/methane 90/10 gas mixture at 1 atm. Results are also presented on the performance of a GMD filled with tissue equivalent gases for applications in the field of radiation dosimetry in mixed neutron and gamma fields. The results show that the GMD can be used for dosimetric discrimination between different types of radiation in mixed-field environments.

  13. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model using a common X-ray tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Tokalov; W Enghardt; N Abolmaali

    2010-06-01

    Studies that investigate the radiation of human tumour xenografts require an appropriate radiation source and highly standardized conditions during radiation. This work reports on the design of a standardized irradiation device using a commercially available X-ray tube with a custom constructed lead collimator with two circular apertures and an animal bed plate, permitting synchronous irradiation of two animals. Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat model were investigated. Procedures and results described herein prove the feasibility of use of the device, which is applicable for any investigation involving irradiation of non-tumorous and tumorous lesions in small animals.

  14. Transmission diffraction-tomography system using a high-energy X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, D J; Jenneson, P M; Crook, R; Vincent, S M

    2010-01-01

    A high-energy bench-top energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system for 3-dimensional mapping of the crystalline structure and phase transformations in steel is described, for which preliminary data and system development are presented here. The use of precision tungsten slit screens with up to 225 keV X-rays allows for diffraction through samples of 304 L austenitic stainless steel of thickness 3-10 mm, while sample positioning is carried out with a precision goniometer and translation stage system.

  15. Comparison of simulated and measured spectra from an X-ray tube for the energies between 20 and 35 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, M.; Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Ozben, C.S.; Yücel, E. Barlas, E-mail: barlase@itu.edu.tr

    2015-11-01

    Design and production of a simple and low cost X-ray imaging system that can be used for light industrial applications was targeted in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In this study, production, transmission and detection of X-rays were simulated for the proposed imaging device. OX/70-P dental tube was used and X-ray spectra simulated by Geant4 were validated by comparison with X-ray spectra measured between 20 and 35 keV. Relative detection efficiency of the detector was also determined to confirm the physics processes used in the simulations. Various time optimization tools were performed to reduce the simulation time.

  16. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M. B., E-mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ∼6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  17. Recent developments in a CdTe-based x-ray detector for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Francis; Martin, Jean-Luc; Thevenin, Bernard; Schermesser, Patrick; Pantigny, Philippe; Laurent, Jean Yves; Rambaud, Philippe; Pitault, Bernard; Paltrier, Sylvain

    1997-05-01

    The performance of a new CdTe based x-ray detector devoted to digital radiography are presented. The detectors consist of a 6 cm2 CdTe 2D-array connected to CMOS readout circuit by indium bumps. The final image has 400 X 600 pixels with a 50 micron pitch. This solid-state detector presents the advantages of direct conversion, i.e. high stopping power with high spatial resolution and a significantly higher signal than commercially available scintillator/photodetector systems. The experimental results show excellent linearity, spatial resolution and detective quantum efficiency. The MTF was measured by the angled-slit method: 20 to 30 percent at 10 1p/mm depending on the incident x-ray energy. The measured DQE is about 0.8 at 40 KeV and 100 (mu) Gray dose. Our simulation shows that these experimental results do not reach the theoretical limit. Further improvements are in progress. The first industrial application will be dental radiography due to the small size and the excellent performances. We also tested the detector with x-rays form 20 KeV to 1.25 MeV. Of course the CdTe thickness should then be adapted to the incident x-ray energy.

  18. Low dose digital X-ray imaging with avalanche amorphous selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Léveillé, Sébastien; Zhao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Active Matrix Flat Panel Imagers (AMFPI) based on an array of thin film transistors (TFT) have become the dominant technology for digital x-ray imaging. In low dose applications, the performance of both direct and indirect conversion detectors are limited by the electronic noise associated with the TFT array. New concepts of direct and indirect detectors have been proposed using avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se), referred to as high gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP). The indirect detector utilizes a planar layer of HARP to detect light from an x-ray scintillator and amplify the photogenerated charge. The direct detector utilizes separate interaction (non-avalanche) and amplification (avalanche) regions within the a-Se to achieve depth-independent signal gain. Both detectors require the development of large area, solid state HARP. We have previously reported the first avalanche gain in a-Se with deposition techniques scalable to large area detectors. The goal of the present work is to demonstrate the feasibility of large area HARP fabrication in an a-Se deposition facility established for commercial large area AMFPI. We also examine the effect of alternative pixel electrode materials on avalanche gain. The results show that avalanche gain > 50 is achievable in the HARP layers developed in large area coaters, which is sufficient to achieve x-ray quantum noise limited performance down to a single x-ray photon per pixel. Both chromium (Cr) and indium tin oxide (ITO) have been successfully tested as pixel electrodes.

  19. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented.

  20. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  1. Investigation of tomosynthetic perfusion measurements using the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Brian E.; Chen, Guang-Hong; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Betts, Timothy; Speidel, Michael; Rowley, Howard A.; Aagaard Kienitz, Beverly D.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of making regional perfusion measurements using a tomosynthetic digital subtraction angiography (TDSA) acquisition has been demonstrated. The study of tomosynthetic perfusion measurements was motivated by the clinical desire for perfusion measurements in an interventional angiography suite. These pilot studies were performed using the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system which is an inverse-geometry imaging device which utilizes an electromagnetically-scanned x-ray source, and a small CdTe direct conversion photon counting detector. The scanning electron source was used to acquire planar-tomographic images of a 12.5 x 12.5 cm field of view at a frame rate of 15 frames/sec during dynamic contrast injection. A beagle animal model was used to evaluate the tomosynthetic perfusion measurements. A manual bolus injection of iodinated contrast solution was used in order to resolve the parameters of the contrast pass curve. The acquired planar tomosynthetic dataset was reconstructed with a simple back-projection algorithm. Digital subtraction techniques were used to visualize the change in contrast agent intensity in each reconstructed plane. Given the TDSA images, region of interest based analysis was used in the selection of the image pixels corresponding to the artery and tissue bed. The mean transit time (MTT), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were extracted from the tomosynthetic data for selected regions in each of the desired reconstructed planes. For the purpose of this study, the arterial contrast enhancement curve was fit with a combination of gamma variate terms, and the MTT was calculated using a deconvolution based on the singular value decomposition (SVD). The results of the contrast pass curves derived with TDSA were consistent with the results from perfusion measurements as implemented with CT acquisition.

  2. Small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT) using a Talbot-Lau interferometerand a rotating anode x-ray tube:theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Qi, Zhihua

    2010-06-01

    X-ray differential phase contrast imaging methods, including projection imaging and the corresponding computed tomography (CT), have been implemented using a Talbot interferometer and either a synchrotron beam line or a low brilliance x-ray source generated by a stationary-anode x-ray tube. From small-angle scattering events which occur as an x-ray propagates through a medium, a signal intensity loss can be recorded and analyzed for an understanding of the micro-structures in an image object. This has been demonstrated using a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a stationary-anode x-ray tube. In this paper, theoretical principles and an experimental implementation of the corresponding CT imaging method are presented. First, a line integral is derived from analyzing the cross section of the small-angle scattering events. This method is referred to as small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT). Next, a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a rotating-anode x-ray tube were used to implement SAS-CT. A physical phantom and human breast tissue sample were used to demonstrate the reconstructed SAS-CT image volumes.

  3. Experimental investigation of heat transfer performance coefficient in tube bundle of shell and tube heat exchanger in two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Marcin; Zając, Daniel; Ulbrich, Roman

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the results of studies in two phase gasliquid flow around tube bundle in the model of shell tube heat exchanger. Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficient on the tubes surface were performed with the aid of electrochemical technique. Chilton-Colburn analogy between heat and mass transfer was used. Twelve nickel cathodes were mounted on the outside surface of one of the tubes. Measurement of limiting currents in the cathodic reduction of ferricyanide ions on nickel electrodes in aqueous solution of equimolar quantities of K3Fe(CN)6 and K4Fe(CN)6 in the presence of NaOH basic solution were applied to determine the mass transfer coefficient. Controlled diffusion from ions at the electrode was observed and limiting current plateau was measured. Measurements were performed with data acquisition equipment controlled by software created for this experiment. Mass transfer coefficient was calculated on the basis of the limiting current measurements. Results of mass transfer experiments (mass transfer coefficient) were recalculated to heat transfer coefficient. During the experiments, simultaneously conducted was the the investigation of two-phase flow structures around tubes with the use of digital particle image velocimetry. Average velocity fields around tubes were created with the use of a number of flow images and compared with the results of heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  4. Experimental investigation of heat transfer performance coefficient in tube bundle of shell and tube heat exchanger in two-phase flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaś Marcin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies in two phase gasliquid flow around tube bundle in the model of shell tube heat exchanger. Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficient on the tubes surface were performed with the aid of electrochemical technique. Chilton-Colburn analogy between heat and mass transfer was used. Twelve nickel cathodes were mounted on the outside surface of one of the tubes. Measurement of limiting currents in the cathodic reduction of ferricyanide ions on nickel electrodes in aqueous solution of equimolar quantities of K3Fe(CN6 and K4Fe(CN6 in the presence of NaOH basic solution were applied to determine the mass transfer coefficient. Controlled diffusion from ions at the electrode was observed and limiting current plateau was measured. Measurements were performed with data acquisition equipment controlled by software created for this experiment. Mass transfer coefficient was calculated on the basis of the limiting current measurements. Results of mass transfer experiments (mass transfer coefficient were recalculated to heat transfer coefficient. During the experiments, simultaneously conducted was the the investigation of two-phase flow structures around tubes with the use of digital particle image velocimetry. Average velocity fields around tubes were created with the use of a number of flow images and compared with the results of heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  5. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  6. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: shuo@astro.columbia.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  7. [Comparison of LCD and CRT monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2006-05-20

    Soft copy reading of digital images has been practiced commonly in the PACS environment. In this study, we compared liquid-crystal display (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Digital chest images with a 1000x1000 matrix size and a 8 bit grayscale were displayed on LCD/CRT monitor with 2M pixels in each observer test. Eight and ten radiologists participated in the observer tests for detection of nodules and interstitial diseases, respectively. In each observer test, radiologists marked their confidence levels for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules or interstitial diseases. The detection performance of radiologists was evaluated by ROC analyses. The average Az values (area under the ROC curve) in detecting pulmonary nodules with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.792 and 0.814, respectively. In addition, the average Az values in detecting interstitial diseases with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.951 and 0.953, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LCD and CRT for both detection of pulmonary nodules (P=0.522) and interstitial lung diseases (P=0.869). Therefore, we believe that the LCD monitor instead of the CRT monitor can be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases in digital chest images.

  8. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European and Regional Danish guidelines. The areal between current and optimal collimation is calculated. The experimental research is performed in September - October 2014 Siemens Axiom Aristos digital radiography system DR using 150 kV, 1,25 -3......Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance...

  9. Amplitude calibration of a digital radio antenna array for measuring cosmic ray air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Nehls, S; Arts, M J; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; van Cappellen, W A; Falcke, H; Haungs, A; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Krömer, O

    2008-01-01

    Radio pulses are emitted during the development of air showers, where air showers are generated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. These nanosecond short pulses are presently investigated by various experiments for the purpose of using them as a new detection technique for cosmic particles. For an array of 30 digital radio antennas (LOPES experiment) an absolute amplitude calibration of the radio antennas including the full electronic chain of the data acquisition system is performed, in order to estimate absolute values of the electric field strength for these short radio pulses. This is mandatory, because the measured radio signals in the MHz frequency range have to be compared with theoretical estimates and with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations to reconstruct features of the primary cosmic particle. A commercial reference radio emitter is used to estimate frequency dependent correction factors for each single antenna of the radio antenna array. The expected received p...

  10. The performance of a NERO 8000 non-invasive x-ray beam analyser when measuring tube voltage under fluoroscopic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, J W

    2001-09-01

    A NERO 8000 non-invasive x-ray beam analyser was examined under fluoroscopic conditions with respect to the measurement of tube voltage. An invasive measurement of tube voltage was performed concurrently to test the accuracy of the NERO device over a range of tube voltages and currents. The data indicated that for the NERO 8000 the accuracy of kVp average measurement is dependent on input doserate. With the tube current set to 1 mA the doserates ranged from 2.1 to 6.5 mGy/min over the range of tube voltages measured. The associated kVp average measurement errors ranged from 6 to 28%. At 5 mA the doserates ranged from 20.4 to 66.0 mGy/min and the associated errors ranged from 0 to 3%. A possible explanation for the drop in accuracy of kVp measurements at low doserates is a decreased signal to noise ratio. The kV waveforms from inaccurate measurements appeared noisier than waveforms from more accurate measurements. NERO may be interpreting noise spikes as voltage readings and including them in the kVp average calculations, causing an erroneously high kVp average reading. The data from this experiment suggest that when performing non-invasive measurements of tube voltage accuracy in fluoroscopy mode, the doserate must be taken into consideration.

  11. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (p0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  12. Stationary Digital Tomosynthesis System for Early Detection of Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Detector. Proceeding of SPIE, 2010. 7622: p. 11. 16. Qian, X., et al., Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x...load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics . Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended...Finite element analysis was performed to determine the 135 maximum x-ray tube current at the targeted focal spot size and power. Electron beam optics

  13. Interactive Digital Image Processing for Terrain Data Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    28 are illustrations of the subscenes as displayed on the cathode ray tube (CRT). The data are shown inverted to a negative. Geographic scene...LINE SEGEMENTS INTO THIS AREA (THEME PROCESSOR) Figure 52. Categorizing a Dry Gap By Width 78 OONOO. IP. *31O1101 II TS)O H NInit I IN . 4110V 1I| 0...minor change the program is recommended for general interactive use. e To date, processing of imagery data has been restricted to small geographical areas

  14. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  15. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, M., E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Delogu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, s.p. per Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available.

  16. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. K-edge digital subtraction imaging with dichromatic x-ray sources: SNR and dose studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, A.; Elleaume, H.; Taibi, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Bravin, A.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to analytically evaluate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the delivered dose in K-edge digital subtraction imaging (KES) using two types of x-ray sources: a monochromatic x-ray source (available at synchrotron radiation facilities and considered as gold standard) and a quasi-monochromatic compact source. The energy separation ΔE between the two monochromatic beams is 1 keV and 4 keV for the two sources, respectively. The evaluation has been performed for both radiography and computed tomography. Different geometries have been studied to mimic clinical situations. In mammography, a pathology perfused by a contrast agent has been modelled; in angiography, a vessel superimposed to a ventricle or a stand-alone artery stenosis has been studied. The SNR and the skin dose have been calculated as a function of the detail diameter, the contrast agent (iodine and gadolinium), and its concentration in the tissues. Results show that for ΔE = 4 keV a slightly higher delivered dose is required to obtain the same SNR with respect to ΔE < 1 keV. A similar study has been performed for KES-CT. Computer simulations of CT images performed with Snark software are shown to validate the analytical calculations.

  18. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays with organic scintillation detectors in an 8-bit sampling system using frequency gradient analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; LUO Xiao-Liang; LIU Guo-Fu; LIN Cun-Bao; WANG Yan-Ling; HU Qing-Qing; PENG Jin-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using frequency gradient analysis (FGA),a digital method based on Fourier transform,to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the environment of an 8-bit sampling system has been investigated.The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in a scintillation detection system using the time-domain features of the photomultiplier tube anode signal will be lower or non-effective in this low resolution sampling system.However,the FGA method using the frequency-domain features of the anode signal exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the above sampling system.A detailed study of the quality of the FGA method in BC501A liquid scintillators is presented using a 5 G samples/s 8-bit oscilloscope and a 14.1 MeV neutron generator.A comparison of the discrimination results of the time-of-flight and conventional charge comparison (CC) methods proves the applicability of this technique.Moreover,FGA has the potential to be implemented in current embedded electronics systems to provide real-time discrimination in standalone instruments.

  19. Cyberbullying of Teachers by Students on YouTube: Challenging the Image of Teacher Authority in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the cyberbullying of teachers in schools by their students. One aspect of this phenomenon is the posting of visual recordings of teachers and teacher-student interaction on easily accessible websites such as YouTube. Whilst research on the cyberbullying of students by other students has received a great deal of…

  20. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  1. Structural integrity--Searching the key factor to suppress the voltage fade of Li-rich layered cathode materials through 3D X-ray imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yahong; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Feifei; Corbett, Jeff; Sun, Zhihong; Lyu, Yingchun; Yu, Xiqian; Liu, Yijin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Hong (BNL); (SLAC); (UCSF); (Donghua); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-10-24

    Li-rich layered materials are important cathode compounds used in commercial lithium ion batteries, which, however, suffers from some drawbacks including the so-called voltage fade upon electrochemical cycling. Here, our study employs novel transmission X-ray microscopy to investigate the electrochemical reaction induced morphological and chemical changes in the Li-rich Li2Ru0.5Mn0.5O3 cathode particles at the meso to nano scale. We performed combined X-ray spectroscopy, diffraction and microscopy experiments to systematically study this cathode material's evolution upon cycling as well as to establish a comprehensive understanding of the structural origin of capacity fade through 2D and 3D fine length scale morphology and heterogeneity change of this material. This work suggests that atomic manipulation (e.g. doping, substitution etc.) or nano engineering (e.g. nano-sizing, heterogeneous structure) are important strategies to mitigate the internal strain and defects induced by extensive lithium insertion/extraction. It also shows that maintaining the structural integrity is the key in designing and synthesizing lithium-rich layered materials with better cycle stability.

  2. Elucidating the degradation mechanism of the cathode catalyst of PEFCs by a combination of electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, J; van der Vliet, D F; Yanson, A; Rodriguez, P

    2016-08-10

    In this study, we report a methodology which enables the determination of the degradation mechanisms responsible for catalyst deterioration under different accelerated stress protocols (ASPs) by combining measurements of the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and Pt content (by X-ray fluorescence). The validation of this method was assessed on high surface area unsupported Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs), Pt nanoparticles supported on TaC (Pt/TaC) and Pt nanoparticles supported on Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vulcan). In the load cycle protocol, the degradation of Pt-NPs and Pt/Vulcan follows associative processes (e.g. agglomeration) in the first 2000 cycles, however, in successive cycles the degradation goes through dissociative processes such as Pt dissolution, as is evident from a similar decay of ECSA and Pt content. In contrast, the degradation mechanism for Pt nanoparticles dispersed on TaC occurs continuously through the dissociative processes (e.g. Pt dissolution or particle detachment), with similar decay rates of both Pt content and ECSA. In the start-up/shut-down protocol, high surface area Pt-NPs follow associative processes (e.g. Ostwald ripening) in the first 4000 cycles, after which the degradation continues through dissociative processes. On the other hand, dissociative mechanisms always govern the degradation of Pt/TaC under start-up/shut-down protocol conditions. Finally, we report that Pt nanoparticles supported on TaC exhibit the highest catalytic activity and long term durability of the three nanoparticle systems tested. This makes Pt/TaC a potentially valuable catalyst system for application in polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes.

  3. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  4. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-09-10

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  5. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2017-03-01

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s. However, in one of the tube colours labelled "Jaune de Cadmium Citron" (cadmium lemon yellow) an extremely rare cadmium chromate pigment was found. The pigment was analysed and characterised by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Cadmium chromate was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate and potassium chromate, and the resulting yellow crystals proved identical to the pigment found in the tube colour "Jaune de Cadmium Citron". The structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified the pigment as 2CdCrO4·KOH·H2O or more accurately as KCd2(CrO4)2(H3O2) illustrating the μ-H3O2- species. The yellow colour of the paint sample taken from the tube had a greenish hue, which became even more prominent upon storage and drying. EPR analysis of the sample showed the presence of paramagnetic degradation products containing Cr(III) and Cr(V).

  6. Gray value differences to dentin of root posts radiographed with digital intraoral systems and conventional X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, S; Pfeiffer, P; Rother, U; Nergiz, I; Schmage, P

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the gray value differences to dentin of titanium and FRC root posts in anterior and posterior teeth radiographed with digital intraoral systems and conventional x-ray film. Radiographic images (n=5) of titanium or fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) root posts placed in extracted teeth were taken with six digital intraoral radiographic devices and conventional x-ray film (control group). Gray value differences were evaluated between the root posts and root dentin. Statistical analyses of the results were performed with three-way and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparisons post-hoc analyses (α=0.05). Significantly higher gray value differences of titanium and FRC posts were found in anterior teeth but not in molars for XIOS, Sidexis and Visualix digital intraoral systems, but not for RVG, DenOptix and VistaScan (FRC posts). Except for DenOptix with incisors and molars and VistaScan with molars, conventional x-ray films showed significantly lower gray value differences of titanium posts in incisors and molars compared to the corresponding digital radiographs.

  7. Varied tube potential with constant effective dose at lumbar spine radiography using a flat-panel digital detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Håkan; Persliden, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the image quality at different tube potential (kV) settings using anteroposterior lumbar spine radiography as a model. An Alderson phantom was used with a flat-panel detector. The tube potential varied between 48 and 125 kV while the tube charge (mAs) was adjusted to keep an effective dose of 0.11 mSv. Image quality was assessed with a visual grading analysis and with a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom together with a computer program. The VGA showed inferior image quality for the higher kV settings, > or =96 kVwith similar results for the contrast-detail phantom. When keeping the effective dose fixed, it seems beneficial to reduce kV to get the best image quality despite the fact that the mAs is not as high as with automatic exposure. However, this cannot be done with automatic exposure, which is set for a constant detector dose.

  8. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-s.; Park, S.-J.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Lee, D.; Choi, Y.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-03-01

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R2>0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types of x-ray

  9. Sensor noise in direct digital imaging (the RadioVisioGraphy, Sens-a-Ray, and Visualix/Vixa systems) evaluated by subtraction radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensor noise with the use of the subtraction method in radiographs captured with three direct digital intraoral systems. Ten radiographs were taken of the lower left molar region of a phantom head at each of three exposure times: 0.20 seconds, 0.46 seconds, and 0.60 seconds with the use of the RadioVisioGraphy (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France), Sens-a-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, AB, Sundsvall, Sweden), and Visualix (Gendex, Philips Medical Systems, Inc., Monza, Italy) systems. Neither the x-ray tube nor the phantom were moved between exposures, and the three sensors were identically positioned. The images were stored in the tagged image file format provided by the systems in 8-bit depth and imported by a subtraction program. Subtractions were performed between identical images taken with the three systems. The standard deviation for the distribution of the shades of grey in the subtraction image histogram served as an expression for image noise. Paired t tests evaluated differences between the standard deviations of the subtraction images from the three systems. The standard deviation increased with increasing exposure time for all three systems (p < 0.00001). The standard deviation for the images performed with Visualix were 6.47, 10.34, and 11.16 at exposure times 0.20, 0.46, and 0.60, respectively. For the RadioVisioGraphy, these values were 1.61, 2.03, and 2.18, and for Sens-a-Ray 2.90, 3.98, and 3.96, respectively. The differences between the systems were highly statistically significant (p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Filtration to reduce paediatric dose for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, T D; Dendere, R; Irving, B; Hartley, T; Scholtz, P; Lawson, A; Trauernicht, C; Steiner, S; Douglas, T S

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes modelling, application and validation of a filtration technique for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray system to reduce radiation dose to paediatric patients while preserving diagnostic image quality. A dose prediction model was implemented, which calculates patient entrance doses using variable input parameters. Effective dose is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. An added filter of 1.8-mm aluminium was predicted to lower the radiation dose significantly. An objective image quality study was conducted using detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The PTW Normi 4FLU test phantom was used for quantitative assessment, showing that image contrast and spatial resolution were maintained with the proposed filter. A paediatric cadaver full-body imaging trial assessed the diagnostic quality of the images and measured the dose reduction using a 1.8-mm aluminium filter. Assessment by radiologists indicated that diagnostic quality was maintained with the added filtration, despite a reduction in DQE. A new filtration technique for full-body paediatric scanning on the Lodox Statscan has been validated, reducing entrance dose for paediatric patients by 36 % on average and effective dose by 27 % on average, while maintaining image quality.

  11. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  12. Image-quality performance of an a-Si H-based X-ray imaging system for digital mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Darambara, D G; Speller, R D

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the potential of large area active matrix flat-panel a-Si : H imaging arrays for full-field digital X-ray mammography. To optimise the overall performance of such an imaging system under mammographic conditions, four different Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb phosphor screens (i.e. Lanex Fast-Back, Regular, Fine and MinR-2000) were employed and our full-field detector was integrated with the Feinfocus DIMA (Direct Magnification) PLUS MII mammographic unit. The spatial resolution and the image noise of the digital detector were measured and the X-ray imaging performance of the whole system was also evaluated with two mammographic phantoms. It was deduced from the results of this study that Regular screen offers the best compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution and exhibits better overall image-quality performance than that of a conventional mammography system.

  13. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.); Pesquisa do espectro de raios-X na aquisicao e processamento de imagens digitais para a deteccao de desordens internas em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica l.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rubemar@ird.gov.br; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfreire@ctaa.embrapa.br; Jesus, Edgar de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  14. Osteoporosis and osteoarthrosis in women of uzbek nationality of old age based on digital X-ray and densitometry research

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMOVA UMIDA MUKHTAROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the association of the two diseases in the age aspect, data, and digital X-ray densitometry studies it was revealed a positive dependence between osteoartrozis and osteoporosis. The results show that the incidence of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis is mainly observed after 40 years, but most often after age 50, whereas the expressed structural radiographic changes of the knee joint bones epimetaphysis are observed more after 60 years old.

  15. Image performance of a new amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector designed for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L. K.; Jing, Z.; Bogdanovich, S.; Golden, K.; Robinson, S.; Beliaevskaia, E.; Parikh, S.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to report the performance of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) based flat-panel x-ray imager under development for application in digital breast tomosynthesis. This detector is designed to perform both in the conventional Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) mode and the tomosynthesis mode. The large area 24 x 29 cm detector achieves rapid image acquisition rates of up to 4 frames per second with minimal trapped charge induced effects such as ghost or lag images of previously acquired objects. In this work, a new a-Se/TFT detector layer structure is evaluated. The design uses a top conductive layer in direct contact with the a-Se x-ray detection layer. The simple structure has few layers and minimal hole and electron trapping effects. Prototype detectors were built to investigate the basic image performance of this new a-Se/TFT detector. Image signal generation, image ghosting, image lag, and detector DQE were studied. For digital mammography applications, the residual image ghosting was less than 1% at 30 seconds elapsed time. DQE, measured at a field of 5.15 V/um, showed significantly higher values over previously reported data, especially at low exposure levels. For digital breast tomosynthesis, the image lag at dynamic readout rate was < 0.6 % at 0.5-second elapsed time. A prototype tomosynthesis system is being developed utilizing this new a-Se/TFT detector.

  16. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Federica [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Universita degli studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dellasega, David [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  17. Local liquid velocity measurement of Trickle Bed Reactor using Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar

    Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques. This work also make possible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) VLL measurements that can be taken in TBRs. Measurements taken through both the combined and the novel technique, once validated, were found to be comparable to another technique (a two-point fiber optical probe) currently being developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The results from this study indicate that, for a gas-liquid-solid type bed, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 35 and 51 times that of its superficial liquid velocity (VSL). Without the existence of gas, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 4 and 4.7 times that of its VSL. At a higher V SL, the particle tracer was greatly distributed and became carried away by a high liquid flow rate. Neither the variance nor the range of measured VLL varied for any of the replications, confirming the reproducibility of the experimental measurements used, regardless of the VSL . The liquid's movement inside the pore was consistent with findings from previous studies that used various techniques.

  18. SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Ueki, N; Iizuka, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this work are to develop 4D-CBCT imaging system with orthogonal dual source kV X-ray tubes, and to determine the imaging doses from 4D-CBCT scans. Methods: Dual source kV X-ray tubes were used for the 4D-CBCT imaging. The maximum CBCT field of view was 200 mm in diameter and 150 mm in length, and the imaging parameters were 110 kV, 160 mA and 5 ms. The rotational angle was 105°, the rotational speed of the gantry was 1.5°/s, the gantry rotation time was 70 s, and the image acquisition interval was 0.3°. The observed amplitude of infrared marker motion during respiration was used to sort each image into eight respiratory phase bins. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc packages were used to simulate kV X-ray dose distributions of 4D-CBCT imaging. The kV X-ray dose distributions were calculated for 9 lung cancer patients based on the planning CT images with dose calculation grid size of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm. The dose covering a 2-cc volume of skin (D2cc), defined as the inner 5 mm of the skin surface with the exception of bone structure, was assessed. Results: A moving object was well identified on 4D-CBCT images in a phantom study. Given a gantry rotational angle of 105° and the configuration of kV X-ray imaging subsystems, both kV X-ray fields overlapped at a part of skin surface. The D2cc for the 4D-CBCT scans was in the range 73.8–105.4 mGy. Linear correlation coefficient between the 1000 minus averaged SSD during CBCT scanning and D2cc was −0.65 (with a slope of −0.17) for the 4D-CBCT scans. Conclusion: We have developed 4D-CBCT imaging system with dual source kV X-ray tubes. The total imaging dose with 4D-CBCT scans was up to 105.4 mGy.

  19. Suppression of high-density artifacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baissalov, Roustem; Sandison, George A.; Donnelly, Bryan J.; Saliken, John C.; Muldrew, Ken; Rewcastle, John C.

    2000-06-01

    Image guidance of cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound or x-ray CT. Despite the ability of CT to display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions, the quality of the images is compromised by the presence of high density streak artifacts. To suppress these artifacts we applied Temporal Digital Subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the gray scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high density artifacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced content of the artifacts. This TDS can be used in x-ray CT assisted cryotherapy to significantly suppress or eliminate high density x-ray CT streak artifacts by digitally processing x-ray CT images. Applying TDS in cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the amount and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent.

  20. 阴极射线管色度转换的神经网络模型%Cathode ray tube color conversion model by use of neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼文高; 王晓红; 匡罗平

    2006-01-01

    利用神经网络技术实现了从阴极射线管(CRT)的R、G和B空间到CIE的标准色度空间的转换.用拟牛顿法训练网络模型,建立了从CRT的R、G和B到CIE的X、Y和Z色度空间变换的3-10-10-3神经网络模型.采用7点LOG空间分布方案的343个训练样本建模的试验表明,收敛性与训练时间及模型精度均优于前人采用3~4个隐层的方案,343个训练样本、216个检验样本和64组测试样本的平均转换精度分别为0.6个CIELUV色差单位,说明该模型的泛化能力很好.

  1. The impact of x-ray tube stabilization on localized radiation dose in axial CT scans: initial results in CTDI phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Kelsey B.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Cody, Dianna D.

    2016-10-01

    Rise, fall, and stabilization of the x-ray tube output occur immediately before and after data acquisition on some computed tomography (CT) scanners and are believed to contribute additional dose to anatomy facing the x-ray tube when it powers on or off. In this study, we characterized the dose penalty caused by additional radiation exposure during the rise, stabilization, and/or fall time (referred to as overscanning). A 32 cm CT dose-index (CTDI) phantom was scanned on three CT scanners: GE Healthcare LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare Discovery CT750 HD, and Siemens Somatom Definition Flash. Radiation exposure was detected for various x-ray tube start acquisition angles using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed in the peripheral chamber hole at the phantom’s 12 o’clock position. Scan rotation time, ionization chamber location, phantom diameter, and phantom centering were varied to quantify their effects on the dose penalty caused by overscanning. For 1 s single, axial rotations, CTDI at the 12 o’clock chamber position (CTDI100, 12:00) was 6.1%, 4.0%, and 4.4% higher when the start angle of the x-ray tube was aligned at the top of the gantry (12 o’clock) versus when the start angle was aligned at 9 o’clock for the Siemens Flash, GE CT750 HD, and GE VCT scanner, respectively. For the scanners’ fastest rotation times (0.285 s for the Siemens and 0.4 s for both GE scanners), the dose penalties increased to 22.3%, 10.7%, and 10.5%, respectively, suggesting a trade-off between rotation speed and the dose penalty from overscanning. In general, overscanning was shown to have a greater radiation dose impact for larger diameter phantoms, shorter rotation times, and to peripheral phantom locations. Future research is necessary to determine an appropriate method for incorporating the localized dose penalty from overscanning into standard dose metrics, as well as to assess the impact on organ dose.

  2. A simplified spectrometer based on a fast digital oscilloscope for the measurement of high energy $\\gamma$-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Markochev, S S

    2014-01-01

    A simplified digital spectrometer for the study of $\\gamma$-rays with energies up to $\\sim100$ MeV is presented and tested. The spectrometer is only consisted of a fast digital oscilloscope and three scintillation detectors which can work in single or in coincidence modes: two BGO-detectors comprising $\\varnothing\\,7.62\\times7.62$ cm BGO-crystalls and one plastic detector which includes an organic polystyrene-based scintillator. The basic properties of the spectrometer (energy resolution, time resolution, $\\gamma$-rays detection efficiency) were studied exhaustively also using a Geant4-based Monte-Carlo simulation. Several numerical algorithms for processing of waveforms in offline mode were proposed and tested to perform digital timing, pulse area measurement and processing of pile-up events without rejection. As a result, the spectrometer demonstrated $\\sim10\\%$ better energy resolution than was obtained by a common 10-bit CAMAC ADC with the same detectors. And the developed algorithm based on the pulse sha...

  3. γ-射线透射技术在炉管测焦方面的应用%APPLICATION OF MEASURING COKING IN CRACKING FURNACE TUBE WITH γ-RAY TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封瑞江; 时维振

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the basic principle of γ-ray transmission technique is introduced. Through the study of single tube coking experiments,the possibility of the application of γ-ray transmission technique in furnace tubes is also discussed. The effects of cracking temperature,retention period and steam dilution ratio on coking rate are investigated .Comparing to the results by means of coupon weighing weight,γ-ray transmission technique is feasible for coking measurement. The results are consistent with other reported data in literature.

  4. High-energy x-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2014-01-01

    of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps Te...

  5. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitio...

  6. Characterization of three digital signal processor systems used in gamma ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguigui, N; Morel, J; Kraiem, H Ben; Mahjoub, A

    2002-01-01

    Various manufacturers have recently introduced digital signal processing systems that allow data acquisition in gamma spectrometry at high-input counting rates (several thousand pulses per second). In these systems, the signal digitization is performed immediately following the preamplification stage. This allows digital shaping and filtering of the signal which increases the number of possible combinations in signal shaping and as a consequence, optimizes the resolution as a function of the detector characteristics and the counting rate. Basic characteristic parameters of three digital signal processors that were recently introduced in the market have been studied and compared to those of an analog system. This study is carried out using a hyper-pure coaxial type germanium detector and 57Co, 60Co and 137Cs radioactive sources. Performance parameters such as energy resolution, system throughput, and counting losses that are due to dead time and pile-up effects are presented and discussed.

  7. Peak potential meter applied to X-ray tubes in mammal radiography systems; Medidor do potencial de pico aplicado em tubos de raio-X de sistemas mamograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiabel, Homero; Frere, Annie F. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Andreeta, Jose P. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1989-12-31

    It is of a great importance to identify accurately the real peak potential (or simply, KVp) applied to a X-ray tube purposed to medical diagnosis, since it defines the beam energetic quality in terms of photons penetration power. Mainly in mammographic systems. it is of fundamental relevance the KVp accurate measurement because the soft tissues involved in this kind of examination provides different absorption - and, hence, clear contrast on mammographic film - just in a very restrict energetic range. Thus a device to measure KVp with adequate accuracy in mammographic units, using the basic principles of scintillation detection, was developed. This system is therefore composed of a NaI(Tl) crystal which is a X-ray sensor - replacing radiographic films which usually are a source of errors in these measurements - , a photo multiplier tube and changed into amplified electric pulses. Finally the electronic circuit, after adequate pulses treatment, shows instantaneously the actual KVp value in the test on displays. (author) 2 refs.

  8. Possible use of CdTe detectors in kVp monitoring of diagnostic x-ray tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Krmar, M.; Bucalović, N.; Baucal, M.; Jovančević, N.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that kVp of diagnostic X-ray devices (or maximal energy of x-ray photon spectra) should be monitored routinely; however a standardized noninvasive technique has yet to be developed and proposed. It is well known that the integral number of Compton scattered photons and the intensities of fluorescent x-ray lines registered after irradiation of some material by an x-ray beam are a function of the maximal beam energy. CdTe detectors have sufficient energy resolution to dist...

  9. X-ray induced formation of γ-H2AX foci after full-field digital mammography and digital breast-tomosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried A Schwab

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT using a biological phantom model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. RESULTS: Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067-0.116 before and 0.094 (0.076-0.126 after FFDM (p = 0.0004. In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086-0.140 at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030-0.050 at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040-0.081 at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006-0.020 at glandular level. CONCLUSION: In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.

  10. Erosion behaviour of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Robert; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Al$_{x}$Cr$_{1-x}$ composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres and their erosion behaviour was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres were non-uniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded centre region of the cathodes.

  11. Digital x-ray radiogrammetry identifies women at risk of osteoporotic fracture: results from a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Mortensen, Pernille; Hyldstrup, Lars; Appleyard, Merete;

    2006-01-01

    Using digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) on hand radiographs from a large population-based study, 1,370 postmenopausal women were evaluated in a prospective fashion; fracture occurrence was compared with DXR measurements of historic radiographs. Further, the aim of the study was to evaluate factors...... suffered a fracture. Odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation decline in DXR-BMD were statistically significant for fracture in the groups of wrist fractures, proximal humerus fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures as well as in the total fracture group. In the hip fracture group, the P...

  12. Possible use of CdTe detectors in kVp monitoring of diagnostic x-ray tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Bucalović, N; Baucal, M; Jovančević, N

    2010-10-01

    It has been suggested that kVp of diagnostic X-ray devices (or maximal energy of x-ray photon spectra) should be monitored routinely; however a standardized noninvasive technique has yet to be developed and proposed. It is well known that the integral number of Compton scattered photons and the intensities of fluorescent x-ray lines registered after irradiation of some material by an x-ray beam are a function of the maximal beam energy. CdTe detectors have sufficient energy resolution to distinguish individual x-ray fluorescence lines and high efficiency for the photon energies in the diagnostic region. Our initial measurements have demonstrated that the different ratios of the integral number of Compton scattered photons and intensities of K and L fluorescent lines detected by CdTe detector are sensitive function of maximal photon energy and could be successfully applied for kVp monitoring.

  13. Market research and forecast on the rotating anode target of X-ray tube used for CT%CT机X射线管用旋转阳极靶材市场研究与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娜

    2012-01-01

    阐述了CT机X射线管用旋转阳极靶材的工作原理及其常见失效形式。随着CT机市场的日渐壮大。其对旋转阳极靶材的需求将越来越大。文中从3个方面全面阐明了国内CT机X射线管用旋转阳极靶材的市场需求及其产业现状。最后,提出了整合国内旋转阳极靶材行业现有的技术力量,引进专业技术人才,自主研发的建议,以期尽快实现高质量CT机X射线管旋转阳极靶材的国产化。%The paper elaborates the operating principle and common failure forms about rotating anode target of X-ray tube used for CT. The rotating anode target is an important part of X-ray tube, also need regular replacement of wearing parts. It directly effects the intensity of X-ray emitted by the X ray tube and the life of X ray tube. With the growing market of CT, the rotating anode target will be needed more and more. The paper elaborates the market demands and industry situation of rotating anode target of X-ray tube used for CT in China from three aspects. Finally, the author proposes some suggestions on achieving the localization of rotating anode target of X-ray tube used for CT with higher quality as soon as possible, by integrating existing techniques, introducing professional talents, independent research and developmen

  14. Effect of Tube-Based X-Ray Microtomography Imaging on the Amino Acid and Amine Content of the Murchison CM2 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Friedrich, J. M.; Aponte, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ebel, D. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hill, M.; McLain, H. L.; Towbin, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) are increasingly being used for three dimensional reconnaissance imaging of chondrites and returned extraterrestrial material prior to detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses. Although micro-CT imaging is generally considered to be a non-destructive technique since silicate and metallic minerals in chondrites are not affected by X-ray exposures at the intensities and wavelengths typically used, there are concerns that the use of micro-CT could be detrimental to the organics in carbonaceous chondrites. We recently conducted a synchrotron micro-CT experiment on a powdered sample of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite exposed to a monochromatic high energy (approximately 48 kiloelectronvolts) total X-ray radiation dose of approximately 1 kilogray (kGy) using the Advanced Photon Source beamline 13-BMD (13-Bending Magnet-D Beamline) at Argonne National Laboratory and found that there were no detectable changes in the amino acid abundances or enantiomeric compositions in the chondrite after exposure relative to a Murchison control sample that was not exposed. However, lower energy bremsstrahlung X-rays could interact more with amino acids and other lower molecular weight amines in meteorites. To test for this possibility, three separate micro-CT imaging experiments of the Murchison meteorite using the GE Phoenix v/tome/x s 240 kilovolt microfocus high resolution tungsten target X-ray tube instrument at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) were conducted and the amino acid abundances and enantiomeric compositions were determined. We also investigated the abundances of the C1-C5 amines in Murchison which were not analyzed in the first study.

  15. Patient dose simulations for scanning-beam digital x-ray tomosynthesis of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Geoff; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Yoon, Sungwon [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Krishna, Ganesh [Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Mountain View, California 94040 (United States); Wilfley, Brian [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: An improved method of image guidance for lung tumor biopsies could help reduce the high rate of false negatives. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of the scanning-beam digital tomography system (SBDX) for providing real-time 3D tomographic reconstructions for target verification. The unique geometry of the system requires trade-offs between patient dose, imaging field of view (FOV), and tomographic angle.Methods: Tomosynthetic angle as a function of tumor-to-detector distance was calculated. Monte Carlo Software (PCXMC) was used to calculate organ doses and effective dose for source-to-detector distances (SDDs) from 90 to 150 cm, patient locations with the tumor at 20 cm from the source to 20 cm from the detector, and FOVs centered on left lung and right lung as well as medial and distal peripheries of the lungs. These calculations were done for two systems, a SBDX system and a GE OEC-9800 C-arm fluoroscopic unit. To evaluate the dose effect of the system geometry, results from PCXMC were calculated using a scan of 300 mAs for both SBDX and fluoroscopy. The Rose Criterion was used to find the fluence required for a tumor SNR of 5, factoring in scatter, air-gap, system geometry, and patient position for all models generated with PCXMC. Using the calculated fluence for constant tumor SNR, the results from PCXMC were used to compare the patient dose for a given SNR between SBDX and fluoroscopy.Results: Tomographic angle changes with SDD only in the region near the detector. Due to their geometry, the source array and detector have a peak tomographic angle for any given SDD at a source to tumor distance that is 69.7% of the SDD assuming constant source and detector size. Changing the patient location in order to increase tomographic angle has a significant effect on organ dose distribution due to geometrical considerations. With SBDX and fluoroscopy geometries, the dose to organs typically changes in an opposing manner with changing patient

  16. Optical spectroscopic observations of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates in the sloan digital sky survey data release nine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.; D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Funk, S.

    2014-09-09

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release nine (SDSS DR9) for the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and for the γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to their IR colors. First, we adopt a statistical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations to find the optical counterparts of the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog. Then, we crossmatched the SDSS spectroscopic catalog with our selected samples of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates, searching for those with optical spectra available to classify our blazar-like sources and, whenever possible, to confirm their redshifts. Our main objectives are to determine the classification of uncertain blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and to discover new gamma-ray blazars. For the ROMA-BZCAT sources, we investigated a sample of 84 blazars, confirming the classification for 20 of them and obtaining 18 new redshift estimates. For the γ-ray blazars, indicated as potential counterparts of unassociated Fermi sources or with uncertain nature, we established the blazar-like nature of 8 out of the 27 sources analyzed and confirmed 14 classifications.

  17. An investigation of the digital discrimination of neutrons and {gamma} rays with organic scintillation detectors using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.; Aspinall, M.D.; Ma, X. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Joyce, M.J. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.joyce@lancaster.ac.uk

    2009-08-21

    The discrimination of neutron and {gamma}-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by using a method based on an artificial neural network (ANN). Voltage pulses arising from an EJ-301 organic liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field have been recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. Piled-up events have been disentangled using a pile-up management unit based on a fitting method. Each individual pulse has subsequently been sent to a discrimination unit which discriminates neutron and {gamma}-ray events with a method based on an artificial neural network. This discrimination technique has been verified by the corresponding mixed-field data assessed by time of flight (TOF). It is shown that the characterization of the neutrons and photons achieved by the discrimination method based on the ANN is consistent with that afforded by TOF. This approach enables events that are often as a result of scattering or pile-up to be identified and returned to the data set and affords digital discrimination of mixed radiation fields in a broad range of environments on the basis of training obtained with a single TOF dataset.

  18. Miniature High Density Scandate Cathodes for Linear Beam Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Gartner1 and is useful with scandate cathodes that do not exhibit sharp transmissions from space-charge limited to temperature limited flow, see...Electron Detector ( BSE ) and an Energy- dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). In Image 5 the surface of the cathode is viewed using the BSE detector

  19. To be or not to be nas malhas híbridas do suporte digital YouTube: práticas de leitura, linguagens e o sujeito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny André Pimenta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, observa-se e reflete-se sobre as práticas de leitura de um curta-metragem de animação da cena de Hamlet, To be or not to be, no suporte digital YouTube. Partimos da premissa de que mudanças relativas ao suporte podem promover alterações nos procedimentos de leitura e, consequentemente, produzir efeitos de sentido que reverberam na constituição dos sujeitos discursivos, especialmente no que se refere à autoria. A reflexão sustenta-se na Análise do Discurso de ‘linha’ francesa e na Psicanálise lacaniana, em que os postulados ocupam-se da determinação histórica dos processos de significação, ao considerar que os sentidos são construídos de forma singular, na relação com o outro e em seu ambiente, e, para isso, o sujeito tem que se apropriar do campo da linguagem. Com base nesses pressupostos, o corpus configura-se na narrativa virtual do curta-metragem de animação no site Mabinogi: Hamlet - To be, or not to be, Scene One, o qual faz um recorte da obra clássica literária Hamlet de Shakespeare. Os resultados apontam para gestos de leitura múltiplos, híbridos, em que os sentidos e as possibilidades de coautoria podem reverberar no trabalho do sujeito adolescente, que se constitui por meio da/na linguagem e do questionamento sobre si mesmo.

  20. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  1. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  2. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2005-01-01

    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  3. Patient dose simulations for scanning-beam digital x-ray tomosynthesis of the lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Geoff; Yoon, Sungwon; Krishna, Ganesh; Wilfley, Brian; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: An improved method of image guidance for lung tumor biopsies could help reduce the high rate of false negatives. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of the scanning-beam digital tomography system (SBDX) for providing real-time 3D tomographic reconstructions for target verification. The unique geometry of the system requires trade-offs between patient dose, imaging field of view (FOV), and tomographic angle.

  4. Suppression of high-density artefacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissalov, R.; Sandison, G.A.; Rewcastle, J.C. [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, T2N 4N2 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2N4 (Canada); Donnelly, B.J. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, T2N 4N2 4 Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); Saliken, J.C. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); McKinnon, J.G. [Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); Muldrew, K. [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    Image guidance in cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound. Although not currently in routine clinical use, x-ray CT imaging is an alternative means of guidance that can display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions. However, the quality of x-ray CT images is compromised by the presence of high-density streak artefacts. To suppress these artefacts we applied temporal digital subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the grey-scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high-density artefacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced artefact content. Thus TDS can be used to significantly suppress or eliminate high-density CT streak artefacts without reducing the metallic content of the cryoprobes. In vivo study needs to be conducted to establish the utility of this TDS procedure for CT assisted prostate or liver cryotherapy. Applying TDS in x-ray CT guided cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the number and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent. (author)

  5. Composition and growth behavior of the surface and electrolyte decomposition layer of/on a commercial lithium ion battery LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode determined by sputter depth profile X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Philip; Winter, Martin

    2013-12-23

    A detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of the surface and electrolyte decomposition layer of a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode from commercial NMC/graphite cells by intense sputter depth profiling (SDP) using a polyatomic ion gun is provided. Cathodes of a cell after electrochemical formation and a cell at a state of initial capacity (SOIC) of 80%, which was reached after 2500 full cycles at 30 °C, are investigated.

  6. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  7. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  8. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    , by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research......This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising...

  9. ME1/1 Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Erchov, Yu V; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Moissenz, P V; Moissenz, K P; Movchan, Sergey; Perelygin, Victor; Vassiliev, S E; Zarubin, Anatoli; Tchekhovski, V A

    2008-01-01

    The 76 innermost ME1/1 cathode strip chambers (CSC) of the CMS Experiment were designed and produced in Dubna. The chambers have been installed in the detector and commissioning has been completed. This paper describes the design of the CSCs, their main mechanical parameters and read-out electronics, and the results of tests with cosmic-ray muons.

  10. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, E; Araújo, M F; Silva, R J C; Senna-Martinez, J C; Vaz, J L Inês

    2011-09-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction.

  11. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development.

  12. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; /Hawaii U. /UC, Riverside; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC; Roberts, D.; /Maryland U.; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Shtol, D.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Varner, G.S.; /Hawaii U.; Va' vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; /SLAC

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  13. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ~450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ~2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ~1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon greater than 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  14. An X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Cathodic Discharge of Ag2VO2PO4: Geometric and Electronic Structure Characterization of Intermediate Phases and Mechanistic Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Patridge; C Jaye; T Abtew; B Ravel; D Fischer; A Marschilok; P Zhang; K Takeuchi; E Takeuchi; S Baneerjee

    2011-12-31

    Bimetallic phosphorus oxides have emerged as attractive candidates for use as cathode materials in the next generation of lithium-based batteries owing to the operation of multielectron transfer processes and thermochemical stabilities conferred by the incorporation of phosphate groups. In particular silver vanadium phosphorus oxide, Ag{sub 2}VO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, shows a much desired in situ conductivity enhancement upon discharge resulting in inherently high power capability with minimal conductive additives needed. However, the amorphization of Ag{sub 2}VO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} during electrochemical discharge precludes the use of standard diffraction tools to monitor changes in the local electronic and geometric structure. Here, we have utilized a combination of V K-, V L-, Ag K-, and O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to determine the local vanadium and silver oxidation states, local coordination geometry, and stoichiometry for Ag{sub 2}VO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} samples with varying extents of electrochemical lithiation. Soft X-ray V L- and O K-edge measurements provide a detailed orbital-specific picture of changes in vanadium electronic structure upon discharge.

  15. Blacking FTO by strongly cathodic polarization with enhanced photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Lu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-08-01

    Transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (TFTO) coating on quartz glass is widely used as substrate in photoelectrochemistry for solar energy transformation, sensing and so on. We observed that the TFTO could become blackish by strongly cathodic polarization. Characterization of the black FTO (BFTO) by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that part of SnO2 on the TFTO was reduced into metal Sn nanoparticles during the cathodic polarization. The BFTO greatly increased solar absorption and enhanced photocurrent responses in comparison with TFTO. It might be necessary to take caution in photoelectrochemical measurements while the FTO is strongly cathodically polarized.

  16. A new implementation of digital X-ray radiogrammetry and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone for healthy European adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Böttcher, Joachim; Lomholt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method has been shown to be efficient for diagnosis of osteoporosis and for assessment of progression of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this work is to present a new DXR implementation and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone and to compare...

  17. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  18. Implementation of digital multiplexing for high resolution X-ray detector arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Swetadri Vasan, S N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate for the first time the use of the novel Multiple Module Multiplexer (MMMIC) for a 2×2 array of new electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) based x-ray detectors. It is highly desirable for x-ray imaging systems to have larger fields of view (FOV) extensible in two directions yet to still be capable of doing high resolution imaging over regions-of-interest (ROI). The MMMIC achieves these goals by acquiring and multiplexing data from an array of imaging modules thereby enabling a larger FOV, and at the same time allowing high resolution ROI imaging through selection of a subset of modules in the array. MMMIC also supports different binning modes. This paper describes how a specific two stage configuration connecting three identical MMMICs is used to acquire and multiplex data from a 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors. The first stage contains two MMMICs wherein each MMMIC is getting data from two EMCCD detectors. The multiplexed data from these MMMICs is then forwarded to the second stage MMMIC in the similar fashion. The second stage that has only one MMMIC gives the final 12 bit multiplexed data from four modules. This data is then sent over a high speed Camera Link interface to the image processing computer. X-ray images taken through the 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors using this two stage configuration of MMMICs are shown successfully demonstrating the concept.

  19. Large field-of-view asymmetric masks for high-energy x-ray phase imaging with standard x-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, M.; Astolfo, A.; Price, B.; Haig, I.; Olivo, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a new approach to large field-of-view laboratory-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging. The method is based upon the asymmetric mask design that enables the retrieval of the absorption, refraction and ultra-small- angle scattering properties of the sample without the need to move any component of the imaging system. The sample is scanned through the imaging system, which also removes possible aliasing problems that might arise from partial sample illumination when using the edge illumination technique. This concept can be extended to any desired number of apertures providing, at the same time, intensity projections at complementary illumination conditions. Experimental data simultaneously acquired at seven different illumination fractions are presented along with the results obtained from a numerical model that incorporates the actual detector performance. The ultimate shape of the illumination function is shown to be significantly dependent on these detector-specific characteristics. Based on this concept, a large field-of-view system was designed, which is also capable to cope with relatively high (100 kVp) X-ray energies. The imaging system obtained in this way, where the asymmetric mask design enables the data to be collected without moving any element of the instrumentation, adapts particularly well to those situations in medical, industrial and security imaging where the sample has to be scanned through the system.

  20. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry better identifies osteoarthritis patients with a low bone mineral density than quantitative ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Gerhard W. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Frey, Diana; Studer, Annina; Hauser, Dagmar; Zilic, Nathalie [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Hany, Thomas F. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland); Haeuselmann, Hans J. [Center for Rheumatology and Bone Disease, Klinik im Park, Zurich (Switzerland); Michel, Beat A.; Uebelhart, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology and Institute of Physical Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Hans, Didier [University Hospital Geneva, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) to identify osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and sixty-one patients with painful knee OA (81 men, 80 women; age 62.6{+-}9.2 years, range 40-82 years) were included in this cross-sectional study and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of both hips and the lumbar spine, QUS of the phalanges and calcanei of both hands and heels, and DXR using radiographs of both hands. Unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ROC analysis and Spearman's rank correlation were used for comparisons and correlation of methods. Using DXA as the reference standard, we defined a low bone mineral density (BMD) as a T-score {<=}-1.0 at the lumbar spine or proximal femur. In contrast to phalangeal or calcaneal QUS, DXR was able to discriminate patients with a low BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.0001) or hips (p<0.0001). ROC analysis showed that DXR had an acceptable predictive power in identifying OA patients a low hip BMD (sensitivity 70%, specificity 71%). Therefore, DXR used as a screening tool could help in identifying patients with knee OA for DXA. (orig.)

  1. Dual energy x-ray imaging and scoring of coronary calcium: physics-based digital phantom and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) as assessed with CT calcium score is the best biomarker of coronary artery disease. Dual energy x-ray provides an inexpensive, low radiation-dose alternative. A two shot system (GE Revolution-XRd) is used, raw images are processed with a custom algorithm, and a coronary calcium image (DECCI) is created, similar to the bone image, but optimized for CAC visualization, not lung visualization. In this report, we developed a physicsbased, digital-phantom containing heart, lung, CAC, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose elements, examined effects on DECCI, suggested physics-inspired algorithms to improve CAC contrast, and evaluated the correlation between CT calcium scores and a proposed DE calcium score. In simulation experiment, Beam hardening from increasing adipose thickness (2cm to 8cm) reduced Cg by 19% and 27% in 120kVp and 60kVp images, but only reduced Cg by <7% in DECCI. If a pulmonary artery moves or pulsates with blood filling between exposures, it can give rise to a significantly confounding PA signal in DECCI similar in amplitude to CAC. Observations suggest modifications to DECCI processing, which can further improve CAC contrast by a factor of 2 in clinical exams. The DE score had the best correlation with "CT mass score" among three commonly used CT scores. Results suggest that DE x-ray is a promising tool for imaging and scoring CAC, and there still remains opportunity for further DECCI processing improvements.

  2. A pilot study evaluating the "STATSCAN" digital X-ray machine in paediatric polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Richard D; van As, Arjan B; Sanders, Virginia; Douglas, Tania S; Wieselthaler, Nicole; Vlok, Ann; Paverd, Sylvia; Kilborn, Tracy; Rode, Heinz; Potgieter, Herman; Beningfield, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study evaluating the use in paediatric polytrauma of the STATSCAN, a low-radiation dose, fan-beam digital radiography unit (Lodox Systems, Sandton, South Africa). Over 3 months, 23 polytrauma patients treated at the Emergency Unit of the Red Cross Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, were imaged on the STATSCAN. Image quality, diagnostic equivalence and clinical efficiency were compared with a computed radiography (CR) system (Fuji FCR 5000, Fuji Photo Film, Tokyo, Japan). The STATSCAN antero-posterior bodygram correlated well technically and diagnostically with CR, showing 96% of the fractures in the cohort. It allowed superior visualisation of the trachea and main bronchi and imaging was, on average, 13% faster than CR. The STATSCAN could play an important role in paediatric polytrauma. The clinical significance of its superior demonstration of the trachea and main bronchi requires further evaluation.

  3. 成人胸部适当高电压数字X线摄影试验研究%Optimisation of tube voltage for adult chest digital radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永霞; 秦维昌; 黄玲; 张晓晶; 亓恒涛; 刘传亚; 王巍

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the optimum voltage for digital chest radiography in adult. Methods PMMAs of Different thickness (7.2, 9.0, 10. 8 and 12. 6 cm) were used to simulate chest of different depth ( 17. 5, 22. 5, 27.0 and 32. 5 cm). The combinants of contrast-detail Cdrad 2.0 phantom and above PMMAs were exposed with automatic exposure control (AEC) and different tube voltages. The images of these combinants were obtained and the entrance surface dose (ESD) was recorded. The imaging quality factor (IQF) was calculated and the curves were drawn between the ESD,IQF and kV. The PMMAs of different thickness, on which a contrast object ( PMAA of 5 cm diameter and 1.8 cm thickness ) was placed, were exposed with the same condition used for above test. Their images were obtained and SNRs were calculated. Results The ESD, SNR and IQFinv of different chest depth decreased with increase of kV.When tube voltages of 70, 100 and 140 kV were used, for 17. 5 cm chest depth, the ESD was 0. 22, 0. 09 and 0. 06 mGy, the IQF was 43.3, 58. 8 and 72. 0, the SNR was 7.5, 6. 2 and 5.0; for 22. 5 cm chest depth, the ESD was 0.37, 0.12 and 0.06 mGy, the IQF was 56. 0, 61.4 and 65.3, the SNR was 6. 4, 5.2 and 3. 8; for 27. 0 cm chest depth, the ESD was 0. 52, 0. 20 and 0. 09 mGy, the IQF was 54. 2, 64. 3 and 91. 0, the SNR was 6. 0, 4. 8 and 3. 5; for 31.5 cm chest depth, the ESD was 0.53, 0.24 and 0. 10 mGy,the IQF was 53.2, 66. 8 and 95.3, the SNR was 5. 7, 4. 5 and 3. 0. Conclusion To balance ESD, SNR and IQF, proper tube voltage should be chosen for chest radiography according to thickness and constitution of patients.%目的 探讨成人胸部不同厚度高千伏DR的适当电压千伏值.方法 用不同厚度的聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)模拟不同成人胸部厚度,用不同电压、自动曝光控制(AEC)摄影,记录入射体表剂量(ESD)、获取模体影像并计算影像质量因子(IQF),绘制ESD和IQF之间的曲线.将一块厚度为1.8 cm(5 cm×5 cm)的PMMA作为对

  4. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Protection, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Patel, Tushita [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  5. 50 Hz electron emission from PZT ferro-electric cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechtner, D.; Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Kerslick, G.S.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Ferro-electric cathodes may offer a source of high current density electron beams for applications where the use of conventional field emitters is limited by repetition rate and lifetime. In a ferro-electric cathode, electrons are emitted when the spontaneous polarization is rapidly changed by a pulsed electric field applied across the ferroelectric. When no additional voltage is applied to a planar diode gap, emission current densities are on the order of 1 A/cm{sup 2}. When an additional field is applied to the gap, the authors have measured current densities up to 100 A/cm{sup 2}. In a new configuration that permits beam extraction into a drift tube, the cathode is pulsed 10--20kV negative and electron current densities of {approximately}20 A/cm{sup 2} at repetition rates up to {approximately}50 Hz (power supply limited) have been measured. The one inch diameter ferro-electric cathode is located in the fringing region of a 1.5 kG solenoid magnetic field {approximately}2.8 cm from the entrance of a grounded drift tube. A Faraday cup is located several centimeters inside the drift tube and measurements show that repeatable beam current can be extracted from the ferroelectric cathode in this geometry.

  6. An error budget for digital soil mapping using proximally sensed EM induction and remotely sensed gamma-ray spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; Bishop, Thomas; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil is widely used for agricultural assessment because it is a measure of fertility and an indicator of structural stability. However, measurement of CEC is time consuming. Whilst geostatistical methods have been used, a large number of samples must be collected. Using pedometric methods and specifically coupling easy-to-measure ancillary data with CEC have improved efficiency in spatial prediction. The evaluation of mapping uncertainty has not been considered, however. In this study, we use an error budget procedure to quantify the relative contributions that model, input and covariate error make to prediction error of a digital map of CEC using gamma-ray spectrometry and apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) data. The error budget uses empirical best linear unbiased prediction (E-BLUP) and conditional simulation to produce numerous realizations of the data and their underlying errors. Linear mixed models (LMM) estimated by residual maximum likelihood (REML) is used to create the prediction models. Results show that the combined error of model (5.07 cmol(+)/kg) and input error (12.88 cmol(+)/kg) is approximately 12.93 cmol(+)/kg, which is twice as large as the standard deviation of CEC (6.8 cmol(+)/kg). The individual covariate errors caused by the gamma-ray (9.64 cmol(+)/kg) and EM error (8.55 cmol(+)/kg) are also large. To overcome the former, pre-processing techniques to improve the quality of the gamma-ray data could be considered. In terms of the EM error, this could be reduced by the use of a smaller sampling interval and in particular near the edges of the study area and also at Pedoderm boundaries.

  7. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  8. Research on tomato seed vigor based on X-ray digital image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueguan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiu; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Songlin; Feng, Qinghun

    2016-10-01

    Seed size, interior abnormal and damage of the tomato seeds will affect the germination. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between the internal morphology, seed size and seed germination of tomato. The preprocessing algorithm of X-ray image of tomato seeds was studied, and the internal structure characteristics of tomato seeds were extracted by image processing algorithm. By developing the image processing software, the cavity area between embryo and endosperm and the whole seed zone were determined. According to the difference of area of embryo and endosperm and Internal structural condition, seeds were divided into six categories, Respectively for three kinds of tomato seed germination test, the relationship between seed vigor and seed size , internal free cavity was explored through germination experiment. Through seedling evaluation test found that X-ray image analysis provide a perfect view of the inside part of the seed and seed morphology research methods. The larger the area of the endosperm and the embryo, the greater the probability of healthy seedlings sprout from the same size seeds. Mechanical damage adversely effects on seed germination, deterioration of tissue prone to produce week seedlings and abnormal seedlings.

  9. Stent enhancement in digital x-ray fluoroscopy using an adaptive feature enhancement filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Zachary, Josey

    2016-03-01

    Fluoroscopic images belong to the classes of low contrast and high noise. Simply lowering radiation dose will render the images unreadable. Feature enhancement filters can reduce patient dose by acquiring images at low dose settings and then digitally restoring them to the original quality. In this study, a stent contrast enhancement filter is developed to selectively improve the contrast of stent contour without dramatically boosting the image noise including quantum noise and clinical background noise. Gabor directional filter banks are implemented to detect the edges and orientations of the stent. A high orientation resolution of 9° is used. To optimize the use of the information obtained from Gabor filters, a computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to find the best nonlinear operator. The next stage of filtering process is to extract symmetrical parts in the stent. The global and local symmetry measures are used. The information gathered from previous two filter stages are used to generate a stent contour map. The contour map is then scaled and added back to the original image to get a contrast enhanced stent image. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized Hotelling observer model and other numerical measures to characterize the response of the filters and contour map to optimize the selections of parameters for image quality. The results are compared to those filtered by an adaptive unsharp masking filter previously developed. It is shown that stent enhancement filter can effectively improve the stent detection and differentiation in the interventional fluoroscopy.

  10. Comparative diagnosis in the detection of decays involving conventional methods, laser, and digital x ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Bregagnolo, Janete C.; Lizarelli, Renata Z.; Palhares, Juliana M. C.; Villa, Girlene E. P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2000-03-01

    Occlusal surface caries are very difficult to diagnose at early stages, special difficulties are observed when the lesion is formed bilaterally in the pits and fissures walls. Preventive measures have been a constant concerning in the attempt to reduce the installation and progression of incipient occlusal decays. The early carious lesions detection through conventional diagnosis methods are questionable because they can end up with a risk of a false-positive or false-negative diagnosis. Using 22 teeth in vitro, premolars and molars, which suggested carious lesions, the exams were made by 3 examiners calibrated through pre-determined scores. The utilized methods were: GI -- visual inspection, GII -- tactile inspection (explorer probe), GIII -- conventional radiographic exam, GIV -- digital radiographic exam (Digora for Windows 1.51 and 1.51N, Soredex-orion Co.), GV -- low intensity laser for diagnosis (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Germany; GVI -- histologic section. The examiners did not communicate among themselves during the exams. There were significant statistical difference among the evaluated methods. Under Friedman statistical test, GI, GIII and GIV were different from GV at the 0.1% level; when we have compared GII with GV, we observed statistical difference at the 1% level. In conclusion, GV was highly statistically different from the others groups, it means that the low intensity laser for diagnosis was the most sensible method to detect decayed tissue.

  11. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Ziȩtara, K.; Volpe, D. della; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Aguilar, J. A.; Christov, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Bilnik, W.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Miranda, L. D. Medina; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Sliusar, V.; Skowron, K.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.

    2017-01-01

    The single-mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the three proposed designs for the small-size telescopes (SSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The SST-1M will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented reflector dish and an innovative fully digital camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. Since the SST sub-array will consist of up to 70 telescopes, the challenge is not only to build telescopes with excellent performance, but also to design them so that their components can be commissioned, assembled and tested by industry. In this paper we review the basic steps that led to the design concepts for the SST-1M camera and the ongoing realization of the first prototype, with focus on the innovative solutions adopted for the photodetector plane and the readout and trigger parts of the camera. In addition, we report on results of laboratory measurements on real scale elements that validate the camera design and show that it is capable of matching the CTA requirements of operating up to high moonlight background conditions.

  12. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Matthieu; Porcelli, Alessio; Pujadas, Isaac Troyano; Zietara, Krzysztof; Della Volpe, Domenico; Montaruli, Teresa; Cadoux, Franck; Favre, Yannick; Sanchez, Juan Antonio Aguilar; Christov, Asen; Prandini, Elisa; Rajda, Pawel; Rameez, Mohamed; Blinik, Woijciech; Blocki, Jacek; Bogacz, Leszek; Borkowski, Jurek; Bulik, Tomasz; Frankowski, Adam; Grudzinska, Mira; Idzkowski, Bartosz; Jamrozy, Mateusz; Janiak, Mateusz; Kasperek, Jerzy; Lalik, Krzysztof; Lyard, Etienne; Mach, Emil; Mandat, Dusan; Marszalek, Adrian; Miranda, Luis David Medina; Michalowski, Jerzy; Neronov, Andrii; Niemiec, Jacek; Ostrowski, Michal; Pasko, Pawel; Pech, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Seweryn, Karol; Sliusar, Vitalii; Skowron, Krzysztof; Stawarz, Lukasz; Stodulska, Magdalena; Stodulski, Marek; Walter, Roland; Wiecek, Marek; Zagdanski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    The single-mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the three proposed designs for the small-size telescopes (SSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The SST-1M will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and an innovative fully digital camera based on silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs). Since the SST sub-array will consist of up to 70 telescopes, the challenge is not only to build a telescope with excellent performance, but also to design it so that its components can be commissioned, assembled and tested by industry. In this paper we review the basic steps that led to the design concepts for the SST-1M camera and the ongoing realization of the first prototype, with focus on the innovative solutions adopted for the photodetector plane and the readout and trigger parts of the camera. In addition, we report on results of laboratory measurements on real scale elements that validate the camera design and show that it is capable of matching the CTA requirements of operating up to...

  13. X-ray Streak Camera Cathode Development and Timing Accuracy of the 4w UV Fiducial System at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y P; Palmer, N; Homoelle, D; Hatch, B W; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Kalantar, D; Browning, D; Landen, O

    2012-05-02

    The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4-{omega} (263nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, Titanium, Gold and Silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data was analyzed to determine the centroiding a statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps respectively.

  14. Temperature variation of a thermionic cathode during electron emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanWen; TIAN Hong; HAN Yong; XU ZhenYing; MENG MingFeng; ZHANG HongLai

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to know the actual temperature of a thermionic cathode that works as the electron source in a microwave tube. It has been found that the temperature of the cathode drops markedly during the thermionic emission. For example, the temperature could fall by about 30℃ under a current density of 2.92 A/cm2. Using the molecular thermodynamics, the dependence of the cathode temperature on the emission current density has been obtained. It has been theoretically pointed out that several factors, such as heating model and temperature coefficient of resis- tance of heater, can influence the cathode temperature. These theoretical conclu- sions were supported by the experimental results.

  15. Temperature variation of a thermionic cathode during electron emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to know the actual temperature of a thermionic cathode that works as the electron source in a microwave tube. It has been found that the temperature of the cathode drops markedly during the thermionic emission. For example, the temperature could fall by about 30oC under a current density of 2.92 A/cm2. Using the molecular thermodynamics, the dependence of the cathode temperature on the emission current density has been obtained. It has been theoretically pointed out that several factors, such as heating model and temperature coefficient of resis-tance of heater, can influence the cathode temperature. These theoretical conclu-sions were supported by the experimental results.

  16. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  17. Stature Estimation Based on the Length of Tibia and Fibula Measured by Digital X-ray in Chinese Han Teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-zhuo; HUANG Yun; ZHOU Xiao-rong; DENG Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective To derive regression formulae for stature estimation using forensic radiography from the tibia and fibula of Chinese Han teenagers in Sichuan Province. Methods To construct equations, measurements were conducted on the training sample (412 adults, 201 males and 211 females). The whole length of the fibula and four measurements of tibia were determined using CR radiography, rectified through theoretical magnification. The regression formulae were relatively constructed to the real stature measured in an erect position. Through using the testing sample (40 adults) for the regression formulae, the reliability of the regression formulae was assessed. Results The range of correlation coefficients of four measurements for tibia was 0.880-0.895 in the sex-unknown group, 0.869-0.893 in the male, and 0.845-0.855 in the female. The five measurements were found to be better correlated with stature in the male than in the female. Conclusion The digital X-ray of the tibia and fibula for stature estimation is proved to be effective in forensic individual identification; therefore, these equations can be of great assistance to the stature estimation of the contemporary Chinese Han teenagers.Objective To derive regression formulae for stature estimation using forensic radiography from the tibia and fibula of Chinese Han teenagers in Sichuan Province.Methods To construct equations,measurements were conducted on the training sample (412 adults,201 males and 211 females).The whole length of the fibula and four measurements of tibia were determined using CR radiography,rectified through theoretical magnification.The regression formulae were relatively constructed to the real stature measured in an erect position.Through using the testing sample (40 adults) for the regression formulae,the reliability of the regression formulae was assessed.Results The range of correlation coefficients of four measurements for tibia was 0.880-0.895 in the sex-unknown group,0.869-0.893 in the

  18. Calculation of size specific dose estimates (SSDE) value at cylindrical phantom from CBCT Varian OBI v1.4 X-ray tube EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M.; Pratama, D.; Anam, C.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to calculate Size Specific Dose Estimates (SSDE) generated by the varian OBI CBCT v1.4 X-ray tube working at 100 kV using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code used in this simulation was divided into two parts. Phase space file data resulted by the first part simulation became an input to the second part. This research was performed with varying phantom diameters of 5 to 35 cm and varying phantom lengths of 10 to 25 cm. Dose distribution data were used to calculate SSDE values using trapezoidal rule (trapz) function in a Matlab program. SSDE obtained from this calculation was compared to that in AAPM report and experimental data. It was obtained that the normalization of SSDE value for each phantom diameter was between 1.00 and 3.19. The normalization of SSDE value for each phantom length was between 0.96 and 1.07. The statistical error in this simulation was 4.98% for varying phantom diameters and 5.20% for varying phantom lengths. This study demonstrated the accuracy of the Monte Carlo technique in simulating the dose calculation. In the future, the influence of cylindrical phantom material to SSDE would be studied.

  19. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  20. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Weßling; Hans J. Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C–C bond formation...

  2. Volume digital image correlation to assess displacement field in compression loaded bread crumb under X-ray microtomography

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we present an original approach to assess structural changes during bread crumb compression using a mechanical testing bench coupled to 3D X-ray microtomography. X-ray images taken at different levels of compression of the bread crumb are processed using image analysis. A subset-based digital volume correlation method is used to achieve the 3D displacement field. Within the limit of the approach, deterministic search strategy is implemented for solving subset displacement in each deformed image with regards to the undeformed one. The predicted displacement field in the transverse directions shows differences that depend on local cell arrangement as confirmed by finite element analysis. The displacement component in the loading direction is affected by the magnitude of imposed displacement and shows more regular change. Large displacement levels in the compression direction are in good agreement with the imposed experimental displacement. The results presented here are promising in a sense of possible identification of local foam properties. New insights are expected to achieve better understanding of structural heterogeneities in the overall perception of the product. Industrial relevance: Texture evaluation of cereal product is an important aspect for testing consumer acceptability of new designed products. Mechanical evaluation of backed products is a systemic route for determining texture of cereal based product. From the industrial viewpoint, mechanical evaluation allows saving both time and cost compared to panel evaluation. We demonstrate that better understanding of structural changes during texture evaluation can be achieved in addition to texture evaluation. Sensing structural changes during bread crumb compression is achievable by combining novel imaging technique and processing based on image analysis. We present thus an efficient way to predict displacements during compression of freshly baked product. This method can be used in different

  3. Stent enhancement using a locally adaptive unsharp masking filter in digital x-ray fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Ekanayake, Eranda

    2014-03-01

    Low exposure X-ray fluoroscopy is used to guide some complicate interventional procedures. Due to the inherent high levels of noise, improving the visibility of some interventional devices such as stent will greatly benefit those interventional procedures. Stent, which is made up of tiny steel wires, is also suffered from contrast dilutions of large flat panel detector pixels. A novel adaptive unsharp masking filter has been developed to improve stent contrast in real-time applications. In unsharp masking processing, the background is estimated and subtracted from the original input image to create a foreground image containing objects of interest. A background estimator is therefore critical in the unsharp masking processing. In this specific study, orientation filter kernels are used as the background estimator. To make the process simple and fast, the kernels average along a line of pixels. A high orientation resolution of 18° is used. A nonlinear operator is then used to combine the information from the images generated from convolving the original background and noise only images with orientation filters. A computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to identify the best nonlinear operator. We then apply the unsharp masking filter to the images with stents present. It is shown that the locally adaptive unsharp making filter is an effective filter for improving stent visibility in the interventional fluoroscopy. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized human observer model to quantitatively optimize and evaluate the filter.

  4. TARGET: A multi-channel digitizer chip for very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Okumura, A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Simons, A.; Tajima, H.; Vandenbroucke, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.

    2011-08-11

    The next-generation very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, will feature dozens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), each with thousands of pixels of photosensors. To be affordable and reliable, reading out such a mega-channel array requires event recording technology that is highly integrated and modular, with a low cost per channel. We present the design and performance of a chip targeted to this application: the TeV Array Readout with GSa/s sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET). This application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has 16 parallel input channels, a 4096-sample buffer for each channel, adjustable input termination, self-trigger functionality, and tight window-selected readout. We report the performance of TARGET in terms of sampling frequency, power consumption, dynamic range, current-mode gain, analog bandwidth, and cross talk. The large number of channels per chip allows a low cost per channel ($10 to $20 including front-end and back-end electronics but not including photosensors) to be achieved with a TARGET-based IACT readout system. In addition to basic performance parameters of the TARGET chip itself, we present a camera module prototype as well as a second-generation chip (TARGET 2), both of which have been produced.

  5. A digital X-ray imaging system based on silicon strip detectors working in edge-on configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos, L. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Boscardin, M. [IRST, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38100 Trento (Italy); Cabal, A.E. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Diaz, M. [InSTEC, Ave. Salvador Allende esq. Luaces, Quinta de los Molinos, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ramello, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.ramello@mfn.unipmn.it; Szczygiel, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2009-09-21

    We present the energy resolution and imaging performance of a digital X-ray imaging system based on a 512-strip silicon strip detector (SSD) working in the edge-on configuration. The SSDs tested in the system are 300 {mu}m thick with 1 or 2-cm-long strips and 100 {mu}m pitch. To ensure a very small dead area of the SSD working in edge-on configuration, the detector is cut perpendicular to the strips at a distance of only 20 {mu}m from the end of the strips. The 512-strip silicon detector is read out by eight 64-channel integrated circuits called DEDIX [Grybos et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (2007) 1207]. The DEDIX IC operates in a single photon counting mode with two independent amplitude discriminators per channel. The readout electronic channel connected to a detector with effective input capacitance of about 2 pF has an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) of about 163 el. rms and is able to count 1 Mcps of average rate of input pulses. The system consisting of 512 channels has an excellent channel-to-channel uniformity-the effective threshold spread calculated to the charge-sensitive amplifier inputs is 12 el. rms (at one sigma level). With this system a few test images of a phantom have been taken in the 10-30 keV energy range.

  6. TARGET 5: a new multi-channel digitizer with triggering capabilities for gamma-ray atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, A; Kawashima, T; Murphy, M; Okumura, A; Quagliani, R; Sapozhnikov, L; Tajima, H; Tibaldo, L; Vandenbroucke, J; Wu, T

    2016-01-01

    TARGET~5 is a new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) of the TARGET family, designed for the readout of signals from photosensors in the cameras of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. TARGET~5 combines sampling and digitization on 16 signal channels with the formation of trigger signals based on the analog sum of groups of four channels. {\\rev We describe the ASIC architecture and performance.} TARGET~5 improves over the performance of the first-generation TARGET ASIC, achieving: tunable sampling frequency from {\\rev $1$~GSa/s}}; a dynamic range on the data path of 1.2 V with {\\mod effective dynamic range of 11}~bits and DC noise of ${\\sim}0.6$~mV; 3-dB bandwidth of 500 MHz; {\\rev crosstalk between adjacent channels $100$~p.e.} (assuming 4 mV per p.e.); and minimum stable trigger threshold of 20 mV (5 p.e.) with trigger noise of 5 mV (1.2 p.e.), {\\rev which is} mostly limited by {\\mod interference between trigger and sampling operations}. {\\mod TAR...

  7. Streak tube photocathode development program. Phase 2, Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-20

    This report details the progress made toward developing a streak tube with greater than 1% quantum efficiency at a wavelength of 1300 nm. The achieved performance is the result of approximately three years of effort. The goal of Phase 2 of this contract was to seal a working 1.3 {mu}m streak tube. This effort was focused in two areas. First there was a continuing effort to further develop and demonstrate the cathodes ability to meet the stated requirements. The second effort was aimed at solving the mechanical and process related problems related to sealing this cathode onto a EG&G streak tube.

  8. Measurement of Full Field Strains in Filament Wound Composite Tubes Under Axial Compressive Loading by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    McNeill , S. R. Determination of Displacements Using an Improved Digital Image Correlation Method. Computer Vision August 1983. 13 12. Bruck, H. A... McNeill , S. R.; Russell, S. S.; Sutton, M. A. Use of Digital Image Correlation for Determination of Displacements and Strains. Non-Destructive...Evaluation for Aerospace Requirements, 1989. 13. Sutton, M. A.; McNeill , S. R.; Helm, J. D.; Schreier, H. Full-field Non-Contacting Measurement of

  9. Development of a Laboratory Micron-Resolution X-ray Microprobe to Map Mineralogy and Trace Elements at PPM Sensitivity for Digital Rock, Magma, and Mining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, W.; Lewis, S.; Stripe, B.; Chen, S.; Reynolds, D.; Spink, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing a patent-pending x-ray microprobe with substantially unprecedented performance attributes: working distances of >2 cm, narrow spectral bandwidth, and large x-ray flux. The outstanding performance is enabled by: (1) a revolutionary new type of high flux x-ray source designed to be >10X brighter than the brightest rotating anode x-ray source available; (2) an axially symmetric x-ray mirror lens with large solid angle collection and high focusing efficiency; and (3) a detector configuration that enables the collection of 10X more x-rays than current microXRF designs. The sensitivity will be ppm-scale, far surpassing charged particle analysis (e.g. EPMA and SEM-EDS), and >1000X throughput over the leading micro-XRFs. Despite the introduction of a number of laboratory microXRF systems in the past decade, the state-of-the-art has been limited primarily by low resolution (~30 μm) and low throughput. This is substantially attributable to a combination of low x-ray source brightness and poor performance x-ray optics. Here we present our initial results in removing the x-ray source bottleneck, in which we use a novel x-ray source using Fine Anode Array Source Technology (Sigray FAAST™). When coupled with our proprietary high efficiency x-ray mirror lens, the throughput achieved is comparable to that of many synchrotron microXRF beamlines. Potential applications of the x-ray microprobe include high throughput mapping of mineralogy at high resolution, including trace elements, such as rare earth metals, and deposits (e.g. siderite, clays), with ppm sensitivity, providing information for properties such as permeability and elastic/mechanical properties, and to provide compositional information for Digital Rock. Additional applications include those in which the limited penetration of electrons limits achieving adequate statistics, such as determining the concentration of precious minerals in mine tailings.

  10. Cathode materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Mohanty, Debasish, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Li, Jianlin, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Wood, David L., E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS6472 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  11. Cathode materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  12. Evaluation of patient dose saving in grid-less x-ray mammography acquisition compared with full field digital mammography (FFDMG) acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdi, Ahmed Jibril; Mussmann, Bo Redder

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the patient radiation dose saving of grid-less X-ray mammography acquisitions compared with conventional full-field digital X-ray mammography (FFDMG). Methods and materials: The Siemens Inspiration MAMMOMAT PRIME system with Software Based Scatter Correction (SBSC) was used...... to investigate the dose saving in grid-less acquisition compared with conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDMG) acquisitions. A Piranha 657 was used to measure the entrance exposure. The entrance exposure was directly measured on different PMMA thicknesses of 20-70mm in steps of 10mm. The PMMA block...... thicknesses were then converted to an equivalent compressed breast tissue thicknesses. The average glandular dose (AGD) is calculated. Results: Dose reduction in both the directly measured entrance exposure and the calculated AGD is between 13% and 32% in the grid-less mammography acquisition. The contrast...

  13. A 12-bit, 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for a CZT-based multi-channel gamma-ray imager using a new digital calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wei, T.; Yang, L.; Hu, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is widely used in the CdZnTe-based gamma-ray imager because of its outstanding characteristics of low power consumption, relatively high resolution, and small die size. This study proposes a digital bit-by-bit calibration method using an input ramp signal to further improve the conversion precision and power consumption of an SAR-ADC. The proposed method is based on the sub-radix-2 redundant architecture and the perturbation technique. The proposed calibration algorithm is simpler, more stable, and faster than traditional approaches. The prototype chip of the 12-bit, 1 MS/s radiation-hardened SAR-ADC has been designed and fabricated using the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. This SAR-ADC consumes 3 mW power and occupies a core area of 856× 802μm2. The digital bit-by-bit calibration algorithm is implemented via MATLAB for testing flexibility. The effective number of bits for this digitally calibrated SAR-ADC reaches 11.77 bits. The converter exhibits high conversion precision, low power consumption, and radiation-hardened design. Therefore, this SAR-ADC is suitable for multi-channel gamma-ray imager applications.

  14. Experimental characterization of a 10 μW 55 μm-pitch FPN-compensated CMOS digital pixel sensor for X-ray imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras, Roger, E-mail: roger.figueras@imb-cnm.csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Martínez, Ricardo; Terés, Lluís [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Serra-Graells, Francisco [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Microelectronics and Electronic Systems, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-10-11

    This paper presents experimental results obtained from both electrical and radiation tests of a new room-temperature digital pixel sensor (DPS) circuit specifically optimized for digital direct X-ray imaging. The 10 μW 55 μm-pitch CMOS active pixel circuit under test includes self-bias capability, built-in test, selectable e{sup −}/h{sup +} collection, 10-bit charge-integration A/D conversion, individual gain tuning for fixed pattern noise (FPN) cancellation, and digital-only I/O interface, which make it suitable for 2D modular chip assemblies in large and seamless sensing areas. Experimental results for this DPS architecture in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology are reported, returning good performance in terms of linearity, 2ke{sub rms}{sup −} of ENC, inter-pixel crosstalk below 0.5 LSB, 50 Mbps of I/O speed, and good radiation response for its use in digital X-ray imaging.

  15. Experimental characterization of a 10 μW 55 μm-pitch FPN-compensated CMOS digital pixel sensor for X-ray imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Roger; Martínez, Ricardo; Terés, Lluís; Serra-Graells, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents experimental results obtained from both electrical and radiation tests of a new room-temperature digital pixel sensor (DPS) circuit specifically optimized for digital direct X-ray imaging. The 10 μW 55 μm-pitch CMOS active pixel circuit under test includes self-bias capability, built-in test, selectable e-/h+ collection, 10-bit charge-integration A/D conversion, individual gain tuning for fixed pattern noise (FPN) cancellation, and digital-only I/O interface, which make it suitable for 2D modular chip assemblies in large and seamless sensing areas. Experimental results for this DPS architecture in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology are reported, returning good performance in terms of linearity, 2 kerms- of ENC, inter-pixel crosstalk below 0.5 LSB, 50 Mbps of I/O speed, and good radiation response for its use in digital X-ray imaging.

  16. [Correlation between basic imaging properties and subjective evaluations of two digital radiographic X-ray systems based on direct-conversion flat panel detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Taro; Katayama, Reiji; Morishita, Junji; Sakai, Shinji; Kuroki, Hidefumi; Ohkubo, Seiji; Maeda, Takashi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the basic imaging properties of two digital radiographic X-ray systems with a direct conversion flat-panel detector and their image qualities, which were evaluated by the observer in hard copy and soft copy studies. The subjective image quality was evaluated and compared in terms of the low-contrast detectability and image sharpness in the two digital radiographic X-ray systems. We applied the radiographs of a contrast detail phantom to the evaluation of low-contrast detectability and analyzed the contrast detail diagrams. Finally, low-contrast detectability was evaluated by the image quality figure (IQF) calculated from the contrast detail diagrams. Also, the subjective image sharpness of human dry bones of two systems was examined and evaluated by the normalized-rank method. The results indicated that System A tended to provide superior subjective image quality compared to System B in both observer studies. We also found high correlations between IQFs and basic imaging properties, such as the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the noise equivalent quantum (NEQ). In conclusion, the low-contrast detectability of the two digital radiographic X-ray systems with a direct conversion flat-panel detector corresponded to the NPS and the NEQ in both outputs (soft copy and hard copy). On the other hand, the subjective image sharpness of human dry bones was affected by their noise properties.

  17. Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; Bellm, Eric C.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Narita, Tomohiko

    2004-02-01

    Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of intereaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

  18. Filtered cathodic arc source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  19. The design and imaging characteristics of dynamic, solid-state, flat-panel x-ray image detectors for digital fluoroscopy and fluorography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Sivananthan, M U

    2008-10-01

    Dynamic, flat-panel, solid-state, x-ray image detectors for use in digital fluoroscopy and fluorography emerged at the turn of the millennium. This new generation of dynamic detectors utilize a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material superimposed upon an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Dynamic solid-state detectors come in two basic designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor based). This review explains the underlying principles and enabling technologies associated with these detector designs, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing their performance against the long established x-ray image intensifier television (TV) system. Solid-state detectors afford a number of physical imaging benefits compared with the latter. These include zero geometrical distortion and vignetting, immunity from blooming at exposure highlights and negligible contrast loss (due to internal scatter). They also exhibit a wider dynamic range and maintain higher spatial resolution when imaging over larger fields of view. The detective quantum efficiency of indirect-conversion, dynamic, solid-state detectors is superior to that of both x-ray image intensifier TV systems and direct-conversion detectors. Dynamic solid-state detectors are playing a burgeoning role in fluoroscopy-guided diagnosis and intervention, leading to the displacement of x-ray image intensifier TV-based systems. Future trends in dynamic, solid-state, digital fluoroscopy detectors are also briefly considered. These include the growth in associated three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques and potential improvements in dynamic detector design.

  20. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  1. Local liquid velocity measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) using the x-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar Mohd Salleh, Khairul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of a new technique to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) for multiphase flows in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) (gas-liquid-solid system). In the studied TBR, the liquid phase is represented by water, gas by air and 3 mm expanded polystyrene beads as the solid packing. Three different superficial liquid velocities (VSL) and a constant superficial gas velocity (VSG) were used in the packed bed with an internal diameter of 4.25 cm. While the liquid is moving into the packed bed, tracking particles of 106-125 μm diameter (16.45% difference) are injected. The movement of the tracking particles is monitored and digitally recorded by a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector. In this experiment, x-rays were used as the radiation source. Four replications were made with fresh packing. Comparable observations can be found from other published techniques (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). Results from this study indicate that, at VSL = 0.13 cm s-1, the measured VLL can reach up to 51 times that of its VSL, while for VSL = 0.27 cm s-1, the measured VLL reached up to 35 times higher than the VSL and for VSL = 0.39 cm s-1, the VLL reached up to 39.8 times higher than its VSL. Through statistical analysis, the implementation of such a method is found to be reproducible throughout the experiments. The mean per cent difference in the measured VLL was 10% and 5% for lower implemented VSL of 0.13 and 0.27 cm s-1, respectively. At higher VSL (0.39 cm s-1), the particle tracer was greatly distributed and carried away by the high liquid flow rate. The variance or the range of the measured VLL does not vary for all replications in every VSL, which confirms the reproducibility of the experimental measurements, regardless of the VSL.

  2. Development of Digitex premier digital angiographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has come to be widely utilized in the field of angiography. This has brought forth a strong demand that digital angiographic systems provide high efficiency in patient examinations and high level of interventional support. This report refers to our newly developed Digitex Premier Series digital angiographic systems, designed to meet the above demands. The new systems utilize a high-speed, wide-range C-arm system, a high-resolution image intensifier, a fluid-lubricant X-ray tube, and a digital image processing system, in order to ensure high patient examination efficiency. Their IVR (interventional radiology)-Master bed-side image controller further enhances the efficiency of patient examinations, and also, their CAT (comfortable angio terminal) and FMC (file management console) improve the patient examination throughput and diagnostic workflow of the systems. (author)

  3. Highly Efficient Micro Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Company, Inc. proposes to develop a micro thermionic cathode that requires extremely low power and provides long lifetime. The basis for the cathode is a...

  4. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  5. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions (2.0 < | | < 2.7). Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  6. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions $(2.0 < |eta| < 2.7)$. Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Smart cathodic protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Leggedoor, J.; Schuten, G.; Sajna, S.; Kranjc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic protection delivers corrosion protection in concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments, e.g. in de-icing salt and marine climates. Working lives of a large number of CP systems are at least more than 13 years and probably more than 25 years, provided a minimum level of maintenan

  9. SOFC Cathode Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Bay, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    The transient response of SOFC oxygen cathodes shows a characteristic inductive hysteresis and correspondingly the impedance diagram combines one or two capacitive arcs with a low frequency inductive arc. These features are discussed on the basis of a three step reaction sequence taken from...

  10. Erosion behavior of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Robert, E-mail: robert.franz@unileoben.ac.at; Mendez Martin, Francisca; Hawranek, Gerhard [Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Polcik, Peter [Plansee Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbürgerstrasse 23, 86983 Lechbruck am See (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1−x} composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} atmospheres and their erosion behavior was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres were nonuniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded center region of the cathodes.

  11. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  12. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John

    1988-01-01

    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy employing divalent europium-doped alkaline earth halides and digital readout for accurate histogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine Jane; Payne, Stephen Anthony; Drury, Owen B; Sturm, Benjamin W

    2014-11-11

    A scintillator radiation detector system according to one embodiment includes a scintillator; and a processing device for processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from the scintillator, wherein pulse digitization is used to improve energy resolution of the system. A scintillator radiation detector system according to another embodiment includes a processing device for fitting digitized scintillation waveforms to an algorithm based on identifying rise and decay times and performing a direct integration of fit parameters. A method according to yet another embodiment includes processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from a scintillator, wherein pulse digitization is used to improve energy resolution of the system. A method in a further embodiment includes fitting digitized scintillation waveforms to an algorithm based on identifying rise and decay times; and performing a direct integration of fit parameters. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  14. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  15. Sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juchen; Xu, Yunhua; Wang, Chunsheng

    2011-10-12

    The commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries is hindered by low cycle stability and low efficiency, which are induced by sulfur active material loss and polysulfide shuttle reaction through dissolution into electrolyte. In this study, sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes are synthesized as cathode material for the lithium-sulfur battery. The obtained sulfur-carbon tube cathodes demonstrate superior cyclability and Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, the electrochemical characterization indicates a new stabilization mechanism of sulfur in carbon induced by heat treatment.

  16. Two-dimensional, hybrid model of glow discharge in hollow cathode geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, A.; Pitchford, L.C.; Boeuf, J.P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    Low pressure glow discharges in plane-plane geometries have been studied extensively over the years and most of their features are known from experiments and numerical simulation. If a plane cathode is replaced by a cathode with some hollow structure, then, for a certain range of conditions, the negative glows of opposite (adjacent) cathode walls overlap and the discharge behaviour dramatically changes. The voltage is lower at a constant current and the current is even several orders of magnitude higher for a given voltage than for the plane cathode. At the same time, the intensity of the light emission from the discharge considerably increases. This effect is called the hollow cathode effect. There are several physical phenomena which could be responsible for the big efficiency of the hollow cathode discharges. The recent investigations based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the electron kinetics have shown that the trapping of energetic electrons in the hollow cathode cavity can explain the order of magnitude of the hollow cathode effect. The configuration of the discharge tube presented in fig. 1 is used here to study the behaviour of glow discharges in a hollow cathode means of numerical simulation.

  17. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  18. 高频X线机管电压调整电路的工作原理及故障分析%Working Principle and Fault Analysis of Tube Voltage Adjustment Circuit for High-frequency X-ray Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵祥坤; 于广浩; 李永生

    2013-01-01

    High frequency X-ray machine and power frequency X-ray machine differ from voltage adjusting circuit. SCM TL594 is the core device in voltage adjusting circuit of high -frequency X -ray machine. Its application has a strong representation in high frequency X -ray machine's tube voltage adjustment. The tube voltage and frequency of high frequency X-ray machine are controlled by the output pulse width and frequency of TL594 .The understanding of the operating principle of TL594 not only has certain theory significance for high frequency machine teaching but also practical significance for the high frequency machine troubleshooting.%高频X线机区别于工频X线机的主要电路是管电压调整电路,而单片机TL594又是管电压调整电路中的核心器件,它的应用在高频机管电压调节中具有较强的代表性.TL594是通过改变输出脉宽和频率,直接控制高频X线机X线管电压的高低和频率的大小通过对TL594每一个管脚功能的深入探讨,研究TL594在高频X线管电压调节中的工作原理,将不仅对高频机教学具有一定的理论意义,而且在高频机故障排除中具有较强的实践意义.

  19. Thermionic properties of Mo-La2O3 cathode wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张久兴; 周美玲; 周文元; 王金淑; 聂祚仁; 左铁镛

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Mo-La2O3 thermionic cathode materials were presented. It is shown that Mo-La2O3 cathode has better ductility, radioactive pollution-free, excellent thermionic electron-emission properties and lower operating temperature compared with W-ThO2 cathode. At operating temperature 1350~1400℃, the average saturation current of the Mo-La2O3 cathode is 118mA, the corresponding average current density is 367mA/cm2, and the average emission efficiency is 11.8mA/W. The lifetime of diode is more than 2000h when the stable emission current is 80mA. Moreover, the lifetime of practical 6T51-type triode is more than 1000h. These advances show that the Mo-La2O3 cathode electron tube is closer to industry application.

  20. Invited article: physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30,472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25,000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140,000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  3. The origins of radiotherapy: discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienböck's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The discovery of biological effects of these X-rays by Leopold Freund (1868-1943) was triggered by pursuit of the purportedly useless phenomenon of epilation and dermatitis ensuing from X-ray-diagnostic experiments that others had reported. The crucial experiments performed by Robert Kienböck (1871-1953) entailed the proof that X-ray-dose, not electric phenomena, was the active agent of biological effects ensuing when illuminating the skin using Röntgen tubes. For both the discovery of X-rays and the discovery of their biological effectiveness, priority did not matter, but understanding the physical and medico-biological significance of phenomena that others had ignored as a nuisance. Present discussions about the clinical relevance of improving the dose distribution including protons and other charged particles resemble those around 1900 to a certain degree.

  4. The Field X-ray AGN Fraction to z=0.7 from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Scott F; Constantin, Anca; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kim, Dong-Woo; Barkhouse, Wayne A

    2010-01-01

    We employ the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the fraction of X-ray-active galaxies in the field out to z = 0.7. We utilize spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS and ChaMP, as well as photometric redshifts from several SDSS catalogs, to compile a parent sample of more than 100,000 SDSS galaxies and nearly 1,600 Chandra X-ray detections. Detailed ChaMP volume completeness maps allow us to investigate the local fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN), defined as those objects having broad-band X-ray luminosities L_X (0.5-8 keV) > 10^42 erg s^-1, as a function of absolute optical magnitude, X-ray luminosity, redshift, mass, and host color/morphological type. In five independent samples complete in redshift and i-band absolute magnitude, we determine the field AGN fraction to be between 0.16 +/- 0.06% (for z M_i > -20) and 3.80 +/- 0.92% (for z < 0.7 and M_i < -23). We find striking agreement between our ChaMP/SDSS field AGN fraction and the Chandra clu...

  5. Application of x-ray instrumentation in medicine: discrimination of neoplasms in radiographs by digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, K.K.; Hedger, D.F. [Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    The application of digital image processing to mass screening for breast cancer is demonstrated in the context of adaptive spatial filtering. Experimental results for feature extraction by texture analysis and grey level thresholding reveal there is significant potential for computer-aided mass screening as an adjunct to radiological examination. Digital image processing can improve the visibility of image features, such as neoplasms or tumours, providing also speed and automation of inspection, whilst saving the radiologist time which is otherwise spent on checking clear samples (which represent the majority of screening cases). (author)

  6. Reference values for digital X-ray radiogrammetry parameters in children and adolescents in comparison to estimates in patients with distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Diane M; Malich, Ansgar; Ulrich, Andreas; Pfeil, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Streitparth, Florian; Maurer, Martin H; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Böttcher, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine normative digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) values, based on original digital images, in a pediatric population (aged 6-18 years). The second aim was to compare these reference data with patients suffering from distal radius fractures, whereas both cohorts originated from the same geographical region and were evaluated using the same technical parameters as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria. DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI of the metacarpal bones II-IV were assessed on standardized digital hand radiographs, without printing or scanning procedures. DXR parameters were estimated separately by gender and among six age groups; values in the fracture group were compared to age- and gender-matched normative data using Student's t tests and Z scores. In the reference cohort (150 boys, 138 girls), gender differences were found in bone mineral density (DXR-BMD), with higher values for girls from 11 to 14 years and for boys from 15 to 18 years (p technique can be accurately applied in pediatric populations ≥ 6 years of age. The lower DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI values in the fracture group suggest promising early identification of individuals with increased fracture risk, without the need for additional radiation exposure, enabling the initiation of prevention strategies to possibly reduce the incidence of osteoporosis later in life.

  7. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  8. Psychophysical evaluation of the image quality of a dynamic flat-panel digital x-ray image detector using the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew G.; Cowen, Arnold R.; Bruijns, Tom J. C.

    1999-05-01

    We are currently in an era of active development of the digital X-ray imaging detectors that will serve the radiological communities in the new millennium. The rigorous comparative physical evaluations of such devices are therefore becoming increasingly important from both the technical and clinical perspectives. The authors have been actively involved in the evaluation of a clinical demonstration version of a flat-panel dynamic digital X-ray image detector (or FDXD). Results of objective physical evaluation of this device have been presented elsewhere at this conference. The imaging performance of FDXD under radiographic exposure conditions have been previously reported, and in this paper a psychophysical evaluation of the FDXD detector operating under continuous fluoroscopic conditions is presented. The evaluation technique employed was the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique, which enables image quality to be measured on devices operating in the clinical environment. This approach addresses image quality in the context of both the image acquisition and display processes, and uses human observers to measure performance. The Leeds test objects TO[10] and TO[10+] were used to obtain comparative measurements of performance on the FDXD and two digital spot fluorography (DSF) systems, one utilizing a Plumbicon camera and the other a state of the art CCD camera. Measurements were taken at a range of detector entrance exposure rates, namely 6, 12, 25 and 50 (mu) R/s. In order to facilitate comparisons between the systems, all fluoroscopic image processing such as noise reduction algorithms, were disabled during the experiments. At the highest dose rate FDXD significantly outperformed the DSF comparison systems in the TCDD comparisons. At 25 and 12 (mu) R/s all three-systems performed in an equivalent manner and at the lowest exposure rate FDXD was inferior to the two DSF systems. At standard fluoroscopic exposures, FDXD performed in an equivalent

  9. Motion of a virtual cathode in a cylindrical channel with electron beam transport in the “compressed” state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Grishkov, A. A.; Tsygankov, R. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurkan, I. K., E-mail: ikk@lfe.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15

    This paper studies the motion of a virtual cathode in a two-section drift tube with the formation and breakup of the “compressed” state of an electron beam. Experimental arrangements to intercept part of the injected current during the voltage pulse and to provide virtual cathode motion toward the collector are proposed. The arrangements were implemented on the SINUS-7 high-current electron accelerator. Theoretical and experimental dependences of the virtual cathode velocity on the injected current and cathode voltage are presented. The experimental data on virtual cathode motion agree with its theoretical model based on analytical solutions of equations assisted by computer simulation with the PIC code KARAT. The results of the work demonstrate the feasibility of controlling the virtual cathode motion which can be used in collective ion acceleration and microwave generation.

  10. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  11. Blacking FTO by strongly cathodic polarization with enhanced photocurrent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yun; Lu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Wei, E-mail: hjhw9513@163.com; Li, Zelin, E-mail: lizelin@hunnu.edu.cn

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent FTO became blackish under strongly cathodic polarization. • Part of SnO{sub 2} coating on the FTO can be reduced into Sn nanoparticles. • The black FTO increased solar absorption and enhanced photocurrent responses. • Take care in photoelectrochemistry test while FTO is strongly cathodically polarized. - Abstract: Transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (TFTO) coating on quartz glass is widely used as substrate in photoelectrochemistry for solar energy transformation, sensing and so on. We observed that the TFTO could become blackish by strongly cathodic polarization. Characterization of the black FTO (BFTO) by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that part of SnO{sub 2} on the TFTO was reduced into metal Sn nanoparticles during the cathodic polarization. The BFTO greatly increased solar absorption and enhanced photocurrent responses in comparison with TFTO. It might be necessary to take caution in photoelectrochemical measurements while the FTO is strongly cathodically polarized.

  12. CMOS APS detector characterization for quantitative X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, Marco, E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, Piernicola [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Golosio, Bruno [Sezione di Matematica, Fisica e Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Delogu, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray Imaging detector based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor and structured scintillator is characterized for quantitative X-ray imaging in the energy range 11–30 keV. Linearity, dark noise, spatial resolution and flat-field correction are the characteristics of the detector subject of investigation. The detector response, in terms of mean Analog-to-Digital Unit and noise, is modeled as a function of the energy and intensity of the X-rays. The model is directly tested using monochromatic X-ray beams and it is also indirectly validated by means of polychromatic X-ray-tube spectra. Such a characterization is suitable for quantitative X-ray imaging and the model can be used in simulation studies that take into account the actual performance of the detector.

  13. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  14. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weßling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C–C bond formation with the introduction of two nitro groups in a 1,4-distance and the conversions of the nitro group by reduction to oximes and amines, the conversion into aldehydes and ketones via the Nef reaction and base catalyzed condensations at the acidic CH bond. Eight 1-aryl-2-nitro-1-propenes have been electrolyzed in an undivided electrolysis cell to afford 2,5-dinitro-3,4-diaryl hexanes in high yield. The 4-methoxy-, 4-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro- and 2,6-difluorophenyl group and furthermore the 2-furyl and 2-pyrrolyl group have been applied. The reaction is chemoselective as only the double bond but not the nitro group undergoes reaction, is regioselective as a ß,ß-coupling with regard to the nitro group and forms preferentially two out of six possible diastereomers as major products.

  15. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weßling, Michael; Schäfer, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C-C bond formation with the introduction of two nitro groups in a 1,4-distance and the conversions of the nitro group by reduction to oximes and amines, the conversion into aldehydes and ketones via the Nef reaction and base catalyzed condensations at the acidic CH bond. Eight 1-aryl-2-nitro-1-propenes have been electrolyzed in an undivided electrolysis cell to afford 2,5-dinitro-3,4-diaryl hexanes in high yield. The 4-methoxy-, 4-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro- and 2,6-difluorophenyl group and furthermore the 2-furyl and 2-pyrrolyl group have been applied. The reaction is chemoselective as only the double bond but not the nitro group undergoes reaction, is regioselective as a ß,ß-coupling with regard to the nitro group and forms preferentially two out of six possible diastereomers as major products.

  16. Doses measured using AEC on direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-rays systems: updated results with an RP 162 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L; Faulkner, R; Gallagher, A; O'Connor, U; Walsh, C; Dowling, A; O'Reilly, G

    2013-02-01

    As digital technology in diagnostic radiology systems becomes more prevalent, there is a need to provide comparative dose information for these new systems. This is needed in particular for testing the automatic exposure control (AEC) devices on direct digital radiography (DDR) systems as there is no consensus on the receptor dose level in the current guidelines. The new European Commission RP 162 document sets the suspension level for the 'verification of kerma at receptor entrance in computed radiography and DDR systems under AEC' as ≥10 µGy. This document also notes that alternate methodologies are acceptable, and may require adjustment in the suspension level if used. This study provides a range of typical doses under AEC for DDR systems, for a variety measurement methodologies, including that described in RP 162.

  17. Simultaneous high speed digital cinematographic and X-ray radiographic imaging of a intense multi-fluid interaction with rapid phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio; Park, Hyun Sun; Dinh, Truc-Nam [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    As typical for the study of the vapor explosions, the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the phenomena requires visualization of both material and interface dynamics. A new approach to multi-fluid multiphase visualization is presented with the focus on the development of a synchronized high-speed visualization by digital cinematography and X-ray radiography. The developed system, named SHARP (simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography), and its image processing methodology, directed to an image synchronization procedure and a separate quantification of vapor and molten material dynamics, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, we exploit an intrinsic property of the X-ray radiation, namely the differences in linear mass attenuation coefficients over the beam path through a multi-component system, to characterize the evolution of molten material distribution. Analysis of the data obtained by the SHARP system and image processing procedure developed granted new insights into the physics of the vapor explosion phenomena, as well as, quantitative information of the associated dynamic micro-interactions. (author)

  18. NOTE: Suppression of high-density artefacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baissalov, R.; Sandison, G. A.; Donnelly, B. J.; Saliken, J. C.; McKinnon, J. G.; Muldrew, K.; Rewcastle, J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Image guidance in cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound. Although not currently in routine clinical use, x-ray CT imaging is an alternative means of guidance that can display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions. However, the quality of x-ray CT images is compromised by the presence of high-density streak artefacts. To suppress these artefacts we applied temporal digital subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the grey-scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high-density artefacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced artefact content. Thus TDS can be used to significantly suppress or eliminate high-density CT streak artefacts without reducing the metallic content of the cryoprobes. In vivo study needs to be conducted to establish the utility of this TDS procedure for CT assisted prostate or liver cryotherapy. Applying TDS in x-ray CT guided cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the number and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent.

  19. Intraoral radiology in general dental practices. A comparison of digital and film-based X-ray systems with regard to radiation protection and dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anissi, H.D. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dentistry; Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Surgery

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. Materials and Methods: 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). Results: 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Conclusion: Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. (orig.)

  20. Application of ZnO nanopillars and nanoflowers to field-emission luminescent tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Yun; Guo Tailiang; Jiang Yadong

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopillars on a ZnO seed layer and ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized by electrochemical deposition on linear wires.The morphologies and crystal orientation of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy and an X-ray diffraction pattern,respectively.Detailed study on the field-emission properties of ZnO nanostructures indicates that nanopillars with a high aspect ratio show good performance with a low turn-on field of 0.16 V/μm and a high field enhancement factor of 2.86 × 104.A luminescent tube with ZnO nanopillars on a linear wire cathode and a transparent anode could reach a luminance of about 1.5 × 104 cd/m2 under an applied voltage of 4 kV.

  1. Initial clinical evaluation of stationary digital chest tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Allison E.; Shan, Jing; Wu, Gongting; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping; Heath, Michael; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David

    2016-03-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is the gold standard for image evaluation of lung disease, including lung cancer and cystic fibrosis. It provides detailed information of the lung anatomy and lesions, but at a relatively high cost and high dose of radiation. Chest radiography is a low dose imaging modality but it has low sensitivity. Digital chest tomosynthesis (DCT) is an imaging modality that produces 3D images by collecting x-ray projection images over a limited angle. DCT is less expensive than CT and requires about 1/10th the dose of radiation. Commercial DCT systems acquire the projection images by mechanically scanning an x-ray tube. The movement of the tube head limits acquisition speed. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of stationary digital chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array in benchtop phantom studies. The stationary x-ray source allows for fast image acquisition. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of s-DCT for patient imaging. We have successfully imaged 31 patients. Preliminary evaluation by board certified radiologists suggests good depiction of thoracic anatomy and pathology.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE DISPENSER CATHODE WITH Re AS A MIDDLE LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of dispenser cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) is developed. The cathode coated with Os-W/Re shows better emission performance than the cathode coated with Os-W alloy. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra demonstrate that ternary alloy coating (Os-W-Re) formed on the surface of the cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) after full activation is the major reason why it has better emission than the cathode with Os-W alloy. The surface of each variety of the cathode is characterized with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) before and after activation: the emitting surface of the cathode with Os-W alloy after ageing appeared non-adherence (flaking) in localized areas, which is one of the reasons for non-uniform emission.However, the surface of the cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) does not present film peeling under the same conditions. Thus it ensures better emission uniformity and functional reliability for the dispenser cathode.

  3. Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Grindlay, J E; Narita, T

    2003-01-01

    Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode ...

  4. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  5. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  6. Development of Portable Digital Radiography System with a Device for Monitoring X-ray Source-Detector Angle and Its Application in Chest Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a device measuring the X-ray source-detector angle (SDA and evaluated the imaging performance for diagnosing chest images. The SDA device consisted of Arduino, an accelerometer and gyro sensor, and a Bluetooth module. The SDA values were compared with the values of a digital angle meter. The performance of the portable digital radiography (PDR was evaluated using the signal-to-noise (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, spatial resolution, distortion and entrance surface dose (ESD. According to different angle degrees, five anatomical landmarks were assessed using a five-point scale. The mean SNR and CNR were 182.47 and 141.43. The spatial resolution and ESD were 3.17 lp/mm (157 μm and 0.266 mGy. The angle values of the SDA device were not significantly difference as compared to those of the digital angle meter. In chest imaging, the SNR and CNR values were not significantly different according to the different angle degrees. The visibility scores of the border of the heart, the fifth rib and the scapula showed significant differences according to different angles (p < 0.05, whereas the scores of the clavicle and first rib were not significant. It is noticeable that the increase in the SDA degree was consistent with the increases of the distortion and visibility score. The proposed PDR with a SDA device would be useful for application in the clinical radiography setting according to the standard radiography guidelines.

  7. Synchronization of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Raknessa, G; Wang, D

    2007-01-01

    The synchronization of the trigger and data acquisition systems for the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at CERN is described. The CSC trigger system is designed to trigger CMS on muons with high efficiency (~99% per chamber) and is able to accurately identify its 25ns proton bunch crossing. To date, asynchronous cosmic ray data have been used to define the protocol and to refine timing algorithms, allowing synchronization to be realized within and between chambers to within ±10 ns. Final synchronization of the CSCs requires timing parameters to be accurate to 2 ns. This goal will be readily achieved from the cosmic ray baseline using data taken with the synchronous beam structure of the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. 数字化X线医学图像增强处理器研究%Research on digital X-ray medical images enhancement processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林创鲁; 程韬波; 周松斌; 黄可嘉

    2011-01-01

    Many digital medical images suffer from lack of contrast and sharpness, and hard to differentiate original dark object from low illumination area. In order to improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, Multi-Scales Retinex (MSR) algorithm based on human perception theory is used for images enhancement. Development of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) implementation X-ray medical images enhancement is designed. Experimetal result shows that the processor can meet clinical diagnosis need preliminary.%针对x线医学图像存在的对比度低、暗部细节模糊、视觉效果不佳而难以提高临床诊断准确率等问题,采用基于人眼视觉理论的多尺度Retinex算法的X线医学图像增强方法,设计了基于高性能DM643芯片的X线医学图像增强处理器.实验结果表明,该处理器能有效压缩图像动态范围、提高对比度和暗部区域的可视度,初步满足临床诊断应用的要求.

  9. Projection-based energy weighting on photon-counting X-ray images in digital subtraction mammography: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-03-01

    In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  10. X射线管原始谱和透射谱的测量及应用%Measurement and Application of Original Spectrum and Transmission Spectrum of X-ray Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张催; 张益海; 商宏杰; 潘小东; 邵曹杰; 于得洋; 骆岩红; 李公平

    2016-01-01

    本文基于COMET公司MXR225/22型X射线管,使用高纯锗探测器测量了X射线管大、小焦点几种管电压的X射线原始谱,并测量了小焦点下的初始透射谱,在此基础上测量了X射线穿过几种不同材质(铝、钛、铁和铜)吸收片的透射谱。结果表明:X射线管大、小焦点能谱近似相同,低能端X射线比重较大,原始谱中包含铜、银、钨和铅元素的特征峰;初始透射谱低能端硬化明显,并随着管电压升高,高能端所占比重增大,钨特征峰变得明显,X射线平均能量升高,能谱的X射线强度最大区域在最高能量的1/3附近;金属吸收片对X射线硬化明显,硬化效果强烈依赖于其原子序数。相关结果已在工业CT硬化校正中应用,重建图像质量得到改善。%Based on a COMET MXR225/22 X‐ray tube ,in two cases of big and small focuses ,the original spectra were measured at different X‐ray tube voltages by a HPGe detector .At the same time ,the initial transmission spectra were measured under small focus .On this basis ,the transmission spectra of X‐ray through several different materi‐als (Al ,Ti ,Fe and Cu) were measured .The results show that the spectra of big and small focuses can be approximately same ,the low energy side has a large proportion , and the characteristic peaks of copper ,silver ,tungsten and lead are showed in original spectrum .The low energy side of the initial transmission spectrum hardens obviously , and the proportion of the high energy side increases with X‐ray tube voltage .The char‐acteristic peak of tungsten becomes evident ,the X‐ray average energy increases ,and the maximum intensity area of the spectrum is near the 1/3 of the highest energy .The metalabsorption sheet hardens X‐ray evidently ,and the hardening effect strongly dependson its atomic number .The results are applied to the hardening correction of industrialCT ,and the quality of the

  11. Modeling of LaB6 hollow cathode performance and lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Daniela; Albertoni, Riccardo; Paganucci, Fabrizio; Andrenucci, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Thermionic hollow cathodes are currently used as sources of electrons in a variety of space applications, in particular as cathodes/neutralizers of electric thrusters (Hall effect and ion thrusters). Numerical tools are needed to guide the design of new devices before their manufacturing and testing, since multiple geometrical parameters influence the cathode performance. A reduced-order, numerical model was developed to assess the performance of orificed hollow cathodes, with a focus on the operational lifetime. The importance of the lifetime prediction is tied to its impact on the operational lifetime of the thruster to which the cathode is coupled. The cathode architecture consists of a refractory metal tube with an internal electron emitter made of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6). The choice of LaB6 accounts for the reduced evaporation rate, the low sensitivity to poisoning and the absence of an activation procedure with respect to oxide cathodes. A LaB6 emitter is thus a valuable option for long-lasting cathodes, despite its relatively high work-function and reactivity with many refractory metals at high temperatures. The suggested reduced-order model self-consistently predicts the key parameters of the cathode operation, shedding light on the power deposition processes as well as on the main erosion mechanisms. Preliminary results showed good agreement with both the experimental data collected by Alta and data available from the literature for different operating conditions and power levels. Next developments will include further comparisons between theoretical and experimental data, considering cathodes of various size and operating conditions.

  12. 微型X射线管出射谱特征研究及Be窗厚度确定%Research on Spectral Characteristic of Miniature X-Ray Tube and Determination of Beryllium Window Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷懿; 熊盛青; 葛良全; 范正国; 张庆贤; 朱振亚

    2014-01-01

    Applying Monte Carlo method ,the present paper simulates the emitted X-ray spectrum of miniature X-ray tube with thirteen thickness of beryllium window in the range from 50 to 500μm .By analyzing the characteristic of the spectrums ,the rea-sonable choice of thickness of beryllium window relies on the application and for the beryllium window it is not the thinner the better .Taking in-situ EDXRF as an example ,though the emission X-ray intensity is higher as the thickness of the beryllium window becomes thinner ,the proportion of useless low-energy X-ray (20% ) .The accuracy of in-situ EDXRF will be reduced when the high-throughput low-energy X-ray enters the detec-tor .Therefore ,this paper puts forward several parameters as judgment index for beryllium window thickness ,which is de-scribed as follows :①The intensity ratios of the K-series X-ray to middle-energy (5~25 keV) bremsstrahlung and middle-high-energy (5~50 keV) bremsstrahlung (F1 and F3 );②The intensity ratios of useless low-energy X-ray (<5 keV) to middle-ener-gy (5~25 keV) X-ray and middle-high-energy (5~50 keV) X-ray (F2 and F4 ) ,it can reflect the relative intensity of useless low-energy X-ray .The simulation results demonstrate that with the increase in the beryllium window thickness ,the value of F1 (F3 ) improves slowly ,and the value of F2 (F4 ) decreases rapidly .In addition to the judgment index discussed above ,and con-sidering the X-ray shielded by beryllium window ,the beryllium window of miniature X-ray tube can be determined .Based on simulation analysis ,the thickness of around 250μm is appropriate to miniature X-ray tube applied in the in-situ EDXRF .Compa-ring the emitted spectrum with 50 μm-thick beryllium window ,71.66% of low-energy X-rays are shielded ,only 21.31% of X-rays with energy from 5 to 50 keV is shielded ,the intensity ratio of low-energy X-ray to total energy X-ray is less than 10% , and the intensity proportion of K-series X-ray to middle-high energy X-ray

  13. STXM goes 3D: digital reconstruction of focal stacks as novel approach towards confocal soft x-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Scho Ll, Simon; Riess, Christian; Schmidtel, Daniel; Paradossi, Gaio; Raabe, Jo Rg; Hornegger, Joachim; Fink, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Fresnel zone plate based soft x-ray transmission microspectroscopy has developed into a routine technique for high-resolution elemental or chemical 2D imaging of thin film specimens. The availability of high resolution Fresnel lenses with short depth of focus offers the possibility of optical slicing (in the third dimension) by focus series with resolutions in the submicron regime. We introduce a 3D reconstruction algorithm that uses a variance-based metric to assign a focus measure as basis for volume rendering. The algorithm is applied to simulated geometries and opaque soft matter specimens thus enabling 3D visualization. These studies with z-resolution of few 100nm serve as important step towards the vision of a confocal transmission x-ray microscope.

  14. Hollow Cathode With Multiple Radial Orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Improved hollow cathode serving as source of electrons has multiple radial orifices instead of single axial orifice. Distributes ion current more smoothly, over larger area. Prototype of high-current cathodes for ion engines in spacecraft. On Earth, cathodes used in large-diameter ion sources for industrial processing of materials. Radial orientation of orifices in new design causes current to be dispersed radially in vicinity of cathode. Advantageous where desireable to produce plasma more nearly uniform over wider region around cathode.

  15. The Image Quality of a Digital Chest X-Ray Radiography System: Comparison of Quantitative Image Quality Analysis and Radiologists' Visual Scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Ho [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Darl; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Yong Ho; Ki, Yong Kan; Kim, DFong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Dong Won [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho Sang [Reserach Institue for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the performance of imaging devices, which should be periodically monitored to maintain high quality images to the radiologists. Additionally, this evaluation may prevent patients from radiation over-exposure. The most suitable engineering standard for imaging performance evaluation of digital X-ray thoracic images was determined. IEC 62220-1 standards were used to evaluate the performance of the images. In succession, the visibilities of overall image, pneumothorax, and humerus head in anthropomorphic thoracic phantom images were used to evaluate the image qualities by radiologists. The rank correlation coefficient (p) of visual scoring by radiologists with system spatial resolution is not meaningful (p-value, p = 0.295), but is significant with image noise (p-value, p -0.9267). Finally, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) presents a high rank correlation for visual scoring of radiologists (p-value, p = 0.9320). Image quality evaluation of radiologists were mainly affected by imaging noise. Hence, the engineered standard for evaluating image noise is the most important index to effectively monitor the performance of X-ray images. Additionally, the NEQ can be used to evaluate the performance of radiographic systems, because it theoretically corresponds to the synthetic image quality of systems.

  16. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    : An 84-year-old Caucasian woman with dysphagia and at risk of aspiration underwent routine insertion of a nasogastric feeding tube; however, shortly after insertion she developed respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed the tube had been misplaced into our patient's right lung. The tube was removed...

  17. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  18. Efficient ray tracing on 3D regular grids for fast generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs in iterative tomographic reconstruction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam projection is an essential and particularly time consuming part of any iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm. On current graphics hardware especially the amount and pattern of memory accesses is a limiting factor when read-only textures cannot be used. With the final objective of accelerating iterative reconstruction techniques, a non-oversampling Joseph-like raytracing projection algorithm for three dimensions featuring both a branchless sampling loop and a cache friendly memory access pattern is presented. An interpretation of the employed interpolation scheme is given with respect to the effective beam and voxel models implied. The method is further compared to existing techniques, and the modifications required to implement further voxel and beam shape models are outlined. Both memory access rates and total run time are benchmarked on a current consumer grade graphics processing unit and explicitly compared to the performance of a classic Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) algorithm. T...

  19. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.

    2002-10-01

    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  20. Personal experience with whole-body, low-dosage, digital X-ray scanning (LODOX-Statscan) in trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lodox-Statscan is a whole-body, skeletal and soft-tissue, low-dose X-ray scanner Anterior-posterior and lateral thoraco-abdominal studies are obtained in 3-5 minutes with only about one-third of the radiation required for conventional radiography. Since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, several trauma centers have incorporated this technology into their Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. This review provides a brief overview of the system, and...

  1. Personal experience with whole-body, low-dosage, digital X-ray scanning (LODOX-Statscan) in trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lodox-Statscan is a whole-body, skeletal and soft-tissue, low-dose X-ray scanner Anterior-posterior and lateral thoraco-abdominal studies are obtained in 3-5 minutes with only about one-third of the radiation required for conventional radiography. Since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, several trauma centers have incorporated this technology into their Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. This review provides a brief overview of the sys...

  2. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  3. Microhollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M.; Shi, W.; Bentley, R.

    2003-07-01

    By reducing the dimensions of hollow cathodes into the hundred micrometer range, stable, direct current, high (atmospheric) pressure glow discharges in rare gases, rare gas-halide mixtures and in air could be generated. The electron energy distribution in these microdischarges is non-Maxwellian, with a pronounced high-energy tail. The high electron energy together with the high gas density, which favors three-body collisions, is the reason for an efficient excimer generation in these microplasmas. Excimer efficiencies from 1% to 9% have been measured for argon, xenon, argon fluoride, and xenon chloride direct current excimer emitters, with a radiant excimer emittance of up to 2 W/cm2 for xenon. Adding small amounts of oxygen to argon has allowed us to generate vacuum ultraviolet line radiation at 130.5 nm with an efficiency approaching 1%. Pulsing xenon discharges with nanosecond electrical pulses has led to an increase in intensity to 15 W/cm2 and to a simultaneous increase in efficiency to more than 20%. Operating the discharges in an abnormal glow mode has allowed us to generate microdischarge arrays without individual ballast. Applications of these plasma arrays are excimer lamps and plasma reactors.

  4. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  5. Position-addressable digital laser scanning point fluorescence microscopy with a Blu-ray disk pickup head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Jung-Po; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Ming; Lo, Feng-Hsiang; Chang, Sheng-Li; Weng, Kuo-Yao; Chung, Lung-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Chern; Tiao, Golden

    2014-01-01

    A compact and position-addressable blue ray scanning microscope (BSM) based on a commercially available Blu-ray disk pickup head (PUH) is developed for cell imaging with high resolution and low cost. The BSM comprises two objective lenses with numerical apertures (NAs) of 0.85 and 0.6 for focusing blue and red laser beams, respectively, on the sample slide. The blue and red laser beams are co-located adjacent to each other and move synchronously. A specially designed sample slide is used with a sample area and an address-patterned area for sample holding and address recognition, respectively. The blue laser beam is focused on the sample area and is used for fluorescent excitation and image capturing, whereas the red laser beam is focused on the address-patterned area and is used for address recognition and dynamic focusing. The address-patterned area is divided into 310 sectors. The cell image of each sector of the sampling area has a corresponding address pattern. Fluorescence images of monkey-derived kidney epithelial cells and fibroblast cells in which the F-actin is stained with fluorophore phalloidin CF 405 are measured by the BSM, with results comparable to those measured by a Leica TCS CP2 confocal microscope. The cell image of an area of interest can be easily tracked based on the coded address, and a large-area sample image can be accurately reconstructed from the sector images. PMID:24575338

  6. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  7. Electrodeposited synthesis of self-supported Ni-P cathode for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixian Wu; Yuming Dong n; Pingping Jiang; Guangli Wang; Yanmei Chen; Xiuming Wu

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for electrochemical water splitting is the development of low-cost and efficient hydrogen evolution cathode. In this work, a self-supported Ni-P cathode was synthesized by a facile electrodeposition method. The composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-P cathode performed low onset over-potential, good catalytic activity and long-term stability under neutral and alkaline conditions. The mechanism of Ni-P electrode for hydrogen production was discussed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The excellent performance of Ni-P cathode was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of phosphate anions and the self-supported feature.

  8. Electrodeposited synthesis of self-supported Ni-P cathode for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges for electrochemical water splitting is the development of low-cost and efficient hydrogen evolution cathode. In this work, a self-supported Ni-P cathode was synthesized by a facile electrodeposition method. The composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-P cathode performed low onset over-potential, good catalytic activity and long-term stability under neutral and alkaline conditions. The mechanism of Ni-P electrode for hydrogen production was discussed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The excellent performance of Ni-P cathode was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of phosphate anions and the self-supported feature.

  9. An investigation on SA 213-Tube to SA 387-Tube plate using friction welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. Pandia; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Jharkhand (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) is a relatively newer solid state welding process used for joining tube to tube plate of either similar or dissimilar materials with enhanced mechanical and metallurgical properties. In the present study, FWTPET has been used to weld SA 213 (Grade T12) tube with SA 387 (Grade 22) tube plate. The welded samples are found to have satisfactory joint strength and the Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that inter metallic compound is absent in the weld zone. The different weld joints have been identified and the phase composition is found using EDX and XRD. Microstructures have been analyzed using optical and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties such as hardness, compressive shear strength and peel test for different weld conditions are studied and the hardness survey revealed that there is increase in hardness at the weld interface due to grain refinement. The corrosion behavior for different weld conditions have been analyzed and the weld zone is found to have better corrosion resistance due to the influence of the grain refinement after FWTPET welding process. Hence, the present investigation is carried out to study the behavior of friction welded dissimilar joints of SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate joints and the results are presented. The present study confirms that a high quality tube to tube plate joint can be achieved using FWTPET process at 1120 rpm.

  10. Creative Digital Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    The presentation reviews the interplay of dialogic (Bakhtin, 1981) and multimodal theories on media production practices, with attention to visual communication (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2001, 2006). This theoretical approach aids in reflecting on digital media practices as novel (new) sign systems...... on collaboration (Benkler, 2006). The shift toward visual modes and digital media practices pose many pedagogical challenges for academics. I want to raise questions on how to teach “dialogically” with and through creative, digital media practices based on my plans for a course in Fall, 2011, where students...... develop a collaborative digital storytelling showcase for their own digital stories about Roskilde University. This course is intended to bring up reflections on the wider phenomenon of contemporary media practices, such as: YouTube, DIY (do-it-yourself) filmmaking or homemade, garage cinema (Jenkins...

  11. Direct observation of the oxygenated species during oxygen reduction on a platinum fuel cell cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Sarp; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian ; Miller, Daniel J. ; Friebel, Daniel ; Hansen, Heine A. ; Nørskov, Jens K. ; Nilsson, Anders ; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we use ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and directly probe the correlation between the adsorbed species on the surface and the electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that, during the oxygen reduction reaction, hydroxyl intermediates on the cathode surface occur in sever...

  12. Discharge-charge process of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode for rechargeable lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyao; Xiong, Xing; Wang, Weikun; Zhao, Shengrong; Li, Chengming; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Zhongbao; Huang, Yaqin

    2014-02-01

    The discharge-charge process of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that the porous nanocomposite enhances the electrolyte infiltrate into the cathode materials evenly, has a good capability of confining the soluble polysulfides and preventing the aggregation of insoluble Li2S. The regenerated elemental sulfur of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode exists in nano-size particles in the pore and the resistance decreases compared with the original cathode. Moreover, the porous nanocomposite realizes the micro-reactors during the discharge-charge process and can accommodate the volume change which is benefit for stabilization of the cathode during the electrochemical reaction.

  13. Characteristics of specifications of transportable inverter-type X-ray equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Asano, H

    2003-01-01

    Our X-ray systems study group measured and examined the characteristics of four transportable inverter-type X-ray equipments. X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current were measured with the X-ray tube voltage and the X-ray tube current measurement terminals provided with the equipment. X-ray tube voltage, irradiation time, and dose were measured with a non-invasive X-ray tube voltage-measuring device, and X-ray output was measured by fluorescence meter. The items investigated were the reproducibility and linearity of X-ray output, error of pre-set X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current, and X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage. The waveforms of X-ray tube voltage, the X-ray tube current, and fluorescence intensity draw were analyzed using the oscilloscope gram and a personal computer. All of the equipment had a preset error of X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current that met Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) standards. The X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage of each equipment conformed to the tendenc...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of cobaltite nanotubes for solid-oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitano, F; Baque, L; Troiani, H; Granada, M; Serquis, A, E-mail: aserquis@cab.cnea.gov.a [Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}FeyO{sub 3-d}elta oxides are good candidates for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes because these materials present high ionic and electronic conductivity, and compatibility with Cerium Gadolinium Oxide (CGO) electrolytes allowing a lower operation temperature. In this work, we report the synthesis of La{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-d}elta (LSCF) nanotubes prepared by a porous polycarbonate membrane approach, obtaining different microstructures depending on sintering conditions. The structure and morphology of the nanotubes and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning microscopy. Finally, we obtained nanostructured films of vertically aligned LSCF tubes deposited over the whole surface of CGO pellets with diameter up to 2.5cm in a direct and single step process.

  15. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm‑1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  16. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm(-1)) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  17. The potential of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in the assessment of osteopenia in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Boettcher, Joachim; Tuchscherer, Diana; Pfeil, Alexander; Kramer, Anika; Malich, Ansgar; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Blume, Joerg; Kauf, Eberhard [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Gastroenterology, Clinic of Pediatrics, Jena (Germany); Lehmann, Gabriele; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jena (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Loss of bone mass is a known complication of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children. The gold standard in the evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In this preliminary study we evaluated digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) which estimates BMD (DXR-BMD) from hand radiographs in children with IBD. A total of 26 children with IBD (10 girls, 16 boys; age range 10-18 years) underwent DXR for the calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using the Pronosco X-posure system. The results were compared with a local reference database and correlated with the results of DXA. DXR-BMD was 0.36-0.56 g/cm{sup 2} (median 0.46 g/cm{sup 2}) in Crohn disease patients and 0.38-0.63 g/cm{sup 2} (median 0.48 g/cm{sup 2}) in ulcerative colitis patients. DXR-MCI was 0.29-0.49 in Crohn disease patients and 0.28-0.53 in ulcerative colitis patients. The Z-scores were reduced to <-1 SD in five Crohn disease patients and in six ulcerative colitis patients. The coefficients (r) for the correlations between DXR-BMD and DXA-BMD were 0.78 for the lumbar spine and 0.61 for the proximal femur (P<0.01), and between DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD were 0.78 for the lumbar spine and 0.51 for the proximal femur (P<0.01). DXR seems to be able to estimate cortical osteopenia in children with chronic IBD. The DXR results showed a positive correlation with DXA results. (orig.)

  18. Personal experience with whole-body, low-dosage, digital X-ray scanning (LODOX-Statscan in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Heinz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lodox-Statscan is a whole-body, skeletal and soft-tissue, low-dose X-ray scanner Anterior-posterior and lateral thoraco-abdominal studies are obtained in 3-5 minutes with only about one-third of the radiation required for conventional radiography. Since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA in the USA, several trauma centers have incorporated this technology into their Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. This review provides a brief overview of the system, and describes the authors' own experience with the system. Methods We performed a PubMed search to retrieve all references with 'Lodox' and 'Stat-scan' used as search terms. We furthermore used the google search engine to identify existing alternatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only FDA-approved device of its kind currently used in trauma. Results and Conclusion The intention of our review has been to sensitize the readership that such alternative devices exist. The key message is that low dosage full body radiography may be an alternative to conventional resuscitation room radiography which is usually a prelude to CT scanning (ATLS algorithm. The combination of both is radiation intensive and therefore we consider any reduction of radiation a success. But only the future will show whether LS will survive in the face of low-dose radiation CT scanners and magnetic resonance imaging devices that may eventually completely replace conventional radiography.

  19. Youth on YouTube as Smart Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Viewing YouTube culture as a creative, collaborative process similar to animal swarms can help art educators understand and embrace youth's digital practices. School-age youth are among the most prolific contributors to YouTube, not just as viewers, but also as producers. Even preschoolers now produce videos (McClure, 2010). So pervasive,…

  20. Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

    2014-01-01

    A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

  1. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  2. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  3. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronic Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  4. Nanostructured lanthanum manganate composite cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Guo; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Anode-supported cells were fabricated with optimized cathodes showing high power density of 1.2 W/cm(2) at 800 C under a cell voltage of 0.7 V and an active area of 4 x 4 cm. A microstructure study was performed on such cell using a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope, which revealed...... that the (La1-xSrx)(y)MnO3 +/-delta (LSM) composite cathodes consist of a network of homogenously distributed LSM, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and pores. The individual grain size of LSM or YSZ is approximately 100 nm. The degree of contact between cathode and electrolyte is 39% on average. (c) 2005...

  5. A pilot study evaluating erect chest imaging in children, using the Lodox Statscan digital X-ray machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Baloo Daya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chest radiography accounts for a significant proportion of ionising radiation in children. The radiation dose of radiographs performed on the Lodox Statscan system has been shown to be lower than that of a computed radiography (CR system. The role of the Lodox Statscan (hereafter referred to as the Statscan in routine erect chest radiography in children has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of erect paediatric chest radiographs obtained with the Statscan and compare this with conventional erect chest images obtained with a CR system. Materials and Methods: Thirty three children with suspected chest pathology were enrolled randomly over a period of three months. Erect chest radiographs were obtained with the Statscan, and a Shimadzu R-20J X-ray machine coupled with a Fuji FCR 5000 CR system. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic capability were evaluated between the two modalities. Results: The erect Statscan allowed superior visualisation of the three major airways. Statscan images however, demonstrated exposure and movement artifacts with hemidiaphragms and ribs most prone to movement. Bronchovascular clarity was also considered unsatisfactory on the Statscan images. Conclusion: The Statscan has limitations in erect chest radiography in terms of movement artefacts, exposure fluctuations, and poor definition of lung markings. Despite this, the Statscan allows better visualisation of the major airways, equivalent to a ‘high KV’ film at a fraction of the radiation dose. This supports the finding of an earlier study evaluating Statscan images in trauma cases, where the images were taken supine. Statscan has great potential in assisting in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis where airway narrowing occurs as a result of nodal compression.

  6. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  7. Pixel-level 8-bit 5-MS/s Wilkinson-type digitizer for the DSSC X-ray imager: Concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Reckleben, C.; Diehl, I.; Bach, M.; Kalavakuru, P.

    2011-02-01

    A pixel-level 8-bit 5-MS/s digitizer for the DSSC X-ray imager utilizing the method of Wilkinson is presented. The timing information is generated column-wise by means of an 8-bit Gray-code counter. The 625-ps time stamps are distributed to the column pixels through 13-mm long shielded coplanar waveguides. Pixel-internal blocks comprise a sample-and-hold stage with current source for ramp generation, a temperature-compensated and supply voltage-stabilized reference circuitry, a comparator, a bank of eight receivers with latches for the time stamps, and control logic. These pixel-internal and global devices in 130-nm CMOS technology occupy 0.015 and 0.012 mm 2, respectively. The power consumption amounts to ˜800 μW at 1.2-V supply voltage. Taking the 0.8-V dynamic range into account, the simulated rms-noise voltage of about 240 μV corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio above 70 dB. The differential and integral nonlinearity is expected to remain below 0.4 LSB and 1 LSB, respectively. All results promise the compliance with underlying requirements.

  8. Electron accelerating unit for streak image tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fangke Zong; Qinlao Yang; Houzhi Cai; Li Gu; Xiang Li; Jingjin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerating unit is proposed for use in streak image tubes (SITs). An SIT with this new accelerating unit was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that the accelerating unit improves both the spatial and temporal resolution. Compared to a traditional SIT, the transit time spread for electrons in the cathode-to-mesh region is reduced from 247 to 162 fs, the line width of the electron beam on the image surface is reduced from 42.7 to 26.1 m, and the temporal resolution is improved from 515 to 395 fs.

  9. Determination of curves of same exposure of a equipment of digital fluoroscopy in a haemodynamic room; Determinacao das curvas de isoexposicao de um equipamento de fluoroscopia digital em uma sala de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, A.O.S.; Costa, A.T.; Puricelli, E.L.; Bernasiuk, M.E.B.; Bacelar, A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica]. E-mail: adrianoosg@bol.com.br; Ferlin, E.L. [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fisica Medica. Grupo de Pesquisa e Pos-graduacao

    2001-07-01

    This research has the object determine curves with same exposure of one equipment of digital fluoroscopy used in cardiovascular procedures in one hemodynamic room, for minimize the effective dose of occupationally workers exposure. For to carry out the measures of levels exposure in bend all equipment in the Cardiologic Service in the Hemodynamic Unit of the Clinicas of Porto Alegre Hospital, used one ionization chamber. The same curves exposure shows asymmetrical on next part of the x-ray tubes - image intensificator for the tree projections with the C-arm of the digital fluoroscopy. (author)

  10. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  11. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  12. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia; Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion von Lungeninfiltraten knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Maas, R.; Steiner, P.; Kramer, J.; Bumann, D.; Buecheler, E. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Zander, A.R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Knochenmarktransplantation

    1999-10-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion pulmonaler Infiltrate bei knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie. Methoden: Digitale Thoraxaufnahmen von 40 Patienten (21 Frauen, 19 Maenner) in Aplasie mit Fieber unklarer Genese wurden nach Zeichen pulmonaler Infiltrate ausgewertet und mit klinischen, laborchemischen, mikrobiologischen und bronchoskopischen Befunden korreliert. Zusaetzlich wurde ein

  13. High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

  14. Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-09-30

    conditions. This was also confirmed by x-ray analyses. For example, soft x-ray XANES data reveal that Co cations displace the Mn cations as being more favored to be reduced. Variations in the Sr-O in the annealed LSCF Fourier-transformed (FT) EXAFS suggest that some Sr segregation is occurring, but is not present in the annealed LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathode materials. Further, a surface enhanced Raman technique was also developed into to probe and map LSM and LSCF phase on underlying YSZ substrate, enabling us to capture important chemical information of cathode surfaces under practical operating conditions. Electrochemical models for the design of test cells and understanding of mechanism have been developed for the exploration of fundamental properties of electrode materials. Novel catalyst coatings through particle depositions (SDC, SSC, and LCC) or continuous thin films (PSM and PSCM) were successfully developed to improve the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes. Finally, we have demonstrated enhanced activity and stability of LSCF cathodes over longer periods of time in homemade and commercially available cells by an optimized LSM infiltration process. Microstructure examination of the tested cells did not show obvious differences between blank and infiltrated cells, suggesting that the infiltrated LSM may form a coherent film on the LSCF cathodes. There was no significant change in the morphology or microstructure of the LSCF cathode due to the structural similarity of LSCF and LSM. Raman analysis of the tested cells indicated small peaks emerging on the blank cells that correspond to trace amounts of secondary phase formation during operation (e.g., CoO{sub x}). The formation of this secondary phase might be attributed to performance degradation. In contrast, there was no such secondary phase observed in the LSM infiltrated cells, indicating that the LSM modification staved off secondary phase formation and thus improved the stability.

  15. Mechanistic Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, Eric [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under “real world” conditions is an issue for commercial deployment. In particular cathode exposure to moisture, CO2, Cr vapor (from interconnects and BOP), and particulates results in long-term performance degradation issues. Here, we have conducted a multi-faceted fundamental investigation of the effect of these contaminants on cathode performance degradation mechanisms in order to establish cathode composition/structures and operational conditions to enhance cathode durability.

  16. Novel Cathodes Prepared by Impregnation Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo Paz

    2006-09-30

    (1) We showed that similar results were obtained when using various LSM precursors to produce LSM-YSZ cathodes. (2) We showed that enhanced performance could be achieved by adding LSCo to LSMYSZ cathodes. (3) We have preliminary results showing that there is a slow deactivation with LSFYSZ cathodes.

  17. Characterization of a team biplane digital x-ray in the pediatric cardiology department; Caracterizacion de un equipo biplano de rayos x digital en el servicio de cardiologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez Marquez, J.; Huertas Martinez, C.; Corredora Silva, E.; Vano Carruana, E.; Luquero LLopis, N.; Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Plaza Aparicio, R.; Tellez-Cepeda Ruiz, M.

    2011-07-01

    In cardiology, new digital technologies, are replacing fluoroscopy with image intensifier and television systems. There has been a characterization of the equipment prior to commissioning for clinical use.

  18. Cold-cathode, pulsed-power plasma discharge switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    1996-09-01

    CROSSATRONTMmodulator switches are cold-cathode, grid-controlled, plasma-discharge devices that are used for thyratron and hard-tube replacement in high-voltage, pulsed-power applications. CROSSATRON modulator switches have been used to produce square pulses of up to 100 kV and 1000 A, and CROSSATRON laser-discharge switches have switched peak discharge currents of up to 10 kA at 40 kV. The major advantage that CROSSATRON switches offer over other plasma switches is a rapid deionization time that permits high pulse-repetition frequencies (103 to 106 pulses per second depending on the application), and a long life associated with the cold-cathode plasma production mechanism. Compared to hard tubes, CROSSATRON switches have a relatively low forward voltage drop (500 V), the ability to close and open up to 1 kA of peak current, and lower grid-drive power requirements. In this article, we describe the physical mechanisms for how the switch works based on simple models and experimental data. The design of CROSSATRON switches is explained, and characteristic performance in closing and opening applications is described and explained.

  19. Microhollow Cathode Discharge Excimer Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.

    1999-11-01

    character. Reducing the diameter of the cathode hole in a hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of 100 μm has allowed us to extend the pressure range of stable, direct current hollow cathode gas discharges up to atmospheric pressure. The large concentration of high-energy electrons generated in the cathode fall, in combination with the high neutral gas density favors three-body processes such as excimer formation. Excimer emission in xenon discharges peaking at 172 nm, was observed with efficiencies between 6% and 9% at pressures of several hundred Torr. Typical forward voltages are 200 V at dc currents up to 8 mA. Pulsed operation allowed us to extend the current range to 80 mA with corresponding linear increase in optical power. Spatially resolved measurements showed that the source of the excimer radiation at atmospheric pressure and currents of less than 8 mA is confined to the cathode opening. The radiative emittance at 8 mA and atmospheric pressure is approximately 20 W/cm^2. With reduced pressure and increased current, respectively, the excimer source extends into the area outside the cathode hole. Besides in xenon, excimer emission in argon at a peak wavelength of 128 nm has been recorded. In addition to operating the discharge in rare gases, we have also explored its use as rare gas-halide excimer source. In a gas mixture containing 1% ArF we were able to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The spectra of the high-pressure ArF discharges are dominated by excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm. The excimer emission of a single ArF discharge at 700 Torr was measured as 150 mW at an efficiency of 3%. Parallel operation of these discharges by means of a resistive anode, which has recently been demonstrated for argon discharges, offers the possibility to use microhollow cathode discharge arrays as dc-excimer lamps, with estimated power densities exceeding 10 W/cm^2. abstract

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming, E-mail: corrosion@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-30

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  1. A preliminary investigation of the neoprene tube finger extension splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E N

    1997-01-01

    Neoprene tube finger extension splints were analyzed to determine the production, amounts, and directions of force magnitude on the proximal interphalangeal joint during the flexing of the tube up to angles of 80 degrees. The tubes were examined in their empty form, with a human digit inserted into the tube, and with portions of the tube on the volar and dorsal surfaces removed. Upward forces ranged from less than 100 g to 225 g in the empty tubes. Upon insertion of a human digit into the tubes, forces increased from 125 g at 10 degrees to 650 g at 80 degrees flexion. Removal of a 2-cm square portion on the dorsal surface over the PIP joint did not significantly affect the tube's ability to lift upward demonstrating little or no downward pressure in the device. The tube had little or no upward force following removal of a 2-cm square encompassing the angle of the device on the volar surface. Positive effectiveness of the tubes were examined in case reports.

  2. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  3. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  4. Optimized Design of Digital X-ray Fluorimeter Power Supply%数字化X荧光仪电源的最优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国强; 葛良全; 倪师军; 熊盛青

    2012-01-01

    Optimized designing of power supply to meet the digital X - ray fluorimeter demand of low noises and power dissipation. Simulated the digital trapezoid filter by SIMULINK tools, got the beset M, N coefficient from the simulation result, therefore decided the time constant of differentiating circuit, and finally confirmed the optimized switching frequency about high voltage power supply. By the methods reduced the interference come from high voltage power supply. Analyzed the characteristic of digital trapezoid filter and high speed adc sampling system, so designed the optimized low voltage power supply, reduce the interference from low voltage power supply. Designed the high efficiency constant current source by DC - DC、LDO chips and current sensing chips, then improved the power efficiency of Si - pin detector cooler power. Measured results show; the ac voltage ripples of high voltage power less than 3.5 mV, power dissipation less than 70 mW, conversion efficiency of constant current source is 83% , ripple voltage less than 12 mV, in the same conditions this optimized power supply design could improve the energy resolution of spectroscopy.%针对数字化X荧光仪的低功耗、低噪声等要求进行了电源最优化设计.文中对数字梯形滤波器进行了Simulink仿真,根据仿真结果得到最佳的M,N系数,由此确定微分电路的时间常数,最后确定高压电源的最佳开关频率点,降低了高压偏置电源噪声对系统的干扰.还分析了数字梯形滤波器及高速ADC采样的特点,设计了最优化的低压供电系统,进一步降低低压电源对系统的干扰.为了提高Si-Pin探测器制冷电源的供电效率,采用了高效率DC-DC、LDO芯片与检流芯片完成高效率恒流源的设计.实测高压电源的交流纹波小于3.5 mV,带载功耗小于70 mW,恒流源的带载转换效率83%,纹波电压小于12 mV,相同条件下采用文中电源系统可提高谱线的能量分辨率.

  5. Scattered hard X-ray and γ-ray generation from a chromatic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Welch, D. R.; Miller, C. L. [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    An array of photon diagnostics has been deployed on a high power relativistic electron beam diode. Electrons are extracted through a 17.8 cm diode from the surface discharge of a carbon fiber velvet cathode with a nominal diode voltage of 3.8 MV. <10% of the 100 ns electron pulse is composed of off energy electrons (1–3 MeV) accelerated during the rise and fall of the pulse that impact the stainless steel beam pipe and generate a Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 0.1–3 MeV photons with a total count of 10{sup 11}. The principal objective of these experiments is to quantify the electron beam dynamics and spatial dynamics of the hard X-ray and γ-ray flux generated in the diode region. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, including time and energy resolved electron beam propagation and scattered photon measurements with X-ray PIN diodes and a photomultiplier tube indicating a dose dependence on the diode voltage >V{sup 4} and detected photon counts of nearly 10{sup 6} at a radial distance of 1 m which corresponds to dose ∼40 μrad at 1 m.

  6. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obt