WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathode ray tube digitizers

  1. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  2. Comparison of observer performance on soft-copy reading of digital chest radiographs: High resolution liquid-crystal display monitors versus cathode-ray tube monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare observer performance for detection of abnormalities on chest radiographs with 5-megapixel resolution liquid-crystal displays (LCD) and 5-megapixel resolution cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors under bright and subdued ambient light conditions. Six radiologists reviewed a total of 254 digital chest radiographs under four different conditions with a combination of two types of monitors (a 5-megapixel resolution LCD and a 5-megapixel resolution CRT monitor) and with two types of ambient light (460 and 50 lux). The abnormalities analyzed were nodules, pneumothorax and interstitial lung disease. For each reader, the detection performance using 5-megapixel LCD and 5-megapixel CRT monitors under bright and subdued ambient light conditions were compared using multi-case and multi-modality ROC analysis. For each type of ambient light, the average detection performance with the two types of monitors was also compared. For each reader, the observer performance of 5-megapixel LCD and 5-megapixel CRT monitors, under both bright and subdued ambient light conditions, showed no significant statistical differences for detecting nodules, pneumothorax and interstitial lung disease. In addition, there was no significant statistical difference in the average performance when the two monitor displays, under both bright and subdued ambient light conditions, were compared

  3. Field emission digital display tube with nano-graphite film cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicai Deng; Zhanling Lu; Binglin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The field emission digital display tube with a nano-crystalline graphite cold cathode is designed and fabricated. Under the control of the driving circuits, a dynamic digital display with uniform luminance distribution is realized. The luminance of the character segments is 190 cd/m2 at the operating voltage of 900 V. And the stable emission is attained with a fluctuation of about 3% at an average segment current of 75 μA. The results demonstrate that nano-crystalline graphite film is a promising material for cold cathode.

  4. X-ray Tube Using a Graphene Flower Cloth Field Emission Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yusuke; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Shougo; Jyouzuka, Atsuo; Nakamura, Tomonori; Onizuka, Yoshihiro; Mimura, Hidenori

    2013-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a filament-less X-ray tube using a graphene flower cloth (GFC) field emission cathode. The GFC has numerous nanoprotrusions formed by self-standing graphene structures. The field emission current and the field enhancement factor β were 500 µA and 5600, respectively. The stability of voltage defined as a variance coefficient (σ/mean) of voltage was calculated to be 0.04% while maintaining the X-ray tube current of 300 µA. We applied our X-ray tube with the GFC field emitter to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of stainless steel.

  5. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Microcalcifications: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Pathology, and Breast Center, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Background: A recent study using dedicated contrast-detail phantoms showed that the image quality of a 3-megapixel (M) monitor can approach that of a 5M monitor in digital mammography. Purpose: To compare a 5M cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor with a 3M liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of microcalcifications in a clinical setting. Material and Methods: 100 screen-detected microcalcification lesions (34 malignant and 66 benign) without mass that had been evaluated with 11-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or definitive surgery were recruited into the study. One radiologist analyzed the soft-copy mammograms on a 5M CRT monitor and a 3M LCD monitor with 5 months between interpretations and scored the likelihood of malignancy and calcification distribution on a five-point scale. Calcification morphology and breast density were scored on a four-point scale. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated on the basis of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in the likelihood of malignancy (P = 0.655), calcification morphology (P = 0.168), calcification distribution (P = 0.11), and breast density (P = 0.0608). The PPV and NPV of soft-copy reading on the 5M CRT monitor was 57% (30/53) and 91% (43/47), respectively, identical to the results using the 3M LCD monitor. The total interpretation time averaged 88 s for the 5M CRT monitor and 67 s for the 3M LCD monitor (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Soft-copy reading of a digital mammography of microcalcifications with a 3M LCD monitor was similar in diagnostic performance to a 5M CRT monitor in this study.

  6. Foaming of waste cathode ray tube panel glass via CaCO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic equipment has become a global environmental problem. However, with responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight...

  7. Calculating the spectral distribution of radiation from X-ray tubes with grounded cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In implementing current versions of X-ray fluorescence analysis (the method of functional parameters, the method of fundamental coefficients, etc.), it is necessary to have information about the spectral composition of primary X- ray radiation whose source is usually provided by X-ray tubes. The radiation of tubes with grounded anode is well understood. However, state-of-the-art X-ray spectral equipment normally incorporates X-ray tubes with grounded cathode. In this case a high positive potential returns backscattered electrons to the anode surface, which leads to an enhancement of both the braking and characteristic components of primary radiation. This process appears to play an important role because backscattered electrons account for tens of percent of the number of those incident on anode, and a maximum in their energy distribution with increasing atomic number of anode approaches the energy of primary electrons. We have obtained the expression for spectral intensity of primary radiation from X-ray tubes with grounded cathode which takes into account the return of backscattered electrons to the anode surface and their energy distribution. Calculations of spectral distributions were performed for different anode materials. Results were compared with those obtained at high voltage on the X- ray tube's cathode. As would be expected, the contribution of the effect under consideration increases with increasing atomic number of anode material, and for some spectral intensities at high Z it is as high as ten percent or more. Furthermore, the spectral distribution of braking radiation is markedly distorted when compared to the case of grounded anode, and characteristic lines increase in intensity. Further investigation involves assessing the influence of the detected distortions on the accuracy of X-ray fluorescence determination of element contents in materials of complex composition. (author)

  8. Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniaghe, Paschal O; Adie, Gilbert U

    2015-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes are image display units found in computer monitors and televisions. In recent years, cathode ray tubes have been generated as waste owing to the introduction of newer and advanced technologies in image displays, such as liquid crystal displays and high definition televisions, among others. Generation and subsequent disposal of end-of-life cathode ray tubes presents a challenge owing to increasing volumes and high lead content embedded in the funnel and neck sections of the glass. Disposal in landfills and open dumping are anti-environmental practices considering the large-scale contamination of environmental media by the potential of toxic metals leaching from glass. Mitigating such environmental contamination will require sound management strategies that are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. This review covers existing and emerging management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tubes. An in-depth analysis of available technologies (glass smelting, detoxification of cathode ray tube glass, lead extraction from cathode ray tube glass) revealed that most of the techniques are environmentally friendly, but are largely confined to either laboratory scale, or are often limited owing to high cost to mount, or generate secondary pollutants, while a closed-looped method is antiquated. However, recycling in cementitious systems (cement mortar and concrete) gives an added advantage in terms of quantity of recyclable cathode ray tube glass at a given time, with minimal environmental and economic implications. With significant quantity of waste cathode ray tube glass being generated globally, cementitious systems could be economically and environmentally acceptable as a sound management practice for cathode ray tube glass, where other technologies may not be applicable.

  9. Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniaghe, Paschal O; Adie, Gilbert U

    2015-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes are image display units found in computer monitors and televisions. In recent years, cathode ray tubes have been generated as waste owing to the introduction of newer and advanced technologies in image displays, such as liquid crystal displays and high definition televisions, among others. Generation and subsequent disposal of end-of-life cathode ray tubes presents a challenge owing to increasing volumes and high lead content embedded in the funnel and neck sections of the glass. Disposal in landfills and open dumping are anti-environmental practices considering the large-scale contamination of environmental media by the potential of toxic metals leaching from glass. Mitigating such environmental contamination will require sound management strategies that are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. This review covers existing and emerging management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tubes. An in-depth analysis of available technologies (glass smelting, detoxification of cathode ray tube glass, lead extraction from cathode ray tube glass) revealed that most of the techniques are environmentally friendly, but are largely confined to either laboratory scale, or are often limited owing to high cost to mount, or generate secondary pollutants, while a closed-looped method is antiquated. However, recycling in cementitious systems (cement mortar and concrete) gives an added advantage in terms of quantity of recyclable cathode ray tube glass at a given time, with minimal environmental and economic implications. With significant quantity of waste cathode ray tube glass being generated globally, cementitious systems could be economically and environmentally acceptable as a sound management practice for cathode ray tube glass, where other technologies may not be applicable. PMID:26463115

  10. A Century-Old Question: Does a Crookes Paddle Wheel Cathode Ray Tube Demonstrate That Electrons Carry Momentum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, T. E.; Calisa, Vaishnavi

    2014-01-01

    In 1879, in the midst of the debate between English and continental scientists about the nature of cathode rays, William Crookes conducted an experiment in which a small mill or "paddle wheel" was pushed along tracks inside a cathode ray tube (CRT) (similar to that shown in Fig. 1) when connected to a high-voltage induction coil. Crookes…

  11. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass.

  12. Thermogravimetric Investigation of the Lead Volatilization from Waste Cathode-Ray Tube Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Grause, Guido; Takahashi, Kenshi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lead-containing cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass is an important environmental issue. One approach is the removal of lead by chloride volatilization. In the present work, the reaction of CRT glass with PVC as the chlorinating agent and Ca(OH)2 as the chlorine absorber was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. Seven reaction steps occurring at different temperatures were identified as dehydrochlorination of PVC/HCl absorption, CO2 absorption, Ca(OH)2 dehydration...

  13. Calibration of medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tube displays for the purpose of board examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Evanoff, Michael G.; Roehrig, Hans; Giffords, Robert S.; Capp, M. Paul; Rovinelli, Richard J.; Hartmann, William H.; Merritt, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses calibration and set-up procedures for medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tubes (CRTs) taken in preparation of the oral portion of the board examination of the American Board of Radiology (ABR). The board examinations took place in more than 100 rooms of a hotel. There was one display-station (a computer and the associated CRT display) in each of the hotel rooms used for the examinations. The examinations covered the radiologic specialties cardiopulmonary, musculosk...

  14. Calibration of medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tube displays for the purpose of board examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, M G; Roehrig, H; Giffords, R S; Capp, M P; Rovinelli, R J; Hartmann, W H; Merritt, C

    2001-06-01

    This report discusses calibration and set-up procedures for medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tubes (CRTs) taken in preparation of the oral portion of the board examination of the American Board of Radiology (ABR). The board examinations took place in more than 100 rooms of a hotel. There was one display-station (a computer and the associated CRT display) in each of the hotel rooms used for the examinations. The examinations covered the radiologic specialties cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, vascular, pediatric, and genitourinary. The software used for set-up and calibration was the VeriLUM 4.0 package from Image Smiths in Germantown, MD. The set-up included setting minimum luminance and maximum luminance, as well as positioning of the CRT in each examination room with respect to reflections of roomlights. The calibration for the grey scale rendition was done meeting the Digital Imaging and communication in Medicine (DICOM) 14 Standard Display Function. We describe these procedures, and present the calibration data in. tables and graphs, listing initial values of minimum luminance, maximum luminance, and grey scale rendition (DICOM 14 standard display function). Changes of these parameters over the duration of the examination were observed and recorded on 11 monitors in a particular room. These changes strongly suggest that all calibrated CRTs be monitored over the duration of the examination. In addition, other CRT performance data affecting image quality such as spatial resolution should be included in set-up and image quality-control procedures. PMID:11442114

  15. The chemistry of artificial lighting devices lamps, phosphors and cathode ray tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    1993-01-01

    Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufactur

  16. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  17. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  18. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  19. Evaluation of Cathode-Ray Tube protection for the electronic tabular display subsystem (ETABS) engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. R.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the safety evaluation of the 25-inch (diagonal) rectangular cathode-ray tube (CRT) that is used in the engineering model of the Electronic Tabular Display Subsystem (ETABS). An evaluation of ETABS will be performed at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center for possible application in FAA Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). The safety evaluation included standard industry pressure testing and special implosion testing on 12 CRT samples. Eleven of the twelve CRT samples satisfactorily met the safety requirements for both the pressure and implosion testing. One CRT cracked when subjected to 45 pounds per square inch (psi) of air pressure; however, the CRT did not implode. The 25-inch rectangular CRT will therefore provide a high degree of safety for use in each of the two tabular displays of the ETABS engineering model.

  20. 40 CFR 261.39 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Broken Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complete until any such claim is resolved in accordance with 40 CFR 260.2. (v) The export of CRTs is... CFR part 266, subpart C instead of the requirements of this section. ... Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. 261.39 Section 261.39 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet...

  2. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  3. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m3, 1504.3 μg/m3, 434.9 μg/m3, 576.3 μg/m3 and 2894.3 μg/m3 respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m3, 848.2 μg/m3, 698.4 μg/m3, 549.3 μg/m3 and 3437.9 μg/m3 for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels

  4. Water-soluble lead in cathode ray tube funnel glass melted in a reductive atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the reduction-melting process, lead can be recovered from cathode ray tube funnel glass (PbO=25wt%); however, resulting glass residues still contain approximately 1-2wt% of unrecovered lead. For environmental protection in the residue disposal or recycling, it is important to evaluate the quantities of water-soluble species among the unrecovered lead. This study examined water-soluble lead species generated in the reduction-melting process of the funnel glass and factors determining their generation. In the reduction-melting, metallic lead was generated by reducing lead oxides in the glass, and a part of the metallic lead remained in the glass residue. Such unrecovered metallic lead can dissolve in water depending on its pH level and was regarded as water-soluble lead. When 10g Na2CO3 was added to 20g funnel glass during reduction-melting, the resulting glass contained high concentrations of sodium. In a water leaching of the glass, the obtained leachate was alkalized by the sodium-rich glass (pH=12.7-13.0). The unrecovered metallic lead in the glass was extracted in the alkalized leachate. The quantity of the unrecovered metallic lead (water-soluble lead) in the glass decreased when the melting time, melting temperature, and carbon dosage were controlled during reduction-melting. PMID:27209518

  5. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-30

    Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  6. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-30

    Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production. PMID:21705136

  7. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Carbonari; Luciane Gonçalves; Daniela Roth; Patrick Moreira; Ricardo Fernández; Maria da Graça Martino-Roth

    2005-01-01

    It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs) has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs ...

  8. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-15

    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.

  9. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%. PMID:26022339

  10. Factors influencing leaching of PBDEs from waste cathode ray tube plastic housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, William A; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Samples of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) plastic housings were exposed to Milli-Q® water containing dissolved humic matter at concentrations of 0, 100 and 1000mgL(-1) as leaching fluid under laboratory conditions, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined in the resulting leachate. Despite the relatively hydrophobic physicochemical properties of PBDEs, concentrations of ƩPBDEs in the leachate from the leaching experiments in this study ranged from 14,000 to 200,000ngL(-1). PBDE leaching appears to be a second order process, whereby a period of initially intense dissolution of more labile PBDEs is followed by a slower stage corresponding to external diffusion of the soluble residue in the material. The bulk of transfer of PBDEs to the leaching fluid occurs within the first 6h of contact, during which time we suggest that the most labile PBDEs are "washed" off the surface of the CRT plastics. The predominant congeners in the chips were BDE-209 (2600mgkg(-1)) and BDE 183 (220mgkg(-1)). The impacts on PBDE leaching of leachate pH and temperature were also examined. Increasing the temperature of leaching fluids from 20 to 80°C, enhances the leachability of BDE-209 and BDE-99 from plastics. In all cases, the alkaline pH8.5 examined, resulted in the greatest PBDE concentrations in leachate. Agitation of the waste/leachate mixture enhances PBDE leaching from CRT plastics. Potential evidence for debromination of heavy congeners to the lower brominated and more bioavailable BDEs was observed. Specifically, BDEs-47, -85 and -100 were detected in the leachates, but were absent from the CRT plastics themselves. PMID:27436776

  11. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by generating the sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is an environmental problem of old television sets. Removal of the lead from CRT funnel glass can prevent its release into the environment and allow its reuse. In this research, we reference the dry progress productive technology of sodium silicate, the waste CRT glass was dealt with sodium silicate frit melted and sodium silicate frit dissolved. Adding a certain amount of Na ₂CO₃to the waste CRT glass bases on the material composition and content of it, then the specific modulus of sodium silicate frit is obtained by melting progress. The silicon, potassium and sodium compounds of the sodium silicate frit are dissolved under the conditions of high temperature and pressure by using water as solvent, which shows the tendency that different temperature, pressure, liquid-solid ratio and dissolving time have effect on the result of dissolving. At 175°C(0.75MPa), liquid-solid ratio is 1.5:1, the dissolving time is 1h, the dissolution rate of sodium silicate frit is 44.725%. By using sodium sulfide to separate hydrolysis solution and to collect lead compounds in the solution, the recovery rate of lead in dissolving reached 100% and we can get clean sodium silicate and high purity of lead compounds. The method presented in this research can recycle not only the lead but also the sodium, potassium and other inorganic minerals in CRT glass and can obtain the comprehensive utilization of leaded glass.

  12. Optical profiles of cathode ray tube and liquid crystal display monitors: implication in cutaneous phototoxicity in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tim C.; Pendyala, Srinivas; Scherrer, Larry; Li, Buhong; Glazner, Gregory F.; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical reports suggest that overexposure to light emissions generated from cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) color monitors after topical or systemic administration of a photosensitizer could cause noticeable skin phototoxicity. In this study, we examined the light emission profiles (optical irradiance, spectral irradiance) of CRT and LCD monitors under simulated movie and video game modes. Results suggest that peak emissions and integrated fluence generated from monitors are clinically relevant and therefore prolonged exposure to these light sources at a close distance should be avoided after the administration of a photosensitizer or phototoxic drug. PMID:23669681

  13. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE. Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009. These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of toxic materials and, at the same time, they are an important source of recyclable materials, and especially valuable metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, Zn. Nowadays there are various approaches for the treatment and recycling of WEEE, involving pyro-, hydro- and bio-metallurgical processes (Cui and Zhang, 2008. Among WEEE, cathode ray tubes (CRT displays, used mainly in computer monitors and television sets, are regarded as the most polluting fraction of all WEEE (Nnorom et al., 2011. CRT recycling represents a challenge due to their high accumulation rate, proportional to the evolution of modern technologies (flat panel displays, their high content of toxic and noxious substances (heavy metals and organic compounds, improper storage, and the lack of a complete, pollution-free recycling solution. Previous studies have shown that some CRT metallic components (electron gun - EG, shadow mask contain important amounts of Ni (25 – 45% and Fe (50 – 70%, and small quantities of Mn, Co and Cr (Robotin et al., 2011. Ni and Ni alloys play an important role in modern technology, especially due to their magnetic and anticorrosion properties. Unfortunately, when exposed inappropriately, Ni can have negative environmental effects and can be harmful to human health (Denkhaus and Salnikow, 2002. In this context, Ni recycling from electronic waste is important for environmental and health reasons, and, at the same time, Ni recycling could be financially sustainable due to an

  14. Reddish Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence in KY3F10:Sm3+for X-Ray or Cathode Ray Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Su; ZHONG Hai-Yang; SUN Jia-Shi; CHENG Li-Hong; LI Xiang-Ping; CHEN Bao-Jiu

    2012-01-01

    We report a reddish orange long-lasting phosphor of KY3F10:Sm3+ synthesized by a solid-state reaction for applications in x-ray or cathode-ray tubes.The spectrum contains a group of reddish orange emission lines originating from 4G5/2 → 6HJ transitions of Sm3+.The Judd-Ofelt theory is introduced to analyze the optical transitions of the Sm3+ ions.Moreover,phosphorescence characteristics are discussed.The energy charging and release processes of the phosphor are measured and the phosphorescence decay time with 10% of initial intensity is about 40.7 seconds.The order of kinetics and the activation energy are obtained according to the thermoluminescence curve.The phosphorescence mechanism is proposed based on structural analysis and thermoluminescence glow curve measurement.%We report a reddish orange long-lasting phosphor of KY3F10:Sm3+ synthesized by a solid-state reaction for applications in x-ray or cathode-ray tubes. The spectrum contains a group of reddish orange emission lines originating from 4G5/2 → 6Hj transitions of Sm3+. The Judd-Ofelt theory is introduced to analyze the optical transitions of the Sm3+ ions. Moreover, phosphorescence characteristics are discussed. The energy charging and release processes of the phosphor are measured and the phosphorescence decay time with 10% of initial intensity is about 40.7 seconds. The order of kinetics and the activation energy are obtained according to the thermoluminescence curve. The phosphorescence mechanism is proposed based on structural analysis and thermoluminescence glow curve measurement.

  15. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carbonari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs and 20 unexposed control subjects matched for age and sex. Genetic damage was assessed by examining the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities such as binucleated and broken egg cells. Although there were no differences regarding binucleated cells between exposed and control individuals our analysis revealed a significantly higher frequency of micronuclei (p < 0.001 and broken egg cells (p < 0.05 in individuals exposed to VDMs as compared to unexposed. We also found that the differences between individuals exposed to VDMs were significantly related to the sex of the individuals and that there was an increase in skin, central nervous system and ocular disease in the exposed individuals. These preliminary results indicate that microcomputer workers exposed to VDMs are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage and should periodically undergo biological monitoring.

  16. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl2 volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH)2 as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg−1. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl2 was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH)2 as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH)2 before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2 reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl2 and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH)2 was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg−1. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses

  17. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a Circular X-ray tube: Its image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and the image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, W. S.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce an effective imaging system for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a circular X-ray tube, the so-called circular-DTS (CDTS) system, and its image reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method for low-dose, high-accuracy X-ray imaging. Here, the X-ray tube is equipped with a series of cathodes distributed around a rotating anode, and the detector remains stationary throughout the image acquisition. We considered a TV-based reconstruction algorithm that exploited the sparsity of the image with substantially high image accuracy. We implemented the algorithm for the CDTS geometry and successfully reconstructed images of high accuracy. The image characteristics were investigated quantitatively by using some figures of merit, including the universal-quality index (UQI) and the depth resolution. For selected tomographic angles of 20, 40, and 60°, the corresponding UQI values in the tomographic view were estimated to be about 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98, and the depth resolutions were about 4.6, 3.1, and 1.2 voxels in full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a next-generation dental or breast X-ray imaging system.

  18. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk, E-mail: radiosugar@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye-Seul, E-mail: radiohesugar@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywchoi@keri.re.kr [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, JaeGu, E-mail: jgchoi88@paran.com [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Yong-Chun, E-mail: ycrhee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging.

  19. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging

  20. Reduction-melting combined with a Na₂CO₃ flux recycling process for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    With large quantity of flux (Na2CO3), lead can be recovered from the funnel glass of waste cathode-ray tubes via reduction-melting at 1000°C. To reduce flux cost, a technique to recover added flux from the generated oxide phase is also important in order to recycle the flux recovered from the reduction-melting process. In this study, the phase separation of sodium and the crystallization of water-soluble sodium silicates were induced after the reduction-melting process to enhance the leachability of sodium in the oxide phase and to extract the sodium from the phase for the recovery of Na2CO3 as flux. A reductive atmosphere promoted the phase separation and crystallization, and the leachability of sodium from the oxide phase was enhanced. The optimum temperature and treatment time for increasing the leachability were 700°C and 2h, respectively. After treatment, more than 90% of the sodium in the oxide phase was extracted in water. NaHCO3 can be recovered by carbonization of the solution containing sodium ions using carbon dioxide gas, decomposed to Na2CO3 at 50°C and recycled for use in the reduction-melting process. PMID:24816522

  1. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  2. X-ray tubes study and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, D

    1990-01-01

    This thesis contain both theoretical and experimental works. Theoretical aspect includes X-Ray tubes case study and design principles, in the introduced design process, anode-cathode distance, vacuum needed, filament size, anode face angle and shape and size of focusing electrodes can be found. A method for specification of tungsten lager thickness on anode is also introduced. Using computer simulation, electron trajectory between cathode-anode is obtained, This work is presented in the first International Conference on Control and Modeling, Tehran, 1990. Experimental work contains manufacturing more than 10 tubes and test each of them. One of these tubes can with stand up to 50 KV. Filament can be heated by passing a 2.1 A current. In these conditions anode current is 1.2 m A. Using this tube, some radiographs have been taken.

  3. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  4. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  5. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Potting material. ► Doped alumina. ► Non-shrinkable. ► Dispenser cathode. ► Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  6. A glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube based on carbon nanotube emitter for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seung Jun; Jeong, Jaeik; Ahn, Jeung Sun; Park, Hunkuk; Kwak, Junghwan; Noh, Eunkyong; Paik, Sanghyun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Ryu, Jehwang

    2016-04-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a carbon nanotube based a glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube without vacuum pump. The x-ray tube consists of four electrodes with anode, focuser, gate, and cathode electrode. The shape of cathode is rectangular for isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The obtained x-ray images show clearly micrometer scale.

  7. X-ray tube arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  8. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kalyan S.; Ghosh, Sumana; Dandapat, Nandadulal [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Datta, Someswar, E-mail: sdatta@cgcri.res.in [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Raju, R.S. [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doped alumina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-shrinkable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispenser cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  9. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Marzec, J; Pawlowski, Z; Konarzewski, B

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. We have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, our approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors. (7 refs).

  10. Effect of Cathode Ray Tubes Glass Sand as Fine Aggregate on Properties of Mortar%废弃阴极射线管玻璃砂对砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 孙伟

    2012-01-01

    The discarded cathode ray tubes glass represents an environmental problem due to the high content of lead. In this paper, fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used as mineral admixtures, the fresh, mechanical properties, the drying shrinkage, alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion and lead leaching properties of mortar with ground cathode ray tube glass sand (MG) fine aggregate at replacement levels of 0, 30%, 60% and 100% were investigated. The results show that the initial slump flow diame- ter and wet density of fresh mortar increase with the MG glass replacement level from 0 to 100%, the compressive strength, the flex- ural strength and static modulus of elasticity and the drying shrinkage values of mortar increase at the initial stages and trend towards the gradual decrease. The mortar with MG glass sand of 60% had higher mechanical properties and larger drying shrinkage values. The ASR expansion and the leaching value of lead in mortar increased with MG replacement levels from 0% to 100%. However, the ASR expansion and the leaching value of lead were on the safety range. The mortar with MG glass by adding mineral admixture could be used as a recycled material for the construction material in dry environments.%废弃阴极射线管(cathoderaytubes,CRT)玻璃因其含有有害物质铅而导致严重环境问题,为此,使用粉煤灰、磨细矿渣作为矿物掺合料,研究了磨细阴极射线管玻璃(groundcathoderaytubeglass,MG)取代0、30%、60%、100%(质量分数,下同)河砂细骨料时砂浆新拌性能、力学性能、干缩性能、碱骨料反应(alkali-silicareaction,ASR)膨胀性能、金属铅浸出值。结果表明:随着MG取代比例从0变化到100%,砂浆初始流动度与容重不段增加,硬化砂浆抗压强度、抗折强度和静弹性模量、干缩性能先增加后逐渐减小;MG取代比例为60%时,砂浆具有较高力学性能和

  11. Study of the three-step photoionization of uranium using a hollow cathode discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hollow cathode discharge (HCD) tube as a spectral light source has been developed. Because any element including refractory metals can be atomized by the cathode sputtering effect in HCD, a simple and reliable atomic vapor source produced by HCD has been widely used in laser spectroscopy. To the authors' knowledge, there is no previous work on the photoionization processes of metal atoms using an HCD tube. Here the authors report their study of the resonant three-step ionization of U in a homemade HCD tube

  12. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  13. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  14. The study of neutron burst shape of a neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishnyaev, Evgeny; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    A slim-shaped portable DD-neutron generator is developed at Budker institute of Nuclear Physics. The generator is a combination of Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier and a sealed gas-filled neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode. Neutron burst shape in pulsed mode of neutron tube operation is measured with stroboscopic time spectrometry, implemented on scintillation detector, and modeled with Comsol Script 1.3 and Comsol Multiphysics 3.5. Modeling appears to be in good agreement with experimental results. Measured pulse rise and fall times are 110 ns and 100 ns respectively.

  15. Reference factor F(CT)Q and X ray tube ionization yield R(TUBE)Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational facility procedures in diagnostic radiology standardization and calibration, through the relation between the X ray tube current and the ionization chamber current in a radiation quality Q, shown the reference factor F(CT)Q as the reality estimate to the X ray tube ionization yield, R(TUBE)Q . (author)

  16. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  17. Development of a microfocus x-ray tube with multiple excitation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Shuji; Krämer, Markus; Taniguchi, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    A microfocus x-ray tube with multiple targets and an electron gun with a focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter has been developed. The electron gun contains a LaB6 cathode and an Einzel lens. The x-ray tube can be operated at 50 W (50 kV, 1 mA) and has three targets, namely, Cr, W, and Rh on the anode that can be selected completely by moving the anode position. A focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter can be achieved at 0.5 mA current. As demonstration of the usability of a multiexcitation x-ray tube, the fluorescence x-rays have been measured using a powder specimen mixed of TiO2, Co, and Zr of the same quantity. The differences of excitation efficiency have clearly appeared according to the change in excitation source. From the results discussed here, it can be expected that the presented x-ray tube will be a powerful tool in microx-ray fluorescence spectrometers and various x-ray instruments.

  18. Studies on the hyperfine structure of La I in a hollow-cathode discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfine structures (HFS) of La I are reported using Doppler-free intermodulated fluorescence, Doppler-limited laser-induced fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy in a homemade hollow-cathode discharge tube. The A and B constants for the levels at 20197.34, 21447.86 cm-1 and A constants for the levels at 19379.40, 18156.97, 24910.38 and 24409.68 cm-1 are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time. A linewidth less than 40 MHz and the different resolutions of fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy are observed. (author)

  19. Correlation of cathode parameters of high power grid tubes with material characteristics of cathode-grid units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to increase the longevity of dispenser cathodes is based on reducing the Barium evaporation. This can be achieved by the decrease of the reaction 'activity' of the emitter impregnant with the porous tungsten (W) body, which supplies free Barium from the interior of the porous cathode to its surface

  20. In situ X-ray studies of film cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Synchrotron X-rays are used to study in operando the structural and chemical changes of LSM and LSCF film cathodes during half-cell operations. •A-site and B-site cations actively segregate or desegregate on the changes of temperature, pO2, and electrochemical potential. •Chemical lattice expansions show that oxygen-cathode interface is the primary source of rate-limiting processes. •The surface and subsurface of the LSM and LSCF films have different oxidation-states due to vacancy concentration changes. •Liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening processes of cathode materials into porous YSZ electrolyte backbone were monitored by USAXS. -- Abstract: Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques have been used to study in situ the structural and chemical changes of film cathodes during half-cell operations. The X-ray techniques used include X-ray reflectivity (XR), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), high-resolution diffraction (HRD), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The epitaxial thin film model cathodes for XR, TXRF, and HRD measurements are made by pulse laser deposition and porous film cathodes for USAX measurements are made by screen printing technique. The experimental results reviewed here include A-site and B-site segregations, lattice expansion, oxidation-state changes during cell operations and liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening of cathode to electrolyte backbone

  1. High speed electrostatic photomultiplier tube for the 1.06 micrometer wavelength. Cup and slat dynode chain combined with flat cathode and coax output produces 0.25 nsec rise time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Varian cup and slat dynode chain was modified to have a flat cathode. These modifications were incorporated in an all-electrostatic photomultiplier tube having a rise time of 0.25 n sec. The tube delivered under the contract had a flat S-20 opaque cathode with a useful diameter of 5 mm. The design of the tube is such that a III to V cathode support is mounted in place of the existing cathode substrate. This cathode support is designed to accept a transferred III to V cathode and maintain the cathode surface in the same position as the S-20 photocathode.

  2. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  3. Digital X-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying source voltage and filtering (predicting the required dynamic range for the detector); evaluating CsI:Tl, CdWO4 and scintillating glass as image converters; recommending image enhancement algorithms. The LLNL modeling results guided the design and experimental elements of the project. The Laboratory's unique array of sources and detectors was employed to resolve specific technical questions. Our image processing expertise was applied to the selection of enhancement tools for image display

  4. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, Ron; Jackson, Eric; Gomez, Joseph; Light, Doug; Follett, Peter; Simmons, Greg; Higbee, Brad

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the use of x-ray tube based irradiators as alternatives to gamma sources for laboratory scale irradiation. Irradiators were designed with sample placement in closest possible proximity to the source, allowing high dose rates for small samples. Designs using 1000 W x-ray tubes in single tube, double tube, and four tube configurations are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small samples, demonstrating feasibility for laboratory based irradiators for research purposes. Dose rates of 9.76, 5.45, and 1.7 Gy/min/tube were measured at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice at 100 keV, 70 keV, and 40 keV, respectively. Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container. For 2.54 cm diameter sample containers containing adult Navel Orangeworm, dose rates of 50-60 Gy/min were measured in the four tube system.

  5. Reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} and X ray tube ionization yield R{sub (TUBE)Q}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: dansq@on.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The operational facility procedures in diagnostic radiology standardization and calibration, through the relation between the X ray tube current and the ionization chamber current in a radiation quality Q, shown the reference factor F{sub (CT)Q} as the reality estimate to the X ray tube ionization yield, R{sub (TUBE)Q} . (author)

  6. Determination of tube voltage in X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next to filtration, tube voltage or tube potential difference is one of the most significant parameters for the quality of X-rays, especially with a view to its absolute value, its variation during exposure and its long-term constancy. Voltage control is major component pf quality assurance in diagnostic radiography. Various non-invasive methods are available for voltage measurements. The article reports the experience gained with the kV-indicating cassette, the X-ray analyses (NERO system) and the multi-channel analyser. (orig./HP)

  7. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  8. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott [Iowa State University, Center for NDE, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  9. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  10. Correction of the X-ray tube spot movement as a tool for improvement of the micro-tomography quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays X-ray tubes in conjunction with digital pixelated imagers are standardly utilized for high resolution radiography with several micrometre or even sub-micrometre resolution. Achievement of the same resolution in X-ray computed tomography is a more demanding task due to the time-dependent tube electron beam drift as well as thermal deformations of the tube. In our work, the beam drift caused by the long-term stabilization of the tube electron optics was measured by observation of radiographs of 75 μm big tin ball rigidly mounted onto the tube head. The tube spot movement comprising both the beam drift and the movement caused by thermal deformations of the tube and its fixture was evaluated measuring the virtual movement of the inspected object. For this purpose, radiographs were recorded periodically at the same object position. Both the beam drift as well as spot movement were evaluated with subpixel resolution using digital image correlation tools. It was proven that the quality of a tomographic reconstruction can be significantly improved by the correction of the spot movement

  11. 21 CFR 892.5930 - Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly. 892.5930 Section 892.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... assembly. (a) Identification. A therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly is an x-ray generating tube...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1760 - Diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly. 892.1760 Section 892.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... assembly. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly is an x-ray generating tube...

  13. Improvements in or relating to X-ray generating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a novel X-ray generating tube for use in computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a rotating anode which can translate along the axis of rotation thereby producing a scan in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the anode. Rotation and translation of the anode are achieved by induction between a stator and a rotor. In a development of the anode, a ''helter-skelter'' form is used for the anode surface; rotation of this anode will cause the generated X-ray beam to scan in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation. (U.K.)

  14. X-ray flat panel detectors and X-ray tubes contributing to development of X-ray diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray flat panel detectors (FPDs) and X-ray tubes are key devices allowing X-ray diagnostic systems to support more sophisticated medical care. FPDs provide valuable information for the diagnosis of various diseases through the conversion of X-ray images of the human body into electronic signals, while X-ray tubes are used in a wide range of applications such as computed tomography (CT), angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and dental systems. Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices Co., Ltd. has developed and commercialized FPDs providing high-quality diagnostic X-ray images with low dose exposure through the development of cutting-edge technologies including a fine crystal formation technology for cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators, thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with photodiodes, and so on. In the field of X-ray tubes that can generate a high output of X-rays, we have developed a liquid metal hydrodynamic bearing (LM bearing) technology for various diagnostic systems including medical CT systems with a long lifetime and high rotation speed, and cardiovascular imaging systems with quiet operation. Furthermore, LM bearing technology reduces the burden on the environment by replacing insulating oil with water coolant for the cooling system and making the X-ray tubes more compact. (author)

  15. Automated Quality Assurance of Medical Digital X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance of the x-ray equipment includes a set of various tests among which are installation and periodic exams performed by qualified engineers as well as daily routine tests carried out by the medical staff of the Radiology Department. As a rule, the decision concerning the applicability of the x-ray equipment for using in clinical studies is made on the basis of the routine tests results. The presented method is based on the detector's output signals, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Modulation Transfer Function evaluation in automated way using the simple test-object's digital image registered with given geometry and x-ray exposure parameters settings. Rectangular 20 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick well-finished steel edge (for general x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy systems) or 2 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick aluminum well-finished edge (for digital x-ray mammography systems) can be used as a test equipment. Relevant to the decision concerning the x-ray device operation status are the parameters: deviations from the reference levels of the tube voltage and mAs as well as internal detector's noise variance and detector's gain deviations. Everyday testing procedure includes the following steps. On the first step the roentgenographer places the test-object at the center of the detector's surface, makes an exposure with specified parameters setting and geometry and after this, test results are displayed on the work station monitor or console screen in automatic way. In order to provide an automated regime of the presenting algorithm, the software must be integrated with the program module intended for the x-ray device control. The use of the presented method in clinical practice provides the reliable daily monitoring of the x-ray equipment operation status prior to its utilizing for patient diagnostic process. As a rule, it will take not more than 3-5 minutes for the roentgenographer to complete the routine

  16. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a 252Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA

  17. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  18. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  19. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  20. YouTube and Academic Libraries: Building a Digital Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Although still a relatively new technology with less than 10 years of history, YouTube's extensive reach and integration in mainstream society as well as lifelong learning habits of online users cannot be understated. This article examines how the YouTube collection at the University of British Columbia Library's Irving K. Barber Learning Centre…

  1. Avoiding the Digital Abyss: Getting Started in the Classroom with YouTube, Digital Stories, and Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Rebecca; Wedwick, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a rural middle school teacher's use of YouTube, digital stories, and blogs in a language arts curriculum. The authors also share the voices of middle school students as they learn through this technology in the classroom. Although a wide variety of technology integration exists in this middle school language…

  2. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan; Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M A; Mittal, Vijay Kumar; Mittal, Raj

    2010-10-01

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found approximately (1-100)ppm for K and L excitations and approximately (200-700)ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken. PMID:20570160

  3. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India); Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M.A. [Laser Electronic Support Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore (India); Mittal, Vijay Kumar [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India); Mittal, Raj, E-mail: rmsingla@yahoo.co [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found {approx}(1-100) ppm for K and L excitations and {approx}(200-700) ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken.

  4. Research on the Relationship of X-ray Tube Structure and Focal Spot%X射线管结构与焦斑关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇志; 沙京田; 任翔; 徐卫平; 卓琳

    2013-01-01

    X射线管是X射线机的心脏,是产生X射线的源泉[1].其焦斑大小及分布对整机图像清晰度起着决定性的作用.通过对X射线管结构特点、焦斑产生机理、电极结构与焦斑相关性实验的测试数据及理论分析等多方面的论述,探讨了X射线管结构尺寸对焦斑的影响.通过系列实验及理论分析表明:X射线管阴极结构对焦斑有巨大的影响.借助计算机模拟仿真计算,合理设计阴极结构,能够获取大小适中、分布均匀的焦斑,从而达到改善X射线机图像清晰度的目的.%X-ray tube is the core part of the X-ray machine and the source[1]of X-ray. The focus size and distribution play a decisive role in the definition of the X-ray machine. In relation to the X-ray tube structure characteristics, focus formation mechanism, the test experimental data of the correlation of the electrode structure with focusing, theoretical analysis and so on, the effect caused by X-ray tube structure and size are discussed. A series of experiments and theoretical analysis shows that cathode structure of X-ray tube has significant effect upon focus. With the help of simulation calculation, the reasonable cathode structure is obtained to produce uniform and moderate size focus, thus to improve image-definition purpose of X-ray machine.

  5. Impulse electron gun with plasma cathode for realization of large diameter tube-shaped beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of investigations of a plasma electron source based on the gas discharge in a coaxial system of electrodes with longitudinal magnetic field. The examination is fulfilled from the viewpoint of applying the source as a plasma cathode for hybrid plasma-waveguide slow-wave structures on the basis of a disk-loaded coaxial. The source is optimized in order to get a powerful (up to 100 kW) nonrelativistic electron beam with the annular cross-section of a large diameter in the regime of relatively long current pulses (up to 0.2 ms) under the gas pressure ∼ 5 centre dot 10-4 mm Hg in the area of the discharge burning

  6. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  7. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, George J. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Harris, William H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Lombardo, Jeffrey J. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Izzo, Jr., John R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Chiu, W. K. S. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tanasini, Pietro [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Cantoni, Marco [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Van herle, Jan [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Comninellis, Christos [Ecole Ploytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Andrews, Joy C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liu, Yijin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pianetta, Piero [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chu, Yong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-03-24

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  8. Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft X-ray generator

    OpenAIRE

    Ounoughi, Nabil; Mavon, Christophe; Belafrites, Abdelfettah; Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel; Fromm, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the Ultra Soft X-ray (USX, 1.5 keV, Al Kα) photon beam of a customized lab bench cold cathode generator. Within this generator, the electron beam is slowed down in a thin aluminium foil (16 μm) supported by an easily exchangeable anode. It is shown that the thickness of the foil and the anode configuration determine the spatial distribution and the fluence rate of the photon beam, whereas accelerating voltage determines both fluence rate and energy spec...

  9. Using computational modeling to compare X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda Cassiano, Deisemar; Arruda Correa, Samanda Cristine; de Souza, Edmilson Monteiro; da Silva, Ademir Xaxier; Pereira Peixoto, José Guilherme; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The Practical Peak Voltage-PPV has been adopted to measure the voltage applied to an X-ray tube. The PPV was recommended by the IEC document and accepted and published in the TRS no. 457 code of practice. The PPV is defined and applied to all forms of waves and is related to the spectral distribution of X-rays and to the properties of the image. The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. An X-ray tube for Dental Radiology (operated from a single phase power supply) and an X-ray tube used as a reference (supplied from a constant potential power supply) were used in simulations across the energy range of interest of 40 kV to 100 kV. Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the tubes involved.

  10. Pulse profile digitization system for TACTIC γ-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TACTIC gamma-ray telescope deploys an array of 4 elements to detect TeV (1012 eV) gamma-ray emissions from celestial sources. These gamma-rays are detected in the presence of an overwhelmingly large background of cosmic-ray events. In order to exploit the subtle differences in the pulse profiles of the gamma-ray and cosmic-ray initiated atmospheric Cherenkov events for the purpose of event segregation, we have recently incorporated a 1GS/Sec pulse profile digitizer in the data acquisition system of one of the Vertex elements of the array. The details of the digitization system and preliminary results obtained are discussed in the paper. (author)

  11. Digital x-ray analysis for monitoring fracture healing

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray based evaluation of different stages of fracture healing is a well established clinical standard. However, several studies have shown plain radiography alone to be an unreliable method to assess healing. The advent of digital X-ray systems provides the potential to perform quantitative analysis on X-ray images without disrupting normal clinical practice. Two aspects were explored in this study. The first was the measurement of mechanical fracture stiffness under four point b...

  12. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  13. The Influence of Tube Potential on Periodontal Bone Level Measurements and Subjective Image Quality Using a Digital Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhilde Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the measurement accuracy and subjective image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis when using two X-ray tube voltages with a digital photostimulable storage phosphor sensor.Material and Methods: A digital photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP sensor (Vistascan and a multipulse X-ray generator (Prostyle Intra with two tube voltages were used in this study. The front, premolar and molar region of two adult human cadaver skulls jaws were imaged using the X-ray tube at 63 kV and 70 kV, both at 8 mA and decreasing exposure times (160 ms, 120 ms and 80 ms. A standardized exposure protocol containing waxed occlusal keys and an aiming device ensured proper and reproducible beam alignment. Three observers assessed the digital radiographs for 31 selected periodontal bone loss sites. Radiographic measurements were compared to physical measurements (Standard. Subjective ratings of lamina dura, crater defect and furcation involvement visibility, contrast perception and bone quality were also performed.Results: Multiple regression equation of the variables kV and exposure time demonstrated no significant difference for the periodontal bone level measurements (P > 0.05. In 90.3% and 96.7% of the measurements for 70 kV and 63 kV respectively, deviation was within 1 mm. The subjective ratings produced similar findings in terms of image quality for both tube voltages and the three exposure times.Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that tube voltages of 63 kV and 70 kV provided similar accuracy and image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis.

  14. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  15. Some characteristics of the digitization pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of the digitization output pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes were studied under various operation conditions using square ultra-high voltage pulses. Properties reported by previous workers were compared. Two discharge mechanisms, the Townsend avalanche discharge and the streamer discharge, were observed to occur in sequence in some events. The output waveforms for both discharge mechanisms were studied in detail. The charge induced on a detecting probe was also estimated from the measured data. (Auth.)

  16. Real-time digital X-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic anatomical X-ray apparatus comprising a converter and a television camera for converting an X-ray image of a subject into a series of television fields of video signals is described in detail. A digital memory system stores and integrates the video signals over a time interval corresponding to a plurality of successive television fields. The integrated video signals are recovered from storage and fed to a digital or analogue subtractor, the resulting output being displayed on a television monitor. Thus the display represents on-going changes in the anatomical X-ray image. In a modification, successive groups of fields are stored and integrated in three memories, cyclically, and subtractions are performed between successive pieces of integrated signals to provide a display of successive alterations in the X-ray image. For investigations of the heart, the integrating interval should be of the order of one cardiac cycle. (author)

  17. Deciphering the thermal behavior of lithium rich cathode material by in situ X-ray diffraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shoaib; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Yoon, Jeongbae; Jang, Donghyuk; Yoon, Jaegu; Park, Jin-Hwan; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2015-07-01

    Thermal stability is one of the critical requirements for commercial operation of high energy lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we use in situ X-ray diffraction technique to elucidate the thermal degradation mechanism of 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 lithium rich cathode material in the absence and presence of electrolyte to simulate the real life battery conditions and compare its thermal behavior with the commercial LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 cathode material. We show that the thermal induced phase transformations in delithiated lithium rich cathode material are much more intense compared to similar single phase layered cathode material in the presence of electrolyte. The structural changes in both cathode materials with the temperature rise follow different trends in the absence and presence of electrolyte between 25 and 600 °C. Phase transitions are comparatively simple in the absence of electrolyte, the fully charged lithium rich cathode material demonstrates better thermal stability by maintaining its phase till 379 °C, and afterwards spinel structure is formed. In the presence of electrolyte, however, the spinel structure appears at 207 °C, subsequently it transforms to rock salt type cubic phase at 425 °C with additional metallic, metal fluoride, and metal carbonate phases.

  18. Four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system is developed in authors' lab. Four radiography images at four time intervals of explosion and ballistic trajectory can be obtained using this system. The construction of the system, its specification, and its experimental results are presented

  19. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described:- the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive Multiwire proportional counter as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled to a digital microcomputer system. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multi-frame exposures. (author)

  20. Studies of X-ray tube aging by non-invasive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was the evaluation of an x ray tube aging with an anode made of tungsten, used in radio diagnostic. Workloads were applied, in accordance with Brazilian workload distribution, and periodic measurements of quantities related to the radiation quality of the beam were performed. For the purpose of this work, a single phase, full bridge clinical system was employed. For the long term x ray tube characteristics evaluation related to the applied workload, it was necessary to measure parameters that could quantitatively represent the tube aging, with special attention to the anode roughening. For the indirect measurement of tube aging, four parameters were chosen, some of them normally applied in x ray diagnostic quality control: first and second half value layers (HVL), focal spot dimensions, non invasive measurement of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) and x ray spectroscopy. These parameters were measured before any workload and after each workload intervals. To assure confidence of the results reproducibility conditions were stated to each evaluated parameter. The uncertainties involved in all measurement processes were calculated to evaluate the real contributions of x ray tube aging effects on non invasive parameters. Within all evaluated parameters, the most sensitive to long term workload were the mean energy obtained from spectroscopy and half value layers. A model related to these parameters was applied and estimates of x ray tube aging rate for different acceleration voltages and anodic currents were calculated. (author)

  1. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  2. Digital X-ray detector based on a CCD matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of charge-coupled devices (CCD) as position-sensitive detectors for X-ray radiation is discussed. The experimental scheme contains a videotransmission camera to detect pulsed X-ray radiation and Vektor analog-to-digital converters and computer interface. It is shown that the sensitivity range of a K1200TsM1 matrix to bremsstrahlung with an average energy of 75 keV is 2.7·10-8-0.8·10-6 J/cm2. The spatial resolution of the resultant X-ray image is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of producing visible difference images derived from an x-ray image of an anatomical subject is described. X-rays are directed through the subject, and the image is converted into television fields comprising trains of analog video signals. The analog signals are converted into digital signals, which are then integrated over a predetermined time corresponding to several television fields. Difference video signals are produced by performing a subtraction between the ongoing video signals and the corresponding integrated signals, and are converted into visible television difference images representing changes in the x-ray image

  4. A portable x-ray source with a nanostructured Pt-coated silicon field emission cathode for absorption imaging of low-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a portable x-ray generator for imaging of low-atomic number materials such as biological soft tissue. The system uses a self-aligned, gated, Pt-coated silicon field emitter cathode with two arrays of 62 500 nano-sharp tips arranged in a square grid with 10 μm emitter pitch, and a natural convection-cooled reflection anode composed of a Cu bar coated with a thin Mo film. Characterization of the field emitter array demonstrated continuous emission of 1 mA electron current (16 mA cm  −  2) with  >95% current transmission at a 150 V gate-emitter bias voltage for over 20 h with no degradation. The emission of the x-ray source was characterized across a range of anode bias voltages to maximize the fraction of photons from the characteristic K-shell peaks of the Mo film to produce a quasi-monochromatic photon beam, which enables capturing high-contrast images of low-atomic number materials. The x-ray source operating at the optimum anode bias voltage, i.e. 35 kV, was used to image ex vivo and nonorganic samples in x-ray fluoroscopic mode while varying the tube current; the images resolve feature sizes as small as ∼160 µm. (paper)

  5. A portable x-ray source with a nanostructured Pt-coated silicon field emission cathode for absorption imaging of low-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Swanwick, Michael E.; Fomani, Arash A.; Velásquez-García, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a portable x-ray generator for imaging of low-atomic number materials such as biological soft tissue. The system uses a self-aligned, gated, Pt-coated silicon field emitter cathode with two arrays of 62 500 nano-sharp tips arranged in a square grid with 10 μm emitter pitch, and a natural convection-cooled reflection anode composed of a Cu bar coated with a thin Mo film. Characterization of the field emitter array demonstrated continuous emission of 1 mA electron current (16 mA cm  -  2) with  >95% current transmission at a 150 V gate-emitter bias voltage for over 20 h with no degradation. The emission of the x-ray source was characterized across a range of anode bias voltages to maximize the fraction of photons from the characteristic K-shell peaks of the Mo film to produce a quasi-monochromatic photon beam, which enables capturing high-contrast images of low-atomic number materials. The x-ray source operating at the optimum anode bias voltage, i.e. 35 kV, was used to image ex vivo and nonorganic samples in x-ray fluoroscopic mode while varying the tube current; the images resolve feature sizes as small as ~160 µm.

  6. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  7. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies. PMID:26545097

  8. [The monitor findings of digitalized conventional wrist x-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, R; Bauer, J; Niemeier, R; Heuer, H; Maurer, F; Strayle, M; Kruft, S t; Reill, P

    1994-05-01

    The study aimed at proving the reliability of monitor systems with the matrix of 1024 x 768 for the detection of scaphoid fractures compared to conventional X-ray. Moreover, we were interested in the significance of procedures of digital imaging post processing, depending in particular on the experience of investigators. 5 investigators with different levels of experience analysed 57 X-rays of the wrist. They compared conventional X-rays with images on a high screen monitor system after the digitalisation of these X-rays by a CCD-scanner and analysed untreated and treated images. A 5-point scale ROC analysis was used for evaluation. The analysis covered a total of 1740 evaluations. The untreated images seen on the monitor system proved slightly better than conventional X-rays. Post-processing has no evident advantage over untreated images. Differing levels of experience had no effect whatsoever on the identification of findings. PMID:8173057

  9. Note: Development of target changeable palm-top pyroelectric x-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    A target changeable palm-top size x-ray tube was realized using pyroelectric crystal and detachable vacuum flanges. The target metals can be exchanged easily by attaching them on the brass stage with carbon tape. When silver and titanium palates (area: 10 mm{sup 2}) were used as targets, silver L{alpha} and titanium K lines were clearly observed by bombarding electrons on the targets for 90 s. The intensities were the same or higher than those of previously reported pyroelectric x-ray tubes. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc K lines in the x-ray tube (stainless steel and brass) disappeared by replacing the brass stage and the stainless steel vacuum flange with a carbon stage and a glass tube, respectively.

  10. Direct Measurement of Mammographic X-Ray Spectra with a Digital CdTe Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Raso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP system, for high-rate X-ray spectroscopy in mammography (1–30 keV. The DPP system performs a height and shape analysis of the detector pulses, sampled and digitized by a 14-bit, 100 MHz ADC. We show the results of the characterization of the detection system both at low and high photon counting rates by using monoenergetic X-ray sources and a nonclinical X-ray tube. The detection system exhibits excellent performance up to 830 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.5% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Direct measurements of clinical molybdenum X-ray spectra were carried out by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. A comparison with the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured and simulated spectra, from an ionization chamber and from a solid state dosimeter, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research, calibration of dosimeters and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  11. Digital Slot Radiography Based On A Linear X-Ray Image Intensifier And Two-Dimensional Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerlage, M. J. M.; Levels, H. P. L.; Mulder, H.

    1986-06-01

    Apart from providing the inherent benefits of digital imaging, a digital chest system should preferably be superior to large-size film with respect to diagnostic quality. Systems, demonstrated until now, tend to fail in that respect. Here we describe a system -under development- that combines the advantages of film (e.g. high resolution), area detectors (wide sensor dynamic range) and slit detectors (efficient reduction of scattered radiation, high contrast resolution and instantaneous image availibility). Thereby the system is low-dose, compact and operating at standard X-ray tube loading.

  12. High-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography with a CdTe detector: A digital pulse processing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Principato, F.; Del Sordo, S.; Ienzi, R.; Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy) and INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose:Direct measurement of mammographic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions is a difficult task due to the high fluence rate of the x-ray beams as well as the limits in the development of high resolution detection systems in a high counting rate environment. In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP) system, for high-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography. Methods: The DPP system performs a digital pile-up inspection and a digital pulse height analysis of the detector signals, digitized through a 14-bit, 100 MHz digitizer, for x-ray spectroscopy even at high photon counting rates. We investigated on the response of the digital detection system both at low (150 cps) and at high photon counting rates (up to 500 kcps) by using monoenergetic x-ray sources and a nonclinical molybdenum anode x-ray tube. Clinical molybdenum x-ray spectrum measurements were also performed by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. Results: The detection system shows excellent performance up to 512 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.08% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Despite the high photon counting rate (up to 453 kcps), the molybdenum x-ray spectra, measured under clinical conditions, are characterized by a low number of pile-up events. The agreement between the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured spectra, simulated spectra, and from the exposure values directly measured with an ionization chamber, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. Conclusions: These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  13. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Piper; A Preston; S Cho; A DeMasi; J Laverock; K Smith; L Miara; J Davis; S Basu; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The evolution of the Mn charge state, chemical composition, and electronic structure of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) cathodes during the catalytic activation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been studies using X-ray spectroscopy of as-processed, exposed, and activated dense thin LSMO films. Comparison of O K-edge and Mn L{sub 3,2}-edge X-ray absorption spectra from the different stages of LSMO cathodes revealed that the largest change after the activation occurred in the Mn charge state with little change in the oxygen environment. Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mn L{sub 3} resonant photoemission spectroscopy studies of exposed and as-processed LSMO determined that the SOFC environment (800 C ambient pressure of O{sub 2}) alone results in La deficiency (severest near the surface with Sr doping >0.55) and a stronger Mn{sup 4+} contribution, leading to the increased insulating character of the cathode prior to activation. Meanwhile, O K-edge X-ray absorption measurements support Sr/La enrichment nearer the surface, along with the formation of mixed Sr{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} and/or passive MnO{sub x} and SrO species.

  14. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector's line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications

  15. Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounoughi, N.; Mavon, C.; Belafrites, A.; Groetz, J.-E.; Fromm, M.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the Ultra Soft X-ray (USX, 1.5 keV, Al Kα) photon beam of a customized lab bench cold cathode generator. Within this generator, the electron beam is slowed down in a thin aluminium foil (16 μm) supported by an easily exchangeable anode. It is shown that the thickness of the foil and the anode configuration determine the spatial distribution and the fluence rate of the photon beam, whereas accelerating voltage determines both fluence rate and energy spectrum feature. It is shown also that under specific operation parameters (i.e. accelerating voltage), a Gaussian energy distribution of the beam can be generated which is centred on the energy of the Al Kα line (1.5 keV). Dosimetric films of GAFCHROMIC® HD-810 were used to estimate the photon fluence rate distribution of the beam. Its variation, when the generator acts as a monoenergetic source, was characterized with the two different configurations of the anode assembly. Finally, it is verified that the anode assembly consisting in a flat washer, on which the aluminium foil is set, acts as a simple point-source.

  16. Behaviour of reconstructed attenuation values with X-ray tube voltage in an experimental third-generation industrial CT system using Xscan linear detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, U; Pendharkar, A S; Singh, G

    2002-01-01

    The present paper discusses the adaptation of a digital radiographic scintillator-based linear detector array (LDA) in a third-generation continuous-rotate X-ray industrial tomographic imaging system. The LDA has been used in a collinear configuration. Behaviour of the reconstructed parameter, i.e., approximate linear absorption coefficient at the 'effective energy' with varying anode voltage of the constant potential X-ray tube is studied. Experiments have been carried out with a solid cylindrical Perspex block (50 mm dia.) in 50-150 kV tube voltage range. The experimentally reconstructed attenuation values were used to predict the effective energy of the X-ray beam. The present study also includes a discussion on the statistical behaviour of the reconstructed linear attenuation values.

  17. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Choudhury, Soumyadip [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Gruber, Katharina [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Cruz, Valene B. [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Fuchsbichler, Bernd [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Jacob, Timo [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Koller, Stefan [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Ionov, Leonid [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one

  18. The origins of radiotherapy : Discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienbock's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The discover

  19. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a method of producing visible difference images derived from an X-ray image of an anatomical subject, comprising the steps of directing X-rays through the anatomical subject for producing an image, converting the image into television fields comprising trains of on-going video signals, digitally storing and integrating the on-going video signals over a time interval corresponding to several successive television fields and thereby producing stored and integrated video signals, recovering the video signals from storage and producing integrated video signals, producing video difference signals by performing a subtraction between the integrated video signals and the on-going video signals outside the time interval, and converting the difference signals into visible television difference images representing on-going changes in the X-ray image

  20. Non-destructive evaluation of weld discontinuity in steel tubes by gamma ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weld discontinuity in steel tubes was investigated and dimensioned in a data analysis sequence. The correlation matrix, cosine distance and hierarchical cluster were applied as multivariate data processing in this analysis. Welded rings of 9236 mm3 were scanned in gamma ray CT in test tubes and compared with steel base and references. The discontinuity volume detected in the welded rings was assessed based on the pixel volume in data sampling. By modeling gamma ray trajectories and rotation angles in CT scanning, a discontinuity of 0.3 mm was determined and a limit detection of 23 mm3 was obtained

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of weld discontinuity in steel tubes by gamma ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. E.; Dantas, C. C.; Nery, M. S.; Barbosa, J. M.; Rolim, T. L.; Lima, E. A. O.; Melo, S. B.; Dos Santos, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Weld discontinuity in steel tubes was investigated and dimensioned in a data analysis sequence. The correlation matrix, cosine distance and hierarchical cluster were applied as multivariate data processing in this analysis. Welded rings of 9236 mm3 were scanned in gamma ray CT in test tubes and compared with steel base and references. The discontinuity volume detected in the welded rings was assessed based on the pixel volume in data sampling. By modeling gamma ray trajectories and rotation angles in CT scanning, a discontinuity of 0.3 mm was determined and a limit detection of 23 mm3 was obtained.

  2. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  3. Reconstruction of the X-ray tube spectrum from a scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.fernandez@unibo.it [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Scot, Viviana [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Bare, Jonathan [Laboratory of Montecuccolino, Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, via dei Colli,16, I-40136, Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Nuclear and Radiological Physics, Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles (ISIB) (Belgium); Tondeur, Francois [Laboratory of Nuclear and Radiological Physics, Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles (ISIB) (Belgium); Gallardo, Sergio; Rodenas, Jose [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain); Rossi, Pier Luca [Operational Unit of Health Physics, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    An inverse technique has been designed to unfold the x-ray tube spectrum from the measurement of the photons scattered by a target interposed in the path of the beam. A special strategy is necessary to circumvent the ill-conditioning of the forward transport algebraic problem. The proposed method is based on the calculation of both, the forward and adjoint analytical solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. After testing the method with numerical simulations, a simple prototype built at the Operational Unit of Health Physics of the University of Bologna was used to test the method experimentally. The reconstructed spectrum was validated by comparison with a straightforward measurement of the X-ray beam. The influence of the detector was corrected in both cases using standard unfolding techniques. The method is capable to accurately characterize the intensity distribution of an X-ray tube spectrum, even at low energies where other methods fail. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complete inverse technique of source unfolding is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X-ray tube spectrum is recovered from a scattering measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ill conditioning of the plain forward transport algebraic problem is avoided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forward and adjoint solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique characterizes X-ray tube spectra even at low energies.

  4. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Coman V.; Robotin B.; Ilea P.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009). These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of...

  5. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    of the oxidizing agent greatly improved the foaming quality. The results showed that the amount of oxygen available from the glass is not sufficient to combust all of the added carbon, therefore, additional oxygen was supplied via manganese reduction. In general, a minimum in the foam glass density was observed...... parameters on the characteristics of foamed glass. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. Activated carbon used as a foaming agent and MnO2 as an ‘oxidizing’ agent were mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Foaming effect was observed in the temperature range...... between 750 and 850°C. We investigated the influence of milling time, particle size, foaming and oxidizing agent concentrations, temperature and time on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. Only moderate foaming was observed in carbon containing samples, while the addition...

  6. 81.114- University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Support / Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis of Lithioum Ion Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Landsberger, S.

    2006-11-11

    This project focuses on the use of the Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technique available at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin to precisely determine the hydrogen (proton) contents in layered oxide cathode samples obtained by chemical lithium extraction in order to obtain a better understanding of the factors limiting the practical capacities and overall performance of lithium ion battery cathodes. The project takes careful precautionary experimental measures to avoid proton contamination both from solvents used in chemical delithiation and from ambient moisture. The results obtained from PGAA are complemented by the data obtained from other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, redox titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectroscopic analysis of the evolved gas on heating. The research results broaden our understanding of the structure-property-performance relationships of lithium ion battery cathodes and could aid the design and development of new better performing lithium ion batteries for consumer (portable and electric vehicles), military, and space applications.

  7. Determination of dislocation density in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes by x-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Isaenkova, Perlovich; Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, S. S.; Yim, K. S.; Kwon, Sang Chul

    2000-11-01

    For X-ray determination of the dislocation density in CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes, a program was developed, using the Fourier analysis of X-ray line profiles and calculation of dislocation density by values of the coherent block size and the lattice distortion. The coincidence of obtained values of c- and a-dislocations with those, determined by the X-ray method for the same tube in AECL, was assumed to be the main criterion of validity of the developed program. The final variant of the program allowed to attain a rather close coincidence of calculated dislocation densities with results of AECL. The dislocation density was determined in all the zirconium grains with different orientations based on the texture of the stree-relieved CANDU tube. The complete distribution of c-dislocation density in -Zr grains depecding on their crystallographic orientations was constructed. The distribution of a-dislocation density within the texture maximum at L-direction, containing prismatic axes of all grains, was constructed as well. The analysis of obtained distributions testifies that -Zr grains of the stree-relieved CANDU tube significantly differ in their dislocation densities. Plotted diagrams of correlation between the dislocation density and the pole density allow to estimate the actual connection between texture and dislocation distribution in the studied tube. The distributions of volume fractions of all the zirconium grains depending on their dislocation density were calculated both for c- and a-dislocations. The distributions characterizes quantitatively the inhomogeneity of substructure conditions in the stress-relieved CANDU tube. the optimal procedure for determination of Nb content in {beta}-phases of CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes was also established.

  8. X-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis for quasi-three-dimensional imaging: system, reconstruction algorithm, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ziran; Wu, Dufan

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are mainly three x-ray imaging modalities for dental clinical diagnosis: radiography, panorama and computed tomography (CT). We develop a new x-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis (IDT) system for quasi-three-dimensional dental imaging which can be seen as an intermediate modality between traditional radiography and CT. In addition to normal x-ray tube and digital sensor used in intra-oral radiography, IDT has a specially designed mechanical device to complete the tomosynthesis data acquisition. During the scanning, the measurement geometry is such that the sensor is stationary inside the patient's mouth and the x-ray tube moves along an arc trajectory with respect to the intra-oral sensor. Therefore, the projection geometry can be obtained without any other reference objects, which makes it be easily accepted in clinical applications. We also present a compressed sensing-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for this kind of intra-oral tomosynthesis. Finally, simulation and experiment were both carried out to evaluate this intra-oral imaging modality and algorithm. The results show that IDT has its potentiality to become a new tool for dental clinical diagnosis.

  9. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  10. Evaluated Plan Stress Of Weld In Pressure Tube Using X Ray Diffraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X ray diffraction is a fundamental technique measuring stress, this technique has determined crystal strain in materials, from that determined stress in materials. This paper presents study of evaluating plane stress of weld in pressure tube, using modern XRD apparatus: X Pert Pro. (author)

  11. Measurement of residual stress in fuel cladding tubes by x-ray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to predict the residual stress distribution in FBR or LWR fuel cladding tubes using computer code or mechanical methods. In order to measure these stresses by X-ray method, the characterization of X-ray diffraction and optimum condition for stress measurement are investigated. Following conclusions are obtained: (1) The (211) CrK sub(α) and (213-3) CuK sub(α) reflections are most suitable for the stress analysis of 316 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes, respectively. (2) Comparison between strain measured by X-ray and strain measured by strain gage shows good agreement in elastic region for both materials. (3) In order to obtain accurate results, it needs to remove surface more than 3 μm by electropolishing or acid etching. (4) There exists compressive residual stress in typical FBR fuel cladding tubes, and TIG welding of end plug induces additional compressive stress in welded portion or heat affected zone. (5) Residual stress distributions in Zircaloy-2 cladding tube deformed locally by the out-of-pile simulation tests, are obtained by the application of X-ray method. (author)

  12. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described: the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled, in the case of the Mark I to a Digital LSI 11-23 microcomputer system via CAMAC, and in the case of the Mark II to a Digital LSI 11-73 microcomputer system via custom-built data acquisition hardware mounted directly on the Q-bus of the microcomputer. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multiframe exposures. The dedicated digital memories have a resolution of 512x512 pixels of 16 bits, matching well to the spatial resolution of the xenon-filled MWPC (0.5 mm fwhm over an aperture of 200 mm x 200 mm). A 512x512x4 bit video graphics system displays the images in grey scales or colour. (orig.)

  13. Miniature X-ray Source for Planetary Exploration Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop a design model for a CNT cold cathode, low power, passively cooled, and grounded-anode X-ray tube that is...

  14. MTF Optimization in Digital Dental X-ray Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, E T; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Albuquerque, Jorge Andre Girao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the MTF optimisation relative to the detector aperture of four digital dental X-ray image systems: 1) Digora and Denoptix systems, based on PSPL detectors; 2) CDR and Sens-A-Ray 2000, based on CCD detectors. The MTF was evaluated by ERF method and linearized as a Gaussian process. The CCD based systems presented Gaussian characteristics. The PSPL based systems presented a composition of two Gaussian processes. We conclude that one process is due to the laser and stimulated light scattering inside the PSPL plate and the other is due to the laser beam focal aperture. Matching focal aperture to laser scattering allows the optimization of the PSPL systems resolution. An optimal pixel width found to be 62 um.

  15. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  16. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  17. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: x-ray tube imaging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-04-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation. PMID:19472613

  18. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. W.; Mackenzie, A.; Honey, I. D.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm-1 ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10-5 mm2 (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm-1, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm-1, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm-1 for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and gave an in

  19. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation…

  20. Three dimensional digital X-ray microtomography with a microfocal X-ray generator and an MWPC area detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microscopy offers many potential applications in the life sciences and non-destructive testing for the study of small (micron-sized) structures. Digital capture of the X-ray images offers further possibilities for image processing and for tomography. We have combined a microfocal X-ray generator with a multi-step avalanche/multiwire proportional counter to produce a digital X-ray microscope. Spatial resolution down to around 10 microns has been observed. The digital data sets obtained from the system have been used to develop and explore 3-D tomographic images of an insect are presented, produced by a cone beam algorithm. (author)

  1. Study of Explosive Electron Emission from a Pin Cathode Using High Resolution Point-Projection X-Ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Parkevich, E. V.; Tilikin, I. N.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Agafonov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) are based on the idea of cathode flares developing after explosion of metal whiskers (micron scale pins) on the cathode surface. The physical state of the pin material, the spatial structure of the explosion and its origin are still a matter of conjecture. In this work we used high-resolution point projection x-ray radiography to observe micron scale pin explosion in a high-current diode. Pin cathodes made from 10-25 micron Cu or Mo wires were placed in gaps in return current circuits of hybrid X-pinches on the XP and BIN pulsers. Pin lengths were varied over a range 1-4 mm and pin-anode gaps within 0.05-3 mm. The diode current and voltage were measured. In experiments with small pin-anode gap (0.1 - 1 mm) development of an expanded dense core of the pin was observed except the pin tip with length 100-200 microns indicating significant energy deposition in the wire material. In experiments with bigger gaps there was no visible wire core expansion within the spatial resolution of the experimental technique. Work at Cornell was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836 and at the Lebedev Institute by the RSF grant 142200273.

  2. Simple cathode design for Li–S batteries: cell performance and mechanistic insights by in operando X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisch, Jörn; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-09-21

    Rechargeable batteries have been receiving increasing attention over the past several years, particularly with regard to the accelerated development of electric vehicles, but also for their potential in grid storage applications. Among the broad range of cathode active materials, elemental sulfur has the highest theoretical specific capacity, thereby making it one of the most promising positive electrode materials these days. In the present work, we show that already a simple cathode design (cathodes with a non-optimized composite microstructure) provides good electrochemical performance both in coin and pouch cells with sulfur loadings of 2 mg cm−2. Our research data demonstrate that (1) specific capacities of 1000 mA h g−1 can be achieved over 60 cycles at room temperature while the cyclability at elevated temperatures (here, θ > 40 °C) is poor, (2) the discharge is the kinetically rate-limiting process, (3) the major fraction of active sulfur in the electrode is lost during the formation cycle at C/50 and (4) the Li–S cells suffer from drying-out due to continuous electrolyte decomposition on the lithium metal anode. In addition, in operando X-ray diffraction shows Li2S formation (grain size of <10 nm) on discharge and the appearance of single phase β-sulfur in the sub-100 nm size range – rather than the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic polymorph (α-sulfur) – by the end of the charge cycle. PMID:25077958

  3. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  4. Verification of a novel method for tube voltage constancy measurement of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chu; Belley, Matthew D. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yoshizumi, Terry, E-mail: yoshi003@mc.duke.edu [Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: For orthovoltage x-ray irradiators, the tube voltage is one of the most fundamental system parameters as this directly relates to the dosimetry in radiation biology studies; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercial portable quality assurance (QA) tool to directly test the constancy of the tube voltage greater than 160 kV. The purpose of this study is to establish the Beam Quality Index (BQI), a quantity strongly correlated to the tube voltage, as an alternative parameter for the verification of the tube voltage as part of the QA program of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators. Methods: A multipurpose QA meter and its associated data acquisition software were used to customize the measurement parameters to measure the BQI and collect its time-plot. BQI measurements were performed at 320 kV with four filtration levels on three orthovoltage x-ray irradiators of the same model, one of which had been recently energy-calibrated at the factory. Results: For each of the four filtration levels, the measured BQI values were in good agreement (<5%) between the three irradiators. BQI showed filtration-specificity, possibly due to the difference in beam quality. Conclusions: The BQI has been verified as a feasible alternative for monitoring the constancy of the tube voltage for orthovoltage irradiators. The time-plot of BQI offers information on the behavior of beam energy at different phases of the irradiation time line. In addition, this would provide power supply performance characteristics from initial ramp-up to plateau, and finally, the sharp drop-off at the end of the exposure.

  5. Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery utilizing homologous arterial grafts irradiated with high voltage cathode rays. Experimental study and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yutaka (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    Homologous and heterologous arterial segments were implanted in Fisher rats subcutaneously for the purpose of examining the antibody titer of the recipients' serum after implantation by means of the immune-adherence hemagglutination method. The antibody titer after implantation both of homologous and heterologous grafts decreased to 1/8 by 2.0 million (M) rads irradiation of high voltage cathode rays. The results suggested that high voltage cathode ray irradiation was not enough for heterologous graft to suppress its tissue reaction. Homografts taken from dogs 3 or 6 hours after sacrifice were irradiated with 2.0 M rads and transplanted in canine carotid artery using the technic of end-to-end anastomosis. Angiograms 6 months after operation revealed excellent patency rate in all the grafts of 28 dogs. furthermore, findings of the grafts from 1 week to 5 years after operation on scanning and transmission electron microscopies were evaluated. Clinical application of bypass surgery from the main trunk of the superficial temporal artery to M/sub 2/ portion of the middle cerebral artery, using 20 cm long irradiated arterial homograft, was carried out in patients with episodic cerebral ischemia. Angiogram 4 days after operation showed excellent filling of the middle cerebral circulation through the graft both in the retrograde and antegrade. This bypass procedure provided a good deal of blood flow soon after the operation, resulting in good protection of the ischemic hemisphere. Thus, bypass surgery using irradiated homograft proved to be useful enough for the ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  6. Two-ply anode X-ray tube for computed tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, D.; Taubin, M.; Chesnokov, D.; Malyshev, V.; Yaskolko, A.

    2016-04-01

    This report presents a method of the formation of tungsten layer on the graphite surface. The described method can be used to create the anode of powerful x-ray tubes for medical purposes, in particular, a computer tomograph (CT). The thermal properties of the graphite base and the deposited tungsten coating, as well as the strength of the resulting coating were studied. Thermal fields in the CT-anode with a power of 100 kW were calculated.

  7. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; 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    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  8. Performance of the CMS drift-tube chamber local trigger with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

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Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; 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Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the Local Trigger based on the drift-tube system of the CMS experiment has been studied using muons from cosmic ray events collected during the commissioning of the detector in 2008. The properties of the system are extensively tested and compared with the simulation. The effect of the random arrival time of the cosmic rays on the trigger performance is reported, and the results are compared with the design expectations for proton-proton collisions and with previous measurements obtained with muon beams.

  9. Measurements of Residual Stresses in a Shape Welded Steel Tube by Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kockelmann, H.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Schreiber, J.; Taran, Yu. V.

    1999-01-01

    Shape welding of a ferritic steel layer on an austenitic steel tube is used to build compressive stresses on its outer surface, and as a result, suppress stress corrosion. Investigations of residual stresses in such bi-layer tubes are important for developing optimal welding techniques. The neutron and X-ray diffraction methods were used to analyze the stress behavior around the welded region on the tube. To this end, strain components in the radial, axial and tangential directions were measu...

  10. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T. [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tsukuba Material Development Laboratory, 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan); Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S. [National Institute for Materials Science, Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  11. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode

  12. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S.

    2015-08-01

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  13. Practical consideration in the selection of X-ray fluorescence tube targets for analysis of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four X-ray fluorescence tubes with different targets (Cr, W, Mo and Rh) were compared for their suitability to analyze twelve of the most common major and trace elements in some geological samples. The major elements and Si, Al, Ca, K, Ti, and S. All elements having wavelengths higher than that of the iron K-absorption edge, gave significantly higher intensities of their characteristic fluorescence radiations when using a Cr-anode tube compared to W, Mo and Rh anode tubes. However, for the light elements (Si and Al) the Rh-anode tube of equal efficiency as the Cr-anode tube. The highest Ka-line intensity of Fe was obtained by the W-anode tube. The lowest detection limits (highest sensitivity) for the trace elements Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb are obtained using both the Mo and Rh tubes. (author)

  14. kV x-ray dual digital tomosynthesis for image guided lung SBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Boyd, Douglas; Kim, Namho; Hernandez, Andrew; Daly, Megan; Boone, John

    2016-03-01

    Two simulated sets of digital tomosynthesis images of the lungs, each acquired at a 90 degree angle from the other, with 19 projection images used for each set and SART iterative reconstructed, gives dual tomosynthesis slice image quality approaching that of spiral CT, and with a data acquisition time that is 3% of that of cone beam CT. This fast kV acquisition, should allow near real time tracking of lung tumors in patients receiving SBRT, based on a novel TumoTrakTM multi-source X-ray tube design. Until this TumoTrakTM prototype is completed over the next year, its projected performance was simulated from the DRR images created from a spiral CT data set from a lung cancer patient. The resulting dual digital tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the lung tumor were exceptional and approached that of the gold standard Feldkamp CT reconstruction of breath hold, diagnostic, spiral, multirow, CT data. The relative dose at 46 mAs was less than 10% of what it would have been if the digital tomosynthesis had been done at the 472 mAs of the CT data set. This is for a 0.77 fps imaging rate sufficient to resolve respiratory motion in many free breathing patients during SBRT. Such image guidance could decrease the magnitudes of targeting error margins by as much as 20 mm or more in the craniocaudal direction for lower lobe lesions while markedly reducing dose to normal lung, heart and other critical structures. These initial results suggest a wide range of topics for future work.

  15. Comparison between x-ray tube-based and synchrotron radiation-based μCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Oliver; Brockdorf, Kathleen; Drews, Susanne; Müller, Bert; Donath, Tilman; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Nowadays, X-ray tube-based high-resolution CT systems are widely used in scientific research and industrial applications. But the potential, convenience and economy of these lab systems is often underestimated. The present paper shows the comparison of sophisticated conventional μCT with synchrotron radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The different aspects and characteristics of both approaches like spatial and density resolution, penetration depth, scanning time or sample size is described in detail. The tube-based μCT measurements were performed with a granite-based nanotom®-CT system (phoenix|x-ray, Wunstorf, Germany) equipped with a 180 kV - 15 W high-power nanofocus® tube with tungsten or molybdenum targets. The tube offers a wide range of applications from scanning low absorbing samples in nanofocus® mode with voxel sizes below 500 nm and highly absorbing objects in the high power mode with focal spot and voxel sizes of a few microns. The SRμCT measurements were carried out with the absorption contrast set-up at the beamlines W 2 and BW 2 at HASYLAB/DESY, operated by the GKSS Research Center. The range of samples examined covers materials of very different absorption levels and related photon energies for the CT scans. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons of CT scans using biomedical specimens with rather low X-ray absorption such as parts of the human spine as well as using composites from the field of materials science are shown.

  16. Electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube based field emission x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shabana

    In this dissertation, electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source for medical imaging applications will be presented. However, for design optimization of x-ray tubes accurate electron beam optics simulation is essential. To facilitate design of CNT x-ray sources a commercial 3D finite element software has been chosen for extensive simulation. The results show that a simplified model of uniform electron field emission from the cathode surface is not sufficient when compared to experimental measurements. This necessitated the development of a refined model to describe a macroscopic field emission CNT cathode for electron beam optics simulations. The model emulates the random distribution of CNTs and the associated variation of local field enhancement factor. The main parameter of the model has been derived empirically from the experimentally measured I-V characteristics of the CNT cathode. Simulation results based on this model agree well with experiments which include measurements of the transmission rate and focus spot size. The model provides a consistent simulation platform for optimization of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray source design. A systematic study of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray tubes led to the development of a new generation of compact x-ray source with multiple pixels. A micro focus field emission x-ray source with a variable focal spot size has been fully characterized and evaluated. It has been built and successfully integrated into micro-CT scanners which are capable of dynamic cardiac imaging of free-breathing small animals with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition a spatially distributed high power multi-beam x-ray source has also been designed and integrated into a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) configuration. This system has the potential to reduce the total scan time to 4 seconds and yield superior image quality in breast imaging.

  17. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  18. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods: Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results: Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion: The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography.

  19. Novel direct digital modular x-ray device and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartiotis, Konstantinos E.; Orava, Risto; Schulman, Tom; Pyyhtia, Jouni; Sarakinos, Militiadis E.; Sanghera, Bal; Epenetos, Agamemnon; Sunni, Ilkka; Salonen, Jaakko; Gronberg, Leif; Majander, Paivi; Allison, David J.; Myers, Melvyn

    1998-07-01

    We present an update on a novel direct digital X-ray imaging device and system. The system comprises a mosaic of hybrid solid state semiconductor devices removably mount onto a master plane covering an imaging surface of any desirable shape and size. Each imaging device comprises a pixel semiconductor detector flip-chip joined to a CMOS ASIC. Monolithic CdZnTe and Si pixel detectors with dimensions 12.2 X 4.2 mm2 and 18.9 X 9.6 mm2 have been implemented with a pixel pitch of 35 micrometer. Each circuit on the ASIC, corresponding to a detector pixel, is capable of accumulating thousands of X-rays in the diagnostic energy spectrum with high efficiency (CdZnTe) and user accumulation times ranging from just a few ms to a few s. Individual, removable tiles are combined in a mosaic providing continuous large area imaging with no inactive regions. This tiling approach allows for cost efficient replacement of defective tiles. The packaging delivers a compact, lightweight, portable cassette whose thickness is around 2.0 cm. The basic hybrid detector design and tiling scheme are generic and may be used in mammography, conventional radiography and fluoroscopy. A special tiling scheme has been designed for use in intraoral imaging. We present our measured Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). Images taken with hard objects, phantoms and soft tissue further demonstrate system functionality and provide a comparison with radiographic film and CR plates. The first application of the new technology is intended for the field of dental imaging, mammographic biopsy and other small area medical applications (approximately 10 - 30 cm2 imaging area) as well as Small Area Non Destructive Testing.

  20. The effect of magnification on the image quality and the radiation dose in X-ray digital mammography: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung; Park, Hye-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lae; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Seung-Wan; Ryu, Hyun-Ju [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    There have been many efforts to advance the technology of X-ray digital mammography in order to enhance the early detection of breast pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and the radiation dose after magnifying X-ray digital mammography using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). In this study, we simulated a Monte Carlo model of an X-ray digital mammographic system, and we present a technique for magnification and discuss how it affects the image quality. The simulated X-ray digital mammographic system with GATE consists of an X-ray source, a compression paddle, a supporting plate, and an imaging plate (IP) of computed radiography (CR). The degree of magnification ranged from 1.0 to 2.0. We designed a semi-cylindrical phantom with a thickness of 45-mm and a radius of 50-mm in order to evaluate the image quality after magnification. The phantom was made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and contained four spherical specks with diameters of 750, 500, 250, and 100-{mu}m to simulate microcalcifications. The simulation studies were performed with an X-ray energy spectrum calculated using the spectrum processor SRS-78. A combination of a molybdenum anode and a molybdenum filter (Mo/Mo) was used for the mammographic X-ray tubes. The effects of the degree of magnification were investigated in terms of both the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (AGD). The results show that the CNR increased as the degree of magnification increased and decreased as breast glandularity increased. The AGD showed only a minor increase with magnification. Based on the results, magnification of mammographic images can be used to obtain high image quality with an increased CNR. Our X-ray digital mammographic system model with GATE may be used as a basis for future studies on X-ray imaging characteristics.

  1. Determination of residual stresses in cathodic arc coatings by means of the parallel beam glancing X-ray diffraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, C.M. [CEIT and TECNUN, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018, San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country (Spain); Sanchez, J.M., E-mail: jmsanchez@ceit.e [CEIT and TECNUN, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018, San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country (Spain); Ardila, L.C.; Molina Aldareguia, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018, San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country (Spain)

    2009-11-02

    A method based on the parallel beam glancing X-ray diffraction geometry has been applied to the measurement of the residual stresses present in cathodic arc plasma (Al{sub 0.66}Ti{sub 0.34})N coatings deposited on hardmetal substrates. This procedure avoids the problems associated to the strong overlapping between the diffraction peaks of the coating and the substrate. The method has been validated by comparison with the results obtained with sin{sup 2{psi}} technique on other combinations of coatings and substrates in which no important overlapping occurs (i.e. (Al{sub 0.66}Ti{sub 0.34})N on steel and TiN either on steel or on hardmetal substrates). The elastic moduli of the different coatings, required for the calculation of the residual stresses, have been obtained from nanoindentation experiments.

  2. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  3. Influence of tube voltage and current on in-line phase contrast imaging using a microfocus x-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Yu Ai-Min; Li Cheng-Quan

    2007-01-01

    In-line x-ray phase contrast imaging has attracted much attention due to two major advantages:its effectiveness in imaging weakly absorbing materials,and the simplicity of its facilities.In this paper a comprehensive theory based on Wigner distribution developed by Wu and Liu [Med.Phys.31 2378-2384(2004)] is reviewed.The influence of x-ray source and detector on the image is discussed.Experiments using a microfocus x-ray source and a CCD detector are conducted,which show the role of two key factors on imaging:the tube voltage and tube current.High tube current and moderate tube voltage are suggested for imaging.

  4. Gaussian higher Order Derivative based Structural Enhancement of Digital Bone X-Ray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Kundu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for enhancement of digital X-ray images of bones is presented in this paper. It has come to observation that the proposed method based on the Gaussian higher order derivative shows an appreciable enhancement of edges in digital X-ray images of bones that can be used for detection of various bone deformities as well as for the better understanding of the bone structure. We have achieved a level of improvement in distinguishing the bone information from the other parts of the digital X-ray images.

  5. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  6. Soft-tissue phase-contrast tomography with an x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first experimental soft-tissue phase-contrast tomography results using a conventional x-ray tube source, with a millimeter-sized focal spot. The setup is based on a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer operated at a mean energy of 28 keV. We present three-dimensional ex vivo images of a chicken heart sample, fixated in formalin. The results clearly demonstrate the advantageous contrast attainable through phase-contrast imaging over conventional attenuation-based approaches.

  7. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  8. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D., E-mail: Dan.Hodoroaba@bam.d [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division VI.4 Surface Technologies, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Radtke, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division I.3 Structure Analysis, Polymer Analysis, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Vincze, L. [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division VI.4 Surface Technologies, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  9. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  10. Validation of an optical flow algorithm to measure blood flow waveforms in arteries using dynamic digital x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Kawal; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hawkes, David J.; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a weighted optical flow algorithm for the extraction of instantaneous blood velocity from dynamic digital x-ray images of blood vessels. We have carried out in- vitro validation of this technique. A pulsatile physiological blood flow circuit was constructed using sections of silicone tubing to simulate blood vessels with whole blood as the fluid. Instantaneous recording of flow from an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) provided the gold standard measurement. Biplanar dynamic digital x-ray images of the blood vessel with injection of contrast medium were acquired at 25 fps using a PC frame capture card. Imaging of a Perspex calibration cube allowed 3D reconstruction of the vessel and determination of true dimensions. Blood flow waveforms were calculated off-line on a Sun workstation using the new algorithm. The correlation coefficient between instantaneous blood flow values obtained from the EMF and the x-ray method was r equals 0.871, n equals 1184, p less than 0.0001. The correlation coefficient for average blood flow was r equals 0.898, n equals 16, p less than 0.001. We have successfully demonstrated that our new algorithm can measure pulsatile blood flow in a vessel phantom. We aim to use this algorithm to measure blood flow clinically in patients undergoing vascular interventional procedures.

  11. Evaluation of digital x-ray detectors for medical imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Digital x-ray detectors are now the detector of choice in many X-ray examinations. They have been accepted into clinical practice over the past decade but there are still ongoing developments in the technology. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) are a novel digital technology that offers advantages compared to some of the more established approaches (charge-coupled devices (CCD), thin film transistor arrays (TFT) and CMOS passive pixel sensors (PPS)). Th...

  12. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors’ assembly were also

  13. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also

  14. Experimental evaluation of the image quality and dose in digital mammography: Influence of x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, A.; Perez, A. M. M. M.; Silva, M. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied experimentally the influence of x-ray spectrum on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (MDG) for two digital mammography systems: Senographe 2000D (GE Medical Systems) and Lorad Selenia (Hologic), with indirect and direct detector imaging technology, respectively. CNR and MGD were determined using PMMA phantoms simulating breasts with thicknesses of 4 cm and 6 cm. All available anode/filter combinations of the systems were evaluated for a wide range of tube voltages values. Results indicated that the Rh/Rh combination provides the highest image quality with the lower mean glandular dose for the Senographe 2000D system. For the Lorad Selenia system, the W/Ag combination at 30 kV showed the best performance, in terms of dose saving and image quality improvement in relation to all tube voltage range. The comparison between the optimal x-ray spectra and those selected by the AEC mode showed that this automatic selection mechanism could be readjusted to optimize the relationship between image quality and dose.

  15. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  16. Measurements of residual strains in a shape welded steel tube by neutron and x-ray diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape welding of a ferritic steel layer on an austenitic steel tube is used to build compressive stresses on its outer surface as a result, suppress stress corrosion. Investigations of residual stresses in such bi-layer tubes are important for developing of optimal welding techniques. The neutron and X-ray diffraction methods were used to analyze the stress behaviour around the welded region on the tube. To this end, strain components in the radial, axial and tangential directions were measured across the weld. The results are compared to the data obtained by the destructive turning out technique and theoretical predictions by the finite element method

  17. Determination of tungsten target parameters for transmission X-ray tube: A simulation study using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, Mohammad M. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Transmission X-ray tubes based on carbon nanotube have attracted significant attention recently. In most of these tubes, tungsten is used as the target material. In this article, the well-known simulator Geant4 was used to obtain some of the tungsten target parameters. The optimal thickness for maximum production of usable X-rays when the target is exposed to electron beams of different energies was obtained. The linear variation of optimal thickness of the target for different electron energies was also obtained. The data obtained in this study can be used to design X-ray tubes. A beryllium window was considered for the X-ray tube. The X-ray energy spectra at the moment of production and after passing through the target and window for different electron energies in the 30-110 keV range were also obtained. The results obtained show that with a specific thickness, the target material itself can act as filter, which enables generation of X-rays with a limited energy.

  18. Control system of digital x-ray systems by quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposed a control system of X-ray digital equipment on quality indicators. Two basic parameters were determined: image quality and patients' radiation load. A method for monitoring these indicators is proposed. The criterion of equipment suitability is to obtain control digital X-ray images of diagnostically acceptable quality at a fixed low entrance dose in the plane of the digital detector. It is shown that the control system of X-ray digital equipment based on indicators of quality is the most appropriate in situations of deficit of financial resources, since minimizing the costs for the purchase and running of control systems, does not require highly skilled technical personnel, and reduces the duration of the equipment inspection. (authors)

  19. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  20. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xufei; Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2012-09-01

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described. PMID:23020376

  1. Detection efficiency vs. cathode and anode separation in cylindrical vacuum photodiodes used for measuring x-rays from plasma focus device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, T K; Talukdar, N; Neog, N K; Rao, C V S; Shyam, A

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study on the performance of cylindrical vacuum photodiodes (VPDs) for x-ray detection in plasma focus device has been carried out. Various parameters of VPD such as electrode's diameter, electrode's separation, and its sensitivity are experimentally tested in plasma focus environment. For the first time it is found experimentally that the electrode-separation in the lateral direction of the two coaxial electrodes of cylindrical VPD also plays an important role to increase the efficiency of the detector. The efficiency is found to be highest for the detector with smaller cathode-anode lateral gap (1.5 mm) with smaller photo cathode diameter (10 mm). A comparison between our VPD with PIN (BPX-65) diode as an x-ray detector has also been made. PMID:22047294

  2. X-ray detection with a scintillating YAP-window hybrid photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    A YAP(YAlO/sub 3/:Ce)-scintillating window, coated on its inner surface with an S20-photocathode, seals a cross-focusing hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) equipped with a small p-i-n anode of 2-mm diameter. This new radiation detector separates X-ray lines down to about 2-keV peak energy from the HPMT noise. Its detection efficiency for high gamma energies depends on the YAP-window thickness and amounts to about 18% attenuation at 400-keV energy in the present version. Competitive radiation detectors like Si photodiodes and Si drift chambers are discussed and compared to our prototype, with particular attention given to their energy resolution and noise performance, which limits their active area considerably. (19 refs).

  3. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  4. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Moorti; A Raghuramaiah; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 1010 photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of ∼ 18 to ∼ 28 ns duration from a source of ∼ 300 m diameter, at ℎ = 4.51 keV ( emission of titanium), with a brightness of ∼ 1020 photons/cm2 /s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to ∼ 10 cm.

  5. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Satoshi, Ii; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation × 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current.

  6. A novel surface-sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopic detector to study the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takamasa; Okuda, Chikaaki; Oka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Makimura, Yoshinari; Kondo, Yasuhito; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Yoji

    2016-09-01

    A surface-sensitive conversion-electron-yield X-ray absorption fine structure (CEY-XAFS) detector that operates at elevated temperatures is developed to investigate the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The detector enables measurements with the sample temperature controlled from room temperature up to 450 °C. The detector is applied to the LiNi0.75Co0.15Al0.05Mg0.05O2 cathode material at 0% state of charge (SOC) and 50% SOC to examine the chemical changes that occur during heating in the absence of an electrolyte. The combination of surface-sensitive CEY-XAFS and bulk-sensitive transmission-mode XAFS shows that the reduction of Ni and Co ions begins at the surface of the cathode particles at around 150 °C, and propagates inside the particle upon further heating. These changes with heating are irreversible and are more obvious at 50% SOC than at 0% SOC. The fraction of reduced Ni ions is larger than that of reduced Co ions. These results demonstrate the capability of the developed detector to obtain important information for the safe employment of this cathode material in Li-ion batteries.

  7. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  8. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...

  9. Digital Dental X-Ray Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of analysis of such images is important in order to improve quantify medical imaging systems. It is significant to analysis the dental x-ray images we need features of image. In this paper we present a method for segmentation and feature extraction of dental x-ray images. The proposed method has been implemented by using level-set method for segmentation after image enhancement and illustrate contour for teeth to complete the segmentation step. Furthermore, we extracted multiple features of dental x-ray images using texture statistics techniques by gray-level co-occurrence matrix. Extracted data can perform to obtain the teeth measurements for automatic dental systems such human identification or dental diagnosis systems. Preparatory experiments show the significance of the proposed method to extract teeth from an x-ray image.

  10. Digital Dental X-Ray Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad; Mohd. Shafry Mohd. Rahim; Alireza Norouzi

    2013-01-01

    The process of analysis of such images is important in order to improve quantify medical imaging systems. It is significant to analysis the dental x-ray images we need features of image. In this paper we present a method for segmentation and feature extraction of dental x-ray images. The proposed method has been implemented by using level-set method for segmentation after image enhancement and illustrate contour for teeth to complete the segmentation step. Furthermore, we extracted multiple f...

  11. Dynamic behavior of thermionic dispenser cathodes under ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortenraad, R.; van der Gon, A. W. Denier; Brongersma, H. H.; Gärtner, G.; Raasch, D.; Manenschijn, A.

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the surface coverage and electron emission of thermionic dispenser cathodes during 3 keV Ar+ ion bombardment, thereby simulating the bombardment of the cathodes by residual gases that takes place in cathode-ray tubes as used in television sets. During the ion bombardment at the operating temperature of 1030 °C, a dynamic equilibrium is established between the sputter removal and resupply mechanisms of the Ba and O atoms that form the dipole layer on the cathode substrate. We demonstrated that the performance of the cathodes under ion bombardment is governed by the O removal and resupply rates. It was found that the Ba resupply rate is almost an order of magnitude higher than the O resupply rate, but that the Ba can only be present on the surface bound to O atoms. Therefore, the Ba/O ratio is approximately equal to unity during the ion bombardment. Based on the investigations of the removal and resupply processes, we proposed a model that accurately describes the surface coverage and electron emission during the ion bombardment, including the dependence of the ion flux and cathode temperature.

  12. Development of a digital method for neutron/gamma-ray discrimination based on matched filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, S.; Linczuk, M.; Romaniuk, R.; Zychor, I.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron/gamma-ray discrimination is crucial for measurements with detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. Different techniques to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays based on pulse shape analysis are widely used in many applications, e.g., homeland security, radiation dosimetry, environmental monitoring, fusion experiments, nuclear spectroscopy. A common requirement is to improve a radiation detection level with a high detection reliability. Modern electronic components, such as high speed analog to digital converters and powerful programmable digital circuits for signal processing, allow us to develop a fully digital measurement system. With this solution it is possible to optimize digital signal processing algorithms without changing any electronic components in an acquisition signal path. We report on results obtained with a digital acquisition system DNG@NCBJ designed at the National Centre for Nuclear Research. A 2'' × 2'' EJ309 liquid scintillator was used to register mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation from PuBe sources. A dedicated algorithm for pulse shape discrimination, based on real-time filtering, was developed and implemented in hardware.

  13. Possible radiation dose reduction by using digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrates the importance of the introduction of the quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiology departments. The basic aim of quality assurance program is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable while still providing an adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this process, the conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patients exposure, cost reduction by reduction of the film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations show , that there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, two digital and two analogue. Our material consisted of 169 randomly selected patients, 115 of them were examined with digital equipment and 54 patients with the analogue equipment. The obtained results have confirmed the dose reduction and increase of diagnostic accuracy when using the digital equipment, with the added benefit of a good image quality. (authors)

  14. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  15. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  16. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  17. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  18. Primordial flares, flux tubes, MHD waves in the early universe and genesis of cosmic gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hiremath, K M

    2009-01-01

    It is conjectured that energy sources of the gamma ray bursts are similar to energy sources which trigger solar and stellar transient activity phenomena like flares, plasma accelerated flows in the flux tubes and, dissipation of energy and acceleration of particles by the MHD waves. Phenomenologically we examine in detail the following energy sources which may trigger gamma ray bursts : (i) cosmic primordial flares which could be solar flare like phenomena in the region of inter galactic or inter galactic cluster regions, (ii) primordial magnetic flux tubes that might have been formed from the convective collapse of the primordial magnetic flux (iii) nonlinear interaction and dissipation of MHD waves that are produced from the perturbations of large-scale inter galactic or inter cluster magnetic field of primordial origin. We examine in detail each of the afore mentioned phenomena keeping in mind that whether such processes are responsible for energy sources of the gamma ray bursts. By considering the similar...

  19. Quality assurance protocol for digital intra-oral X ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2008, a new Belgian legislation was published that concretizes the necessary tests to be performed to assure the physico-technical quality of dental systems. Tests had been copied from a recently released Belgian protocol for yearly tests on dental systems, as compiled in a working group of the Belgian Hospital Physicists Association (BHPA). The Belgian legislator has copied the basic aims of the BHPA text to ensure appropriate doses and assure image quality of routine dental exposures. In practice, the exposure for the maxillary molar tooth is defined as the 'clinical exposure' and is studied in detail. In the legislation, classical tests of tube output, voltage, filtration and exposure time are imposed. Every test of a digital intra oral x-ray system starts with the measurement of the detector dose for a standard molar setting. The load of tooth and cheek are simulated by a slab of 6mm aluminium. The dose limit is a 200μGy. When the dose exceeds this limit, the medical physics expert (MPE) has to investigate whether the procedures (exposure time, film type, ...) can be adjusted so that the dentist can work within the acceptability criteria. In this report we will focus on 3 less common image quality tests that are also described in the legislation: 1. Dynamic range: A stepwedge, made of 5 aluminium steps with different thickness ranging from 2.5mm to 9mm has to be imaged with the clinical exposure. On the image, the 5 steps should be clearly visible. 2. Homogeneity: An image of a homogeneous test slab is visually inspected. There should not be clinically disturbing artefacts. 3. Resolution: The resolution of clinical exposures is tested with a test object with line pairs on top of 2 cm PMMA. The resolution should not be lower than 5 lp/mm Material and methods: The protocol was successfully tested on 64 systems. This included 13 film systems, 33 systems with phosphorplates and 18 systems with a CCD detector. The systems are from the following vendors

  20. Simple cathode design for Li-S batteries : cell performance and mechanistic insights by in operando X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kulisch, Jörn; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries have been receiving increasing attention over the past several years, particularly with regard to the accelerated development of electric vehicles, but also for their potential in grid storage applications. Among the broad range of cathode active materials, elemental sulfur has the highest theoretical specific capacity, thereby making it one of the most promising positive electrode materials these days. In the present work, we show that already a simple cathode design (...

  1. Comparison of pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube with pulsed fluoroscopy by primary control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IVR) procedures may involve high radiation doses that are potentially harmful to the patient. In IVR procedures, pulsed fluoroscopy can greatly decrease the radiation that the physician and patient receive. There are two types of pulsed fluoroscopy: direct control and primary (indirect) control. The purpose of this study was to compare pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control, using a grid-controlled x-ray tube, with pulsed fluoroscopy using primary control. For both types of pulsed fluoroscopy, we measured the waveforms (x-ray tube voltage, x-ray tube current, and x-ray output) and the relative radiation dose. In addition, we compared the decrease in radiation during pulsed fluoroscopy using a care filter. The studies were performed using a Siemens Bicor Plus x-ray System (direct control) and a Siemens Multistar Plus x-ray System (primary control). Using primary pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.5-1.0 msec, or longer with a lower x-ray tube current. Using direct pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.1 msec, and was independent of x-ray tube current. The rate of radiation reduction with primary pulse control using the care filter with a lower x-ray tube current had a slope exceeding 10%. Pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube permits an optimal radiation dose. To decrease the radiation in primary pulse control, a care filter must be used, particularly with a lower x-ray tube current. (author)

  2. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Asakura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  3. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; Zhou, Haoshen; Okabayashi, Jun; Ban, Chunmei; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Mizokawa, Takashi; Chen, Gang; Achkar, Andrew J.; Hawthron, David G.; Regier, Thomas Z.; Wadati, Hiroki

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  4. Evaluation of elemental and compound semiconductors for X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivelli, W. (Ist. di Patologia Speciale Medica e Methodologia Clinica, Univ. Pisa (Italy) INFN, Pisa (Italy)); Bertolucci, E.; Messineo, A.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Pisa (Italy) INFN, Pisa (Italy)); Bottigli, U.; Randaccio, P. (Ist. di Fisica, Univ. Cagliari (Italy) INFN, Cagliari (Italy)); Del Guerra, A.; Russo, P. (Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Napoli (Italy) INFN, Napoli (Italy)); Nelson, W.R. (SLAC, Stanford, CA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the performance of elemental and compound solid state crystals of possible use in X-ray digital radiography. The general purpose EGS4 code was used to simulate photon-electron transport in the energy range 20 to 60 keV. The efficiency and the energy resolution, as a function of X-ray energy, are calculated and correlated to the different physical characteristics of the crystals considered. (orig.).

  5. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  6. Hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the developments and theoretical investigations of a fundamentally new class of microwave devices, namely, hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode, which combine the useful properties of virtual cathodes with the advantages of those traditional microwave oscillators that operate with subcritical-current beams and have a high efficiency in generating ultrarelativistic electron beams. Among such devices are the following: a hybrid diffractional microwave oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid gyro-device with a virtual cathode, a hybrid beam-plasma vircator, a hybrid gyrocon with a virtual cathode, a hybrid Cherenkov oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid microwave oscillator of the 'vircator + traveling-wave tube' type, an original two-beam tube with a virtual cathode, and a klystron-like vircator

  7. 78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems, tablets and mobile phones, components thereof and associated software, by reason of...

  8. 78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... complaint entitled Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components Thereof and Associated Software, DN 2954; the Commission...

  9. 78 FR 56736 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems, tablets and... Hills Media, LLC (``BHM''). 78 FR 29156-57. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of...

  10. Comarability of digital and analouge x-rays for migration measurements with EBRA

    CERN Document Server

    Brabec, E

    2001-01-01

    EBRA is a computer supported method for measuring the migration of total hip prostheses by using consecutive standard X-rays of the pelvis. PACS is a picture archiving and communication system used to handle digitally taken X-rays. After the installation of a PACS at the University Clinic of Innsbruck it was impossible to compare the digital pictures with the former analogue pictures with EBRA, as they have different scales. By introducing a calibrating step into the EBRA-program it was possible to do measurements on series of pictures containing digital pictures as well as analogue ones. For displaying the failure of EBRA caused by different radiological techniques we did measurements on a series of consecutive X-rays taken of a model made of acrylic glass and simulating the relevant anatomic structures by screws. The migration of the implant was simulated by shifting it in two directions. Whilst using analogue and digital radiological techniques for taking X-rays, the difference in measurement errors of bot...

  11. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, Richard D. [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilde, Jim C.H. [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa); University of Amsterdam, Paediatric Surgical Centre of Amsterdam, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Douglas, Tania S. [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); As, Arjan Bastiaan van [University of Cape Town, Division of Paediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-05-15

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided. (orig.)

  12. Automatic analysis of quality of images from X-ray digital flat detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since last decade, medical imaging has grown up with the development of new digital imaging techniques. In the field of X-ray radiography, new detectors replace progressively older techniques, based on film or x-ray intensifiers. These digital detectors offer a higher sensibility and reduced overall dimensions. This work has been prepared with Trixell, the world leading company in flat detectors for medical radiography. It deals with quality control on digital images stemming from these detectors. High quality standards of medical imaging impose a close analysis of the defects that can appear on the images. This work describes a complete process for quality analysis of such images. A particular focus is given on the detection task of the defects, thanks to methods well adapted to our context of spatially correlated defects in noise background. (author)

  13. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity ({approx_equal}1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session.

  14. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-05-01

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity (approximately 1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session. PMID:19544789

  15. The impact of x-ray tube configuration on the eye lens and extremity doses received by cardiologists in electrophysiology room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the x-ray tube configuration on the radiation doses to eye lens and extremities of cardiologists performing pacemaker implantation procedures in electrophysiology laboratory. The measurements were performed on one, widely used, portable C-arm system, first with x-ray tube mounted above the patient table and image intensifier below it and then on a reinstalled (but essentially the same) system with under-table x-ray tube configuration. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, placed in various positions near the eye lens, on the hands and ankle, were used during every procedure. The comparison of doses received by cardiologists after changing the x-ray tube configuration from over- to under-table shows statistically significant dose reduction (p < 0.009) for the eye lens closest to the x-ray tube, left finger, left wrist, while for the ankle a dose increase is observed. The corresponding over- to under-table x-ray tube median dose ratios are 4.1 for the right eye, 4.8 for the left finger, 3.0 for left wrist and, finally, 0.13 for the right ankle. Systems with under-table x-ray tube are preferable from a radiation protection point of view. The observed significant increase in doses to the legs should be partially compensated by the use of a protective lead curtain. (note)

  16. Defects correction for digital dental x-ray sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong D.; Kim, Seo-Gyoo; Kim, Jongwon

    2001-05-01

    As medical imaging is adapting to the digital technology, solid imaging sensors are replacing the classical films in dental application. CCD is one of the typical image senors in this are. In the oral imaging, however, the size of image sensors should be large because there is not enough space for optical path of lens inside the mouth. The unavoidable defects are usually occurred in the large format CCD sensor. Practically it is not possible to get the defect free sensor because its cost is rapidly increasing to reduce the defects. In this paper we will present an efficient strategy to handle these defects. As the lighting is highly controllable differently from the common cameras, the controlled illumination is used to create uniform images with various levels. The local statistics in each controlled image are investigated to find defected areas. All the defected regions of each image are accumulated forming image-like representation. The defected regions are concealed with their neighbors by linear interpolation.

  17. A comparative experiments for tube agglutination test of pullorum antiserum with gamma ray Co60 irradiated salmonella pullorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agglutinability between naturally infected positive chicken serum of pullorum disease and hyperimmunized rabbit antiserum was compared. And the following results were obtained and summarized. On the agglutinability, Salmonella pullorum antigen which irradiated gamma-ray was better than another both formalized and heated antigen. Time of judgemented as positive titer in the tube agglutination test to the naturally infected positive chicken serum was it most suitable for 12 hours at 37°C. Agglutination titer of positive immune chicken serum against gamma-ray irradiate Salmonella pullorum were as 320 approximately 640x. (author).

  18. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  19. Novel large-area MIS-type x-ray image sensor for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameshima, Toshio; Kaifu, Noriyuki; Takami, Eiichi; Morishita, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a brand new, large-area X-ray image sensor for Digital Radiography System (DRS). The sensor utilizes a thin film transistor (TFT)/metal insulator semiconductor (MIS)-type photoelectric converter array made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The sensor has 2688 X 2688 pixels at a pitch of 160 micrometer. The active area is 17 inch X 17 inch. The sensor utilizes scintillator coupled to the array. The light generated by X-rays is detected by the MIS-type photoelectric converters, and the resultant signals are scanned out by switching the TFTs. The a-Si TFT/MIS-type photoelectric converter array is characterized by high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and simple fabrication process. We will describe the principle and the performance of the sensor. In addition, we will present some X-ray images of a human subject obtained with this sensor. Dynamic range of the sensor covers most of the exposure range for radiography. SNR is limited almost only by the X-ray photon noise. MTF is sufficient for digital chest radiography. X-ray images have good contrast. The experimental results and obtained images show that the brand new sensor has great advantages for replacing X-ray film. The simple fabrication process of the sensor promises high productivity and low cost of DRS.

  20. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  1. Resolution enhancement in digital x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a restoration method for radiographs that enhances image sharpness and reveals bone microstructures that were initially hidden in the soft-tissue glare. The method is two fold: the image is first deconvolved using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and is then divided with a signal modelling the soft-tissue distribution to increase the overall contrast. Each step has its own merits but the power of the restoration method lies in their combination. The originality of the method is its reliance on a priori information at each step in the processing. We have measured and modelled analytically the point-spread function of a low-dose gas microstrip x-ray detector at several beam energies. We measured the relationship between the local image intensity and the noise variance for these images. The soft-tissue signal was also modelled using a minimum-curvature filtering technique. These results were then combined into an image deconvolution procedure that uses wavelet filtering to reduce restoration noise while keeping the enhanced small-scale features. The method was applied successfully to images of a human-torso phantom and improved the contrast of small details on the bones and in the soft tissues. We measured a mean 54% increase in signal to noise ratio and a mean 105% increase in contrast to noise ratio in the 70 and 140 kVp images we analysed. The method was designed to facilitate the analysis of radiographs by relying on two levels of visual inspection. The contrast of the full image is first enhanced by division with the signal modelling the soft-tissue distribution. Based on the result, a radiologist might decide to zoom in on a given image section. The full restoration method is then applied to that region of interest. Indeed, full image deconvolution is often unnecessary since enhanced small-scale details are not visible at large scale; only the section of interest is processed which is more efficient

  2. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  3. A rapid, high sensitivity technique for measuring arsenic in skin phantoms using a portable x-ray tube and detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David E B; Gherase, Mihai Raul

    2007-10-01

    Using a portable x-ray tube and silicon PiN diode detector, an improved approach to the measurement of arsenic in skin phantoms was demonstrated. Skin phantoms of 8 mm thickness were made from polyester resin, with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0 to 30 microg g(-1). The excitation of characteristic arsenic x-rays was performed with the x-ray tube and K(alpha) x-rays were used as an indicator of arsenic concentration. From repeated phantom measurements, an instrumental minimum detection limit of 0.446 +/- 0.006 microg g(-1) was found, using an acquisition time of 120 s (real time). This compares with previously reported approaches having instrumental minimum detection limits of 3.5 +/- 0.2 microg g(-1) (1800 s real time), 2.3 +/- 0.1 microg g(-1) (1000 s live time) and 0.40 +/- 0.06 microg g(-1) (1000 s live time). PMID:17881796

  4. High-resolution X-ray projection radiography of a pin cathode in a high-current vacuum diode using X-pinch radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkevich, E. V.; Tilikin, I. N.; Agafonov, A. V.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Savinov, S. Yu.; Mesyats, G. A.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    To study processes in a high-current vacuum diode with a cathode in the form of a single pin made of a metallic wire 20-30 μm in diameter, the method of high-resolution projection X-ray radiography with an X-pinch as a source has been used. A strong inhomogeneity of the energy contribution to the wire has been revealed. The smallest energy release has been observed near the end of the pin, where the electric field strength is maximal. Hard X rays, as well as the ejection of matter from the anode, have been observed, indicating the generation of an electron beam with the parameters characteristic of explosive electron emission in the diode with this configuration. The data obtained indicate complex processes occurring in the diode. Possible scenarios of their development have been considered.

  5. Observation of X-ray intensity distribution from the anode of a fine-focus tube using Δω - Δ2θ scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A split intensity distribution from the anode of fine focus x-ray tubes probably due to tungsten deposited on the target is reported. Such a doubling of the target complicates the interpretation of Δ ω -Δ2θ intensity distributions and introduces systematic errors in the determination of lattice parameters. It is estimated that the increasing tungsten deposit affects, in time, the intensity of x-ray tubes. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European and Regional Danish guidelines. The areal between current and optimal collimation is calculated. The experimental research is performed in September - October 2014 Siemens Axiom Aristos digital radiography system DR using 150 kV, 1,25 -3......Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...

  7. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Based Algorithm for Digital X-ray Mammogram Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mutihac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basics of Bayesian statistics in inverse problems using the maximum entropy principle are summarized in connection with the restoration of positive, additive images from various types of data like X-ray digital mammograms. An efficient iterative algorithm for image restoration from large data sets based on the conjugate gradient method and Lagrange multipliers in nonlinear optimization of a specific potential function was developed. The point spread function of the imaging system was determined by numerical simulations of inhomogeneous breast-like tissue with microcalcification inclusions of various opacities. The processed digital and digitized mammograms resulted superior in comparison with their raw counterparts in terms of contrast, resolution, noise, and visibility of details.

  8. Development and evaluation of a four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed in our lab. The four flash X-ray heads and four detectors can be used to obtain four radiographic images at four time intervals of an explosion and ballistic trajectory. The cascaded imaging system mainly consists of three parts: (1) a phosphor screen to convert incident X-rays into visible photons; (2) a lens to efficiently collect visible photons emitted by the phosphor screen; and (3) a charge coupled device image sensor to obtain the visible light image. From the analysis of signal and noise propagation, the system is not X-ray quantum-limited, rather the system has secondary quantum sink at the light collecting stage. The construction of the system, theoretical and experimental analysis of performance are presented

  9. Development and evaluation of a four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Yi; Du Hong Lian; Li Yuan Jing; Tian Hui

    2003-01-01

    A four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed in our lab. The four flash X-ray heads and four detectors can be used to obtain four radiographic images at four time intervals of an explosion and ballistic trajectory. The cascaded imaging system mainly consists of three parts: (1) a phosphor screen to convert incident X-rays into visible photons; (2) a lens to efficiently collect visible photons emitted by the phosphor screen; and (3) a charge coupled device image sensor to obtain the visible light image. From the analysis of signal and noise propagation, the system is not X-ray quantum-limited, rather the system has secondary quantum sink at the light collecting stage. The construction of the system, theoretical and experimental analysis of performance are presented.

  10. Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Bie, B. X. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Ran, X. X.; Qi, M. L., E-mail: qiml@whut.edu.cn [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Parab, N.; Sun, J. Z.; Liao, H. J.; Hudspeth, M. C.; Claus, B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Material Science Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gong, X. L., E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation.

  11. Efficient hardware-software co-implementation of a digital dental x-ray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong D.; Kim, Seo-Gyoo; Kim, Jongwon

    2001-05-01

    In this paper the design considerations for a digital dental x-ray system is discussed where a commercial CCD sensor is adopted. Especially the system should be able to work with several x-ray machines even with them for the classical film. The hardware-software co-design methodology is employed to optimize the system. The full digital implementation is assumed for the reliability of the system. The considered functions cover the pre-processing such as the exposure detection, clamping and the dark level correction and the post-processing such as gray level compensation. It is analyzed with some other constraints in order to make the final partition. The entire system based on the partition will be described.

  12. On the features of bursts of neutrons, hard x-rays and alpha-particles in the pulse vacuum discharge with a virtual cathode and self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Samoylov, I. S.; Ostashev, V. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we continue the discussion of the experimental results on the yield of DD neutrons and hard x-rays in the nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD) with a virtual cathode, which was started in the previous article of this issue, and previously (Kurilenkov Y K et al 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4375). We have considered here the regimes of very dense interelectrode aerosol ensembles, in which diffusion of even hard x-rays is found. The yield of DD neutrons in these regimes is conditioned not only by the head-on deuteron-deuteron collisions in the potential well of virtual cathode, but also by the channel of “deuteron-deuterium cluster” reaction, which exceeds overall yield of neutrons per a shot by more than an order of magnitude, bringing it up to ∼ 107/(4π). Very bright bursts of hard x-rays are also represented and discussed here. Presumably, their nature may be associated with the appearance in the NVD of some properties of random laser in the x-ray spectrum. Good preceding agreeing of the experiment on the DD fusion in the NVD with its particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provides a basis to begin consideration of nuclear burning “proton-boron” in the NVD, which will be accompanied by the release of alpha particles only. With this objective in view, there has been started the PIC-simulation of aneutronic burning of p-B11, and its preliminary results are presented.

  13. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on output characteristic of color CMOS digital image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effect of color CMOS digital image sensors was studied by accumulative radiation and single dose radiation at different γ-ray doses. The quality of the picture captured under natural lighting is very poor only at 1.2 kGy for accumulative radiation, but at 1.8 kGy for single dose radiation, showing that the radiation-induced degradation of the device performance for the sensor with accumulatively γ-ray doses is much more severe than those with single dose due to like power-on mode. (authors)

  14. The development of efficient X-ray conversion material for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an experimental method based on theory is used to develop photoconductor that can replace the a-Se currently used as X-ray conversion layer in digital mammography. This is necessary because a-Se produced by the commercial fabrication method, of physical vapor deposition, has exhibited several problems when applied to digital mammography: instability due to crystallization and defect expansion due to high operating voltages, which is called the aging effect. Therefore, our work focused on developing a method of fabricating X-ray conversion films that do not suffer from crystallization and X-ray damage and optimizing the factors affecting the properties of the candidate photoconductors in order to acquire sufficient electrical signals to detect minute calcifications. The photoconductors were initially selected after the requirements for X-ray conversion materials, such as high atomic absorption, density, band-gap energy, work function, and resistivity, were examined. We selected HgI2, PbI2, and PbO because of their basic properties. Next, we experimentally investigated the performance of film samples fabricated by sedimentation and screen printing instead of physical vapor deposition. The structure of the X-ray conversion films (e.g., the thickness, electrodes, and blocking layer) were optimized for the application of a relatively low voltage to the X-ray conversion layer. The performance of the films were morphologically and electrically evaluated under mammography X-ray exposure conditions, and compared with those of a-Se films produced by physical vapor deposition. PbO appeared to be the most suitable alternative material because its electrical properties, such as the dark current, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), did not reveal the X-ray damage problem, and thus were maintained after repeated exposure to X-rays. Although PbO showed low sensitivity to X-ray exposure, its SNR was superior to that of the other materials, which is expected

  15. Dark output characteristic of γ-ray irradiated CMOS digital imagesensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The quality of dark output images from the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) black and white (B&W) digital image sensors captured before and after γ-ray irradiation was studied. The characteristic parameters of the dark output images captured at different radiation dose, e.g. average brightness and its non-uniformity of dark output images, were analyzed by our test software. The primary explanation for the change of the parameters with the radiation dose was given.

  16. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  17. An analysis of factors that affect image quality deterioration in the potable x-ray examination on using digital wireless detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Young Eun; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Joo Young [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Junju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Recently the development of portable digital wireless imaging system, which acquires digital radiation images by using wireless LAN telecommunications function in an easy and fast way, provides lots of convenience for people. Considering the characteristics of portable imaging tests on emergency and critical patients, this study aims to suggest guidelines for Digital wireless detector by evaluating the effect of de-centering of focus-grid and displacement of subject in detector on the quality of image. The equipments used for this study were Elmo-T6 Digital Mobile X-ray system (SIMAZU Corp.), el’Tor (14 x 17 “Wireless detector), Grid (10:1) and Chest and head phantom. After acquiring post-processing image according to dose increase and de-centering image of grid-focus and head phantom displacement image, this study compared, analyzed and evaluated these images by using a digital image analysis program by Image J. In the change of images based on dose increase, images were rough in the dose of 0.5 mAs, while there was no difference among images in the proper dose of 1∼2 mAs and, especially from 2.5 mAs, average value of pixels radically decreased, affecting contrast. Over 3 mAs, contrast dropped due to saturation phenomenon of lungs. As the result of analysis using Image J program, with the increase of displacement between focus-grid and head phantom, the frequency of low pixel value also increase, causing the outline of surface image to disappear, which in turn affects contrast. For better quality imaging, a radiographer must be aware before the time of test that the image quality can be changed based on the critical patient's posture, movement, respiration, displacement of X-ray tube and distance of imaging.

  18. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2016-01-01

    In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km$^{2}$. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and es...

  19. Virtual cathode microwave devices -- Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thode, L.E.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high- frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement. 58 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Virtual cathode microwave devices: Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, L. E.; Snell, C. M.

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency while in other designs the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode, a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high-frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement.

  1. Development of small-diameter lead-glass-tube matrices for gamma-ray conversion in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma-ray converter for a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) positron emission tomograph is described. The converter is made of small-diameter (0.48 mm inner diameter, 0.06 mm wall thickness) lead-oxide-glass tubes fused to form a honeycomb matrix. The surfaces of the tubes are reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to provide the drift electric field for detection of the conversion electrons. The detection efficiency for a 10 mm thick converter is 6.65%, with a time resolution of 160 ns (FWHM). A scheme which will improve the spatial resolution of the tomograph by use of the self quenching streamer mode of chamber operation is described. Details of construction of the converters and the MWPC are presented, as well as the design performance of a high spatial resolution positron emission tomograph (HISPET). 40 refs., 22 figs

  2. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  3. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, U-barP, the average, U-bar, the effective, Ueff or the maximum peak, UP tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average U-bar or the average peak, U-barp voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak kPPV,kVp and the average kPPV,Uav conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated - according to the proposed method - PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from U-barp and U-bar measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  4. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man [Jeonbuk Technopark, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chon, Kwon-Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics.

  5. The function-transferring model construction for X-ray digital radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at presenting a renovated model-building method of transfer function for industrial X-ray digital radiography based on the amorphous silicon X-ray flat-panel detector. The system, known as point-spreading function (PSF), is composed of three parts: the system geometrical dispersion with a non-spot power source, the scintillating screen dispersion and the aperture sampling of the pixel detector. For the innovation purpose, we have first of all established a mathematical simulation of the PSF and the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the basis of analyzing the intensity distribution of X-ray penetration area in each part and by taking Gaussian functions as a mathematical equation for depicting the transfer behavior of each part of the system. And, then, we have worked out the approximately effective bandwidth of the system from its half-wave width. And, finally, by taking the digital radiography based on the flat-panel detector for sampling, the paper has provided a theoretical foundation for the industrial X-ray radiographic testing and measurement operation. In addition, the author has also estimated the validation of the model through experiments and proved that the method helps to make high resolutions of the diacritical tiniest details in the work-pieces, which has shown and will show its technical rationality, technical appropriateness and practical working value

  6. Mitigated phase transition during first cycle of a Li-rich layered cathode studied by in operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bohang; Day, Sarah J; Sui, Tan; Lu, Li; Tang, Chiu C; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2016-02-14

    In operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) studies were conducted to investigate the phase transition of Li-rich Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13)O2 and Cr-doped Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.03Cr0.10)O2 cathodes during the first charge/discharge cycle. Crystallographic (lattice parameters) and mechanical (domain size and microstrain) information was collected from SXPD full pattern refinement. It was found that Cr substitution at Co-site benefits in suppressing the activation of Li2MnO3 domains upon 1st charge, and thus mitigates the phase transition. As a consequence, Cr-doped layered cathode holds a better reversibility in terms of a full recovery of both lattice parameters and nano-domain size after a whole charge/discharge cycle. The effects of different cycling rates on the structural change were also discussed. PMID:26799191

  7. X-ray light valve (XLV): a novel detectors' technology for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovici, Sorin; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Oakham, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A novel method, based on X-ray Light Valve (XLV) technology, is proposed for making good image quality yet inexpensive flat panel detectors for digital mammography. The digital mammography markets, particularly in the developing countries, demand quality machines at substantially lower prices than the ones available today. Continuous pressure is applied on x-ray detectors' manufacturers to reduce the flat panel detectors' prices. XLV presents a unique opportunity to achieve the needed price - performance characteristics for direct conversion, x-ray detectors. The XLV based detectors combine the proven, superior, spatial resolution of a-Se with the simplicity and low cost of liquid crystals and optical scanning. The x-ray quanta absorbed by a 200 μm a-Se produce electron - hole pairs that move under an electric field to the top and bottom of a-Se layer. This 2D charge distribution creates at the interface with the liquid crystals a continuous (analog) charge image corresponding to the impinging radiation's information. Under the influence of local electrical charges next to them, the liquid crystals twist proportionally to the charges and vary their light reflectivity. A scanning light source illuminates the liquid crystals while an associated, pixilated photo-detector, having a 42 μm pixel size, captures the light reflected by the liquid crystals and converts it in16 bit words that are transmitted to the machine for image processing and display. The paper will describe a novel XLV, 25 cm x 30 cm, flat panel detector structure and its underlying physics as well as its preliminary performance measured on several engineering prototypes. In particular, the paper will present the results of measuring XLV detectors' DQE, MTF, dynamic range, low contrast resolution and dynamic behavior. Finally, the paper will introduce the new, low cost, XLV detector based, digital mammography machine under development at XLV Diagnostics Inc.

  8. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one

  9. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Silicon Photomultiplier Detector Waveforms from Cosmic Rays using Digital Signal Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Silicon photomultiplier detectors exhibit high gain, low operating voltage, are insensitive to magnetic fields, and can detect light at the single photon level, making them very attractive for applications in fields such as particle physics, astrophysics, and medical physics. However, they exhibit effects that may prevent their optimal operation, including thermally induced high dark count rate, after pulse effects, and cross talk produced from photons in nearby pixels. In this presentation, we describe our coincidence setup using two scintillator pads and a Hamamatsu multipixel photon counter (MPPC) to gather cosmic ray produced signal pulses, and our methods of analysis for the detector waveforms. In particular, we discuss our methods of digitization, software implementation of low pass and Gaussian type filters, and the application of a domino ring sampler (DRS4) digitizing board to obtain signal waveforms to determine the operating characteristics for these detectors. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  11. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  12. Modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S K; Hollender, L

    1994-03-01

    An impulse train method to control aliasing was used to measure the modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system (RVG 32000 ZHR, Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France). The detector of this system is composed of an intensifying screen, a fiber optics taper, and a charged couple device chip. The modulation transfer function could not be measured by impulse method such as the line spread function or edge response function because of aliasing from undersampling of the digital system. The system modulation transfer function was difficult to recover at the spatial frequencies smaller than the Nyquist frequency. The modulation transfer function beyond the Nyquist frequencies was impossible to recover in this study.

  13. X-ray inspection using digital devices applied to space engines using carbon fiber case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full-text:' The VEGA European small launcher of new generation is made of four stages of which the first three are solid propellant engines of advanced technology. The long experience reached in the solid propellant Field through Ariane 3, 4 and 5 programme, identified AVIO how the manufacturer of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stage of the launcher. With the aim of minimizing launcher cost, a new technology using a low weight motor case made of carbon fiber has been developed. Other than process of fabrication also process of control are involved in the development of the new technology and, in considering the large size of the engines, the latter fall heavily on the manufacturing time and cost. In view of the reducing the recurrent cost of the launcher, AVIO is particularly interested in new technologies having the potentiality to reduce control costs. Among Non-Destructive Tests, the X-ray inspection is irreplaceable for its effectiveness, therefore improvements in X-ray imaging techniques aimed at decreasing control cost without any performance reduction, is a challenge that AVIO intends to pursue. From this point of view Digital Radiography offers good opportunity to which AVIO is looking to define the applicability to the case of interest. This paper shows the status of art and summarizes the results obtained through tests performed in collaboration with the main suppliers of digital devices working in industrial high energy X-ray NonDestructive Testing Field. (author)

  14. Surface and in-depth characterization of lithium-ion battery cathodes at different cycle states using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Magnus; Schlifke, Annalena [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Falk, Mareike; Janek, Jürgen [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Fröba, Michael, E-mail: froeba@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cathode material LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} for lithium-ion batteries has been studied with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (CMXRF) combined with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the Mn-K edge and the Ni-K edge. This technique allows for a non-destructive, spatially resolved (x, y and z) investigation of the oxidation states of surface areas and to some extent of deeper layers of the electrode. Until now CMXRF-XANES has been applied to a limited number of applications, mainly geo-science. Here, we introduce this technique to material science applications and show its performance to study a part of a working system. A novel mesoporous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} material was cycled (charged and discharged) to investigate the effects on the oxidation states at the cathode/electrolyte interface. With this approach the degradation of Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+} only observable at the surface of the electrode could be directly shown. The spatially resolved non-destructive analysis provides knowledge helpful for further understanding of deterioration and the development of high voltage battery materials, because of its nondestructive nature it will be also suitable to monitor processes during battery cycling. - Highlights: • The potential of confocal micro-XRF-XANES for spatial resolved species analysis in a part of a working system is shown. • The spatial resolution enables differentiation of the oxidized interface from deeper layers. • With the analytical technique confocal micro-XRF-XANES 3D in-situ analyses of working systems are feasible. • The multidimensional and nondestructive analysis of Li-ion battery cathodes is shown. • The analysis will allow for a deeper understanding of processes at interfaces in battery science and others.

  15. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in

  16. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    database for women is presented. It has its maximum in the third decade, and a moderate biologic variation that seems to decline with age. It was found that DXR-MCI was independent of body weight and body surface area, whereas all DXA-BMD values were significantly dependent on them. Body height......Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...... for precise and accurate measurements of MCI (DXR-MCI). We hypothesized that DXR-MCI in contrast to projected areal bone mineral density (BMD) (DXA-BMD) is independent of bone size and studied 384 normal women by measuring DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and distal radius. A normative MCI...

  17. Comparison of digital signal processing modules in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépy, Marie-Christine; Cissé, Ousmane Ibrahima; Pierre, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Commercial digital signal-processing modules have been tested for their applicability to gamma-ray spectrometry. The tests were based on the same n-type high purity germanium detector. The spectrum quality was studied in terms of energy resolution and peak area versus shaping parameters, using a Eu-152 point source. The stability of a reference peak count rate versus the total count rate was also examined. The reliability of the quantitative results is discussed for their use in measurement at the metrological level.

  18. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  19. Determination voltage applied to an X-ray tube using the spectrum; Determinacao da tensao aplicada em um tubo de raios-X usando o espectro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves, E-mail: malbuqueque@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, Guilherme [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work shows the methodology used to determine the voltage applied in an X-ray tube using their spectra. The measurements were made using a detector Cadmium telluride . Before the measurements are carried out detector was calibrated with a source of {sup 241}Am. After obtaining the spectra , the mean energies were calculated , the electron accelerating potential (k Vp ) of each spectrum is constructed a calibration straight for the kVp this tube. (author)

  20. Performance analysis of gamma-ray-irradiated color complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance parameters of dark output images captured from color complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital image sensors before and after gamma-ray irradiation were studied. The changes of red, green and blue color parameters of dark output images with different gamma-ray doses and exposure times were analyzed with our computer software. The effect of irradiation on the response of blue color was significantly affected at a lower dose. The dark current density of the sensors increases by three orders at > 60 krad compared to that of unirradiated sensors. The maximum and minimum analog output voltages all increase with irradiation doses, and are almost the same at > 120 krad. The signal to noise ratio is 48 dB before irradiation and 35 dB after irradiation of 180 krad. The antiradiation threshold for these sensors is about 100 krad. The primary explanation for the changes and the degradation of device performance parameters is presented. (author)

  1. Finite element calculation and direct x-ray diffraction measurement of residual stresses induced by an hydraulic expansion in steam generator tubes during the sleeving process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When installing an internal sleeve to repair a steam generator tube, it is usual to expand the sleeve locally by means of an internal pressure, in order to put it into contact with the tube before welding. This process induces residual stresses in the parent tube, near the end of the contact zone, even if the residual bulging is very small. This study is aimed at assessing the residual stresses as a function of that bulging and of the respective mechanical properties of the materials. An analytical approach based on finite element calculations and an experimental one by x-ray diffraction have been used to evaluate the residual stresses

  2. Measuring device for fast determination of the tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of X-ray units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, T.; Eickelkamp, U.; Jakschik, J.

    1982-11-01

    A prototype of a measuring device is described, which reads the tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of X-ray units by means of two radiation detectors with different energy dependences due to detector materials. (Caesium iodine and silicon). With a storage oscilloscope the curves of the tube voltage and the relative absorbed dose rate of intensifying screens can be displayed. The measuring range of the tube peak voltage is 60 kV to 150 kV. It is possible to measure exposure times of radiography equipment above 2 ms with sufficiently low uncertainty. The tube peak voltage has been read with a relative uncertainty below 5% for almost all dose rates, which arise in practical application of medical X-ray units, and its calibration is made by means of X-ray apparatus with tube voltage reading, which has been compared to a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The stability of tube voltage reading of the measuring device is only effected by radiation damage of the detectors after a long time of utilization. The small diameter of the probe permits the accomodation of other probes, ionization chambers, phantoms, etc. in the radiation field at the same time.

  3. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. PMID:27239987

  4. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yongjian [X-ray Products, Varian Medical Systems Inc., Liverpool, New York 13088 (United States); Wang, Jue [Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  5. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  6. Investigation of tomosynthetic perfusion measurements using the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Brian E.; Chen, Guang-Hong; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Betts, Timothy; Speidel, Michael; Rowley, Howard A.; Aagaard Kienitz, Beverly D.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of making regional perfusion measurements using a tomosynthetic digital subtraction angiography (TDSA) acquisition has been demonstrated. The study of tomosynthetic perfusion measurements was motivated by the clinical desire for perfusion measurements in an interventional angiography suite. These pilot studies were performed using the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system which is an inverse-geometry imaging device which utilizes an electromagnetically-scanned x-ray source, and a small CdTe direct conversion photon counting detector. The scanning electron source was used to acquire planar-tomographic images of a 12.5 x 12.5 cm field of view at a frame rate of 15 frames/sec during dynamic contrast injection. A beagle animal model was used to evaluate the tomosynthetic perfusion measurements. A manual bolus injection of iodinated contrast solution was used in order to resolve the parameters of the contrast pass curve. The acquired planar tomosynthetic dataset was reconstructed with a simple back-projection algorithm. Digital subtraction techniques were used to visualize the change in contrast agent intensity in each reconstructed plane. Given the TDSA images, region of interest based analysis was used in the selection of the image pixels corresponding to the artery and tissue bed. The mean transit time (MTT), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were extracted from the tomosynthetic data for selected regions in each of the desired reconstructed planes. For the purpose of this study, the arterial contrast enhancement curve was fit with a combination of gamma variate terms, and the MTT was calculated using a deconvolution based on the singular value decomposition (SVD). The results of the contrast pass curves derived with TDSA were consistent with the results from perfusion measurements as implemented with CT acquisition.

  7. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering and Management

    2005-05-01

    For superheater tubes, the adherence of the inner steamside oxide is especially important as spallation of this oxide results in a) blockage of loops which cause insufficient steam flow through the superheaters and subsequently overheating and tube failure and b) spalled oxide can cause erosion of turbine blades. Oxide spallation is a serious problem for austenitic steels where the significant differences of the thermal expansion coefficients of steel and oxide cause relatively high thermal stresses. Usually, various oxides layered within the scale are suggested from microscopical observations of the morphology and/or topography of the oxide scale accompanied by the analysis of chemical elements present. Reports about the application of X-ray diffraction on the study of steamside oxide formation are very scarce in literature. If applied at all, XRD-studies are restricted to ideally flat samples oxidized under laboratory conditions, but relation to real operating conditions and the effect of the real sample geometry is missing. Within the frame of the project, steamside oxides on plant exposed components of ferritic/ martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 as well as fine- and coarse-grained austenitic TP347H were studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Depth dependent phase analysis on sample segments cut from the tubes was carried out by means of grazing incidence diffraction and, in order to obtain information from a larger depth, conventional XRD was combination with stepwise mechanical removal of the steamside oxides. After each removal step phase analysis was performed both on the segments and on the removed powders. Phase specific stress analysis was carried out on rings cut from the tube. Results show that steamside oxides on X20CrMoV12-1 consist of pure Hematite at the surface followed by a relatively thick layer of pure Magnetite. Both phases are under relatively high tensile stresses. While the phase composition of the Hematite layer appears to be the same for all

  8. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  10. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model using a common X-ray tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Tokalov; W Enghardt; N Abolmaali

    2010-06-01

    Studies that investigate the radiation of human tumour xenografts require an appropriate radiation source and highly standardized conditions during radiation. This work reports on the design of a standardized irradiation device using a commercially available X-ray tube with a custom constructed lead collimator with two circular apertures and an animal bed plate, permitting synchronous irradiation of two animals. Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat model were investigated. Procedures and results described herein prove the feasibility of use of the device, which is applicable for any investigation involving irradiation of non-tumorous and tumorous lesions in small animals.

  11. A high-precision X-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS Muon Monitored Drift Tube Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, S; Banhidi, Z; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lampl, W; Marchesotti, M; Rangod, Stephane; Sbrissa, E; Smirnov, Y; Voss, Rüdiger; Woudstra, M; Zhuravlov, V

    2004-01-01

    A dedicated X-ray tomograph has been developed at CERN to control the required wire placement accuracy of better than 20mum of the 1200 Monitored Drift Tube Chambers which make up most of the precision chamber part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The tomograph allows the chamber wire positions to be measured with a 2mum statistical and 2mum systematic uncertainty over the full chamber cross-section of 2.2 multiplied by 0.6m**2. Consistent chamber production quality over the 4-year construction phase is ensured with a similar to 15% sampling rate. Measurements of about 70 of the 650 MDT chambers so far produced have been essential in assessing the validity and consistency of the various construction procedures.

  12. Comparison of simulated and measured spectra from an X-ray tube for the energies between 20 and 35 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, M.; Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Ozben, C.S.; Yücel, E. Barlas, E-mail: barlase@itu.edu.tr

    2015-11-01

    Design and production of a simple and low cost X-ray imaging system that can be used for light industrial applications was targeted in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In this study, production, transmission and detection of X-rays were simulated for the proposed imaging device. OX/70-P dental tube was used and X-ray spectra simulated by Geant4 were validated by comparison with X-ray spectra measured between 20 and 35 keV. Relative detection efficiency of the detector was also determined to confirm the physics processes used in the simulations. Various time optimization tools were performed to reduce the simulation time.

  13. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  14. Spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray tubes using laplace inverse transform of the attenuation curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malezan, A.; Tomal, A.; Antoniassi, M.; Watanabe, P. C. A.; Albino, L. D.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a spectral reconstruction methodology for diagnostic X-ray, using Laplace inverse transform of the attenuation, was successfully applied to dental X-ray equipments. The attenuation curves of 8 commercially available dental X-ray equipment, from 3 different manufactures (Siemens, Gnatus and Dabi Atlante), were obtained by using an ionization chamber and high purity aluminium filters, while the kVp was obtained with a specific meter. A computational routine was implemented in order to adjust a model function, whose inverse Laplace transform is analytically known, to the attenuation curve. This methodology was validated by comparing the reconstructed and the measured (using semiconductor detector of cadmium telluride) spectra of a given dental X-ray unit. The spectral reconstruction showed the Dabi Atlante equipments generating similar shape spectra. This is a desirable feature from clinic standpoint because it produces similar levels of image quality and dose. We observed that equipments from Siemens and Gnatus generate significantly different spectra, suggesting that, for a given operating protocol, these units will present different levels of image quality and dose. This fact claims for the necessity of individualized operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose. The proposed methodology is suitable to perform a spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray equipments from the simple measurements of attenuation curve and kVp. The simplified experimental apparatus and the low level of technical difficulty make this methodology accessible to a broad range of users. The knowledge of the spectral distribution can help in the development of operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose.

  15. Fast generation of digitally reconstructed radiograph through an efficient preprocessing of ray attenuation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafurian, Soheil; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Tan, Virak; Li, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) are a simulation of radiographic images produced through a perspective projection of the three-dimensional (3D) image (volume) onto a two-dimensional (2D) image plane. The traditional method for the generation of DRRs, namely ray-casting, is a computationally intensive process and accounts for most of solution time in 3D/2D medical image registration frameworks, where a large number of DRRs is required. A few alternate methods for a faster DRR generation have been proposed, the most successful of which are based on the idea of pre-calculating the attenuation value of possible rays. Despite achieving good quality, these methods support a limited range of motion for the volume and entail long pre-calculation time. In this paper, we propose a new preprocessing procedure and data structure for the calculation of the ray attenuation values. This method supports all possible volume positions with practically small memory requirements in addition to reducing the complexity of the problem from O(n3) to O(n2). In our experiments, we generated DRRs of high quality in 63 milliseconds with a preprocessing time of 99.48 seconds and a memory size of 7.45 megabytes.

  16. [Comparison of LCD and CRT monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2006-05-20

    Soft copy reading of digital images has been practiced commonly in the PACS environment. In this study, we compared liquid-crystal display (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Digital chest images with a 1000x1000 matrix size and a 8 bit grayscale were displayed on LCD/CRT monitor with 2M pixels in each observer test. Eight and ten radiologists participated in the observer tests for detection of nodules and interstitial diseases, respectively. In each observer test, radiologists marked their confidence levels for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules or interstitial diseases. The detection performance of radiologists was evaluated by ROC analyses. The average Az values (area under the ROC curve) in detecting pulmonary nodules with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.792 and 0.814, respectively. In addition, the average Az values in detecting interstitial diseases with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.951 and 0.953, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LCD and CRT for both detection of pulmonary nodules (P=0.522) and interstitial lung diseases (P=0.869). Therefore, we believe that the LCD monitor instead of the CRT monitor can be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases in digital chest images.

  17. Small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT) using a Talbot-Lau interferometerand a rotating anode x-ray tube:theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Qi, Zhihua

    2010-06-01

    X-ray differential phase contrast imaging methods, including projection imaging and the corresponding computed tomography (CT), have been implemented using a Talbot interferometer and either a synchrotron beam line or a low brilliance x-ray source generated by a stationary-anode x-ray tube. From small-angle scattering events which occur as an x-ray propagates through a medium, a signal intensity loss can be recorded and analyzed for an understanding of the micro-structures in an image object. This has been demonstrated using a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a stationary-anode x-ray tube. In this paper, theoretical principles and an experimental implementation of the corresponding CT imaging method are presented. First, a line integral is derived from analyzing the cross section of the small-angle scattering events. This method is referred to as small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT). Next, a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a rotating-anode x-ray tube were used to implement SAS-CT. A physical phantom and human breast tissue sample were used to demonstrate the reconstructed SAS-CT image volumes.

  18. Simultaneous assessment of arsenic and selenium in human nail phantoms using a portable x-ray tube and a detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christopher W; Gherase, Mihai Raul; Fleming, David E B

    2010-03-21

    A novel approach to the measurement of arsenic and selenium in nail phantoms is demonstrated. Two-component nail phantoms of 0.7 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were made from a polyester resin-salt mixture and dosed with equal arsenic and selenium concentrations ranging from 0 to 30 microg g(-1). A backing was made to simulate the soft tissue and bone of the great toe. Characteristic x-rays for arsenic and selenium were recorded using a portable x-ray tube and a silicon PiN diode detector. The minimum instrumental detection limits for arsenic and selenium in 0.7 mm solitary nail samples were as follows: 0.510 +/- 0.018 microg g(-1) and 0.519 +/- 0.026 microg g(-1) respectively; for 1.5 mm solitary nail: 0.465 +/- 0.035 microg g(-1) and 0.561 +/- 0.062 microg g(-1); for 0.7 mm nail with backing: 1.522 +/- 0.038 microg g(-1) and 1.401 +/- 0.049 microg g(-1); for 1.5 mm nail with backing: 1.354 +/- 0.054 microg g(-1) and 1.367 +/- 0.068 microg g(-1). PMID:20182007

  19. Spectral sampling of a soft X-ray tube emission by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lamellar Multilayer Amplitude Grating (LMAG) etched in a multilayer mirror was designed for an efficient use in the 1 keV region, through a multistep process involving sputtering coating, electron lithography and reactive ion etching. The multilayer structure has 115 W/B4C bilayers of 3.1 nm thickness, and the grating of period 1.33 μm has a small line-to-period ratio Γ equal to about 0.10. The properties of a LMAG illuminated in standard and conical mountings by a polychromatic radiation are given, and the concept of a ''polychromator'' based on a LMAG is presented. Taking benefit from the specific properties of a LMAG, the emission of a soft X-ray tube equipped with a copper target is spectrally analyzed with our LMAG in the Cu-L (930 eV) region in standard and conical mountings. This experiment shows that a LMAG could be an interesting spectral analyzer for short-duration X-ray sources. (orig.)

  20. User certification of hand-held x-ray tube based analytical fluorescent devices in a canadian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety education aims to reduce personal injury and improve well being. This health promotion principle is applied in the case of hand-held open beam x-ray tube based analytical x-ray devices. Such devices not only are light weight and portable, but also present high radiation exposure levels at the beam exit port and potentially can be used in a variety of industrial applications for determination of material composition. There is much potential for radiation risks to occur with resultant adverse effects if such devices are not used by trained individuals within controlled environments. A level of radiation safety knowledge and understanding of the device design, construction and performance characteristics appear warranted. To reduce radiation risks, user certification at a federal level was introduced in 2004 based on International Standards Organization 20807, since that standard comprises elements commensurate with risk reduction strategies. Within these contexts, a federally certified user is deemed to have acquired a level of safety knowledge and skills to facilitate safe use of the device. Certification, however, does not absolve the holder from obligations of compliance with applicable provincial, territorial or federal laws respecting device operation. The union of federal certification and applicable legislative mandated operational criteria reduces radiation risks overall. (author)

  1. High Energy X-Ray Detection OF G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered By Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven E; Craig, William W; Christensen, Finn E; Gotthelf, Eric V; Harrison, Fiona A; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E>10 keV) emission from the Galactic Center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ~50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic Center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index of ~2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is ~ 2.0e-12 erg/cm^2/s, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of ~2.6e34 erg/s assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ~100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ~30 pc or molecular clouds (MC...

  2. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (p0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  3. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing...... on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  4. Numerical evaluation of welded tube wall profiles from scanned X-ray line source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, V.; Podobedov, D.; Ewert, U.; Redmer, B.

    2001-04-01

    This investigation presents an iterative algorithm for inversion of X-ray line scanning data of a multi-angle inspection. The main focus is the development of a robust algorithm that may successfully evaluate the influence of local surface geometry in welding regions. An idea here is to repetitively solve the forward problem with iterated profile parameters until the solution agrees with measurement. For accurate parameterization of a particular inner crack, this procedure can be combined with an analysis of the residual image obtained by subtracting the projection image caused by reconstructed surface wall profiles, from the original data.

  5. Characterization of electron bunches from field emitter array cathodes for use in next-generation x-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSI is interested in developing an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) as a companion radiation source to the existing Swiss Light Source. In order to achieve radiation wavelengths as low as 1 Α, the X-FEL requires excellent electron beam quality and high beam energy. The energy requirements and thus the size and cost of the project can be reduced considerably if an ultra-low emittance electron source is developed. Therefore PSI has started the Low Emittance Gun Project with the aim to design a novel type of electron source that will deliver an electron beam with unprecedented emittance at high peak currents to the linear accelerator of the proposed X-FEL. A source candidate for such a gun is field emission from cold cathodes. In order to gain first experience with field emission guns, investigate the dynamics of space charge dominated electron beams and to develop diagnostics capable of resolving ultra-low emittances, it was decided to build a 100 keV DC gun test stand. In the scope of this thesis, the test stand has been designed, assembled and commissioned. For the first time, transverse phase space measurements of bunches emitted by field emitter arrays in pulsed DC accelerating fields have been performed. (author)

  6. Dynamic study of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 cathodes by in-situ tender X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongniu; Wang, Huixin; Yang, Jinli; Zhou, Jigang; Hu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Qunfeng; Fang, Haitao; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2016-01-01

    Olivine-type phosphates (LiMPO4, M = Fe, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries that are generally accepted to follow first order equilibrium phase transformations. Herein, the phase transformation dynamics of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 particles with limited rate capability at a low current density of 0.14 C was investigated. An in-situ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) measurement was conducted at the Fe and P K-edge for the dynamic studies upon lithiation and delithiation. Fe K-edge XANES spectra demonstrate that not only lithium-rich intermediate phase LixFePO4 (x = 0.6-0.75), but also lithium-poor intermediate phase LiyFePO4 (y = 0.1-0.25) exist during the charge and discharge, respectively. Furthermore, during charge and discharge, a fluctuation of the FePO4 and LiFePO4 fractions obtained by liner combination fitting around the imaginary phase fractions followed Faraday's law and the equilibrium first-order two-phase transformation versus reaction time is present, respectively. The charging and discharging process has a reversible phase transformation dynamics with symmetric structural evolution routes. P K-edge XANES spectra reveal an enrichment of PF6-1 anions at the surface of the electrode during charging.

  7. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: shuo@astro.columbia.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  8. Cyberbullying of Teachers by Students on YouTube: Challenging the Image of Teacher Authority in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the cyberbullying of teachers in schools by their students. One aspect of this phenomenon is the posting of visual recordings of teachers and teacher-student interaction on easily accessible websites such as YouTube. Whilst research on the cyberbullying of students by other students has received a great deal of…

  9. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. S.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, S. I.; Je, U. K. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R and D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  10. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. S.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, S. I.; Je, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R&D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings with alternating Zr-O and Al-O layers having a bi-layer period of 6-7 nm and total coating thickness of 1.0-1.2 μm were deposited using a cathodic vacuum arc plasma process on rotating Si substrates. Plasmas generated from two cathodes, Zr and Al, were deposited simultaneously in a mixture of Ar and O2 background gases. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings, as well as bulk ZrO2 and Al2O3 reference samples, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra were analyzed on the surface and after sputtering with a 4 kV Ar+ ion gun. High resolution angle resolved spectra were obtained at three take-off angles: 15o, 45o and 75o relative to the sample surface. It was shown that preferential sputtering of oxygen took place during XPS of bulk reference ZrO2 samples, producing ZrO and free Zr along with ZrO2 in the XPS spectra. In contrast, no preferential sputtering was observed with Al2O3 reference samples. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings contained a large amount of free metals along with their oxides. Free Zr and Al were observed in the coating spectra both before and after sputtering, and thus cannot be due solely to preferential sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Zr-O/Al-O coatings had a nano-multilayered structure with well distinguished alternating layers. However, both of the alternating layers of the coating contained of a mixture of aluminum and zirconium oxides and free Al and Zr metals. The concentration of Zr and Al changed periodically with distance normal to the coating surface: the Zr maximum coincided with the Al minimum and vice versa. However the concentration of Zr in both alternating layers was significantly larger than that of Al. Despite the large free metal concentration, the Knoop hardness, 21.5 GPa, was relatively high, which might be attributed to super-lattice formation or formation of a metal-oxide nanocomposite within the layers.

  12. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Hinshaw, Waldo; Bennett, N. Robert; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail wit...

  13. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  14. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays with organic scintillation detectors in an 8-bit sampling system using frequency gradient analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; LUO Xiao-Liang; LIU Guo-Fu; LIN Cun-Bao; WANG Yan-Ling; HU Qing-Qing; PENG Jin-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using frequency gradient analysis (FGA),a digital method based on Fourier transform,to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the environment of an 8-bit sampling system has been investigated.The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in a scintillation detection system using the time-domain features of the photomultiplier tube anode signal will be lower or non-effective in this low resolution sampling system.However,the FGA method using the frequency-domain features of the anode signal exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the above sampling system.A detailed study of the quality of the FGA method in BC501A liquid scintillators is presented using a 5 G samples/s 8-bit oscilloscope and a 14.1 MeV neutron generator.A comparison of the discrimination results of the time-of-flight and conventional charge comparison (CC) methods proves the applicability of this technique.Moreover,FGA has the potential to be implemented in current embedded electronics systems to provide real-time discrimination in standalone instruments.

  15. Mean glandular dose estimation using MCNPX for a digital breast tomosynthesis system with tungsten/aluminum and tungsten/aluminum+silver x-ray anode-filter combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Andy K. W.; Darambara, Dimitra G.; Stewart, Alexander; Gunn, Spencer; Bullard, Edward [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Dexela Ltd., 1 Water Lane, Camden Town, London NW1 8NZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Breast cancer screening with x-ray mammography, using one or two projection images of the breast, is an indispensible tool in the early detection of breast cancer in women. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging technique that promises higher sensitivity and specificity in breast cancer screening at a similar radiation dose to conventional two-view screening mammography. In DBT a 3D volume is reconstructed with anisotropic voxels from a limited number of x-ray projection images acquired over a limited angle. Although the benefit of early cancer detection through screening mammography outweighs the potential risks associated with radiation, the radiation dosage to women in terms of mean glandular dose (MGD) is carefully monitored. This work studies the MGD arising from a prototype DBT system under various parameters. Two anode/filter combinations (W/Al and W/Al+Ag) were investigated; the tube potential ranges from 20 to 50 kVp; and the breast size varied between 4 and 10 cm chest wall-to-nipple distance and between 3 and 7 cm compressed breast thickness. The dosimetric effect of breast positioning with respect to the imaging detector was also reviewed. It was found that the position of the breast can affect the MGD by as much as 5% to 13% depending on the breast size.

  16. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  17. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  18. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  19. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, M., E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Delogu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, s.p. per Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available.

  1. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available

  2. Gray value differences to dentin of root posts radiographed with digital intraoral systems and conventional X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, S; Pfeiffer, P; Rother, U; Nergiz, I; Schmage, P

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the gray value differences to dentin of titanium and FRC root posts in anterior and posterior teeth radiographed with digital intraoral systems and conventional x-ray film. Radiographic images (n=5) of titanium or fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) root posts placed in extracted teeth were taken with six digital intraoral radiographic devices and conventional x-ray film (control group). Gray value differences were evaluated between the root posts and root dentin. Statistical analyses of the results were performed with three-way and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparisons post-hoc analyses (α=0.05). Significantly higher gray value differences of titanium and FRC posts were found in anterior teeth but not in molars for XIOS, Sidexis and Visualix digital intraoral systems, but not for RVG, DenOptix and VistaScan (FRC posts). Except for DenOptix with incisors and molars and VistaScan with molars, conventional x-ray films showed significantly lower gray value differences of titanium posts in incisors and molars compared to the corresponding digital radiographs.

  3. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  4. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R2>0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types of

  5. Studies of Mn/GaAs digital alloys using x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray diffraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Y. L.; Kioseoglou, G.; Kim, S.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Kao, Y. H.; Sasaki, Y.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2002-04-01

    Local structure and effective chemical valency of Mn atoms in Mn/GaAs digital alloys have been investigated using the x-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The samples were prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy with different thickness of GaAs layers separating the nominal Mn monolayers. Lattice constants of the digital alloys are found by x-ray diffraction to increase linearly in a very narrow range (about 0.3%) with the Mn/GaAs ratio in the samples. Our data show that Mn atoms in the nominal Mn monolayers actually combine with GaAs to form (Ga, Mn)As alloys with Mn atoms substituting for the Ga sites in GaAs. This result clearly rules out the possibility of dominant MnAs formation.

  6. The DFP 9200 Digital Noise Reducer, A Real-Time High-Resolution Digital Video Processing System For X-Ray Fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Renville H.; Baron, Stanley; Kreinik, Stephen; Epperson, Don; Kruger, Robert A.

    1981-11-01

    A dedicated digital processor is described capable of digitizing a high resolution video signal from a fluoroscopic TV camera into an 810 x 600 matrix in real time. For less demanding applications, a 512 x 512 matrix can be substituted. The sampling clock frequency is 15 Megahertz giving a Nyquist bandwidth limit of 7.5 MHz. A 7 MHz phase equalized eliptical filter at the input prevents aliasing and the production of false artifacts in the picture. Eleven bit digital processing follows an 8 bit analog to digital converter. Noise reduction is accomplished by a one frame recursive filter in which the filter coefficients are adjusted by a patented motion detector on a pixel by pixel basis to reduce motion smear. The lower perceived noise permits X-ray dose reduction of 2 to 8 times while retaining high quality pictures. A noise reduced spot picture can be frozen by a foot controlled switch permitting a further reduction of dosage and eliminating the need for a troublesome disc recorder. This noise reduced picture can also be used as a subtraction mask in an optional version of the equipment. A minimum of front panel operator controls for best human interface is accomplished by the use of a programmed read only memories to control all functions including noise reduction and frame storage.

  7. Operando and in situ X-ray spectroscopies of degradation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O(3-δ) thin film cathodes in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Samson Y; Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2014-11-01

    Information from ex situ characterization can fall short in describing complex materials systems simultaneously exposed to multiple external stimuli. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to probe the local atomistic and electronic structure of specific elements in a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O(3-δ) (LSCF) thin film cathode exposed to air contaminated with H2O and CO2 under operating conditions. While impedance spectroscopy showed that the polarization resistance of the LSCF cathode increased upon exposure to both contaminants at 750 °C, XAS near-edge and extended fine structure showed that the degree of oxidation for Fe and Co decreases with increasing temperature. Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tracked the formation and removal of a carbonate species, a Co phase, and different oxygen moieties as functions of temperature and gas. The combined information provides insight into the fundamental mechanism by which H2O and CO2 cause degradation in the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells. PMID:25205041

  8. Structural integrity--Searching the key factor to suppress the voltage fade of Li-rich layered cathode materials through 3D X-ray imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yahong; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Feifei; Corbett, Jeff; Sun, Zhihong; Lyu, Yingchun; Yu, Xiqian; Liu, Yijin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Hong (BNL); (SLAC); (UCSF); (Donghua); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-10-24

    Li-rich layered materials are important cathode compounds used in commercial lithium ion batteries, which, however, suffers from some drawbacks including the so-called voltage fade upon electrochemical cycling. Here, our study employs novel transmission X-ray microscopy to investigate the electrochemical reaction induced morphological and chemical changes in the Li-rich Li2Ru0.5Mn0.5O3 cathode particles at the meso to nano scale. We performed combined X-ray spectroscopy, diffraction and microscopy experiments to systematically study this cathode material's evolution upon cycling as well as to establish a comprehensive understanding of the structural origin of capacity fade through 2D and 3D fine length scale morphology and heterogeneity change of this material. This work suggests that atomic manipulation (e.g. doping, substitution etc.) or nano engineering (e.g. nano-sizing, heterogeneous structure) are important strategies to mitigate the internal strain and defects induced by extensive lithium insertion/extraction. It also shows that maintaining the structural integrity is the key in designing and synthesizing lithium-rich layered materials with better cycle stability.

  9. Improvements of visual X-ray inspection with optimized digital detector technology. Faster and more reliable inspection with High Dynamic Radiology (HDR); Erweiterung der visuellen Roentgenpruefung durch effizientere digitale Technologien. Mit HDR schneller und sicherer zum Ziel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavendiek, Klaus [YXLON International GmbH, Hattingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Improvements in speed and contrast resolution of Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) and significant higher power of X-Ray tubes in combination with a small focal spot open the door to an improved visual inspection of castings for automotive and aerospace applications. The result is a film-like image quality of castings in a live view. For the new image quality the x-ray parameter have to be optimized in energy and the subject contrast has to be increased to avoid that flaws are covered by the noise in the image. HDR - high dynamic radiology - expands the local contrast in the image and transfers the grey values to the range the human inspector can separate. Due to the movement in the image the inspector gets a glas-like impression of the object and the flaws allowing him to do a decision about the 3D position of a flaw in the object. (orig.)

  10. Development of a digital panoramic X-ray imaging system of adaptive image layers for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. I.; Park, Y. O.; Cho, H. S.; Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. M.; Hong, D. K.; Lee, M. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Je, U. K.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    As a continuation of our digital radiographic sensor R&D, we have developed a prototyped digital panoramic X-ray imaging system for dental applications. The imaging system consists of a slit-collimated X-ray generator with a 0.4 mm focal spot size and a 3.5 mm Al filtration, a linear-array typed CMOS imager with a 48×48 μm 2 pixel size and a 128 (in the scan direction)×3072 (in the vertical direction) pixel format, a series of microstep motors for the precise motion control of the imaging system, and the designed sequences for the motion control and pixel readout required to make a specific plane of interest (POI) to be focused. With the several test phantoms we designed, we obtained useful digital panoramic X-ray images by moving the X-ray generator and the CMOS imager along a continuously sliding rotational center. In this study, we demonstrated that the prototype system can be applicable to any shaped POI or multi-POIs simultaneously to be focused, provided that adequate sequences for motion control and pixel readout are designed. We expect that the imaging system will be useful for our ongoing applications of dental panoramic radiography and nondestructive testing.

  11. Filtration to reduce paediatric dose for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, T D; Dendere, R; Irving, B; Hartley, T; Scholtz, P; Lawson, A; Trauernicht, C; Steiner, S; Douglas, T S

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes modelling, application and validation of a filtration technique for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray system to reduce radiation dose to paediatric patients while preserving diagnostic image quality. A dose prediction model was implemented, which calculates patient entrance doses using variable input parameters. Effective dose is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. An added filter of 1.8-mm aluminium was predicted to lower the radiation dose significantly. An objective image quality study was conducted using detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The PTW Normi 4FLU test phantom was used for quantitative assessment, showing that image contrast and spatial resolution were maintained with the proposed filter. A paediatric cadaver full-body imaging trial assessed the diagnostic quality of the images and measured the dose reduction using a 1.8-mm aluminium filter. Assessment by radiologists indicated that diagnostic quality was maintained with the added filtration, despite a reduction in DQE. A new filtration technique for full-body paediatric scanning on the Lodox Statscan has been validated, reducing entrance dose for paediatric patients by 36 % on average and effective dose by 27 % on average, while maintaining image quality. PMID:25433049

  12. Filtration to reduce paediatric dose for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes modelling, application and validation of a filtration technique for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray system to reduce radiation dose to paediatric patients while preserving diagnostic image quality. A dose prediction model was implemented, which calculates patient entrance doses using variable input parameters. Effective dose is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. An added filter of 1.8-mm aluminium was predicted to lower the radiation dose significantly. An objective image quality study was conducted using detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The PTW Normi 4FLU test phantom was used for quantitative assessment, showing that image contrast and spatial resolution were maintained with the proposed filter. A paediatric cadaver full-body imaging trial assessed the diagnostic quality of the images and measured the dose reduction using a 1.8-mm aluminium filter. Assessment by radiologists indicated that diagnostic quality was maintained with the added filtration, despite a reduction in DQE. A new filtration technique for full-body paediatric scanning on the Lodox Statscan has been validated, reducing entrance dose for paediatric patients by 36 % on average and effective dose by 27 % on average, while maintaining image quality. (authors)

  13. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-09-10

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  14. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  15. Sensor noise in direct digital imaging (the RadioVisioGraphy, Sens-a-Ray, and Visualix/Vixa systems) evaluated by subtraction radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensor noise with the use of the subtraction method in radiographs captured with three direct digital intraoral systems. Ten radiographs were taken of the lower left molar region of a phantom head at each of three exposure times: 0.20 seconds, 0.46 seconds, and 0.60 seconds with the use of the RadioVisioGraphy (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France), Sens-a-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, AB, Sundsvall, Sweden), and Visualix (Gendex, Philips Medical Systems, Inc., Monza, Italy) systems. Neither the x-ray tube nor the phantom were moved between exposures, and the three sensors were identically positioned. The images were stored in the tagged image file format provided by the systems in 8-bit depth and imported by a subtraction program. Subtractions were performed between identical images taken with the three systems. The standard deviation for the distribution of the shades of grey in the subtraction image histogram served as an expression for image noise. Paired t tests evaluated differences between the standard deviations of the subtraction images from the three systems. The standard deviation increased with increasing exposure time for all three systems (p < 0.00001). The standard deviation for the images performed with Visualix were 6.47, 10.34, and 11.16 at exposure times 0.20, 0.46, and 0.60, respectively. For the RadioVisioGraphy, these values were 1.61, 2.03, and 2.18, and for Sens-a-Ray 2.90, 3.98, and 3.96, respectively. The differences between the systems were highly statistically significant (p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Wire- and cathode pulses in a counter of square cross section with a thin wire as central conductor operating in limited streamer mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streamer tubes are becoming increasingly important in high-energy physics experiments. They are used as drift tubes for the localisation of charged-particle tracks, and also a sampling devices in sandwich calorimeters with cathode readout only. The streamer pulses carry charges which are several orders of magnitude larger than pulses from proportional chambers; this provides a good signal-to-noise ratio and makes them appropriate for a wide field of applications in highly compact detectors. The signals induced on the cathodes are also important for measuring - in addition to the anode wire - a second coordinate, and for resolving ambiguities in track recognition. When connecting the signals from two opposite cathodes to the two inputs of a differential amplifier, a left/right bit could be added after suitable buffering via the same signal line as used for time digitalisation. Another essential feature is the association of time information from the anode wire and the cathode. For the streamer tube used in this experiment the pulses induced on the cathode on either side of the particle, and on the anode, are measured by a fast analog-to-digital converter. A simple two-dimensional model ρ(r,θ) at t=0, without any time-dependent effects other than a constant electron drift velocity of 50 μm/ns, is used to compare the charge distribution in a streamer with the measurements of the pulse lengths at the two opposite cathode strips. First the field generated by a static voltage is calculated. Then the effect of a 'space charge' is evaluated. The Green's function of the square domain is a prerequisite for determining the field and the surface charge distribution on the electrodes. It is obtained from that of a concentric circular counter by a conformal mapping. Representations of Green's functions are calculated by series expansions. (orig.)

  17. The effect of fat on the measurement of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Edward; Kälvesten, Johan; Cook, Kenneth; Khramov, Nata; Javed, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that surrounding fat causes an increase of up to 21% in bone mineral density (BMD) measured by Lunar 'Intelligent DXA' (iDXA), one of the latest generation dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners [1]. The purpose of our study was to see if it was possible to avoid this artifact when measuring the BMD of metacarpals II, III, and IV by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR). METHODS: We took X-rays of the bones of a cadaveric left hand which were immobilized in a wooden cradle to preserve an approximate in vivo configuration. The X-rays were digitized into Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files which were analyzed using dxr-online (dxr-online, Sectra, Sweden) which uses the same DXR-BMD algorithm previously used by Pronosco X-posure v2 and Sectra Osteoporosis package. The X-rays were repeated four times. We then surrounded the bones with a layer of lard, and again X-rayed four times. This process was repeated with the bones were covered by two layers, and then three layers of lard. RESULTS: The measured DXR-BMD increased by a maximum of 0.44% when the metacarpals were covered by either two or three layers of lard compared with when the metacarpals were not covered by lard. CONCLUSION: The measurement of metacarpal BMD measured by DXR is minimally affected by surrounding lard. The measurement of metacarpal BMD by DXR seems to be a way of avoiding the artifactual change in BMD caused by fat, when it is measured by DXA. PMID:21403849

  18. High-voltage virtual-cathode microwave simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thode, L.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential is sufficiently large to cause electron reflection. The region associated with electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and by reflexing electrons trapped in the potential well formed between the real and virtual cathodes. A virtual-cathode device based on the first mechanism is a vircator while one based on latter mechanism is a reflex diode. A large number of low-voltage virtual-cathode microwave configurations have been investigated. Initial simulations of a high-voltage virtual-cathode device using a self-consistent particle-in-cell code indicated reasonable conversion efficiency with no frequency chirping. The nonchirping character of the high-voltage virtual-cathode device lead to the interesting possibility of locking four very-high-power microwave devices together using the four transmission lines available at Aurora. Subsequently, in support of two high-voltage experiments, simulations were used to investigate the effect of field-emission threshold and velvet position on the cathode; anode and cathode shape; anode-cathode gap spacing; output waveguide radius; diode voltage; a cathode-coaxial-cavity resonator; a high-frequency ac-voltage drive; anode foil scattering and energy loss; and ion emission on the microwave frequency and power. Microwave

  19. Image-quality performance of an a-Si H-based X-ray imaging system for digital mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Darambara, D G; Speller, R D

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the potential of large area active matrix flat-panel a-Si : H imaging arrays for full-field digital X-ray mammography. To optimise the overall performance of such an imaging system under mammographic conditions, four different Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb phosphor screens (i.e. Lanex Fast-Back, Regular, Fine and MinR-2000) were employed and our full-field detector was integrated with the Feinfocus DIMA (Direct Magnification) PLUS MII mammographic unit. The spatial resolution and the image noise of the digital detector were measured and the X-ray imaging performance of the whole system was also evaluated with two mammographic phantoms. It was deduced from the results of this study that Regular screen offers the best compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution and exhibits better overall image-quality performance than that of a conventional mammography system.

  20. In-situ Analysis of Laminated Composite Materials by X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Romain; Germaneau, Arnaud; Dupré, Jean-Christophe; Doumalin, Pascal; Mistou, Sébastien; Fazzini, Marina

    2013-01-01

    International audience The complex mechanical behaviour of composite materials, due to internal heterogeneity and multi-layered composition impose deeper studies. This paper presents an experimental investigation technique to perform volume kinematic measurements in composite materials. The association of X-ray micro-computed tomography acquisitions and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique allows the measurement of displacements and deformations in the whole volume of composite speci...

  1. LCD versus CRT Monitors for Digital Mammography: A Comparison of Observer Performance for the Detection of Clustered Microcalcifications and Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Joo Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Boramae Municipal Hospital, Seoul (Korea)). e-mail: moonwk@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Jang, Mi Jung (Dept. of Radiology and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National Univ. Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)); Lee, Eun Hye (Dept. of Radiology, Soon Chun Hyang Univ. Hospital, Bucheon (Korea)); Park, Jeong Seon (Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea))

    2009-12-15

    Background: There are two types of soft-copy display of digital mammograms, cathode-ray tube (CRT) and liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, and these present different resolutions and noise characteristics. Purpose: To compare observer performances for the detection of clustered microcalcifications and masses in digital mammograms, using LCD and CRT monitors. Material and Methods: Four radiologists evaluated 100 digital mammograms. Of these, 28 mammograms depicted clustered microcalcifications (12 benign, 16 malignant), 18 depicted masses (10 benign, eight malignant), and 54 depicted no apparent abnormality. The images were stored uncompressed as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files and randomized for two sessions of soft-copy reading. The readers independently read all cases displayed on two 5-megapixel LCD and two CRT monitors with an interval of 3 months. Observers were asked to rate using a five-point scale the likelihoods of microcalcifications and masses independently. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to analyze results. Results: For the LCD and CRT monitors, average area-under-the-curve (Az) values for microcalcification detection were 0.977 (0.976, 0.970, 0.980, and 0.983 for the four readers) and 0.958 (0.910, 0.990, 0.976, 0.956), respectively. Corresponding Az values for masses were 0.971 (0.955, 0.990, 0.949, 0.989) and 0.944 (0.928, 0.966, 0.955, 0.925). No statistically significant difference was detected between the two monitor types (P>0.05). Conclusion: The LCD and CRT monitors are comparable in terms of detecting clustered microcalcifications and masses in digital mammograms

  2. X线数字化HSG术在输卵管性不孕症诊疗中的运用%Application of X - ray digital hysterosalpingography in diagnosis and treatment of tubal infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢肇峰; 郭吉敏; 赵弘; 朱志军

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the application value of X - ray digital hysterosalpingography in diagnosis and treatment of tubal infertility. Methods; One hundred patients with tubal infertility were examined by X - ray digital imaging system and X - ray image enhancement system respectively after injection of 76% compound meglumini diatrozoas. In X-ray digital imaging system group, the whole course from contrast medium into fallopian tube until contrast medium diffusing into pelvic cavity was recorded dynamically. In X - ray image enhancement system group, the whole course from contrast medium suffusing uterine horn until contrast medium diffusing into pelvic cavity was observed closely and photographed. One photo was taken after 20 minutes in each group. Results; Both of the two methods could display uterine cavity, the coating of contrast medium of fallopian tube and pelvic cavity clearly. X - ray digital hysterosalpingography was superior to X -ray image enhancement hysterosalpingography in the aspects of intraoperative observation, dynamic recording, predicting the opportunity, postoperative image processing, displaying image details, and evaluating the patency. Conclusion; Digital hysterosalpingography has high accuracy in predicting the patency of fallopian tube, which can be used as the first choice for the patients with tubal infertility.%目的:探讨X线数字化子宫输卵管造影术(Hysterosalpingography,HSG)在输卵管性不孕症诊疗中的运用价值.方法:用76%复方泛影葡胺在X线数字化成像系统和X线影像增强系统下分别检查输卵管性不孕症患者100例.数字化成像系统组检查时连续动态记录造影剂进入输卵管至弥散入盆腔全过程.X线影像增强系统组造影过程中密切观察造影剂经子宫角充盈至弥散入盆腔全过程并分别摄片.两种检查方法均在20 min时摄延时片一张.结果:两种方法均能较好地显示子宫腔,输卵管及盆腔造影剂的涂布.X线数字

  3. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  4. Digital environmental monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument has been designed to replace the Dynamic Condenser Electrometer to measure the background radiation levels at the boundaries of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detector is a 2'' x 2'' tin loaded plastic scintillator, whose energy response is air equivalent, coupled to a bialkali cathode 2'' photomultiplier tube operated in the direct current mode. The output of the photomultiplier is digitized by a current to frequency converter, and the resultant pulses fed to a scaler. The system is programmed to calibrate itself once an hour to compensate for changes in photomultiplier tube gain to changes in temperature. During the calibration cycle a number, which is a function of the system's gain, is generated and held in a register, and is then used to weight the data accumulated between calibration cycles. The output data is stored on a six digit non-resetting printing register. The register, which can be programmed to print at any time interval desired, also prints the day of the year, time of day and station number. The instrument, which is calibrated to give 10 counts per μR, has a minimum sensitivity of 1 μR/hr and was designed so that it will not saturate at 10 mR/hr, making it useful in the event of an accidental high level activity release. The digital logic is accomplished by the use of integrated circuits mounted on printed circuit boards housed in NIM modules. The detector is housed in an aluminum weather tight container. Two of the units have been in operation for over a year with no significant maintenance problems. (U.S.)

  5. Hollow cathode ion source without magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of the IBM-4 ion source a hollow cathode source operating in the continuous regime is developed. The gas discharge chamber diameter equals 100 mm, chamber height - 50 mm. A hollow cathode represents a molybdenum tube with an internal diameter 13 mm and wall thickness 0,7-0,8 mm. An emitter is manufactured from zirconium carbide and lanthanum hexaboride. The investigations of the source operation have shown both cathodes operated efficiency. Electron emission density consitutes 25 A/cm2. At the 50 A discharge current ion current density in a center of plasma emitter constitutes 120 mA/cm2. As a result of the investigations carried out the compatibility of the hollow cathode and the IBM-type source is shown

  6. Optimization of protocols and increase the life of the tube of X rays in computer tomography;Otimizacao de protocolos e aumento dsa vida util do tubo de raios X em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viero, A.P. [Centro Universitario Franciscano, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Botelho, Marcel Z.; Torunsky, Caroline G. [STAFF - Solucoes em Fisica Medica e Radioprotecao, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Paula, V. [Clinica Radiologica Caridade (DIX), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the radiation dose and X-ray tube heating in computed tomography exams. Exams of the skull, abdomen and thorax were evaluated. It was verified that the technique used could be changed, suggesting new protocols and comparing image quality, radiation dose and X-ray tube heating. A mAs reduction could be done without compromising the diagnostic quality bringing a decrease up to 21,92% in the dose of skull exams, 20,25% for the examinations, abdomen and 22,06% for the examinations of thorax. The reduction on the X-ray tube heating for skull, abdomen and thorax exams was approximately 22,2%, 20,0% and 22,2% respectively. It is concluded that a change on the described protocols will cause a significant reduction dose delivered to patients and on X-ray tube heating without compromising the diagnosis. (author)

  7. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Federica [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Universita degli studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dellasega, David [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  8. Suppression of high-density artifacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baissalov, Roustem; Sandison, George A.; Donnelly, Bryan J.; Saliken, John C.; Muldrew, Ken; Rewcastle, John C.

    2000-06-01

    Image guidance of cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound or x-ray CT. Despite the ability of CT to display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions, the quality of the images is compromised by the presence of high density streak artifacts. To suppress these artifacts we applied Temporal Digital Subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the gray scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high density artifacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced content of the artifacts. This TDS can be used in x-ray CT assisted cryotherapy to significantly suppress or eliminate high density x-ray CT streak artifacts by digitally processing x-ray CT images. Applying TDS in cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the amount and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent.

  9. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-01

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  10. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  11. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages

  12. X-ray diagnostic study on the optimization of digital radiography in dentistry. Optimal exposure conditions for X-ray CCD sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to reduce the patient dose by optimization of irradiation conditions of an X-ray CCD sensor in intra-oral digital radiography. The X-ray diagnosis was divided into two, high quality-of-image diagnosis and low quality-of-image diagnosis, and it optimized by using the exposure of necessary minimum for each. The image quality of CCD was evaluated using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to estimate the influence of irradiation conditions. The dose based on CCD maker setting value was set up so that the highest quality of image might be obtained mostly. In low quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduced the dose to 13.2% of standard irradiation, SNR was 40% and interpretation was possible. In high quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduces the dose to 49% of standard irradiation, SNR remained 80% and there were few differences of the image with a standard. A study of the digital X-ray examination taken at the dental clinic showed high quality-of-image diagnosis was 69% and low quality-of-image one was 31%. When this optimization was performed, it was presumed that reduction of about 62% of the dose is possible. (author)

  13. X线机管头支持装置的结构设计%Mechanism design of X-ray tube head support device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士清; 钱炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective X-ray tube target supporting device is an important component of the radiography X-ray equipment,with the problems of low automatization and low displacement precision. Methods We design an X-ray tube target supporting device which can freely switch between manual and automatic according to the demand. The synchronous belt drive and open synchronous belt feedback mechanism are applied in the moving mechanism. And the composition and function of this device are discussed. Results This device solved the problem of the motor-driven block in the long rail and the displacement feedback. Conclusions This device freely switches between manual and automatic, and meets the positioning requirements of X-ray tube head in photography.%目的 X线机管头支持装置是摄影X线机中的重要部件,目前存在自动化程度及移动精度低的问题.方法 设计了一种根据需求可在手动和电动之间自由切换的X线管头支持装置,在移动机构中采用同步带传动机构和开口同步带反馈机构,并对装置的组成和功能进行了讨论.结果 解决了滑车在长导轨上的电动和滑车在导轨上位置的反馈.结论本装置可实现电动和手动之间的切换,并满足X线机在摄影时所需的X线管头位置要求.

  14. Digital performance improvements of a CdTe pixel detector for high flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon counting detectors with energy resolving capabilities are desired for high flux X-ray imaging. In this work, we present the performance of a pixelated Schottky Al/p-CdTe/Pt detector (4×4) coupled to a custom-designed digital readout electronics for high flux measurements. The detector (4×4×2 mm3) has an anode layout based on an array of 16 pixels with a geometric pitch of 1 mm (pixel size of 0.6 mm). The 4-channel readout electronics is able to continuously digitize and process the signals from each pixel, performing multi-parameter analysis (event arrival time, pulse shape, pulse height, pulse time width, etc.) even at high fluxes and at different throughput and energy resolution conditions. The spectroscopic response of the system to monochromatic X-ray sources, at both low and high rates, is presented with particular attention to the mitigation of some typical spectral distortions (pile-up, baseline shifts and charge sharing). At a photon counting rate of 520 kcps/pixel, the system exhibits an energy resolution (FWHM at 59.5 keV) of 4.6%, 7.1% and 9% at throughputs of 0.9%, 16% and 82%, respectively. Measurements of Ag-target X-ray spectra also show the ability of the system to perform accurate estimation of the input counting rate up to 1.1 Mcps/pixel. The aim of this work is to point out, beside the appealing properties of CdTe detectors, the benefits of the digital approach in the development of high-performance energy resolved photon counting (ERPC) systems for high flux X-ray imaging

  15. X-ray fluorescence study of the variation in the layer composition of a copper-nickel alloy tube corroded by sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation in the layerwise composition of a cupro-nickel tube corroded by sea-water has been studied using a chemico-X-ray fluorescence technique. The corroded tube had been in use in a nuclear reactor, using sea-water as coolant. A plot of composition (% Cu or Ni) against the depth of the layer from the surface, clearly demonstrated that the sea-water had leached away copper in preference to nickel. The composition of the top layers dropped to 38% Cu from the nominal composition of 90% Cu in the uncorroded surface. The percentage of copper increased gradually with the depth of the layers from the surface and at about 1 um depth the composition reached the nominal value. A thin top-most layer showed somewhat higher copper content than the subsequent layer which has been attributed to reabsorption or redeposition of copper during the non-flow period. (author)

  16. SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purposes of this work are to develop 4D-CBCT imaging system with orthogonal dual source kV X-ray tubes, and to determine the imaging doses from 4D-CBCT scans. Methods: Dual source kV X-ray tubes were used for the 4D-CBCT imaging. The maximum CBCT field of view was 200 mm in diameter and 150 mm in length, and the imaging parameters were 110 kV, 160 mA and 5 ms. The rotational angle was 105°, the rotational speed of the gantry was 1.5°/s, the gantry rotation time was 70 s, and the image acquisition interval was 0.3°. The observed amplitude of infrared marker motion during respiration was used to sort each image into eight respiratory phase bins. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc packages were used to simulate kV X-ray dose distributions of 4D-CBCT imaging. The kV X-ray dose distributions were calculated for 9 lung cancer patients based on the planning CT images with dose calculation grid size of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm. The dose covering a 2-cc volume of skin (D2cc), defined as the inner 5 mm of the skin surface with the exception of bone structure, was assessed. Results: A moving object was well identified on 4D-CBCT images in a phantom study. Given a gantry rotational angle of 105° and the configuration of kV X-ray imaging subsystems, both kV X-ray fields overlapped at a part of skin surface. The D2cc for the 4D-CBCT scans was in the range 73.8–105.4 mGy. Linear correlation coefficient between the 1000 minus averaged SSD during CBCT scanning and D2cc was −0.65 (with a slope of −0.17) for the 4D-CBCT scans. Conclusion: We have developed 4D-CBCT imaging system with dual source kV X-ray tubes. The total imaging dose with 4D-CBCT scans was up to 105.4 mGy

  17. SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Ueki, N; Iizuka, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this work are to develop 4D-CBCT imaging system with orthogonal dual source kV X-ray tubes, and to determine the imaging doses from 4D-CBCT scans. Methods: Dual source kV X-ray tubes were used for the 4D-CBCT imaging. The maximum CBCT field of view was 200 mm in diameter and 150 mm in length, and the imaging parameters were 110 kV, 160 mA and 5 ms. The rotational angle was 105°, the rotational speed of the gantry was 1.5°/s, the gantry rotation time was 70 s, and the image acquisition interval was 0.3°. The observed amplitude of infrared marker motion during respiration was used to sort each image into eight respiratory phase bins. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc packages were used to simulate kV X-ray dose distributions of 4D-CBCT imaging. The kV X-ray dose distributions were calculated for 9 lung cancer patients based on the planning CT images with dose calculation grid size of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm. The dose covering a 2-cc volume of skin (D2cc), defined as the inner 5 mm of the skin surface with the exception of bone structure, was assessed. Results: A moving object was well identified on 4D-CBCT images in a phantom study. Given a gantry rotational angle of 105° and the configuration of kV X-ray imaging subsystems, both kV X-ray fields overlapped at a part of skin surface. The D2cc for the 4D-CBCT scans was in the range 73.8–105.4 mGy. Linear correlation coefficient between the 1000 minus averaged SSD during CBCT scanning and D2cc was −0.65 (with a slope of −0.17) for the 4D-CBCT scans. Conclusion: We have developed 4D-CBCT imaging system with dual source kV X-ray tubes. The total imaging dose with 4D-CBCT scans was up to 105.4 mGy.

  18. 阴极射线管色度转换的神经网络模型%Cathode ray tube color conversion model by use of neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼文高; 王晓红; 匡罗平

    2006-01-01

    利用神经网络技术实现了从阴极射线管(CRT)的R、G和B空间到CIE的标准色度空间的转换.用拟牛顿法训练网络模型,建立了从CRT的R、G和B到CIE的X、Y和Z色度空间变换的3-10-10-3神经网络模型.采用7点LOG空间分布方案的343个训练样本建模的试验表明,收敛性与训练时间及模型精度均优于前人采用3~4个隐层的方案,343个训练样本、216个检验样本和64组测试样本的平均转换精度分别为0.6个CIELUV色差单位,说明该模型的泛化能力很好.

  19. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitio...

  20. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachmann, Axel; /SLAC; Decker, Franz-Josef; /SLAC; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Dowell, David; /SLAC; Emma, Paul; /SLAC; Frisch, Josef; /SLAC; Gilevich, Sasha; /SLAC; Hays, Gregory; /SLAC; Hering, Philippe; /SLAC; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC; Iverson, Richard; /SLAC; Loos, Henrik; /SLAC; Miahnahri, Alan; /SLAC; Nordlund, Dennis; /SLAC; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; /SLAC; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC; Turner, James; /SLAC; Welch, James; /SLAC; White, William; /SLAC; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-25

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  1. X-ray induced formation of γ-H2AX foci after full-field digital mammography and digital breast-tomosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried A Schwab

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT using a biological phantom model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. RESULTS: Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067-0.116 before and 0.094 (0.076-0.126 after FFDM (p = 0.0004. In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086-0.140 at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030-0.050 at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040-0.081 at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006-0.020 at glandular level. CONCLUSION: In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.

  2. Radiation dose and image quality of X-ray volume imaging systems: cone-beam computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography and digital fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo; Jacobi, Volkmar; Farhang, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J.; Mbalisike, Emmanuel C. [J.W. Goethe University Hospital-Frankfurt/Main, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Radiation dose and image quality estimation of three X-ray volume imaging (XVI) systems. A total of 126 patients were examined using three XVI systems (groups 1-3) and their data were retrospectively analysed from 2007 to 2012. Each group consisted of 42 patients and each patient was examined using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and digital fluoroscopy (DF). Dose parameters such as dose-area product (DAP), skin entry dose (SED) and image quality parameters such as Hounsfield unit (HU), noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were estimated and compared using appropriate statistical tests. Mean DAP and SED were lower in recent XVI than its previous counterparts in CBCT, DSA and DF. HU of all measured locations was non-significant between the groups except the hepatic artery. Noise showed significant difference among groups (P < 0.05). Regarding CNR and SNR, the recent XVI showed a higher and significant difference compared to its previous versions. Qualitatively, CBCT showed significance between versions unlike the DSA and DF which showed non-significance. A reduction of radiation dose was obtained for the recent-generation XVI system in CBCT, DSA and DF. Image noise was significantly lower; SNR and CNR were higher than in previous versions. The technological advancements and the reduction in the number of frames led to a significant dose reduction and improved image quality with the recent-generation XVI system. (orig.)

  3. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes, through x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  4. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes through x-rays diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  5. Digital x-ray radiogrammetry identifies women at risk of osteoporotic fracture: results from a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Mortensen, Pernille; Hyldstrup, Lars; Appleyard, Merete;

    2006-01-01

    Using digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) on hand radiographs from a large population-based study, 1,370 postmenopausal women were evaluated in a prospective fashion; fracture occurrence was compared with DXR measurements of historic radiographs. Further, the aim of the study was to evaluate factors...... suffered a fracture. Odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation decline in DXR-BMD were statistically significant for fracture in the groups of wrist fractures, proximal humerus fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures as well as in the total fracture group. In the hip fracture group, the P...

  6. Modern radiographic testing using filmless radiography and LSAW tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-diameter pipes with longitudinal welds that are used for transporting highly combustible fluids are subject to rigid safety specifications. For further improvement of the non-destructive testing procedure, EUROPIPE, the leading provider of large-diameter pipes for the oil and gas industry, invested in digital radiogaphy, abandoning the classic X-ray film. The new test facility comprises two separate X-raying chambers that make it possible to keep in time with the production process. Each X-raying chamber in turn comprises two digital detector arrays and two X-ray tubes. EUROPIPE is one of the first industrial enterprises to introduce this technology in the automatic serial production process of large-diameter pipes. (orig.)

  7. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...

  8. γ-射线透射技术在炉管测焦方面的应用%APPLICATION OF MEASURING COKING IN CRACKING FURNACE TUBE WITH γ-RAY TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封瑞江; 时维振

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the basic principle of γ-ray transmission technique is introduced. Through the study of single tube coking experiments,the possibility of the application of γ-ray transmission technique in furnace tubes is also discussed. The effects of cracking temperature,retention period and steam dilution ratio on coking rate are investigated .Comparing to the results by means of coupon weighing weight,γ-ray transmission technique is feasible for coking measurement. The results are consistent with other reported data in literature.

  9. Evaluation of data storage layer thickness best fitted for digital data read-out procedure from hard x-ray optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.

    2009-08-01

    Paper is devoted to further evolution of the concept of ultra-high density hard x-ray storage media - a radically new x-ray- based optical data storage nanotechnology with terabit-scale digital data density per square centimeter of each storage layer of the memory disk. Forthcoming hard x-ray optical data read-out devices will use an ultra-high density information carrier named x-ray optical memory (X-ROM), which consists of crystalline wafer with the generated sub-surface amorphous nanometer-size reflecting speckles of x-ray high-reflectivity material. X-ROM is designed for long-term archiving of the large volumes of information and digital data handling via read-out systems operating on x-ray wavelength optics. Digital data read-out procedure from X-ROM is performed via grazing-angle incident x-ray micro beam. X-ray-based optical data storage system detects data by measuring changes in x-ray micro beam intensity reflected from the various surface points of data storage media. Grazing-angle incident x-ray configuration allows the handling of data from very large surface area of X-ROM disk and, consequently, the data read-out speed is much faster than in optical data read-out systems. Aim of paper is detailed evaluation of storage data-layer's effective thickness best fitted for a digital data read-out procedure. Penetration depths of non-homogeneous x-ray wave fields inside crystalline substrate and amorphous speckles of X-ROM are investigated theoretically in case of grazing-angle incidence x-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) applied in specular beam suppression mode. It is possible to reduce the effective thickness of data storage layer to a value of less than a single-bit linear size i.e. to reduce effective thickness up to 10 nm, according to performed evaluations.

  10. X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement in the rolled-joint zone of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-service experience of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in CANDU-type nuclear reactors has demonstrated very good performance over a long period of time. However, analyses done by AECL specialists on most failure cases, showed that a big percentage of defects are manufacturing defects, which appear mostly at the beginning of the rolled-joint zone. It has been observed that a correct rolling ensures an acceptable distribution of residual stress, but an incorrect one leads to an accumulation of big values of residual stress. This determines a preferential radial orientation of hydrides, which during operation in the reactor can produce DHC. To ensure a suitable performance of the Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in the CANDU reactor, it is very important to have a correct rolling as mentioned in the procedure. This work presents a methodology for the measurement of the stressing state in the surfaces layers of the rolled-joint zone. The X-ray diffraction method can also be used for establishing the residual stress distribution across the tub wall, in order to ensure a good performance at Cernavoda nuclear plant. The results obtained for the investigated tube have led to the conclusion that the rolling process was correctly applied in this case, the values obtained for the residual stress being in good agreement with those accepted in literature. (Author) 2 Figs., 2 Tabs

  11. Patient dose simulations for scanning-beam digital x-ray tomosynthesis of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Geoff; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Yoon, Sungwon [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Krishna, Ganesh [Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Mountain View, California 94040 (United States); Wilfley, Brian [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: An improved method of image guidance for lung tumor biopsies could help reduce the high rate of false negatives. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of the scanning-beam digital tomography system (SBDX) for providing real-time 3D tomographic reconstructions for target verification. The unique geometry of the system requires trade-offs between patient dose, imaging field of view (FOV), and tomographic angle.Methods: Tomosynthetic angle as a function of tumor-to-detector distance was calculated. Monte Carlo Software (PCXMC) was used to calculate organ doses and effective dose for source-to-detector distances (SDDs) from 90 to 150 cm, patient locations with the tumor at 20 cm from the source to 20 cm from the detector, and FOVs centered on left lung and right lung as well as medial and distal peripheries of the lungs. These calculations were done for two systems, a SBDX system and a GE OEC-9800 C-arm fluoroscopic unit. To evaluate the dose effect of the system geometry, results from PCXMC were calculated using a scan of 300 mAs for both SBDX and fluoroscopy. The Rose Criterion was used to find the fluence required for a tumor SNR of 5, factoring in scatter, air-gap, system geometry, and patient position for all models generated with PCXMC. Using the calculated fluence for constant tumor SNR, the results from PCXMC were used to compare the patient dose for a given SNR between SBDX and fluoroscopy.Results: Tomographic angle changes with SDD only in the region near the detector. Due to their geometry, the source array and detector have a peak tomographic angle for any given SDD at a source to tumor distance that is 69.7% of the SDD assuming constant source and detector size. Changing the patient location in order to increase tomographic angle has a significant effect on organ dose distribution due to geometrical considerations. With SBDX and fluoroscopy geometries, the dose to organs typically changes in an opposing manner with changing patient

  12. Erosion behaviour of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Robert; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Al$_{x}$Cr$_{1-x}$ composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres and their erosion behaviour was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres were non-uniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded centre region of the cathodes.

  13. Possible use of CdTe detectors in kVp monitoring of diagnostic x-ray tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Krmar, M.; Bucalović, N.; Baucal, M.; Jovančević, N.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that kVp of diagnostic X-ray devices (or maximal energy of x-ray photon spectra) should be monitored routinely; however a standardized noninvasive technique has yet to be developed and proposed. It is well known that the integral number of Compton scattered photons and the intensities of fluorescent x-ray lines registered after irradiation of some material by an x-ray beam are a function of the maximal beam energy. CdTe detectors have sufficient energy resolution to dist...

  14. Low Dose X-Ray Sources and High Quantum Efficiency Sensors: The Next Challenge in Dental Digital Imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective(s). The major challenge encountered to decrease the milliamperes (mA) level in X-ray imaging systems is the quantum noise phenomena. This investigation evaluated dose exposure and image resolution of a low dose X-ray imaging (LDXI) prototype comprising a low mA X-ray source and a novel microlens-based sensor relative to current imaging technologies. Study Design. A LDXI in static (group 1) and dynamic (group 2) modes was compared to medical fluoroscopy (group 3), digital intraoral radiography (group 4), and CBCT scan (group 5) using a dental phantom. Results. The Mann-Whitney test showed no statistical significance (α = 0.01) in dose exposure between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 4 and timing exposure (seconds) between groups 1 and 5 and 2 and 3. Image resolution test showed group 1 > group 4 > group 2 > group 3 > group 5. Conclusions. The LDXI proved the concept for obtaining a high definition image resolution for static and dynamic radiography at lower or similar dose exposure and smaller pixel size, respectively, when compared to current imaging technologies. Lower mA at the X-ray source and high QE at the detector level principles with microlens could be applied to current imaging technologies to considerably reduce dose exposure without compromising image resolution in the near future

  15. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  16. A position-sensitive gamma-ray detector for positron annihilation 2D-ACAR based on metal package photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Nagashima, Y; Hyodo, T; Nagai, Y; Muramatsu, S; Nagai, S; Masuda, K

    2002-01-01

    A new position-sensitive gamma-ray detector to be used in a two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) apparatus has been developed. It consists of 36 compact position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT: HAMAMATSU R5900-00-C8), a light guide, and 2676 Bi sub 4 Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 (BGO) scintillator pieces of size 2.6 mmx2.6 mmx18 mm. A high detection efficiency for 511 keV gamma-ray is achieved with the length of BGO scintillators used. The detection area is about 160 mmx160 mm. The 288 anode outputs of the PS-PMTs are wired and connected to resistor chains from which 16 outputs (8 outputs each along the X and Y directions) are taken to identify the incident position of the gamma-ray. The spatial resolution is about 3 mm (FWHM). The timing signal taken from the last dynodes of the PS-PMTs gives a timing resolution of 7.7 ns (FWHM) for 511 keV positron annihilation gamma-rays.

  17. A position-sensitive γ-ray detector for positron annihilation 2D-ACAR based on metal package photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koji; Saito, Haruo; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Hyodo, Toshio; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Muramatsu, Shinichi; Nagai, Shota; Masuda, Keisuke

    2002-07-01

    A new position-sensitive γ-ray detector to be used in a two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) apparatus has been developed. It consists of 36 compact position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT: HAMAMATSU R5900-00-C8), a light guide, and 2676 Bi 4Ge 3O 12 (BGO) scintillator pieces of size 2.6 mm×2.6 mm×18 mm. A high detection efficiency for 511 keV γ-ray is achieved with the length of BGO scintillators used. The detection area is about 160 mm×160 mm. The 288 anode outputs of the PS-PMTs are wired and connected to resistor chains from which 16 outputs (8 outputs each along the X and Y directions) are taken to identify the incident position of the γ-ray. The spatial resolution is about 3 mm (FWHM). The timing signal taken from the last dynodes of the PS-PMTs gives a timing resolution of 7.7 ns (FWHM) for 511 keV positron annihilation γ-rays.

  18. A position-sensitive γ-ray detector for positron annihilation 2D-ACAR based on metal package photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new position-sensitive γ-ray detector to be used in a two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) apparatus has been developed. It consists of 36 compact position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT: HAMAMATSU R5900-00-C8), a light guide, and 2676 Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) scintillator pieces of size 2.6 mmx2.6 mmx18 mm. A high detection efficiency for 511 keV γ-ray is achieved with the length of BGO scintillators used. The detection area is about 160 mmx160 mm. The 288 anode outputs of the PS-PMTs are wired and connected to resistor chains from which 16 outputs (8 outputs each along the X and Y directions) are taken to identify the incident position of the γ-ray. The spatial resolution is about 3 mm (FWHM). The timing signal taken from the last dynodes of the PS-PMTs gives a timing resolution of 7.7 ns (FWHM) for 511 keV positron annihilation γ-rays

  19. Determination of the efficiency of high purity germanium and silicon diode detectors for improved assessment of emission spectra delivered by medical X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray sources are widely used in medicine: brachytherapy, radiodiagnosis, mammography and contact radiotherapy. Kerma in air is the primary quantity measured to determine the dose to the patient. Accurate air kerma assessment is obtained using correction factors calculated using the emission spectrum. The Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel launched an in-depth study of the spectral emission of its reference X-ray beams used in dosimetry. Two semiconductor detectors are discussed here: a High-Purity germanium and a silicon PiN, both cooled and operated with dedicated electronics and software. In the low energy range (E≤50 keV), those spectrometers are complementary but require a careful calibration to deduce the emitted spectrum from the detected one. Indeed, both detectors were characterized in terms of spectral response and intrinsic efficiency using a tuneable monochromatic X-ray source (SOLEX at CEA Saclay) in the 5- to 20-keV energy range and various radionuclides. The characterization methods and results, including the first measured spectra of medical X-ray tubes (high voltage≤50 kV), are presented in this work. This paper presents the first step of a broader project, aiming at assessing the emission spectrum independently of the detector choice. (authors)

  20. Performance of a small-field digital detector for soft x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Allen; Flynn, Michael J.; Shah, Manjul; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2001-06-01

    X-ray imaging detectors capable of very high resolution for a small field of view are important for x-ray micro-tomography, small specimen radiography, and certain x-ray scattering experiments. We have investigated the performance of small field detectors using scintillation phosphors coupled to a scientific CCD detector. The specific detector designs considered had fields of 8-12 mm that were used to record x-ray energies of 8-20 keV. The purpose of this work is to report the resolution (MTF) of designs that employed different optical coupling methods and different scintillation phosphor materials. For one detector system with a thin Gd2O2S phosphor a resolution of 48 lp/mm (presampled MTF = 0.10) was measured with pixels of 10.54 microns (Nyquist = 47.44) and a field of view of 12.14 mm x 13.09 mm.

  1. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  2. Effective x-ray attenuation coefficient measurements from two full field digital mammography systems for data calibration applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jerry A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Currently, there is no standard method for measuring this important factor. Work presented here represents an essential component of an ongoing project that seeks to determine the appropriate method for calibrating (standardizing mammography image data to account for the x-ray image acquisition influences. Longer term goals of this project are to make accurate breast density measurements in support of risk studies. Methods Logarithmic response calibration curves and effective x-ray attenuation coefficients were measured from two full field digital mammography (FFDM systems with breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging and compared. Normalization methods were studied to assess the possibility of reducing the amount of calibration data collection. The percent glandular calibration map functional form was investigated. Spatial variations in the calibration data were used to assess the uncertainty in the calibration application by applying error propagation analyses. Results Logarithmic response curves are well approximated as linear. Measured effective x-ray attenuation coefficients are characteristic quantities independent of the imaging system and are in agreement with those predicted numerically. Calibration data collection can be reduced by applying a simple normalization technique. The calibration map is well approximated as linear. Intrasystem calibration variation was on the order of four percent, which was approximately half of the intersystem variation. Conclusion FFDM systems provide a quantitative output, and the calibration quantities presented here may be used for data acquired on similar FFDM systems.

  3. Suppression of high-density artefacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissalov, R.; Sandison, G.A.; Rewcastle, J.C. [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, T2N 4N2 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2N4 (Canada); Donnelly, B.J. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, T2N 4N2 4 Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); Saliken, J.C. [Department of Surgery, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); McKinnon, J.G. [Department of Surgery, Foothills Hospital, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada); Muldrew, K. [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T7 (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    Image guidance in cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound. Although not currently in routine clinical use, x-ray CT imaging is an alternative means of guidance that can display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions. However, the quality of x-ray CT images is compromised by the presence of high-density streak artefacts. To suppress these artefacts we applied temporal digital subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the grey-scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high-density artefacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced artefact content. Thus TDS can be used to significantly suppress or eliminate high-density CT streak artefacts without reducing the metallic content of the cryoprobes. In vivo study needs to be conducted to establish the utility of this TDS procedure for CT assisted prostate or liver cryotherapy. Applying TDS in x-ray CT guided cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the number and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent. (author)

  4. Suppression of high-density artefacts in x-ray CT images using temporal digital subtraction with application to cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image guidance in cryotherapy is usually performed using ultrasound. Although not currently in routine clinical use, x-ray CT imaging is an alternative means of guidance that can display the full 3D structure of the iceball, including frozen and unfrozen regions. However, the quality of x-ray CT images is compromised by the presence of high-density streak artefacts. To suppress these artefacts we applied temporal digital subtraction (TDS). This TDS method has the added advantage of improving the grey-scale contrast between frozen and unfrozen tissue in the CT images. Two sets of CT images were taken of a phantom material, cryoprobes and a urethral warmer (UW) before and during the cryoprobe freeze cycle. The high-density artefacts persisted in both image sets. TDS was performed on these two image sets using the corresponding mask image of unfrozen material and the same geometrical configuration of the cryoprobes and the UW. The resultant difference image had a significantly reduced artefact content. Thus TDS can be used to significantly suppress or eliminate high-density CT streak artefacts without reducing the metallic content of the cryoprobes. In vivo study needs to be conducted to establish the utility of this TDS procedure for CT assisted prostate or liver cryotherapy. Applying TDS in x-ray CT guided cryotherapy will facilitate estimation of the number and location of all frozen and unfrozen regions, potentially making cryotherapy safer and less operator dependent. (author)

  5. An investigation of the imaging characteristics of the Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor for application in X-ray detectors of Digital Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y2O2S:Eu laboratory prepared screens were evaluated as mammographic image receptors and were compared to similarly prepared screens of Gd2O2S:Tb and Y2O2S:Tb phosphor materials, often used in X-ray imaging detectors. The evaluation was performed by determining the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the spatial frequency dependent Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). Y2O2S:Eu exhibited higher DQE values at low frequencies and given its good spectral matching with digital optical detectors, it may be appropriate for use in X-ray digital mammography

  6. Lanthanum hexaboride hollow cathode for dense plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hollow tube cathode using lanthanum hexaboride as the electron emitter has been designed and constructed. Tests in both argon and hydrogen indicate that this cathode is capable of producing over 800 A of electron current continuously, corresponding to over 25 A/cm2 from the LaB6. The cathode has been operated for over 300 h and exposed to air more than 100 times with no deterioration in emission. Projected lifetime is in excess of 3500 h for the sintered LaB6 piece tested in this configuration. Construction details, performance characteristics, and discussions of space charge limits on emission are described

  7. Stitched large format CMOS image sensors for dental x-ray digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinqiao (Chiao); Fowler, Boyd; Do, Hung; Jaffe, Mark; Rassel, Richard; Leidy, Bob

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a family of large format CIS's designed for dental x-ray applications. The CIS areas vary from small 31.5mm x 20.1mm, to medium 34.1mm x 26.3mm, to large 37.1mm x 26.3mm. Pixel size is 19.5um x 19.5um. The sensor family was fabricated in a 0.18um CIS process. Stitching is used in the CIS fabrication for the medium and large size sensors. We present the CIS and detector system design that includes pixel circuitry, readout circuitry, x-ray trigger mechanism, scintillator, and the camera electronics. We also present characterization results including the detector performances under both visible light and x-ray radiation.

  8. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry in the study of osteoporotic fractures: Comparison to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and FRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvesten, Johan; Lui, Li-Yung; Brismar, Torkel; Cummings, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Screening of post-menopausal women for clinical risk factors and/or low bone mineral density (BMD) has been proposed to overcome this. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) estimates hand BMD from standard hand X-ray images and have shown to predict fractures and osteoporosis. Recently, digital radiology and the internet have opened up the possibility of conducting automated opportunistic screening with DXR in post-fracture care or in combination with mammography. This study compared the performance of DXR with FRAX® and DXA in discriminating major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (hip, clinical spine, forearm or shoulder), hip fracture and femoral neck osteoporosis. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 5278 women 65years and older in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) cohort. Baseline hand X-ray images were analyzed and fractures were ascertained during 10years of follow up. Age-adjusted area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for MOF and hip fracture and for femoral neck osteoporosis (DXA FN BMD T-score ≤-2.5) was used to compare the methods. Sensitivity to femoral neck osteoporosis at equal selection rates was tabulated for FRAX and DXR. DXR-BMD, FRAX (no BMD) and lumbar spine DXA BMD were all similar in fracture discriminative performance with an AUC around 0.65 for MOF and 0.70 for hip fractures for all three methods. As expected femoral neck DXA provided fracture discrimination superior both to other BMD measurements and to FRAX. AUC for selection of patients with femoral neck osteoporosis was higher with DXR-BMD, 0.76 (0.74-0.77), than with FRAX, 0.69 (0.67-0.71), (p<0.0001). In conclusion, DXR-BMD discriminates incident fractures to a similar degree as FRAX and predicts femoral neck osteoporosis to a larger degree than FRAX. DXR shows promise as a method to automatically flag individuals who might benefit from an osteoporosis assessment. PMID:26921822

  9. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  10. Digital image evaluation for the determination of morphometric sizes for periodontal X-ray diagnosis and selective coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its uses in the areas of periodontology and coronary angiography it is shown, how the digital image evaluation expands the possibilities of x-ray diagnosis and how it improves the objectivity and exactness of the evaluation. For the accomplishment of this task a detailed analysis of the morphological data is undertaken. The results of the analysis lead to a mathematical structure model. Based on this model the recognition and measuring of the object in an adaptive heuristic process is undertaken. In this case it dealt with a desmodontal split, whose change is indicated by a periodontal bone atrophy. The contour recognition is embedded in a newly created image processing system, which allows itself to be used generally and is shown using the presentation of coronary vessels as an example. The exactness of the automatic image evaluation in comparison to the measuring done by the doctor is discussed. (orig./TRV)

  11. A study on fast digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray for improvement neutron emission profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Y., E-mail: h1312101@mailg.nc-toyama.ac.jp; Takada, E.; Fujisaki, A. [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo-machi, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan); Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0913 (Japan); Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and γ-ray (n-γ) discrimination with a digital signal processing system has been used to measure the neutron emission profile in magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a sampling rate must be set low to extend the measurement time because the memory storage is limited. Time jitter decreases a discrimination quality due to a low sampling rate. As described in this paper, a new charge comparison method was developed. Furthermore, automatic n-γ discrimination method was examined using a probabilistic approach. Analysis results were investigated using the figure of merit. Results show that the discrimination quality was improved. Automatic discrimination was applied using the EM algorithm and k-means algorithm.

  12. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian;

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance...... of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European and Regional Danish guidelines. The areal between current and optimal collimation is calculated. The experimental research is performed in September - October 2014 Siemens Axiom Aristos digital radiography system DR using 150 kV, 1,25 -3...

  13. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. PMID:27155747

  14. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development.

  15. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry : an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B.; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with ...

  16. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  17. A digital Compton suppression spectroscopy without gamma-ray coincidence-summing loss using list-mode multispectral data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study demonstrates the advantages of an innovative list-mode multispectral data acquisition system that allows simultaneous creation of several different single, summed, coincident and anticoincident spectra with a single measurement. One of the consequences of list-mode data file offline processing is a reconstructed spectrum with Compton continuum suppression and without any full-energy peak efficiency deduction owing to true coincidence summing. The spectrometer is designed to read out analogue signal from preamplifier of gamma-ray detectors and to digitalize it using DGF/Pixie-4 software and card package (XIA LLC). This is realized by converting an Ortec Compton suppression data acquisition system into an all-digital spectrometer. Instead of using its timing electronic chain to determine the coincidence event, the analog signals from primary and guard detectors were connected directly into the Pixie-4 card for pulse height and time coincident measurement by individually logging and time stamping each electronic pulse. The data acquired in list-mode included coincidence and anticoincidence events consisting of records of energy and timestamp from primary and guard detectors. Every event was stored in a text file for offline processing and spectral reconstruction. A sophisticated computer simulation was also created with the goals of obtaining a better understanding of the experimental results and calculating efficiency. (author)

  18. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ~450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ~2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ~1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon greater than 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  19. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; /Hawaii U. /UC, Riverside; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC; Roberts, D.; /Maryland U.; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Shtol, D.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Varner, G.S.; /Hawaii U.; Va' vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; /SLAC

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  20. Digitization of NAX-500RF Gastroenteric X-ray Machine Based on CR%基于CR的NAX-500RF型胃肠X线机数字化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莎莎; 陈平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To upgrade the Neusoft NAX-500RF gastroenteric X-ray machine for digitization in order to improve the ability of X-ray diagnosis. Methods NAX-500RF gastroenteric X-ray machine was digitized using DC2005 CR system. Through linking with PACS of the hospital by DICOM 3.0 standards, digitized image sharing diagnosis was realized. Results After upgraded for digitization, image was magnified to 14 inxl7 in. The image post-processing function was powerful, by which the image resolution was improved, but the exposure of X-ray was reduced. Conclusion Digitization of X-ray machine based on CR is convenient and simple with good image quality, so it is a feasible method to upgrade traditional X-ray machine.%目的:为提高医院门诊放射诊断能力,对东软NAX-500RF型胃肠X-ray机进行数字化升级改造.方法:采用DC2005型CR系统,实现NAX-500RF胃肠X-ray机数字化升级;基于Dicom3.0标准的数字化图像,接入医院PACS,实现数字化影像共享诊断.结果:数字化升级后,影像图像可增大到14 in×17 in;数字化影像后处理功能强大,提高了图像的密度分辨率,降低了X线曝光量.结论:基于CR的数字化改造方便简捷,图像质量优良,可实现传统摄影向数字化摄影的升级.

  1. Wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and specially designed data acquisition system for fiber optic taper array-coupled digital x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital x-ray detector scheme based on a pixelated scintillator coupled with a fiber optic (FOT) array is suitable for many high-resolution x-ray imaging applications. However, certain challenges need to be addressed for fabrication of wafer-scale uniform pixelated x-ray scintillators. In addition, difficulties associated with implementation of the data acquisition system for acquiring output image data from the multiple image sensors used in the detector also need to be addressed. In this paper, a 2×2 FOT array-coupled digital x-ray detector scheme using a 5-in. pixelated scintillator is proposed. A novel fabrication setup along with the corresponding processes for fabricating the wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and implementation of a specially designed embedded data acquisition system based on a single embedded micro-processer (ARM) and four field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chips are discussed in detail. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this pixelated scintillator-based digital x-ray detector scheme with an active imaging area of about 100 mm×100 mm shows considerable potential for use in high-resolution x-ray imaging

  2. Wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and specially designed data acquisition system for fiber optic taper array-coupled digital x-ray detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Ji; Lei, Yaohu; Wang, Ru; Ren, Jianping; Qiao, Jian; Niu, Hanben, E-mail: szuoptoelectronics@163.com

    2015-09-21

    A digital x-ray detector scheme based on a pixelated scintillator coupled with a fiber optic (FOT) array is suitable for many high-resolution x-ray imaging applications. However, certain challenges need to be addressed for fabrication of wafer-scale uniform pixelated x-ray scintillators. In addition, difficulties associated with implementation of the data acquisition system for acquiring output image data from the multiple image sensors used in the detector also need to be addressed. In this paper, a 2×2 FOT array-coupled digital x-ray detector scheme using a 5-in. pixelated scintillator is proposed. A novel fabrication setup along with the corresponding processes for fabricating the wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and implementation of a specially designed embedded data acquisition system based on a single embedded micro-processer (ARM) and four field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chips are discussed in detail. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this pixelated scintillator-based digital x-ray detector scheme with an active imaging area of about 100 mm×100 mm shows considerable potential for use in high-resolution x-ray imaging.

  3. Experimental Validation of Residual Stress Simulations in Welded Steel Tubes with Digital Image Correlation (Experimentele validatie van eigenspanningssimulaties in gelaste stalen buizen met digitale beeldcorrelatie)

    OpenAIRE

    De Strycker, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    As each production process introduces residual stresses in the material, cold-rolled steel tubes are not delivered stress-free. The motivation o f this research can be traced back to the laser cutting of tubes. During the cutting process, residual stresses are relieved, which causes defor mation of the tube and a reduction of the precision of cut. Residual str esses also play a role in stress corrosion and sudden collapse of tubula r structures. This work concentrates on the residual stresses...

  4. An application of the grazing-angle incidence hard x-ray optical nanoscope in ultra-high density digital data read-out device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We present in this theoretical paper a set-up of grazing-angle incidence hard x-ray nanoscope (GIXN), which is the essential part of ultra-high density digital data read-out device. The GIXN consists of the asymmetrically cut single crystal, which is operating like an image magnifier. The X-ray high-resolution diffractive optical lens (zone plate) and spatially resolving detector (CCD camera) are arranged like in classical schemes of the X-ray imaging microscopy. Proposed nanoscope operates based on grazing-angle incidence x-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) technique applied in the specular beam suppression mode. Grazing-angle incident X-ray configuration allows the handling of data from very large surface area of the X-ray optical memory disk (X-ROM) and, consequently, the data read-out speed is much faster than in optical data read-out systems.

  5. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  6. A new implementation of digital X-ray radiogrammetry and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone for healthy European adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Böttcher, Joachim; Lomholt, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Digital X-ray radiogrammetry performs measurements on a hand radiograph in digital form. We present an improved implementation of the method and provide reference curves for four indices for the amount of bone. We collected 1662 hand radiographs of healthy subjects of age 9-100 years....... PURPOSE: The digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method has been shown to be efficient for diagnosis of osteoporosis and for assessment of progression of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this work is to present a new DXR implementation and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone and to compare...... health index (BHI) data are consistent with the Jena data and also with the published BHI reference for healthy children. BHI is found to have smaller relative SD than the other three indices in the Jena cohort over the age range 20-80 years. CONCLUSION: The new DXR method is an extension of the existing...

  7. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry better identifies osteoarthritis patients with a low bone mineral density than quantitative ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) to identify osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and sixty-one patients with painful knee OA (81 men, 80 women; age 62.6±9.2 years, range 40-82 years) were included in this cross-sectional study and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of both hips and the lumbar spine, QUS of the phalanges and calcanei of both hands and heels, and DXR using radiographs of both hands. Unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ROC analysis and Spearman's rank correlation were used for comparisons and correlation of methods. Using DXA as the reference standard, we defined a low bone mineral density (BMD) as a T-score ≤-1.0 at the lumbar spine or proximal femur. In contrast to phalangeal or calcaneal QUS, DXR was able to discriminate patients with a low BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.0001) or hips (p<0.0001). ROC analysis showed that DXR had an acceptable predictive power in identifying OA patients a low hip BMD (sensitivity 70%, specificity 71%). Therefore, DXR used as a screening tool could help in identifying patients with knee OA for DXA. (orig.)

  8. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry better identifies osteoarthritis patients with a low bone mineral density than quantitative ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Gerhard W. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Frey, Diana; Studer, Annina; Hauser, Dagmar; Zilic, Nathalie [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Hany, Thomas F. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland); Haeuselmann, Hans J. [Center for Rheumatology and Bone Disease, Klinik im Park, Zurich (Switzerland); Michel, Beat A.; Uebelhart, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology and Institute of Physical Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Hans, Didier [University Hospital Geneva, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) to identify osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and sixty-one patients with painful knee OA (81 men, 80 women; age 62.6{+-}9.2 years, range 40-82 years) were included in this cross-sectional study and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of both hips and the lumbar spine, QUS of the phalanges and calcanei of both hands and heels, and DXR using radiographs of both hands. Unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ROC analysis and Spearman's rank correlation were used for comparisons and correlation of methods. Using DXA as the reference standard, we defined a low bone mineral density (BMD) as a T-score {<=}-1.0 at the lumbar spine or proximal femur. In contrast to phalangeal or calcaneal QUS, DXR was able to discriminate patients with a low BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.0001) or hips (p<0.0001). ROC analysis showed that DXR had an acceptable predictive power in identifying OA patients a low hip BMD (sensitivity 70%, specificity 71%). Therefore, DXR used as a screening tool could help in identifying patients with knee OA for DXA. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of a new low-dose digital X-ray device: first dosimetric and clinical results in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. A new low-dose digital X-ray device, based on Charpak's Nobel prize-winning multiwire chamber, enables the production of images at very low doses. Objectives. To present the first dosimetric and clinical results. Materials and methods. The analysis was performed on 93 children with scoliosis and 47 undergoing pelvic radiography. The comparative study between conventional X-ray and the new technique focused on three points: (1) the dose delivered by each system (2) the diagnostic information provided by each system and (3) comparison of image quality criteria with European guidelines. Results. The mean ratio of conventional dose to that of the low-dose technique was 13.1 for the spinal examination and 18.8 for the pelvis. There was no significant difference in diagnostic information available from each modality, but there was a slight difference in quality criteria in favour of the conventional technique. Conclusion. This new device allows spectacular dose reduction, consistent with adequate clinical information. Improvements of the prototype will lead to extension of potential indications and industrial development. (orig.)

  10. Determination of doses and cancer risk to patients undergoing digital x-ray examinations at the Tamale Teaching Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrance surface and effective doses as well as cancer risk to patients for three common radiological examinations were estimated at the radiology department of the Tamale Teaching Hospital. The quality control assessment indicated that the digital x-ray equipment used, performed self-consistently in line with acceptable performance criteria. The study included eighty-two (82) adult patients undergoing three x-ray imaging modalities; Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis Examinations. From the study the mean entrance dose to abdomen and pelvis were found to be 0.6 ± 0.2 mGy whiles that of chest was found to be 0.2 ± 0.1 mGy. These were found to be lower than results of studies carried out elsewhere. The effective dose to patient was computed using PCXMC 2.0 software. The results shows an average effective dose of 0.036 mSv, 0.084 mSv and 0.067 mSv for chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations respectively. The risk of radiation induced cancer as a result to entrance surface dose was found to be 5.68 x 10-5 %, 1.58 x 10-4 % and 1.49 x 10-4 % for Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis examinations respectively. The third quartile values of the entrance surface dose were found to be lower than recommended diagnostic reference levels published by NRPB, UK and the IAEA for the examinations under study. (author)

  11. Dual energy x-ray imaging and scoring of coronary calcium: physics-based digital phantom and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) as assessed with CT calcium score is the best biomarker of coronary artery disease. Dual energy x-ray provides an inexpensive, low radiation-dose alternative. A two shot system (GE Revolution-XRd) is used, raw images are processed with a custom algorithm, and a coronary calcium image (DECCI) is created, similar to the bone image, but optimized for CAC visualization, not lung visualization. In this report, we developed a physicsbased, digital-phantom containing heart, lung, CAC, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose elements, examined effects on DECCI, suggested physics-inspired algorithms to improve CAC contrast, and evaluated the correlation between CT calcium scores and a proposed DE calcium score. In simulation experiment, Beam hardening from increasing adipose thickness (2cm to 8cm) reduced Cg by 19% and 27% in 120kVp and 60kVp images, but only reduced Cg by <7% in DECCI. If a pulmonary artery moves or pulsates with blood filling between exposures, it can give rise to a significantly confounding PA signal in DECCI similar in amplitude to CAC. Observations suggest modifications to DECCI processing, which can further improve CAC contrast by a factor of 2 in clinical exams. The DE score had the best correlation with "CT mass score" among three commonly used CT scores. Results suggest that DE x-ray is a promising tool for imaging and scoring CAC, and there still remains opportunity for further DECCI processing improvements.

  12. Advanced signal separation and recovery algorithms for digital x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; El-Tokhy, Mohamed S., E-mail: engtokhy@gmail.com

    2015-02-11

    X-ray spectroscopy is widely used for in-situ applications for samples analysis. Therefore, spectrum drawing and assessment of x-ray spectroscopy with high accuracy is the main scope of this paper. A Silicon Lithium Si(Li) detector that cooled with a nitrogen is used for signal extraction. The resolution of the ADC is 12 bits. Also, the sampling rate of ADC is 5 MHz. Hence, different algorithms are implemented. These algorithms were run on a personal computer with Intel core TM i5-3470 CPU and 3.20 GHz. These algorithms are signal preprocessing, signal separation and recovery algorithms, and spectrum drawing algorithm. Moreover, statistical measurements are used for evaluation of these algorithms. Signal preprocessing based on DC-offset correction and signal de-noising is performed. DC-offset correction was done by using minimum value of radiation signal. However, signal de-noising was implemented using fourth order finite impulse response (FIR) filter, linear phase least-square FIR filter, complex wavelet transforms (CWT) and Kalman filter methods. We noticed that Kalman filter achieves large peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and lower error than other methods. However, CWT takes much longer execution time. Moreover, three different algorithms that allow correction of x-ray signal overlapping are presented. These algorithms are 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm, second derivative peak search algorithm and extrema algorithm. Additionally, the effect of signal separation and recovery algorithms on spectrum drawing is measured. Comparison between these algorithms is introduced. The obtained results confirm that second derivative peak search algorithm as well as extrema algorithm have very small error in comparison with 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm. However, the second derivative peak search algorithm takes much longer execution time. Therefore, extrema algorithm introduces better results over other algorithms. It has the advantage of recovering and

  13. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    OpenAIRE

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-01-01

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent t...

  14. A comparison of digital zero-crossing and charge-comparison methods for neutron/γ-ray discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhostin, M., E-mail: M.nakhostin@surrey.ac.uk

    2015-10-11

    In this paper, we have compared the performances of the digital zero-crossing and charge-comparison methods for n/γ discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors at low light outputs. The measurements were performed with a 2″×2″ cylindrical liquid scintillation detector of type BC501A whose outputs were sampled by means of a fast waveform digitizer with 10-bit resolution, 4 GS/s sampling rate and one volt input range. Different light output ranges were measured by operating the photomultiplier tube at different voltages and a new recursive algorithm was developed to implement the digital zero-crossing method. The results of our study demonstrate the superior performance of the digital zero-crossing method at low light outputs when a large dynamic range is measured. However, when the input range of the digitizer is used to measure a narrow range of light outputs, the charge-comparison method slightly outperforms the zero-crossing method. The results are discussed in regard to the effects of the quantization noise and the noise filtration performance of the zero-crossing filter.

  15. 输卵管Sonovue超声造影与碘海醇X线造影的对比分析%Comparison of Sonovue contrast-enhanced ultrasound and Iohexol X-ray hysterosalpingogram for fallopian tube assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士琴; 袁伟

    2013-01-01

      目的比较输卵管Sonovue超声造影与碘海醇X线造影的结果,以期提高超声造影的准确率。方法对45例不孕不育患者,分别在B超下行Sonovue输卵管造影,在X线下行碘剂造影。结果B超:输卵管通畅者35例(66条),通而不畅7例(13条),不通者7例(10条);X线:输卵管通畅者38例(73条),通而不畅4例(7条),不通者6例(9条)。结论输卵管Sonovue超声造影诊断准确率略低于碘海醇X线造影。%  Objective To compare Sonovue contrast-enhanced hysterosonography(CEUS)and Iohexol X-ray hysterosalpingography(HSG).Methods Forty-five patients with infertility underwent CEUS of fallopian tubes using Sonovue followed by Iohexol X-ray HSG.Results Sixty-six fallopian tubes in 35 patients were clearly demonstrated on CEUS. Contrast flow was impeded in 13 tubes of 7 patients. Ten tubes were obstructed in 7 patients.On Iohexol HSG,73 tubes were clearly demonstrated in 38 patients.Contrast flow was impeded in 7 tubes of 4 patients. Nine tubes were obstructed in 6 patients.Conclusions Sonovue CEUS is slightly less accurate than Iohexol X-ray HSG.

  16. High-energy x-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.;

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center...

  17. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Protection, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Patel, Tushita [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  18. Performance Trade-Off Analysis Comparing Different Front-End Configurations for a Digital X-ray Imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-10-30

    Performance of indirect digital x-ray imagers is typically limited by the front-end components. Present x-ray-to-light converting phosphors significantly reduce detector resolution due to stochastic blurring and k-fluorescent x-ray reabsorption. Thinner phosphors improve resolution at the cost of lowering quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and increasing Swank noise. Magnifying fiber optic tapers (FOTs) are commonly used to increase the field-of-view of small sensor imagers, such as CMOS, CCD, or electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) based detectors, which results in a reduction in detector sensitivity and further reduces the MTF. We investigate performance trade-offs for different front-end configurations coupled to an EMCCD sensor with 8 μm pixels. Six different columnar structured CsI(Tl) scintillators with thicknesses of 100, 200, 350, 500, and 1000 μm type high-light (HL) and a 350 μm type high-resolution (HR) (Hamamatsu) and four different FOTs with magnification ratios (M) of 1, 2.5, 3.3, and 4 were studied using the RQA5 x-ray spectrum. The relative signal of the different scintillators largely followed the relative QDE, indicating their light output per absorbed x-ray was similar, with the type HR CsI emitting 57% of the type HL. The efficiency of the FOTs was inversely proportional to M(2) with the M = 1 FOT transmitting 87% of the incident light. At 5 (10) cycles/mm, the CsI MTF was 0.38 (0.22), 0.33 (0.17), 0.37 (0.19), 0.23 (0.09), 0.19 (0.08), and 0.09 (0.03) for the 100, 200, 350HR, 350, 500, and 1000 μm CsI, respectively and the FOT MTF was 0.89 (0.84), 0.80 (0.72), 0.70 (0.60), and 0.69 (0.37) for M = 1, 2.5, 3.3, and 4, respectively. The 1000, 500, and 350HR μm CsI had the highest DQE for low, medium, and high spatial frequency ranges of 0 to 1.6, 1.6 to 4.5, and 4.5 to 10 cycles/mm, respectively. Larger FOT M resulted in a reduction in DQE. Quantifying performance of different front-end configurations will enable optimal selection of components

  19. HIGH CURRENT COAXIAL PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, N.W.

    1960-01-19

    A medium-gain photomultiplier tube having high current output, fast rise- time, and matched output impedance was developed. The photomultiplier tube comprises an elongated cylindrical envelope, a cylindrical anode supported at the axis of the envelope, a plurality of elongated spaced opaque areas on the envelope, and a plurality of light admitting windows. A photo-cathode is supported adjacent to each of the windows, and a plurality of secondary emissive dynodes are arranged in two types of radial arrays which are alternately positioned to fill the annular space between the anode and the envelope. The dynodes are in an array being radially staggered with respect to the dynodes in the adjacent array, the dynodes each having a portion arranged at an angle with respect to the electron path, such that electrons emitted by each cathode undergo multiplication upon impingement on a dynode and redirected flight to the next adjacent dynode.

  20. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Matthieu; Porcelli, Alessio; Pujadas, Isaac Troyano; Zietara, Krzysztof; Della Volpe, Domenico; Montaruli, Teresa; Cadoux, Franck; Favre, Yannick; Sanchez, Juan Antonio Aguilar; Christov, Asen; Prandini, Elisa; Rajda, Pawel; Rameez, Mohamed; Blinik, Woijciech; Blocki, Jacek; Bogacz, Leszek; Borkowski, Jurek; Bulik, Tomasz; Frankowski, Adam; Grudzinska, Mira; Idzkowski, Bartosz; Jamrozy, Mateusz; Janiak, Mateusz; Kasperek, Jerzy; Lalik, Krzysztof; Lyard, Etienne; Mach, Emil; Mandat, Dusan; Marszalek, Adrian; Miranda, Luis David Medina; Michalowski, Jerzy; Neronov, Andrii; Niemiec, Jacek; Ostrowski, Michal; Pasko, Pawel; Pech, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Seweryn, Karol; Sliusar, Vitalii; Skowron, Krzysztof; Stawarz, Lukasz; Stodulska, Magdalena; Stodulski, Marek; Walter, Roland; Wiecek, Marek; Zagdanski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    The single-mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the three proposed designs for the small-size telescopes (SSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The SST-1M will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and an innovative fully digital camera based on silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs). Since the SST sub-array will consist of up to 70 telescopes, the challenge is not only to build a telescope with excellent performance, but also to design it so that its components can be commissioned, assembled and tested by industry. In this paper we review the basic steps that led to the design concepts for the SST-1M camera and the ongoing realization of the first prototype, with focus on the innovative solutions adopted for the photodetector plane and the readout and trigger parts of the camera. In addition, we report on results of laboratory measurements on real scale elements that validate the camera design and show that it is capable of matching the CTA requirements of operating up to...

  1. Evaluation of a low-dose digital X-ray system with improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from an evaluation of a significantly improved version of the Siberian Digital Radiographic Device (SDRD). The SDRD is already in clinical use in Novosibirsk and Moscow where it produces images of high diagnostic value at considerably lower doses than conventional film-screen combinations. It uses a fast multiwire proportional chamber with highly parallel readout as a detector. Improvements in the readout system have given a reduction by a factor of two in the pixel size. We have used well established methods to compare imaging performance of the new SDRD with the old version as well as with a film-screen combination used in routine clinical practice in the UK. At the same level of exposure the threshold contrast for objects of the order of the pixel size is two times better for the new SDRD than for the old one, and the minimum size of objects visible in the image is two times smaller (0.25 mm) for the new system than for the old SDRD (0.5 mm). ((orig.))

  2. Comparative diagnosis in the detection of decays involving conventional methods, laser, and digital x ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Bregagnolo, Janete C.; Lizarelli, Renata Z.; Palhares, Juliana M. C.; Villa, Girlene E. P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2000-03-01

    Occlusal surface caries are very difficult to diagnose at early stages, special difficulties are observed when the lesion is formed bilaterally in the pits and fissures walls. Preventive measures have been a constant concerning in the attempt to reduce the installation and progression of incipient occlusal decays. The early carious lesions detection through conventional diagnosis methods are questionable because they can end up with a risk of a false-positive or false-negative diagnosis. Using 22 teeth in vitro, premolars and molars, which suggested carious lesions, the exams were made by 3 examiners calibrated through pre-determined scores. The utilized methods were: GI -- visual inspection, GII -- tactile inspection (explorer probe), GIII -- conventional radiographic exam, GIV -- digital radiographic exam (Digora for Windows 1.51 and 1.51N, Soredex-orion Co.), GV -- low intensity laser for diagnosis (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Germany; GVI -- histologic section. The examiners did not communicate among themselves during the exams. There were significant statistical difference among the evaluated methods. Under Friedman statistical test, GI, GIII and GIV were different from GV at the 0.1% level; when we have compared GII with GV, we observed statistical difference at the 1% level. In conclusion, GV was highly statistically different from the others groups, it means that the low intensity laser for diagnosis was the most sensible method to detect decayed tissue.

  3. Stent enhancement in digital x-ray fluoroscopy using an adaptive feature enhancement filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Zachary, Josey

    2016-03-01

    Fluoroscopic images belong to the classes of low contrast and high noise. Simply lowering radiation dose will render the images unreadable. Feature enhancement filters can reduce patient dose by acquiring images at low dose settings and then digitally restoring them to the original quality. In this study, a stent contrast enhancement filter is developed to selectively improve the contrast of stent contour without dramatically boosting the image noise including quantum noise and clinical background noise. Gabor directional filter banks are implemented to detect the edges and orientations of the stent. A high orientation resolution of 9° is used. To optimize the use of the information obtained from Gabor filters, a computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to find the best nonlinear operator. The next stage of filtering process is to extract symmetrical parts in the stent. The global and local symmetry measures are used. The information gathered from previous two filter stages are used to generate a stent contour map. The contour map is then scaled and added back to the original image to get a contrast enhanced stent image. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized Hotelling observer model and other numerical measures to characterize the response of the filters and contour map to optimize the selections of parameters for image quality. The results are compared to those filtered by an adaptive unsharp masking filter previously developed. It is shown that stent enhancement filter can effectively improve the stent detection and differentiation in the interventional fluoroscopy.

  4. Advanced digital self-triggering of radio emission of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio detection provides information about the electromagnetic part of an air shower in the atmosphere complementary to that obtained by water-Cherenkov detectors predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. For the measurement of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) by the detection of their coherent radio emission, several test setups have been developed and deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. However, these UHECR radio pulses are significantly polluted by man-made radio frequency interferences (RFI). This requires a special design of antennas, analog, data acquisition (DAQ), and communication electronics, which are under investigation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. In large-scale detector arrays sophisticated self-triggering methods are necessary, to use the limited available communication data rate efficiently. This paper gives an overview of the electronics and self-triggering methods used in the test setups at the Pierre Auger Observatory and describes the experiences gained so far.

  5. Advanced digital self-triggering of radio emission of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, Christoph; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Radio detection provides information about the electromagnetic part of an air shower in the atmosphere complementary to that obtained by water-Cherenkov detectors predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. For the measurement of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) by the detection of their coherent radio emission, several test setups have been developed and deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. However, these UHECR radio pulses are significantly polluted by man-made radio frequency interferences (RFI). This requires a special design of antennas, analog, data acquisition (DAQ), and communication electronics, which are under investigation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. In large-scale detector arrays sophisticated self-triggering methods are necessary, to use the limited available communication data rate efficiently. This paper gives an overview of the electronics and self-triggering methods used in the test setups at the Pierre Auger Observatory and describes the experiences gained so far.

  6. Stature Estimation Based on the Length of Tibia and Fibula Measured by Digital X-ray in Chinese Han Teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-zhuo; HUANG Yun; ZHOU Xiao-rong; DENG Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective To derive regression formulae for stature estimation using forensic radiography from the tibia and fibula of Chinese Han teenagers in Sichuan Province. Methods To construct equations, measurements were conducted on the training sample (412 adults, 201 males and 211 females). The whole length of the fibula and four measurements of tibia were determined using CR radiography, rectified through theoretical magnification. The regression formulae were relatively constructed to the real stature measured in an erect position. Through using the testing sample (40 adults) for the regression formulae, the reliability of the regression formulae was assessed. Results The range of correlation coefficients of four measurements for tibia was 0.880-0.895 in the sex-unknown group, 0.869-0.893 in the male, and 0.845-0.855 in the female. The five measurements were found to be better correlated with stature in the male than in the female. Conclusion The digital X-ray of the tibia and fibula for stature estimation is proved to be effective in forensic individual identification; therefore, these equations can be of great assistance to the stature estimation of the contemporary Chinese Han teenagers.Objective To derive regression formulae for stature estimation using forensic radiography from the tibia and fibula of Chinese Han teenagers in Sichuan Province.Methods To construct equations,measurements were conducted on the training sample (412 adults,201 males and 211 females).The whole length of the fibula and four measurements of tibia were determined using CR radiography,rectified through theoretical magnification.The regression formulae were relatively constructed to the real stature measured in an erect position.Through using the testing sample (40 adults) for the regression formulae,the reliability of the regression formulae was assessed.Results The range of correlation coefficients of four measurements for tibia was 0.880-0.895 in the sex-unknown group,0.869-0.893 in the

  7. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  8. Volume digital image correlation to assess displacement field in compression loaded bread crumb under X-ray microtomography

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we present an original approach to assess structural changes during bread crumb compression using a mechanical testing bench coupled to 3D X-ray microtomography. X-ray images taken at different levels of compression of the bread crumb are processed using image analysis. A subset-based digital volume correlation method is used to achieve the 3D displacement field. Within the limit of the approach, deterministic search strategy is implemented for solving subset displacement in each deformed image with regards to the undeformed one. The predicted displacement field in the transverse directions shows differences that depend on local cell arrangement as confirmed by finite element analysis. The displacement component in the loading direction is affected by the magnitude of imposed displacement and shows more regular change. Large displacement levels in the compression direction are in good agreement with the imposed experimental displacement. The results presented here are promising in a sense of possible identification of local foam properties. New insights are expected to achieve better understanding of structural heterogeneities in the overall perception of the product. Industrial relevance: Texture evaluation of cereal product is an important aspect for testing consumer acceptability of new designed products. Mechanical evaluation of backed products is a systemic route for determining texture of cereal based product. From the industrial viewpoint, mechanical evaluation allows saving both time and cost compared to panel evaluation. We demonstrate that better understanding of structural changes during texture evaluation can be achieved in addition to texture evaluation. Sensing structural changes during bread crumb compression is achievable by combining novel imaging technique and processing based on image analysis. We present thus an efficient way to predict displacements during compression of freshly baked product. This method can be used in different

  9. Stent enhancement using a locally adaptive unsharp masking filter in digital x-ray fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Ekanayake, Eranda

    2014-03-01

    Low exposure X-ray fluoroscopy is used to guide some complicate interventional procedures. Due to the inherent high levels of noise, improving the visibility of some interventional devices such as stent will greatly benefit those interventional procedures. Stent, which is made up of tiny steel wires, is also suffered from contrast dilutions of large flat panel detector pixels. A novel adaptive unsharp masking filter has been developed to improve stent contrast in real-time applications. In unsharp masking processing, the background is estimated and subtracted from the original input image to create a foreground image containing objects of interest. A background estimator is therefore critical in the unsharp masking processing. In this specific study, orientation filter kernels are used as the background estimator. To make the process simple and fast, the kernels average along a line of pixels. A high orientation resolution of 18° is used. A nonlinear operator is then used to combine the information from the images generated from convolving the original background and noise only images with orientation filters. A computerized Monte Carlo simulation followed by ROC study is used to identify the best nonlinear operator. We then apply the unsharp masking filter to the images with stents present. It is shown that the locally adaptive unsharp making filter is an effective filter for improving stent visibility in the interventional fluoroscopy. We also apply a spatio-temporal channelized human observer model to quantitatively optimize and evaluate the filter.

  10. Optimized exposure control in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shramchenko, Nataliya; Blin, Philippe; Mathey, Claude; Klausz, Remy

    2004-05-01

    A method for the determination of optimal operating points of digital mammography systems is described. The digital mammography equipment uses a flat panel detector and a bi-metal molybdenum/rhodium x-ray tube. An operating point is defined by the selection of the x-ray tube target material, x-ray filtration, kVp and detector entrance dose. Breast thickness and composition are estimated from a low dose pre-exposure, then used to index tables containing sets of operating points. The operating points are determined using a model of the image chain, which computes contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and average glandular dose (AGD) for all possible exposure conditions and breast thickness and composition combinations. The selected operating points are those which provide the required CNR for the lowest AGD. An AGD reduction of 30% to 50% can be achieved for comparable Image Quality, relative to current operating points. Resulting from the optimization process, the rhodium target is used in more than 75% of cases. Measurements of CNR and AGD have been performed on various tissue equivalent materials with good agreement between calculated and measured values. The proposed method provides full Image Quality benefit of digital mammography while minimizing dose to patients in a controlled and predictive way.

  11. 12Cao-7Al2o3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al.sub.2O.sub.3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  12. Temperature variation of a thermionic cathode during electron emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to know the actual temperature of a thermionic cathode that works as the electron source in a microwave tube. It has been found that the temperature of the cathode drops markedly during the thermionic emission. For example, the temperature could fall by about 30oC under a current density of 2.92 A/cm2. Using the molecular thermodynamics, the dependence of the cathode temperature on the emission current density has been obtained. It has been theoretically pointed out that several factors, such as heating model and temperature coefficient of resis-tance of heater, can influence the cathode temperature. These theoretical conclu-sions were supported by the experimental results.

  13. Cathodes - Technological review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkouk, Charaf; Nestler, Tina [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) was already used in the first commercialized Li-ion battery by SONY in 1990. Still, it is the most frequently used cathode material nowadays. However, LiCoO{sub 2} is intrinsically unstable in the charged state, especially at elevated temperatures and in the overcharged state causing volume changes and transport limitation for high power batteries. In this paper, some technological aspects with large impact on cell performance from the cathode material point of view will be reviewed. At first it will be focused on the degradation processes and life-time mechanisms of the cathode material LiCoO{sub 2}. Electrochemical and structural results on commercial Li-ion batteries recorded during the cycling will be discussed. Thereafter, advanced nanomaterials for new cathode materials will be presented.

  14. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Cathodes - Technological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) was already used in the first commercialized Li-ion battery by SONY in 1990. Still, it is the most frequently used cathode material nowadays. However, LiCoO2 is intrinsically unstable in the charged state, especially at elevated temperatures and in the overcharged state causing volume changes and transport limitation for high power batteries. In this paper, some technological aspects with large impact on cell performance from the cathode material point of view will be reviewed. At first it will be focused on the degradation processes and life-time mechanisms of the cathode material LiCoO2. Electrochemical and structural results on commercial Li-ion batteries recorded during the cycling will be discussed. Thereafter, advanced nanomaterials for new cathode materials will be presented

  16. TARGET 5: a new multi-channel digitizer with triggering capabilities for gamma-ray atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, A; Kawashima, T; Murphy, M; Okumura, A; Quagliani, R; Sapozhnikov, L; Tajima, H; Tibaldo, L; Vandenbroucke, J; Wu, T

    2016-01-01

    TARGET~5 is a new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) of the TARGET family, designed for the readout of signals from photosensors in the cameras of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. TARGET~5 combines sampling and digitization on 16 signal channels with the formation of trigger signals based on the analog sum of groups of four channels. {\\rev We describe the ASIC architecture and performance.} TARGET~5 improves over the performance of the first-generation TARGET ASIC, achieving: tunable sampling frequency from {\\rev $1$~GSa/s}}; a dynamic range on the data path of 1.2 V with {\\mod effective dynamic range of 11}~bits and DC noise of ${\\sim}0.6$~mV; 3-dB bandwidth of 500 MHz; {\\rev crosstalk between adjacent channels $100$~p.e.} (assuming 4 mV per p.e.); and minimum stable trigger threshold of 20 mV (5 p.e.) with trigger noise of 5 mV (1.2 p.e.), {\\rev which is} mostly limited by {\\mod interference between trigger and sampling operations}. {\\mod TAR...

  17. A digital X-ray imaging system based on silicon strip detectors working in edge-on configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos, L. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Boscardin, M. [IRST, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38100 Trento (Italy); Cabal, A.E. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Diaz, M. [InSTEC, Ave. Salvador Allende esq. Luaces, Quinta de los Molinos, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ramello, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.ramello@mfn.unipmn.it; Szczygiel, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2009-09-21

    We present the energy resolution and imaging performance of a digital X-ray imaging system based on a 512-strip silicon strip detector (SSD) working in the edge-on configuration. The SSDs tested in the system are 300 {mu}m thick with 1 or 2-cm-long strips and 100 {mu}m pitch. To ensure a very small dead area of the SSD working in edge-on configuration, the detector is cut perpendicular to the strips at a distance of only 20 {mu}m from the end of the strips. The 512-strip silicon detector is read out by eight 64-channel integrated circuits called DEDIX [Grybos et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (2007) 1207]. The DEDIX IC operates in a single photon counting mode with two independent amplitude discriminators per channel. The readout electronic channel connected to a detector with effective input capacitance of about 2 pF has an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) of about 163 el. rms and is able to count 1 Mcps of average rate of input pulses. The system consisting of 512 channels has an excellent channel-to-channel uniformity-the effective threshold spread calculated to the charge-sensitive amplifier inputs is 12 el. rms (at one sigma level). With this system a few test images of a phantom have been taken in the 10-30 keV energy range.

  18. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  19. Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible scintillators for digital x-ray image sensors were designed, fabricated and characterized. In these scintillaotrs, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillator pixels were embedded into a polyethylene (PE) substrate. To evaluate the difference in the spatial resolution according to the pixel size, we designed three scintillators with pixels of different pitch sizes: 50 µm pitch size (P50), 100 µm pitch size (P100) and 200 µm pitch size (P200). Because of the high flexibility and good formability, polyethylene was used as the substrate of the scintillator. To fabricate nickel micromolds with high-aspect-ratio microstructures, two microfabrication techniques were employed: silicon dry-etching using a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process and nickel electroforming. The pixelated PE microstructures were fabricated by a hot embossing process. Because the solution-type Gd2O2S:Tb precursor can be handled at room temperature, Gd2O2S:Tb was used as the scintillator material. The measured sensitivities of the P50 and P100 models were, respectively, about 65% and 97% of that of the P200 model. The lower sensitivity values of the models with a small pitch size were due to two factors, such as the different pixel heights and the different fill factors. Because a scintillator with a small pixel size has a low fill factor, the sensitivity of the scintillator decreases as the pixel size decreases. The fill factors of the P50, P100 and P200 models were 36%, 49% and 56.25%, respectively. On the other hand, the spatial resolution of the scintillator increases as the pixel size decreases. Therefore, P50 gave the best spatial resolution among the designed models. The spatial frequency at 10% of the modulation transfer function (MTF) with P50 was 13.5 mm−1, while that with P200 was 10.0 mm−1. The resolution pattern and the tooth x-ray images obtained from a scintillator with a smaller pixel size was also clearer than that obtained from a scintillator

  20. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  1. Development of a Laboratory Micron-Resolution X-ray Microprobe to Map Mineralogy and Trace Elements at PPM Sensitivity for Digital Rock, Magma, and Mining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, W.; Lewis, S.; Stripe, B.; Chen, S.; Reynolds, D.; Spink, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing a patent-pending x-ray microprobe with substantially unprecedented performance attributes: 2 cm, narrow spectral bandwidth, and large x-ray flux. The outstanding performance is enabled by: (1) a revolutionary new type of high flux x-ray source designed to be >10X brighter than the brightest rotating anode x-ray source available; (2) an axially symmetric x-ray mirror lens with large solid angle collection and high focusing efficiency; and (3) a detector configuration that enables the collection of 10X more x-rays than current microXRF designs. The sensitivity will be ppm-scale, far surpassing charged particle analysis (e.g. EPMA and SEM-EDS), and >1000X throughput over the leading micro-XRFs. Despite the introduction of a number of laboratory microXRF systems in the past decade, the state-of-the-art has been limited primarily by low resolution (~30 μm) and low throughput. This is substantially attributable to a combination of low x-ray source brightness and poor performance x-ray optics. Here we present our initial results in removing the x-ray source bottleneck, in which we use a novel x-ray source using Fine Anode Array Source Technology (Sigray FAAST™). When coupled with our proprietary high efficiency x-ray mirror lens, the throughput achieved is comparable to that of many synchrotron microXRF beamlines. Potential applications of the x-ray microprobe include high throughput mapping of mineralogy at high resolution, including trace elements, such as rare earth metals, and deposits (e.g. siderite, clays), with ppm sensitivity, providing information for properties such as permeability and elastic/mechanical properties, and to provide compositional information for Digital Rock. Additional applications include those in which the limited penetration of electrons limits achieving adequate statistics, such as determining the concentration of precious minerals in mine tailings.

  2. Calculation of size specific dose estimates (SSDE) value at cylindrical phantom from CBCT Varian OBI v1.4 X-ray tube EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M.; Pratama, D.; Anam, C.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to calculate Size Specific Dose Estimates (SSDE) generated by the varian OBI CBCT v1.4 X-ray tube working at 100 kV using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code used in this simulation was divided into two parts. Phase space file data resulted by the first part simulation became an input to the second part. This research was performed with varying phantom diameters of 5 to 35 cm and varying phantom lengths of 10 to 25 cm. Dose distribution data were used to calculate SSDE values using trapezoidal rule (trapz) function in a Matlab program. SSDE obtained from this calculation was compared to that in AAPM report and experimental data. It was obtained that the normalization of SSDE value for each phantom diameter was between 1.00 and 3.19. The normalization of SSDE value for each phantom length was between 0.96 and 1.07. The statistical error in this simulation was 4.98% for varying phantom diameters and 5.20% for varying phantom lengths. This study demonstrated the accuracy of the Monte Carlo technique in simulating the dose calculation. In the future, the influence of cylindrical phantom material to SSDE would be studied.

  3. Following ORR intermediates adsorbed on a Pt cathode catalyst during break-in of a PEM fuel cell by in operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaker, D E; Korovina, A; Croze, V; Melke, J; Roth, C

    2014-07-21

    In operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy data using the Δμ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) analysis procedure is used to follow the ORR intermediate adsorbate coverage on a working catalyst in a PEMFC during initial activation and break-in. The adsorbate coverage and log i (Tafel) curves reveal a strong correlation, i.e., an increase in adsorbate intermediate coverage poisons Pt sites thereby decreasing the current. A decrease in Pt-O bond strength commensurate with decrease in potential causes a sequence of different dominant adsorbate volcano curves to exist, namely first O, then OH, and then OOH exactly as predicted by the different ORR kinetics mechanisms. During break-in, the incipient O coverage coming from exposure to air during storage and MEA preparation is rather quickly removed, compared to the slower and more subtle nanoparticle morphological changes, such as the rounding of the Pt nanoparticle edges/corners and smoothing of the planar surfaces, driven by the nanoparticle's tendency to lower its surface energy. These morphological changes increase the Pt-Pt average coordination number, decrease the average Pt-O bond strength, and thereby decrease the coverage of ORR intermediates, allowing increase in the current. PMID:24664398

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cobaltite nanotubes for solid-oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, F.; Baqué, L.; Troiani, H.; Granada, M.; Serquis, A.

    2009-05-01

    La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3-δ oxides are good candidates for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes because these materials present high ionic and electronic conductivity, and compatibility with Cerium Gadolinium Oxide (CGO) electrolytes allowing a lower operation temperature. In this work, we report the synthesis of La0.4Sr0.6Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF) nanotubes prepared by a porous polycarbonate membrane approach, obtaining different microstructures depending on sintering conditions. The structure and morphology of the nanotubes and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning microscopy. Finally, we obtained nanostructured films of vertically aligned LSCF tubes deposited over the whole surface of CGO pellets with diameter up to 2.5cm in a direct and single step process.

  5. Experimental characterization of a 10 μW 55 μm-pitch FPN-compensated CMOS digital pixel sensor for X-ray imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras, Roger, E-mail: roger.figueras@imb-cnm.csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Martínez, Ricardo; Terés, Lluís [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Serra-Graells, Francisco [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM(CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Microelectronics and Electronic Systems, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-10-11

    This paper presents experimental results obtained from both electrical and radiation tests of a new room-temperature digital pixel sensor (DPS) circuit specifically optimized for digital direct X-ray imaging. The 10 μW 55 μm-pitch CMOS active pixel circuit under test includes self-bias capability, built-in test, selectable e{sup −}/h{sup +} collection, 10-bit charge-integration A/D conversion, individual gain tuning for fixed pattern noise (FPN) cancellation, and digital-only I/O interface, which make it suitable for 2D modular chip assemblies in large and seamless sensing areas. Experimental results for this DPS architecture in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology are reported, returning good performance in terms of linearity, 2ke{sub rms}{sup −} of ENC, inter-pixel crosstalk below 0.5 LSB, 50 Mbps of I/O speed, and good radiation response for its use in digital X-ray imaging.

  6. Experimental characterization of a 10 μW 55 μm-pitch FPN-compensated CMOS digital pixel sensor for X-ray imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Roger; Martínez, Ricardo; Terés, Lluís; Serra-Graells, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents experimental results obtained from both electrical and radiation tests of a new room-temperature digital pixel sensor (DPS) circuit specifically optimized for digital direct X-ray imaging. The 10 μW 55 μm-pitch CMOS active pixel circuit under test includes self-bias capability, built-in test, selectable e-/h+ collection, 10-bit charge-integration A/D conversion, individual gain tuning for fixed pattern noise (FPN) cancellation, and digital-only I/O interface, which make it suitable for 2D modular chip assemblies in large and seamless sensing areas. Experimental results for this DPS architecture in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology are reported, returning good performance in terms of linearity, 2 kerms- of ENC, inter-pixel crosstalk below 0.5 LSB, 50 Mbps of I/O speed, and good radiation response for its use in digital X-ray imaging.

  7. A 12-bit, 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for a CZT-based multi-channel gamma-ray imager using a new digital calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is widely used in the CdZnTe-based gamma-ray imager because of its outstanding characteristics of low power consumption, relatively high resolution, and small die size. This study proposes a digital bit-by-bit calibration method using an input ramp signal to further improve the conversion precision and power consumption of an SAR-ADC. The proposed method is based on the sub-radix-2 redundant architecture and the perturbation technique. The proposed calibration algorithm is simpler, more stable, and faster than traditional approaches. The prototype chip of the 12-bit, 1 MS/s radiation-hardened SAR-ADC has been designed and fabricated using the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. This SAR-ADC consumes 3 mW power and occupies a core area of 856× 802μm2. The digital bit-by-bit calibration algorithm is implemented via MATLAB for testing flexibility. The effective number of bits for this digitally calibrated SAR-ADC reaches 11.77 bits. The converter exhibits high conversion precision, low power consumption, and radiation-hardened design. Therefore, this SAR-ADC is suitable for multi-channel gamma-ray imager applications

  8. Baseband Feedback Frequency-Division Multiplexing with Low-Power dc-SQUIDs and Digital Electronics for TES X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K.; Takei, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) systems with baseband feedback for TES X-ray microcalorimeter arrays for use with the DIOS mission. To meet the requirement of limited cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures, we developed low-power and FDM-optmized dc-SQUIDs. To make maximum use of the SQUIDs, we also developed digital electronics using FPGA evaluation boards and ADC/DAC FMC daughter cards, and evaluated signal-to-noise ratios and gain-bandwidth products.

  9. Cathode materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Mohanty, Debasish, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Li, Jianlin, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Wood, David L., E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS6472 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  10. Cathode materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  11. Cathode materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research

  12. Streak tube photocathode development program. Phase 2, Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-20

    This report details the progress made toward developing a streak tube with greater than 1% quantum efficiency at a wavelength of 1300 nm. The achieved performance is the result of approximately three years of effort. The goal of Phase 2 of this contract was to seal a working 1.3 {mu}m streak tube. This effort was focused in two areas. First there was a continuing effort to further develop and demonstrate the cathodes ability to meet the stated requirements. The second effort was aimed at solving the mechanical and process related problems related to sealing this cathode onto a EG&G streak tube.

  13. [Correlation between basic imaging properties and subjective evaluations of two digital radiographic X-ray systems based on direct-conversion flat panel detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Taro; Katayama, Reiji; Morishita, Junji; Sakai, Shinji; Kuroki, Hidefumi; Ohkubo, Seiji; Maeda, Takashi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the basic imaging properties of two digital radiographic X-ray systems with a direct conversion flat-panel detector and their image qualities, which were evaluated by the observer in hard copy and soft copy studies. The subjective image quality was evaluated and compared in terms of the low-contrast detectability and image sharpness in the two digital radiographic X-ray systems. We applied the radiographs of a contrast detail phantom to the evaluation of low-contrast detectability and analyzed the contrast detail diagrams. Finally, low-contrast detectability was evaluated by the image quality figure (IQF) calculated from the contrast detail diagrams. Also, the subjective image sharpness of human dry bones of two systems was examined and evaluated by the normalized-rank method. The results indicated that System A tended to provide superior subjective image quality compared to System B in both observer studies. We also found high correlations between IQFs and basic imaging properties, such as the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the noise equivalent quantum (NEQ). In conclusion, the low-contrast detectability of the two digital radiographic X-ray systems with a direct conversion flat-panel detector corresponded to the NPS and the NEQ in both outputs (soft copy and hard copy). On the other hand, the subjective image sharpness of human dry bones was affected by their noise properties.

  14. Development of Digitex premier digital angiographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has come to be widely utilized in the field of angiography. This has brought forth a strong demand that digital angiographic systems provide high efficiency in patient examinations and high level of interventional support. This report refers to our newly developed Digitex Premier Series digital angiographic systems, designed to meet the above demands. The new systems utilize a high-speed, wide-range C-arm system, a high-resolution image intensifier, a fluid-lubricant X-ray tube, and a digital image processing system, in order to ensure high patient examination efficiency. Their IVR (interventional radiology)-Master bed-side image controller further enhances the efficiency of patient examinations, and also, their CAT (comfortable angio terminal) and FMC (file management console) improve the patient examination throughput and diagnostic workflow of the systems. (author)

  15. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  16. 非介入技术在X光机管电流测量中的应用研究%Application of non-invasive technology in X-ray tube current measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平; 龚岚; 刘志宏

    2012-01-01

    X-ray machine is widely used in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, industrial testing and other related fields. It plays an important role in protecting the health of citizens and promoting social -economic ? Progress. As an important parameter of the intensity of X-ray, the current of X-ray tube has a major impact on the X-ray output quality, the clarity of pictures and other aspects. In order to ensure the accuracy of testing data and simplify the certification process, a testing method was designed on the basis of the non-invasive to measure the current of X-ray tube. Experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the X-ray tube's current.%X光机广泛应用于放射诊断、放射治疗、工业探伤等相关领域,在保障公民身体健康和促进社会经济进步方面发挥着重要作用.X光机管电流作为控制X射线强度的重要参数,对射线输出质量、拍片清晰度等方面产生重要影响.在保证检测数据准确、检定过程简易的情况下,设计采用了基于非介入式的X光机管电流测量方法,测试结果表明该方法能准确测量X光机管电流.

  17. Local liquid velocity measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) using the x-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar Mohd Salleh, Khairul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of a new technique to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) for multiphase flows in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) (gas-liquid-solid system). In the studied TBR, the liquid phase is represented by water, gas by air and 3 mm expanded polystyrene beads as the solid packing. Three different superficial liquid velocities (VSL) and a constant superficial gas velocity (VSG) were used in the packed bed with an internal diameter of 4.25 cm. While the liquid is moving into the packed bed, tracking particles of 106-125 μm diameter (16.45% difference) are injected. The movement of the tracking particles is monitored and digitally recorded by a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector. In this experiment, x-rays were used as the radiation source. Four replications were made with fresh packing. Comparable observations can be found from other published techniques (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). Results from this study indicate that, at VSL = 0.13 cm s-1, the measured VLL can reach up to 51 times that of its VSL, while for VSL = 0.27 cm s-1, the measured VLL reached up to 35 times higher than the VSL and for VSL = 0.39 cm s-1, the VLL reached up to 39.8 times higher than its VSL. Through statistical analysis, the implementation of such a method is found to be reproducible throughout the experiments. The mean per cent difference in the measured VLL was 10% and 5% for lower implemented VSL of 0.13 and 0.27 cm s-1, respectively. At higher VSL (0.39 cm s-1), the particle tracer was greatly distributed and carried away by the high liquid flow rate. The variance or the range of the measured VLL does not vary for all replications in every VSL, which confirms the reproducibility of the experimental measurements, regardless of the VSL.

  18. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Gamma ray spectroscopy employing divalent europium-doped alkaline earth halides and digital readout for accurate histogramming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, Nerine Jane; Payne, Stephen Anthony; Drury, Owen B.; Sturm, Benjamin W.

    2016-02-09

    According to one embodiment, a scintillator radiation detector system includes a scintillator, and a processing device for processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from the scintillator, where the processing device is configured to: process each pulse trace over at least two temporal windows and to use pulse digitization to improve energy resolution of the system. According to another embodiment, a scintillator radiation detector system includes a processing device configured to: fit digitized scintillation waveforms to an algorithm, perform a direct integration of fit parameters, process multiple integration windows for each digitized scintillation waveform to determine a correction factor, and apply the correction factor to each digitized scintillation waveform.

  20. Highly Efficient Micro Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Company, Inc. proposes to develop a micro thermionic cathode that requires extremely low power and provides long lifetime. The basis for the cathode is a...

  1. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  2. Fabrication of thin film x-ray sensor using particle-in-binder method for automatic exposure control in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic exposure control (AEC) detector is a control device that ensures consistent x-ray image quality and limits patient exposure in digital radiography. Among several kinds of AEC detectors, solid-state sensors offer several advantages such as geometric efficiency due to small thickness, high sensitivity, fast reaction time, and excellent stability. Commercially, the use of single-crystal silicon sensors for AEC detector has grown over time, but is still severely limited by large-area production techniques and mechanically fragile properties. Therefore, our study focused on developing a method of fabricating solid-state sensors that do not suffer from these limitations. The particle-in-binder method was used to fabricate silicon dioxide-based photoconductor films. Because silicon dioxide has a low atomic number and a low work function, it is a suitable material for generating sufficient electron-hole pairs by incident x-rays as well as not negatively affect the image detector of the digital radiography. To verify the feasibility of the silicon dioxide film as an AEC detector, electrical properties such as x-ray transmission and x-ray linearity were measured and compared with those of a commercialized silicon film. Over 90% x-ray transmission was achieved using a 500 μ m silicon dioxide film, which is suitable for an AEC detector. Also, an error below 3% was obtained from both x-ray current and voltage linearity tests. The results of bending tests demonstrated the properties of the silicon dioxide film to be more mechanically strong and stable compared with the commercialized silicon film. These properties were a result of the use of binder materials, which resulted in the flexibility of the film

  3. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  4. Smart cathodic protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Leggedoor, J.; Schuten, G.; Sajna, S.; Kranjc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic protection delivers corrosion protection in concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments, e.g. in de-icing salt and marine climates. Working lives of a large number of CP systems are at least more than 13 years and probably more than 25 years, provided a minimum level of maintenan

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype stereoscopic a-Si:H-based X-ray imaging system for full-field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a pre-clinical study, we have been investigating the potential of a-Si:H active matrix, flat panel imagers for X-ray full-field digital mammography through the development of an advanced 3D X-ray imaging system and have measured a number of their important imaging characteristics. To enhance the information embodied into the digital images produced by the a-Si array, stereoscopic images, created by viewing the object under examination from two angles and recombining the images, were obtained. This method provided us with a full 3D X-ray image of the test object as well as left and right perspective 2D images all at the same time. Within this scope, images of fresh, small human breast tissue specimens--normal and diseased--were obtained at ±2 deg., processed and stereoscopically displayed for a pre-clinical evaluation by radiologists. It was demonstrated that the stereoscopic presentation of the images provides important additional information and has potential benefits over the more traditional 2D data

  6. Gamma ray spectroscopy employing divalent europium-doped alkaline earth halides and digital readout for accurate histogramming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, Nerine Jane; Payne, Stephen Anthony; Drury, Owen B; Sturm, Benjamin W

    2014-11-11

    A scintillator radiation detector system according to one embodiment includes a scintillator; and a processing device for processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from the scintillator, wherein pulse digitization is used to improve energy resolution of the system. A scintillator radiation detector system according to another embodiment includes a processing device for fitting digitized scintillation waveforms to an algorithm based on identifying rise and decay times and performing a direct integration of fit parameters. A method according to yet another embodiment includes processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from a scintillator, wherein pulse digitization is used to improve energy resolution of the system. A method in a further embodiment includes fitting digitized scintillation waveforms to an algorithm based on identifying rise and decay times; and performing a direct integration of fit parameters. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  7. Development and performance of resistive seamless straw-tube gas chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Y.; Aoki, M.; Ishihara, A.; Ishii, J.; Kuno, Y.; Maeda, F.; Nakahara, K.; Nosaka