WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathode ray tube digitizers

  1. Depression cathode structure for cathode ray tubes having surface smoothness and method for producing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychlewski, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Depression cathode structures for cathode ray tubes are produced by dispensing liquid cathode material into the depression of a metallic supporting substrate, removing excess cathode material by passing a doctor blade across the substrate surface and over the depression, and drying the cathode layer to a substantially immobile state. The cathode layer may optionally be further shaped prior to substantially complete drying thereof

  2. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  3. Cathode ray tube glass recycling: an example of clean technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreola, Fernanda; Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; Lancellotti, Isabella

    2005-08-01

    In this study the use of 'cleaned' end of life (EOL) cathode ray tube (CRT) glass as a raw material in ceramic glazes is described. At present, the recycling and industrial utilization of CRT, a glass material from TV and computer sets, is a subject of intense research with particular regard to the so-called open-loop recycling, namely cycles different from that of the origin. However, the use of CRT glass as a secondary raw material is strictly related to the demand of high-quality raw material. The good preliminary results reached by introducing clean TV and PC monitor panel and cone glass into ceramic glaze formulations pushed research toward the setting-up of a base glaze that is exploitable for the production of pigmented, silk-screened and flame-hardened glazes (products used industrially for coating floor tiles). The aesthetic and chemical characterization of the tiles glazed by this product showed an extremely similar behaviour to originals that did not contain CRT glass. The good technical results achieved have been supported by the life cycle assessment analysis, which has demonstrated a reduction of the environmental impact of the CRT glass-containing ceramic glaze with respect to the standard one.

  4. Quasi-Monochromatic Flash X-Ray Generator Utilizing Disk-Cathode Molybdenum Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Tanaka, Etsuro; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-10-01

    High-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -40 to -60 kV using a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an X-ray tube after closing the gap switches in the surge generator using a trigger device. The X-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Sharp K-series characteristic X-rays of molybdenum are produced without using a monochromatic filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. The peak tube voltage increased with increasing charging voltage and increasing space between the target and cathode electrodes. At a charging voltage of -60 kV and a target-cathode space of 1.0 mm, the peak tube voltage and current were 110 kV and 0.75 kA, respectively. The pulse width ranged from 40 to 100 ns, and the maximum dimension of the X-ray source was 3.0 mm in diameter. The number of generator-produced K photons was approximately 7× 1014 photons/cm2\\cdots at 0.5 m from the source.

  5. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube yarn for micro-resolution X-ray tube cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Won; Mo, Chan Bin; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Seongwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio for X-ray tube cathode. However, CNT field emission cathode has been shown unstable field emission and short life time due to field evaporation by high current density and detachment by electrostatic force. An alternative approach in this direction is the introduction of CNT yarn, which is a one dimensional assembly of individual carbon nanotubes bonded by the Van der Waals force. Because CNT yarn is composed with many CNTs, CNT yarns are expected to increase current density and life time for X-ray tube applications. In this research, CNT yarn was fabricated by spinning of a super-aligned CNT forest and was characterized for application to an X-ray tube cathode. CNT yarn showed a high field emission current density and a long lifetime of over 450 hours. Applying the CNT yarn field emitter to the X-ray tube cathode, it was possible to obtain micro-scale resolution images. The relationship between the field emission properties and the microstructure evolution was investigated and the unraveling effect of the CNT yarn was discussed.

  6. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  7. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Microcalcifications: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Pathology, and Breast Center, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Background: A recent study using dedicated contrast-detail phantoms showed that the image quality of a 3-megapixel (M) monitor can approach that of a 5M monitor in digital mammography. Purpose: To compare a 5M cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor with a 3M liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of microcalcifications in a clinical setting. Material and Methods: 100 screen-detected microcalcification lesions (34 malignant and 66 benign) without mass that had been evaluated with 11-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or definitive surgery were recruited into the study. One radiologist analyzed the soft-copy mammograms on a 5M CRT monitor and a 3M LCD monitor with 5 months between interpretations and scored the likelihood of malignancy and calcification distribution on a five-point scale. Calcification morphology and breast density were scored on a four-point scale. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated on the basis of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in the likelihood of malignancy (P = 0.655), calcification morphology (P = 0.168), calcification distribution (P = 0.11), and breast density (P = 0.0608). The PPV and NPV of soft-copy reading on the 5M CRT monitor was 57% (30/53) and 91% (43/47), respectively, identical to the results using the 3M LCD monitor. The total interpretation time averaged 88 s for the 5M CRT monitor and 67 s for the 3M LCD monitor (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Soft-copy reading of a digital mammography of microcalcifications with a 3M LCD monitor was similar in diagnostic performance to a 5M CRT monitor in this study.

  8. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Microcalcifications: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Clinical Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A recent study using dedicated contrast-detail phantoms showed that the image quality of a 3-megapixel (M) monitor can approach that of a 5M monitor in digital mammography. Purpose: To compare a 5M cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor with a 3M liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of microcalcifications in a clinical setting. Material and Methods: 100 screen-detected microcalcification lesions (34 malignant and 66 benign) without mass that had been evaluated with 11-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or definitive surgery were recruited into the study. One radiologist analyzed the soft-copy mammograms on a 5M CRT monitor and a 3M LCD monitor with 5 months between interpretations and scored the likelihood of malignancy and calcification distribution on a five-point scale. Calcification morphology and breast density were scored on a four-point scale. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated on the basis of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in the likelihood of malignancy (P 0.655), calcification morphology (P = 0.168), calcification distribution (P = 0.11), and breast density (P = 0.0608). The PPV and NPV of soft-copy reading on the 5M CRT monitor was 57% (30/53) and 91% (43/47), respectively, identical to the results using the 3M LCD monitor. The total interpretation time averaged 88 s for the 5M CRT monitor and 67 s for the 3M LCD monitor (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Soft-copy reading of a digital mammography of microcalcifications with a 3M LCD monitor was similar in diagnostic performance to a 5M CRT monitor in this study

  9. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Mass: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor Versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Diagnostic Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors are currently the two most common types used in digital mammography systems. The appropriate selection of a monitor is very important and requires balancing the monitor's performance and its cost. A previous study of soft-copy reading in digital mammography of microcalcifications showed that 3-megapixel (M) LCD monitors were similar in diagnostic performance to 5M CRT monitors in a diagnostic setting. Purpose: To compare 5M CRT monitors with 3M LCD monitors for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of a mass in a diagnostic setting. Material and Methods: Seventy mass lesions having undergone either breast biopsies or definitive surgery (46 malignant and 24 benign) and 30 normal cases were recruited into the study. The median size of the lesions was 16 mm (range 7-20 mm). The digital mammograms in the 100-case set were assigned to two blocks, block A (50 cases) and block B (50 cases), for 5M CRT and 3M LCD monitors. A single radiologist read all 100 cases with both types of monitors, starting with the images in block A on the 5M CRT monitors and then the images in block B on the 3M LCD monitors. The radiologist analyzed the soft-copy images on 5M CRT and 3M LCD monitors with 5 months between the interpretations to reduce the effects of learning and memory. Again, the reader started with the images in block A on the 3M LCD monitors and then read the images in block B on the 5M CRT monitors. A five-point rating scale for the probability of malignancy was used for interpreting the soft-copy mammograms. The mass descriptor was scored on a six-point scale. Breast density was scored on a four-point scale. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated based on the criteria of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: No significant difference was observed in the probability of malignancy

  11. Production of high-performance three-layer emitters of X-ray tube cathodes by diffusion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, N. A.; Taubin, M. L.; Chesnokov, D. A.; Kiselev, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents the description of the investigation of x-ray tube cathode emitters made of refractory metals by diffusion welding. The weld seam structure has been analyzed. Comparison of the emissivity characteristics of three-layer Ta-W-Ta and Nb-W-Nb cathode emitters has been made.

  12. X-ray dose estimation from cathode ray tube monitors by Monte Carlo calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Dabaghi, Moloud

    2015-04-01

    Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors are associated with the possible emission of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by electrons striking the monitor screen. Because of the low dose rate, accurate dosimetry is difficult. In this study, the dose equivalent (DE) and effective dose (ED) to an operator working in front of the monitor have been calculated using the Monte Carlo (MC) method by employing the MCNP code. The mean energy of photons reaching the operator was above 17 keV. The phantom ED was 454 μSv y (348 nSv h), which was reduced to 16 μSv y (12 nSv h) after adding a conventional leaded glass sheet. The ambient dose equivalent (ADE) and personal dose equivalent (PDE) for the head, neck, and thorax of the phantom were also calculated. The uncertainty of calculated ED, ADE, and PDE ranged from 3.3% to 10.7% and 4.2% to 14.6% without and with the leaded glass, respectively.

  13. Monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing a disk-cathode silver tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf K. F., II; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Onagawa, Jun; Ido, Hideaki

    2005-09-01

    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean silver Kα lines are produced using a 30-μm-thick palladium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current are 90 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths are approximately 80 ns, and the instantaneous number of generator-produced Kα photons is approximately 4×107photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.3 m from the source 3.0 mm in diameter.

  14. Monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing disk-cathode silver tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf K.; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-11-01

    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean silver Kα lines are produced using a 30 μm-thick palladium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current were 90 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 80 ns, and the instantaneous number of generator-produced Kα photons was approximately 40 M photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.3 m from the source of 3.0 mm in diameter.

  15. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Recycling of materials from obsolete equipment has become an important part of global waste management. With responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight of a TV...... parameters on the characteristics of foamed glass. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. Activated carbon used as a foaming agent and MnO2 as an ‘oxidizing’ agent were mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Foaming effect was observed in the temperature range...

  16. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  17. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  18. [Newly developed monitor for IVR: liquid crystal display (LCD) replaced with cathode ray tube (CRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Takao; Hosogai, Minoru; Yokoyama, Kouji; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Okusako, Kenji; Shougaki, Masachika; Masai, Hironao; Yamada, Eiji; Okuyama, Kazuo; Hatagawa, Masakatsu

    2004-09-01

    For physicians who monitor images during interventional radiology (VR), we have built and been using a system that employs a liquid crystal display (LCD) instead of the conventional cathode ray tube (CRT). The system incorporates a ceiling-suspension-type monitor (three-display monitor) with an LCD on each of the three displays for the head and abdominal regions and another ceiling-suspension-type monitor (5-display monitor) with an LCD on each display for the cardiac region. As these monitors are made to be thin and light in weight, they can be placed in a high position in the room, thereby saving space and allowing for more effective use of space in the X-ray room. The system has also improved the efficiency of operators in the IVR room. The three-display folding mechanism allows the displays to be viewed from multiple directions, thereby improving the environment so that the performance of IVR can be observed.

  19. A novel process utilizing mechanochemical sulfidization to remove lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio; Yang, Bo

    2013-04-01

    A novelprocess ofmechanochemical sulfidization for the treatment of cathode ray tube (CRT)funnel glass has been investigated by co-grinding with the element sulfur The ground samples were characterized by means of a set of analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The analytical results showed that during the co-grinding of the CRTfunnel glass with sulfur, the Si-O-Pb bond in glass and S-S bond broke and recombined into lead sulfide (PbS). The sulfidizing reaction proceeded with an increase in grinding time and the amount of the added sulfur. The sulfidizing rate increased rapidly from 16.6%for the JO-min ground sample to 96.7% for the 120-min ground sample. Using this process, current mineralprocessing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS. The proposed technology could also be used to treat other leaded glass and even other lead-containing wastes. In this research, a mechanochemical sulfidization method was proposed to recover lead from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. CRT funnel glass was co-ground with sulfur in N2 atmosphere by mechanical milling. After milling, lead in CRT funnel glass was transferred into lead sulfide (PbS). Using this process, current nfiineral processing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS from the ground sample. The process can be applied to treat other leaded glass or lead-containing wastes.

  20. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-03

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  1. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet the...

  2. Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughbi, A.; Kharita, M. H.; Shehada, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs suggested being used as raw materials for the production of radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic wastes, namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This method makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as raw material for Radiation Shielding Glass and concrete. The heavy metal oxides increase its density, which make this type of glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glass have been characterized to determine heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different Gamma-Ray energies. Empirical methods have been used by using the Gamma-Ray source cobalt-60 and computational method by using the code XCOM. Measured and calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effects of irradiation by gamma rays of cobalt-60 on the optical transparency for each part of the CRTs glass have been studied. The Results had shown that some parts of CRTs glass have more resistant to Gamma radiation than others. The study had shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes could be recycled to be used as radiation shielding glass. This proposed use of CRT glass is only limited to the available quantity of CRT world-wide.

  3. Lead extraction from cathode ray tube funnel glass melted under different oxidizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2015-07-15

    Lead was extracted into hydrochloric acid from cathode ray tube funnel glass melted under reducing atmosphere, oxidizing atmosphere, or a sequential combination of both to mechanistically investigate effects of the melting atmosphere on lead extraction. Melting funnel glass in a reductive atmosphere led to the generation of metallic lead particles that were readily soluble in the acid, increasing the quantity of lead extracted into the acid. Meanwhile, the glass product obtained after melting funnel glass in an oxidative atmosphere exhibited higher corrosion resistance in the acid, and the quantity of lead extracted from the treated glass decreased. However, Na2CO3 addition to the glass during melting hindered the enhancement of corrosion resistance and the immobilization of lead in the acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the treated glass samples showed that the positions of the peak or the profiles of the spectra attributed to Pb 4f, Si 2p, and O 1s signals were modified by oxidative melting, an indication that oxidative melting results in structural changes in the SiO2 framework of the glass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  5. X-ray measurements from the cathode surface of glow discharge tube used as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Wagatsuma, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagata, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    As previously reported, when a high-voltage is applied to a Grimm glow discharge tube, high-energy electrons emitted from the cathode surface bombard the glass window, leading to X-ray emissions from the window. In this study, we have applied an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to detect X-rays from the cathode which are excited by X-rays emitted from the glass window. Thus, we have proposed to utilize this glow discharge tube as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument, to which both the X-ray emission source and the sample are directly attached. This compact X-ray fluorescence instrument has the same advantages of easy maintenance, exchangeable target and sample, and simple construction. The quantitative determination of Si, Ti, and Mn in Fe-Si, Fe-Ti, and Fe-Mn alloys was demonstrated with the detection limits of 21, 150 and 420 ppm, respectively. The X-ray measurement form the cathode is a useful method to directly monitor the cathode surface during the glow discharge process. This would be applied to understand and control the glow discharge processes. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction peaks as well as the fluorescent X-ray peaks were observed, indicating that the structure analysis of the cathode material would also be possible. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Water-soluble lead in cathode ray tube funnel glass melted in a reductive atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2016-10-05

    In the reduction-melting process, lead can be recovered from cathode ray tube funnel glass (PbO=25wt%); however, resulting glass residues still contain approximately 1-2wt% of unrecovered lead. For environmental protection in the residue disposal or recycling, it is important to evaluate the quantities of water-soluble species among the unrecovered lead. This study examined water-soluble lead species generated in the reduction-melting process of the funnel glass and factors determining their generation. In the reduction-melting, metallic lead was generated by reducing lead oxides in the glass, and a part of the metallic lead remained in the glass residue. Such unrecovered metallic lead can dissolve in water depending on its pH level and was regarded as water-soluble lead. When 10g Na2CO3 was added to 20g funnel glass during reduction-melting, the resulting glass contained high concentrations of sodium. In a water leaching of the glass, the obtained leachate was alkalized by the sodium-rich glass (pH=12.7-13.0). The unrecovered metallic lead in the glass was extracted in the alkalized leachate. The quantity of the unrecovered metallic lead (water-soluble lead) in the glass decreased when the melting time, melting temperature, and carbon dosage were controlled during reduction-melting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovering lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by mechano-chemical extraction in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng; Guan, Jie; Wu, Wenjie; Guo, Cuixiang

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of lead (Pb) extraction from cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass in strongly alkaline solution using mechanical activation in a ball mill as the chemical breakage and defects formed in the inner structures will contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated Pb glass. The combination of mechanical activation and a chemical leaching process in a single operation (mechano-chemical leaching) is more effective than the mechanical activation and subsequent chemical leaching. More than 97% of Pb in the CRT funnel glass can be extracted with a stirring ball mill leaching process in 5 M sodium hydroxide at 70°C. The diameter of the stainless steel balls as the activation medium is 5 mm; the mass ratio of ball to raw materials is 25:1. Pb powder with a purity of 97% can be obtained by electrowinning from the leaching solution. The Pb-depleted solution can be recycled into the leaching step. After Pb is removed, the solid leaching residues can be used for preparation of foam glass. Thus, a novel hydrometallurgical process for recovering Pb from CRT funnel glass in alkaline solution is proposed.

  8. Study on the mechanical and environmental properties of concrete containing cathode ray tube glass aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; James, Jacqueline; Mora, Rodrigo; Hays, Carol D

    2013-07-01

    Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass is considered a hazardous material due to its lead toxicity. In addition, current disposal practices are being phased out due to their adverse environmental impacts. In this project, CRT glass was used as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete. Life-cycle material characterization was conducted by evaluating the durability and strength of the CRT-Concrete. Leaching tests were also conducted to investigate whether the material meets drinking water limits for Pb. Test results show that the plastic state of the CRT-Concrete was affected by the angularity of the glass particles. Moreover, the compressive strength of CRT-Concrete met and exceeded that of the control specimen. However, CRT-Concrete was susceptible to expansive alkali-silica reactions when more than 10% CRT replacement was used. Environmental leaching results show that lead concentrations from CRT-Concrete are below the drinking water limits depending on the CRT volume replacement and if biopolymers are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass with mechanical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass remains an urgent environmental problem because of its high lead content. This research developed mechanical activation as a pretreatment process, and it proved to be an effective method for extracting lead from CRT funnel glass. The effects of mechanical activation on the structural changes of CRT funnel glass were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, specific surface area (SSA), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nitric acid leaching behaviors of the activated CRT funnel glass were studied by varying several parameters: leaching time, liquid-to-solid ratio, acid concentration, and heating temperature, as well as various conditions of activation. The lead recovery rate was observed to increase rapidly, particularly with increases in activation time and leaching temperature, but to vary relatively less under other experimental parameters. Under the optimal leaching conditions, the lead recovery rate for funnel glass activated for 2 hr at the rotational speed of 500 rpm (by ball mill) reached 92.5%, compared with 1.2% from the unactivated sample. CRT funnel glass containing lead has become a serious environmental problem facing the whole world. In order to dispose of CRT funnel glass, some technologies have been developed. However, these technologies are associated with higher operation and maintenance costs. In this study, mechanical activation was introduced to change the physicochemical properties of CRT funnel glass, which can transform the glass into an easily dissolved one. Under atmospheric pressure leaching conditions, good recovery rate for lead can be achieved and the residue has wide uses. The process can be applied to treat other leaded glass or lead-containing wastes.

  10. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  12. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → A recycling/treatment process to remove lead on funnel glass surface is described. → Utilizing recycled funnel glass in mortar can reduce hazardous CRT glass wastes. → Effects of CRT glass content on the properties of cement mortar are studied. → Fly ash can effectively mitigate ASR expansion of mortar even at 100% glass content. → Alkaline medium in cement matrix successfully prevented the leaching of lead. - Abstract: Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  13. Determination of the size of X-ray tube focal spots: direct digitalization vs optical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furquim, Tania A.C.; Yanikian, Denise; Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study between standard techniques for evaluation of X-ray tubes focal spots and a newer one which uses digital resources for image acquisition is presented. Results from measurements by using both methods are presented

  14. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE. Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009. These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of toxic materials and, at the same time, they are an important source of recyclable materials, and especially valuable metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, Zn. Nowadays there are various approaches for the treatment and recycling of WEEE, involving pyro-, hydro- and bio-metallurgical processes (Cui and Zhang, 2008. Among WEEE, cathode ray tubes (CRT displays, used mainly in computer monitors and television sets, are regarded as the most polluting fraction of all WEEE (Nnorom et al., 2011. CRT recycling represents a challenge due to their high accumulation rate, proportional to the evolution of modern technologies (flat panel displays, their high content of toxic and noxious substances (heavy metals and organic compounds, improper storage, and the lack of a complete, pollution-free recycling solution. Previous studies have shown that some CRT metallic components (electron gun - EG, shadow mask contain important amounts of Ni (25 – 45% and Fe (50 – 70%, and small quantities of Mn, Co and Cr (Robotin et al., 2011. Ni and Ni alloys play an important role in modern technology, especially due to their magnetic and anticorrosion properties. Unfortunately, when exposed inappropriately, Ni can have negative environmental effects and can be harmful to human health (Denkhaus and Salnikow, 2002. In this context, Ni recycling from electronic waste is important for environmental and health reasons, and, at the same time, Ni recycling could be financially sustainable due to an

  15. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  16. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling; Lixo eletronico: caracterizacao quimica dos vidros de tubos de raios catodicos com viabilidade para reciclagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva, E-mail: normalimam@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UATEC/UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Tecnologia do Desenvolvimento

    2011-07-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  17. Cathode Readout with Stripped Resistive Drift Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH 4 . Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. Characterization of lead, barium and strontium leachability from foam glasses elaborated using waste cathode ray-tube glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yot, Pascal G., E-mail: pascal.yot@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, CC 15003, Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Mear, Francois O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.fr [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR 8181 CNRS-USTL-ENSCL, Universite Lille Nord de France, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2011-01-15

    Foam glass manufacture is a promising mode for re-using cathode ray tube (CRT) glasses. Nevertheless, because CRTs employ glasses containing heavy metals such as lead, barium and strontium, the leaching behaviour of foam glasses fabricated from CRTs must be understood. Using the AFNOR X 31-210 leaching assessment procedure, the degree of element inertization in foam glasses synthesized from waste CRT glasses (funnel and panel glasses, containing lead and barium/strontium respectively) were determined. The amount of leached lead from foam glasses prepared from funnel glass depends on the nature and concentration of the reducing agent. The effects of the reducing agents on the generation of cellular structure in the fabrication of foam glass were studied. The fraction of lead released from foam glass was less than those extracted from funnel glass and was lower than the statutory limit. Leached concentrations of barium and strontium were found to be approximately constant in various tests and were also below regulatory limits.

  19. Feasibility of lead extraction from waste Cathode-Ray-Tubes (CRT) funnel glass through a lead smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Ma, Zhiyuan; Song, Yan

    2016-11-01

    A novel and effective process for extracting lead from the hazardous waste Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) funnel glass is presented. The technological breakthrough of this process is introducing the discarded CRT funnel glass to traditional lead smelting. In this study, the influences of amount of carbon addition, calcium-silicate ratio, temperature, holding time and funnel glass addition on lead extraction efficiency were investigated to determine the optimal operational parameters. With a glass addition of less than 30wt%, a high extraction yield of 97.5% of lead from the mixture of funnel glass and lead slag was successfully obtained by controlling the C/PbO molar ratio, CaO/SiO 2 ratio, temperature, treatment time at 0.9, 0.8, 1200°C, 60min, respectively. The main crystalline phases of the residues were calcium silicate slag, and an amorphous glass phase appears at a glass addition more than 30wt%. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the proportion of liquid phase in the slag first increased and then decreased, when the addition of glass is increased, while the viscosity of the slag exhibited a continuous decrease. Thus, based on all the results, it is concluded that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-01

    Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of lead oxide nanoparticles from cathode-ray tube funnel glass by self-propagating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jianxin

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a novel process of extracting lead oxide nanoparticles from cathode-ray tube (CRT) funnel glass using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The impacts of added amount of funnel glass on the extraction ratio of lead, the lead extraction velocity and the micromorphology, as well as particle size of extracted nanoparticles were investigated. We found that self-propagating reaction in the presence of Mg and Fe(2)O(3) could separate lead preferentially and superfine lead oxide nanoparticles were obtained from a collecting chamber. The separation ratio was related closely to the amount of funnel glass added in the original mixture. At funnel glass addition of no more than 40wt.%, over 90wt.% of lead was recovered from funnel glass. High extraction yield reveals that the network structure of funnel glass was fractured due to the dramatic energy generated during the SHS melting process. The PbO nanoparticles collected show good dispersion and morphology with a mean grain size of 40-50nm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead recovery and the feasibility of foam glass production from funnel glass of dismantled cathode ray tube through pyrovacuum process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mengjun; Zhang Fushen; Zhu Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Cathode ray tube (CRT) is the first and foremost problem that must be solved in electronic waste disposal, and Key of which lies in the detoxification and reutilization of lead-contained funnel glass. In this study, a novel and effective process for funnel glass of dismantled CRT treatment was developed. Key point of the process was to recover metallic lead from the funnel glass and to prepare foam glass synchronously. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased first with the increase of temperature, carbon adding amount, and holding time, then reached a plateau value, but pressure was on the contrary. The optimum temperature, pressure, carbon adding amount and holding time for lead recovery were 1000 deg. C, 1000 Pa, 5% and 4 h, respectively, and the maximum lead recovery rate was 98.6%. In the pyrovacuum process, lead in the funnel glass was firstly detached and changed to PbO, then reduced and evaporated, and was recovered in the form of pure metal with a purity of 99.3%. The residue porous glass was environmentally acceptable for construction application

  3. On-line display used with cathode ray tube film measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Robertson, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved display has been developed for use on our computer controlled measuring device (RIPPLE). The device features a television image of the film and a digital presentation on the same X, Y display. The television image is formed using a modified left and right raster scan which can cover 50% more area in the same time as the traditional raster

  4. A digital miniature x-ray tube with a high-density triode carbon nanotube field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Kim, Jae-Woo; Song, Yoon-Ho; Ahn, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated a digital miniature x-ray tube (6 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length) with a high-density triode carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter for special x-ray applications. The triode CNT emitter was densely formed within a diameter of below 4 mm with the focusing-functional gate. The brazing process enables us to obtain and maintain a desired vacuum level for the reliable electron emission from the CNT emitters after the vacuum packaging. The miniature x-ray tube exhibited a stable and reliable operation over 250 h in a pulse mode at an anode voltage of above 25 kV.

  5. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  6. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  7. Lead extraction and glass-ceramics synthesis from waste cathode ray tube funnel glass through cooperative smelting process with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Zhao, Minglei

    2018-03-14

    In this study, a novel process was developed for extracting lead from the hazardous waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass and simultaneously producing glass-ceramics. CRT funnel glass was mixed with coal fly ash and subjected to carbon thermal reduction with the addition of CaO. The homogeneous glass melt and reduced metallic lead were quenched in water. Glass-ceramics were produced from the parent glass through an appropriate heat treatment. The optimum carbon loading amount (calculated as the molar ratio of C/PbO), CaO/SiO 2 ratio, smelting temperature and holding time for lead recovery were 1.0, 0.3-0.6, 1450 °C and 2 h, respectively. Under these conditions, more than 95% of lead can be extracted from the funnel glass and a low lead content of the resultant parent glass below 0.6 wt% was successfully achieved. CaO behaved as a network modifier to reduce the viscosity of the glass and also acted as a substitution to release lead oxide from the silicate network structure, resulting in a high lead separation efficiency. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase was gehlenite when 50-70 wt% funnel glass was added. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that well-crystallized crystals occurred in the specimens with 50-70 wt% funnel glass additions, whereas the specimens with 40 wt% and 80 wt% glass additions exhibited a relative low crystallization degree. Furthermore, property measurements, chemical resistance tests and leaching characteristics of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the superior glass-ceramic products. Overall results indicate that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  9. Development of a novel recycling system for waste cathode ray tube funnel glass based on the integration of nanoscale Fe0 with ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfeng; Yao, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yufan; Shen, Jinyou

    2018-04-09

    A novel and effective system was developed for recycling cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass wastes. Initially, the combination of nanoscale Fe 0 with ball milling promoted lead transfer that was strongly encapsulated in the glass inner structure to the surface of funnel glass and/or adhere to iron substance due to the collapse of SiO bonds. This condition enhanced the dissolution of lead in the acid solution. A high lead extraction rate of 97.8% from funnel glass was achieved through nitric acid leaching by optimizing the operational parameters (Fe 0 /funnel glass mass ratio, 0.5:1; ball milling time; 72 h). Subsequently, lead sulfate, iron hydroxides, and sodium nitrate were gradually recovered from the acid leachate by using three simple operations, namely, sulfation, alkali neutralization, and salt evaporation. Meanwhile, the leaching results of short-term toxicity characteristic leaching (TCLP) and long-term multiple extraction procedures (MEP) clearly demonstrated that the residual high silica products (after acid leaching) had no impact on the environment and could be used to synthesize high value-added zeolites as raw materials. With the addition of Al sources, the complete conversion of high silica residues into high crystalline zeolites with high cation exchange capacity value was realized by applying an alkaline fusion method during the hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, lead, NO - 3 , and SO 2- 4 concentrations of the resulting drainage were considerably lower than the relevant standard for surface water quality. Therefore, the proposed recycling system provided an eco-friendly and feasible technique for complete reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  11. Lead extraction from waste funnel cathode-ray tubes glasses by reaction with silicon carbide and titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yot, Pascal G; Méar, François O

    2009-12-15

    As a possibility to clean waste CRT glass, treatment of lead-containing glass with a reducing agent, SiC or TiN, leads to a porous material containing metallic lead, Pb(0), located on the surface of the pore, and unreduced lead, Pb(II). The influences of reducing agent content, of the time, and at last of the temperature on lead reduction were analysed. Our investigations have pointed out significant differences as a function of the used reducing agent. CRT glass heat treated with SiC lead to less Pb(0), compared to TiN as shown by X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It has been also evidenced that lead reduction occurs on randomized zones inside the sample leading to macroscopic lead beads inside glassy samples. XPS and XAS measurements were also carried out to investigate the local structure of lead and have evidenced a change of role of lead inside the glassy framework in function of the used conditions.

  12. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  13. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  14. Cathode uniformity of new square photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, R.; Chou, H.P.; Strauss, M.G.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Square photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) should have better light collection than round PMTs when used in square or rectangular Anger-type #betta#-ray or neutron position detectors. Photocathode response uniformity of new RCA square PMTs type S83003E (51.5 x 51.5 mm 2 ) was measured and compared with conventional round PMTs. The PMTs were scanned with a small scintillation source while the anode signal amplitudes were processed in a computer-based multichannel analyzer. The analyzer was programmed in a mode which virtually eliminates effects due to statistical fluctuations in source rate and output amplitude. Pulse heights as a function of source position on the PMT face are shown for typical tubes. The response uniformity of 64 square PMTs and 21 round ones was evaluated. It is shown that the center region of the square PMTs is as uniform as that of the round ones and that the response in the corners is comparable to that in the center. Thus square PMTs appear to have an advantage for use in square or rectangular position detectors

  15. New doped tungsten cathodes. Applications to power grid tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, J. de; Cadoret, K; Martinez, L.; Veillet, D.; Millot, F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermionic emission behavior of tungsten/tungsten carbide modified with rare earth (La, Ce, Y) oxides is examined on account of suitability to deliver important current densities in a thermo-emissive set up and for long lifetime. Work functions of potential cathodes have been determined from Richardson plots for La 2 O 3 doped tungsten and for tungsten covered with variable compositions rare earth tungstates. The role of platinum layers covering the cathode was also examined. Given all cathodes containing mainly lanthanum oxides were good emitters, emphasis was put on service lifetime. Comparisons of lifetime in tungsten doped with rare earth oxides and with rare earth tungstates show that microstructure of the operating cathodes may play the major role in the research of very long lifetime cathodes. Based on these results, tests still running show lifetime compatible with power grid tubes applications. (author)

  16. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray tube in which the x-ray origin is scanned on a circle around the patient, comprises a ring-shaped anode, an electron beam travelling along a circular path being deflected onto the anode at the desired positions. The electron beam path may be in a plane parallel to the anode and perhaps at the same radius. It may be in the same plane as a transmission target/anode and at a greater radius. The anode should extend over at least 180 0 although it may extend to 360 0 . Electrostatic means may be provided to constrain the beam to the circular path and further electrostatic means deflect it to the anode of the beam and ensure it is focused at the point of incidence. Collimators provide a planar fan-shaped beam and the anode may be shaped to attenuate side lobes of the radiation. Electrode collects electrons not deflected. The focal regions may be adjacent or otherwise. Coils may provide periodic focusing to overcome space charge dispersion and dynamic adjustment of the focusing before deflection ensures focusing at target incidence. Focusing may be absent near the deflection region, and current in the coil section near the focal region should be zero. (author)

  17. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kim W.; Turman, Bobby N.; Kaye, Ronald J.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  18. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  19. Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.

    1995-01-01

    Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.

  20. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  1. A design of an inexpensive demountable X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, V.S.; Moghe, N.V.; Sapre, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive and simple demountable X-ray source, having facilities to excite X-rays either by bombardment of a target by electrons or by fluorescence, has been developed using a stainless steel chamber having six ports. A cathode assembly form a burnt out sealed off Machlett X-ray tube was carefully removed and reused in the present set-up after replacing the filament. A conventional vacuum system consisting of a rotary and diffusion pumps has been utilized for evacuating the chamber. The set-up can be conveniently utilized to carry out X-ray emission spectroscopic work. (author). 4 figs., 6 refs

  2. Development of a carbon nanotube based micro-focus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Park, S. K.; Sim, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    The electron field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enable the fabrication of new cold cathodes for many X-ray instruments. The utilization of these cathodes is an attractive alternative for thermo-ionic cathodes for generating X-rays. CNT has been successfully incorporated into the x-ray tube. CNT fibers offer some advantages over CNT coating for a new generation of X-ray tube, with low power consumption, long lifetime due to the unraveling effect, and high resolution due to the micro-scale emission area. Further research is needed for CNT fiber for x-ray tube in order to increase the stability and consistency for an application to a portable x-ray machine and high resolution x-ray equipment

  3. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  4. Bromine-quenched high temperature G-M tube with passivated cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, N.

    1975-01-01

    A bromine doped self-quenching Geiger-Mueller tube having an operational life expectancy in excess of 1,200 hours at a temperature of 315 0 C is described. The tube comprises a passivated metal coated cathode which is conditioned or aged for operation at room temperature, thus obviating the necessity of thermally cycling the tube at progressively elevated temperatures. Useful metal coatings for the cathode include chromium, platinum, and nickel-copper alloys deposited in a layer less than about 1 mil thick. A method for passivating the metal coated cathode and subsequently conditioning the tube and its contents is disclosed. (auth)

  5. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10 −6 Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system. (paper)

  6. X-ray tube current control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, W.A.; Resnick, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop feedback system for controlling the current output of an x-ray tube. The system has circuitry for improving the transient response and stability of the x-ray tube current over a substantial nonlinear portion of the tube current production characteristic. The system includes a reference generator for applying adjustable step function reference signals representing desired tube currents. The system also includes means for instantaneous sensing of actual tube current. An error detector compares the value of actual and reference tube current and produces an error signal as a function of their difference. The system feedback loop includes amplification circuitry for controlling x-ray tube filament dc voltage to regulate tube current as a function of the error signal value. The system also includes compensation circuitry, between the reference generator and the amplification circuitry, to vary the loop gain of the feedback control system as a function of the reference magnitude

  7. X-ray tubes for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotabe, Munenori; Sado, Noriyuki; Tachiki, Shigeru; Kitsuya, Minoru

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray tomography by computer processing (CT) is rapidly spreading because of the capabilities to obtain useful diagnostic information quantitatively, which was not able to be obtained by conventional X-ray photography, and to perform no-intrusion inspection, because it can picture the difference of X-ray absorption coefficient of several per cent in the soft tissues inside craniums. As the X-ray tubes to meet these requirements, the fixed anode X-ray tubes having high continuous rating are required for head CT, while the rotary anode X-ray tubes having the large cumulative heat capacity of anodes for whole body CT. Hitachi Ltd. has developed the X-ray tubes of type H 7129 of 4 kW rating for head CT and of type UJ-6FC-05V of 300 kHU (heat unit) for whole body CT. The specifications required for respective X-ray tubes include several items, and the maximum working tube voltage, focusing dimensions, long or short term maximum input and others are reported for the above described tubes. The performance centering around the loading life-time is described. In the tubes for whole body CT, repeated loading is also investigated. For the assumed input of 70,000 HU/slice, repeated loading of 10 times or more is possible in both cases when the input is repeatedly applied at loading intervals of 90 and 120 sec. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.J.; Crawshaw, I.; Rimmer, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV p ) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV p relative to 109 kV p , though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p . Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  9. X-ray tube technology update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    During the 100 years since the discovery of x-rays, the x-ray tube has undergone significant improvements to meet the demand of shorter exposure time and frequent exposures as in angiography. This has been achieved by multiple focal spots, rotating anodes, design consideration of the anode and the tube assembly. While physical improvements have resulted in improved performance, the principle has remained the same, as also has the problem of massive heat generation which consumes almost 99% of the energy. This article traces the history of tubes and current perspectives. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. A calibration system for X-ray generators and tube factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, T.; Dickson, D.G.; Greenwood, M.W.B.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus (Machlett's Dynalyzer II system) is described that makes real-time dynamic tests on the output and performance of the X-ray tube and generator so that a single exposure gives information in mA and mAs; exposure time (ms); kVp anode to earth; kVp cathode to earth; kvp cathode to anode; tube filament current; line voltage and radiation output of the tube (mR). The method of use is described together with the results of comparisons made with other test equipment. Some novel design features are of particular interest. The results show that by using this apparatus present design characteristics of X-ray generator-control-tube systems are such that the accuracy of calibration can be improved by at least an order of magnitude. (author)

  11. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, R., E-mail: rrios@lanl.go [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Tatar, E. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Saltus, M. [Sloan Enterprises, NC (United States); Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  12. Switching X-Ray Tubes Remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1990-01-01

    Convenient switch and relay circuit reduces risk of accidents. Proposed switching circuit for x-ray inspection system enables operator to change electrical connections to x-ray tubes remotely. Operator simply flips switch on conveniently-located selector box to change x-ray heads. Indicator lights on selector box show whether 160 or 320-kV head connected. Relays in changeover box provides proper voltages and coolants. Chance of making wrong connections and damaging equipment eliminated.

  13. Design and implementation of medical diagnostic X-ray machine's tube current testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping; Fang Fang; Liu Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    As an important parameter, Medical X-ray tube current control the X-ray intensity, which has been included in the JJG 744-2004 'Medical Diagnostic X-ray radiation sources' in the state verification procedures. With the continuous development of the digital diagnosis and treatment, traditional ammeter is not able to measure the X-ray tube current and exposure time accurately, in order to ensure safety and reliable operation of Medical X-ray machine, improve the corresponding level of digital detection, so designing a verification of non-intrusive system of tube current, which include FPGA combination of high speed ADC digital sampling technology, current transformers and Bluetooth technology. The system has obvious advantages on the diversification of measured parameters and the accuracy of data analysing, has more in line with the characteristics of tube current. At the same time with high accuracy and good repeatability, the system meet national requirements of testing procedures. (authors)

  14. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The construction of economical x-ray tube based irradiators in a variety of configurations is described using 1000 Watt x-ray tubes. Single tube, double tube, and four tube designs are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small s...

  15. Synchrotron X-Ray Studies of Model SOFC Cathodes, Part I: Thin Film Cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee-Chul; Ingram, Brian; Ilavsky, Jan; Lee, Shiwoo; Fuoss, Paul; You, Hoydoo

    2017-11-15

    We present synchrotron x-ray investigations of thin film La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) model cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, grown on electrolyte substrates by pulse laser deposition, in situ during half-cell operations. We observed dynamic segregations of cations, such as Sr and Co, on the surfaces of the film cathodes. The effects of temperature, applied potentials, and capping layers on the segregations were investigated using a surfacesensitive technique of total external reflection x-ray fluorescence. We also studied patterned thin film LSCF cathodes using high-resolution micro-beam diffraction measurements. We find chemical expansion decreases for narrow stripes. This suggests the expansion is dominated by the bulk pathway reactions. The chemical expansion vs. the distance from the electrode contact was measured at three temperatures and an oxygen vacancy activation energy was estimated to be ~1.4 eV.

  16. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  17. Anode wire in cylindrical cathode tube : destabilizing electrostatic force

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2017-01-01

    A two-dimensional -- cross-sectional -- discussion suffices. The tube is offset, and the electrostatic potential is found analytically with perturbative methods. Then, the force is established with the Maxwell stress tensor. Alternatively, trying to find the force with energy methods, fails. Finally, finite element tests are performed in order to report on the degree of non-linearity for large offsets.

  18. Construction and characterization of a hollow cathode tube for high sensibility laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morage, A.; Motta, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    A new hollow cathode tube argon-iron design was developed to be used in laser atomic spectroscopy experiments, were high sensibility is required. This tube was employed in order to allow laser absorption and optogalvanic signal measurements. The tube also included fused-quartz Brewster angle windows aligned with the optical axis in each ending of the tube. Therefore, in this configuration a minimum laser intensity losses through the windows can be attained for the appropriate light polarization. The optogalvanic signal detection was accomplished using a tunable dye laser resonant with the Ar, 3p 5 4p ( 3 S 1 )--> 3p 5 4d ( 3 D 1 0 ) transition, that corresponds to 591.2 nm in air. It was also possible to determine the gas temperature by measuring the Doppler line broadening and the results were compared to those obtained from a theoretical model for gas heat conduction. To measure the temperature of the cathode external surface a thermocouple was used inside the tube. The analysis of results showed that a high signal to noise ratio can be obtained with this tube configuration, that permits experimental investigation of electronic transitions presenting low light absorption cross sections. (author)

  19. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  20. X-ray tube monitor apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W.P.; Pellergrino, A.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray tube with a rotating anode target is provided with a detector of x-rays located outside a port of a housing of the tube and positioned at or near a tangent line to the radiating surface for observing variations in the radiation intensity due to rotation of the target, the variations being pronounced due to the heel effect of the radiation pattern. The x-ray detector can employ a scintillation material and be coupled by a light guide to a photodetector which is removed from the path of the radiation and detects scintillations of the x-ray detector. Alternatively, the photodetector and light pipe may be replaced by a detector of germanium, silicon or an ion chamber which converts x-ray photons directly to an electric current. An electronic unit determines the speed of rotation from the electric signal and can also, by fourier transform and signature analysis techniques, monitor the state of the radiating surface. (author)

  1. The study of neutron burst shape of a neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishnyaev, Evgeny, E-mail: grishnjaev@mail.ru; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2016-08-21

    A slim-shaped portable DD-neutron generator is developed at Budker institute of Nuclear Physics. The generator is a combination of Cockcroft–Walton voltage multiplier and a sealed gas-filled neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode. Neutron burst shape in pulsed mode of neutron tube operation is measured with stroboscopic time spectrometry, implemented on scintillation detector, and modeled with Comsol Script 1.3 and Comsol Multiphysics 3.5. Modeling appears to be in good agreement with experimental results. Measured pulse rise and fall times are 110 ns and 100 ns respectively.

  2. Shallow irradiation of Citrus Unshiu by cathod ray, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Koji; Umeda, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 150 Krad cathode ray irradiation on the shelf life and quality of ''Citrus Unshiu'' was investigated. Citrus Unshiu (Japanese mandarin orange ''Satsuma'') were kept at 5 0 C for 2 months without pretreatment and irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored in the special storage boxes in which temperature, humidity and sterile air circulation were controlled. After 44 days, the percentage of spoiled oranges in irradiated and non-irradiated samples stored at 8 0 C were 57.5% and 64% respectively, on the other hand when stored at 3 0 C the percentage were 26% and 51% respectively. Rate of spoilage was significantly lower in the irradiated samples than non-irradiated ones. Irradiated effect on the shelf life extension was more conspicuous when the storage temperature was kept at 3 0 C. By the sensory examination, any difference for taste and flavor between irradiated and non-irradiated samples was not detected. The taste and flavor of the oranges stored at 8 0 C changed worse after long time storage but when stored at 3 0 C, such tendency was not observed. Undesirable odor and flavor were not detected by the panel with the irradiated samples in this experiment. The results showed that shelf life of the ''Citrus Unshiu'' could be extended by the combination of irradiation with 150 Krad cathode ray and storage at 3 0 C. (auth.)

  3. High-durability surface-discharge flash X-ray tube driven by a two-stage Marx pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikoda, Arimitsu; Sato, Eiichi; Kimura, Shingo; Oizumi, Teiji; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a high-durability flash X-ray tube with a plate-shaped ferrite cathode for the use in the field of biomedical engineering and technology. The surface-discharge cathode was very useful for generating stable flash X rays. This flash X-ray generator consisted of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, an energy-storage condenser of 97 nF, a two-stage Marx type pulser, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash X-ray tube. This X-ray tube was of a diode which was connected to the turbo molecular pump and had plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes. The cathode electrode was made of ferrite, and its edge was covered with a thin gold film by means of the spattering in order to decrease contact resistance. The space between the anode and cathode electrodes could be regulated from the outside of the X-ray tube. The two condensers in Marx circuit were charged from 50 to 70 kV by a power supply, and the condensers were connected in series after closing a gap switch. Thus the maximum output voltages from the pulser were about two times the charged voltages. In this experiment, the maximum tube voltage and the current were about 110 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The pulse widths were less than 140 ns, and the maximum X-ray intensity was 1.27 μC/kg at 0.5 m per pulse. The size of the focal spot and the maximum repetition rate were about 2 x 2.5 mm and 50 Hz (fps), respectively

  4. X-ray sensitive image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In this patent, X-ray sensitive image intensifier tubes which provide multi-stage light amplification between a flat scintillator screen and the output display screen are described. A first amplification stage is constituted by a first photocathode and an intermediate display screen. A second amplification stage comprises a fibreoptic plate, a second photocathode and the output display screen. Accelerating electrostatic potentials are applied respectively between the first display screen and the first photocathode and between the second photocathode and the output display screen. Three or more amplification stages may be used. (author)

  5. Repetitive flash x-ray generator utilizing an enclosed-type diode with a ring-shaped graphite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiichi; Kimura, Shingo; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru; Honda, Keiji; Yokota, Yoshiharu

    1991-04-01

    The fundamental studies of the repetitive type of flash x-ray generator utilizing an enclosed-type diode with a ring-shaped graphite cathode for soft radiography are described. This generator consisted of the following essential components: a constant high-voltage power supply, an energy storage condenser of lOOnF, a highvoltage pulser, a repetitive impulse switching system, and a flash x-ray tube. The pulser employed a modified two-stage Marx circuit with a capacity during main discharge of 425pF. The x-ray tube was of the enclosed-diode type and consisted of the following major devices: a rod-shaped anode tip made of tungsten, a ring cathode made of graphite, an x-ray window made of beryllium, a spattering shield made of stainless steel, and a tube body made of glass. Two condensers in the pulser were charged from 50 to 70kV, and the output voltage was about 1. 6 times the charged voltage. Both the peak tube voltage and the peak tube current increased according to increases in the charged voltage, and the maximum values of the voltage and the current were about 90kV and 0. 5kA, respectively. The pulse width was about lOOns, and the x-ray intensity was less than 2. OpC/kg at 0. 5m per pulse. The repetition frequency was less than 50Hz, and the maximum size of the effective focal spot was nearly equivalent to the anode diameter of 3. 0mm.

  6. In situ X-ray studies of film cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuoss, Paul, E-mail: fuoss@anl.gov; Chang, Kee-Chul; You, Hoydoo, E-mail: hyou@anl.gov

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Synchrotron X-rays are used to study in operando the structural and chemical changes of LSM and LSCF film cathodes during half-cell operations. •A-site and B-site cations actively segregate or desegregate on the changes of temperature, pO{sub 2}, and electrochemical potential. •Chemical lattice expansions show that oxygen-cathode interface is the primary source of rate-limiting processes. •The surface and subsurface of the LSM and LSCF films have different oxidation-states due to vacancy concentration changes. •Liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening processes of cathode materials into porous YSZ electrolyte backbone were monitored by USAXS. -- Abstract: Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques have been used to study in situ the structural and chemical changes of film cathodes during half-cell operations. The X-ray techniques used include X-ray reflectivity (XR), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), high-resolution diffraction (HRD), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The epitaxial thin film model cathodes for XR, TXRF, and HRD measurements are made by pulse laser deposition and porous film cathodes for USAX measurements are made by screen printing technique. The experimental results reviewed here include A-site and B-site segregations, lattice expansion, oxidation-state changes during cell operations and liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening of cathode to electrolyte backbone.

  7. Geiger counters of gamma rays with a bismuth cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, R.; Legrand, J.P.

    1953-01-01

    Geiger Muller counters present a lake of efficiency of some per cent, for the γ radiations. In the region 0,3 - 1 MeV, a substantial growth of their output can be obtained by a special construction of their cathode. In accordance with previous works, we constructed some counter of formed cathode by a pleated copper wire fencing covered of Bi by electrolysis. The successive modifications brought to a cylindrical conventional cathode in sheet metal of copper, that succeeds to this type of cathode, drive to an improvement of the output. (M.B.) [fr

  8. Characteristics of low power X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.; Zaraska, W.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of miniature low power X-ray tubes with transmission anodes have been investigated. X-ray spectra were measured for copper, molybdenum and silver anodes. The yield of the tube with a silver anode was compared with that of an 109 Cd source and yield stabilities were examined for periods up to three days. (author)

  9. Change of CT values (HU) depending on the anode heating percentage of the X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Masayuki; Baba, Hitoshi; Yoshinaka, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    We report fluctuations in CT value (HU) in accordance with the anode heating percentage of the x-ray tube. We measured the CT value after changing the anode heating percentage of the x-ray tube in three CT machines. Our results demonstrated fluctuation in the CT value in the two CT machines that had the beam trimmer in the front of the detector. This fluctuation increased as section thickness decreased. The cause of fluctuation was movement of the focus to the cathode side, because the anode expanded with heat. The movement of the focus caused shading of the x-ray by the beam trimmer, and fluctuation of the x-ray dose to the detector caused fluctuation of the CT value and standard deviation (SD). In order to decrease fluctuation of the CT value, it is necessary to check and adjust the alignment of the x-ray tube, slit, beam trimmer, and detector. (author)

  10. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan Jing; Yang Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing Zhenxue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); XinRay Systems, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Hologic, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 x 2 detector binning

  11. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan, Jing; Yang, Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 × 2 detector

  12. PRODUCTION OF CATHODES AND HIGH PURITY TARGETS OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE METALS BY MEANS OF ELECTRONIC-RAY MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical process of production and restoration of worn cathodes and targets of chemically active metals (Ti, Zr, V and others with the help of cathode ray in vacuum is developed. Regenerating of worn cathodes, targets is carried out by means of insertion in chill of worn base and successive cathode ray deposition on certain places of required quantity of metal (from 2 till 50mm.

  13. X-ray tube with needle-like anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slapa, M.; Stras, W.; Traczyk, M.; Snopek, M.; Drabik, W.; Dora, J.; Gutowski, R.

    2002-01-01

    An X-ray tube a needle-like anode (NAXT) built in our Laboratory, its design and basic operating parameters are presented. The process of electron beam forming and influence of external and internal magnetic fields is discussed. The tube properties essential from the point of view of its application in X-ray generators as well as disadvantageous thermal effects caused by flow of heat generated in the tube target to irradiated objects are discussed. The tube is almost a point-like source of X radiation emitted into 4π geometry; the dose rates are on the order of 1 Gy/min at a distance of 10 mm from the anode cup. Preliminary tests show the tube may be useful in brachytherapy of cancer tumors of diameter up to 30 mm. The tube may also be an interesting device in widely understood field of irradiation techniques. (author)

  14. A tetrahedron beam computed tomography benchtop system with a multiple pixel field emission x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochao; Kim, Joshua; Laganis, Philip; Schulze, Derek; Liang, Yongguang; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of Tetrahedron Beam Computed Tomography (TBCT) using a carbon nanotube (CNT) multiple pixel field emission x-ray (MPFEX) tube. A multiple pixel x-ray source facilitates the creation of novel x-ray imaging modalities. In a previous publication, the authors proposed a Tetrahedron Beam Computed Tomography (TBCT) imaging system which comprises a linear source array and a linear detector array that are orthogonal to each other. TBCT is expected to reduce scatter compared with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and to have better detector performance. Therefore, it may produce improved image quality for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, a TBCT benchtop system has been developed with an MPFEX tube. The tube has 75 CNT cold cathodes, which generate 75 x-ray focal spots on an elongated anode, and has 4 mm pixel spacing. An in-house-developed, 5-row CT detector array using silicon photodiodes and CdWO(4) scintillators was employed in the system. Hardware and software were developed for tube control and detector data acquisition. The raw data were preprocessed for beam hardening and detector response linearity and were reconstructed with an FDK-based image reconstruction algorithm. The focal spots were measured at about 1 × 2 mm(2) using a star phantom. Each cathode generates around 3 mA cathode current with 2190 V gate voltage. The benchtop system is able to perform TBCT scans with a prolonged scanning time. Images of a commercial CT phantom were successfully acquired. A prototype system was developed, and preliminary phantom images were successfully acquired. MPFEX is a promising x-ray source for TBCT. Further improvement of tube output is needed in order for it to be used in clinical TBCT systems.

  15. [Feeding tube placement: auscultatory method and x-ray agreement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Mariur Gomes; Anziliero, Franciele; Leães, Dória Migotto; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2015-12-01

    to evaluate the correlation between the auscultation test and X-ray when detecting the position of an enteral feeding tube. cross-sectional study in an intensive care unit in southern Brazil, in 2011. Clinical nurse and nurse researcher performed auscultation test recording the impressions regarding the placement of an enteral feeding tube in 80 patients. A doctor evaluated the X-ray. Kappa coefficient and PABAK reviewed the agreements. The X-ray showed that 70% of the enteral tubes were in the stomach, 27.4% in the duodenum, 1.3% in the esophagus, and 1.3% in the right lung. There was a weak correlation between clinical nurses and nurse researchers (PABAK=0.054; P=0.103), clinical nurses and X-rays (PABAK=0.188; P=0.111) and nurse researchers and X-rays (PABAK=0.128; P=0.107) . The auscultation test did not detect two risk conditions, enteral feeding tube in the esophagus and the bronchus. the auscultation test showed little agreement with the X-ray on the enteral feeding tube location.

  16. 21 CFR 892.5930 - Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly. 892.5930... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5930 Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly. (a) Identification. A therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly is an x-ray generating tube encased...

  17. Degradation of cathode current-collecting materials for anode-supported flat-tube solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Song, Rak-Hyun; Chung, Dong-You; Hyun, Sang-Hoon; Shin, Dong-Ryul

    Different types of cathode current-collecting material for anode-supported flat-tube solid oxide fuel cells are fabricated and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Current collection for the cathode is achieved by winding Ag wire and by painting different conductive pastes of Ag-Pd, Pt, La 0.6Sr 0.4CoO 3 (LSCo), and La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3 (LSCF) on the wire. Cell performance at the initial operation time is in the order of Pt > LSCo > LSCF > Ag-Pd. On the other hand, the performance degradation rate is in the order of LSCo Ag-Pd. LSCo paste as a cathode current-collector shows the most stable long-term performance of 0.8 V, 300 mA cm -2 at 750 °C, even under a thermal cycle condition with heating and cooling rates of 150 °C h -1. The performance degradation of the Ag-Pd and Pt pastes is caused by increased polarization resistance due to metal particle sintering. From these results, it is concluded that a cathode current-collector composed of wound silver wire with LSCo paste is useful for anode-supported flat-tube cells as it does not experience any significant degradation during a long operation time.

  18. Panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray diagnostic is disclosed. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in the range of 500 to 20,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window of full size output display screen, an alkaline-halide scintillator photocathode screen suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen, and a high Z glass output window to reduce X-ray backscatter inside and outside of the tube. An X-ray sensitive photographic camera for medical diagnostic use is also disclosed which includes an X-ray sensitive image intensifier means of the proximity type and a reduction type optical system having an effective foral length in excess of 100mm for focusing the emage generated on the output display screen of the image intensifier tube onto a small size but directly viewable photographic film. The parameters of the image intensifier, the optics and the film are specified and linked to each other in a manner which maximizes the image quality for a camera system of this type and at the same time restricts the system speed of the camera to a range of 500 to 5,000 R -1 for the film to achieve a net density of 1.0. (Auth.)

  19. Thermal analysis on x-ray tube for exhaust process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rao Ratnala, Srinivas; Veeresh Kumar, G. B.; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    It is great importance in the use of X-rays for medical purposes that the dose given to both the patient and the operator is carefully controlled. There are many types of the X- ray tubes used for different applications based on their capacity and power supplied. In present thesis maxi ray 165 tube is analysed for thermal exhaust processes with ±5% accuracy. Exhaust process is usually done to remove all the air particles and to degasify the insert under high vacuum at 2e-05Torr. The tube glass is made up of Pyrex material, 95%Tungsten and 5%rhenium is used as target material for which the melting point temperature is 3350°C. Various materials are used for various parts; during the operation of X- ray tube these waste gases are released due to high temperature which in turn disturbs the flow of electrons. Thus, before using the X-ray tube for practical applications it has to undergo exhaust processes. Initially we build MX 165 model to carry out thermal analysis, and then we simulate the bearing temperature profiles with FE model to match with test results with ±5%accuracy. At last implement the critical protocols required for manufacturing processes like MF Heating, E-beam, Seasoning and FT.

  20. X-ray tube with rotating anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Radiation tube, with a rotating anode is located in a vacuum tight housing by means of at least one bearing, characterised in that the bearing is a sliding bearing wherein at least the mutually working load contact surfaces consist mainly of a metal or metallic alloy and are not chemically attacked, as a bearing lubricant material is used containing a Ga-alloy, with a low melting point and a low vapour pressure, which is in direct contact with the metal working surfaces. (G.C.)

  1. A measurement of radiation output from X- ray tubes: AIIMS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, R.; Bahl, Shaila; Thulkar, S.; Kumar, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    The production of x-rays is a relatively inefficient process so that only a small fraction of the energy imparted by the decelerating electrons is converted into X-rays. The remaining energy is converted to heat. Thus, the production and dissipation of heat in the X-ray tube is a serious consideration. Quality control is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. This paper aims to study the X-ray tube output of the Digital flat panel Detector X-ray (Aristos MX) Unit. The radiation output of the tube was being monitored for duration of 1 year from July 2011 to June 2012 for two different KVp and mAs namely 81 KVp, 125 mAs and 60 KVp, 100mAs. The results obtained were plotted with the intensity of X-ray output obtained with respect to months and the results were analyzed. (author)

  2. Portable X-ray reflectometer using a low power polychromatic X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tsunemasa; Imashuku, Susumu; Yuge, Koretaka; Kawai, Jun; Shimura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a portable X-ray reflectometer which measures energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity using a polychromatic X-rays from a low power (a few watts) X-ray tube and a silicon drift detector. A thin Cu film on silicon substrate using the portable reflectometer was measured. A fringe pattern was shifted due to the change of the X-ray incident angle. The measured peak position of the fringe pattern was satisfactorily agreed with the calculation. (author)

  3. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  4. Direct view panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-P.; Robbins, C.D.; Merrit, E.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray fluoroscopy use is described. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in excess of 4,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window, a directly viewable full size output display screen, and a scintillator-photocathode screen having a thickness of at least 200 microns for a high X-ray photon utilization ability as well as X-ray stopping power, the scintillator-photocathode screen being suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen. The scintillator-photocathode screen is spaced from the output screen by at least 8mm to allow the application of a high negative potential at the scintillator-photocathode screen with respect to the output screen for high gain with low field emission, since all of the remaining components within the tube envelope are at neutral potential with respect to the output display screen. (Auth.)

  5. Rotating anode x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueschen, R.E.; Jens, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A solid low thermal conductivity columbium metal stem supports heavy refractory metal x-ray target and adjoins high thermal conductivity rotor hub fastened to rotor with low thermally conductive bearing hub fastened to a shaft journaled for rotation in bearings. The rotor is coated to enhance heat dissipation and the arrangement promotes thermal isolation of the bearings from the hot rotor hub and hot target. The hub is of Mo or Mo based alloy, and hub of Ni based alloy. Specific compositions with additives are detailed. Hub additionally restricts heat flow due to its maximised length and minimised cross-section, the reduced area bosses further restricting surface contact. (author)

  6. A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-05-17

    A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon nanotube field-emission electron source has been demonstrated. The diameter of the X-ray tube is 10 mm; the total length of the tube is 50 mm, and no external vacuum pump is required for the operation. The maximum tube voltage reaches up to 70 kV, and the X-ray tube generates intense X-rays with the air kerma strength of 108 Gy·cm2 min-1. In addition, X-rays produced from the miniature X-ray tube have a comparatively uniform spatial dose distribution.

  7. Digital X-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying source voltage and filtering (predicting the required dynamic range for the detector); evaluating CsI:Tl, CdWO4 and scintillating glass as image converters; recommending image enhancement algorithms. The LLNL modeling results guided the design and experimental elements of the project. The Laboratory's unique array of sources and detectors was employed to resolve specific technical questions. Our image processing expertise was applied to the selection of enhancement tools for image display

  8. Adjustable off-focal aperture for x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, R.A.; Levar, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an x-ray tube assembly for radiographic scanners. It comprises: an evacuated envelope; an anode rotatably mounted within the envelope; a housing surrounding the envelope to define a cooling fluid reservoir therebetween, the housing defining an aperture therein and having a collar surrounding the aperture; an x-ray permeable, fluid impermeable window mounted to the housing to seal the aperture; an x-ray beam defining means, an off-focal radiation attenuating means, a flexible cable means, and a first stop means

  9. Evaluating fracture healing using digital x-ray image analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... of Edinburgh, developing techniques for assessing fracture healing using digital X-ray image analysis. She currently works in ... Digital X-ray combined with image analysis could provide a simple and cost-effective solution to this problem. .... output in which post-processing can be controlled. If digital X-ray ...

  10. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    1999-01-01

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  11. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  12. The effects of the cathode array on emitted hard x-ray from a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriaei, D.; Mahabadi, T. D.; Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effects of the cathode array variations on emitted hard x-rays from a small Mather type plasma focus device (450 J) were investigated. The gradual elimination of the cathode rods inside the cathode array of the device lowered the quality and quantity of the emitted hard x-rays at different pressure values of argon gas. We theorized that the variations of the cathode array were able to change some discharge parameters that could vary the number of the energetic runaway electrons generated during the pinch phase which were responsible for the created features of the emitted hard x-rays. On the other hand, we hypothesized that the removal of the cathode rods could influence the current sheath dynamics during all the phases of a shot including its average axial velocity which was demonstrated by using two axial magnetic probes. We also theorized that cathode rod omission from the cathode array could also increase the initial inductance and the impedance of the system, and the impurities inside the plasma during the pinch phase which could lead to the growth of the instabilities. Moreover, by using the wavelet technique and studying the Mirnov signals, it was shown that the decrease of the cathode rod number increased the plasma magnetic field fluctuations or instabilities (MHD activities) that adversely affected the pinch quality, and reduced the emitted hard x-rays.

  13. Bandpass x-ray diodes and x-ray multiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    We present a simple method of obtaining bandpass x-ray detectors. The lower and upper bounds of the bandpass are determined by the absorption edges of the photocathode and of the filter, respectively. Examples are given for windowless and vacuum bandpass x-ray diodes. Extension of the method to electron multiplier tubes is also presented

  14. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic x...

  15. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  16. Method of specifying and verifying the characteristics of rotating anode X-ray tubes and X-ray tube assemblies used in medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Electrical Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for specifying and verifying the electrical, thermal and loading characteristics of rotating anode X-ray tubes and X-ray tube assemblies used in medical diagnosis. This standard is intended to provide a common basis for the indication of data of rotating anode X-ray tubes and X-ray tube assemblies and to facilitate the application of radiographic ratings by the user, basing these on standardized conditions as given in the accompanying documents. (U.K.)

  17. Measurements and comparison of focal spot sizes of two types of x-ray tubes installed in simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, C.; Sorell, G.; Hille, N.

    1996-01-01

    of such that there is 15 deg angle between the anode-cathode axis and the long side of rectangle, while for Ximatron tube that angle is 45 deg. A comparison of both shape and dimension of the focal spot of the tube are made between these two simulators of similar working load. After considering the difference in the initial manufacturer's specification of the focal spot size, it is clear that there is a aging effect on the effective focal spot of the X-ray tubes. However, the relationship between the size of focal spot and the age of the X-ray tube is complex and non-linear. Limitations of a average Life-time of these two types of X-ray tubes are derived respectively according to the requirements on spatial resolution of X-ray diagnostic equipment set by the national standards

  18. An Intraoral Miniature X-ray Tube Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Dental Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Jin Kim; Hyun Nam Kim; Hamid Saeed Raza; Han Beom Park; Sung Oh Cho

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be ...

  19. Characteristics of Transmission-type Microfocus X-ray Tube based-on Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Ihsan, Aamir; Cho, Sung Oh

    2007-01-01

    A high resolution microfocus x-ray source is widely applied to noninvasive detection for industrial demands, material science and engineering, and to diagnostic study of microbiology and micro-tomography. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is regarded as an excellent electron emitter, which outperforms conventional electron sources in point of brightness. It has been suggested that CNT is used as an electron source of a high resolution x-ray tube according to their low threshold field with atomically sharp geometry, chemically robust structure, and electric conductivity. Several researchers have reported miniaturized x-ray tube based on diode structure and micro x-ray radiography and computed tomography systems using triode types with precise emission control and electrostatic focusing. Especially, a microfocus x-ray source of 30 μm resolution has been demonstrated recently using an elliptical CNT cathode and asymmetrical Eingel lens. However, to increase the spatial resolution of x-ray source, a smaller CNT emitter is desired. Electron focusing optics must be corrected to reduce aberrations. A thin wire tip end can provide a micro-area of CNT substrate, and a magnetic lens and transmission x-ray target are proper to reduce the lens aberration and a focal length. Until now, CNT based microfocus x-ray source with less than 10 um resolution has not been shown. Here we report a microfocus x-ray source with 4.7 μm x-ray focal spot consisted of a conical CNT tip, a single solenoid lens, and a transmission type x-ray target. A magnified x-ray image larger than 230 times was resolved with advantage of microfocused focal spot and transmission x-ray target

  20. Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, E.; Ando, L.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)

  1. Mean glandular dose for different angles of the X-ray tube using different glandularity phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, B.B.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional radiographic technique that is beginning to be used as part of an imaging diagnostic program in some of Brazilian clinical practices. Studies are needed to evaluate the performance and to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this new procedure. The aim of this work is to present results of the mean glandular dose (D G ) for different angles of the X-ray tube using a computed radiography (CR) mammography unit and different glandularity standard breast phantoms. D G values were derived from measurements of the incident air kerma (K i ) and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half-value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Irradiations were done in a 3000 Nova model Siemens MAMMOMAT mammography unit with the X-ray tube angle ranging from −30° to 30°. The protocol with 28 kV was used for Mo/Mo combination. The distance between focus and the 90×5–6 M model Radcal ionization chamber was 60.5 cm and the tube loading (P It ) used was 50 mA s. Exposures were done for D G determination using the semi-automatic exposure control mode and the 45 mm Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc phantoms which approximately simulate a standard breast with glandularities of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%. D G values ranged from 1.3±0.1 to 7.6±0.7 mGy. The results are in according to the reference level of 3 mGy established by the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS115) to breast with 45 mm of thickness, 50% of glandularity and for the X-ray tube positioned in 0°. The results showed that D G increases with the glandularity and with the rotation of the X-ray tube. This work contributes to begin in Brazil the dosimetry in DBT equipments using different protocols and target/filter combinations. - Highlights: ► Glandularity phantoms and a computed radiography mammography unit were used. ► Results were calculated from the incident air kerma and conversion coefficients.

  2. Evaluation of the effective detective quantum efficiency for various tube voltages with digital radiography for chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Kim, Hee-Joung; Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Chang-Lae; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seung-Wan

    2011-01-01

    The concept of effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) has recently been developed and introduced. The purpose of this study was to use the eDQE to evaluate the effect of tube voltage and grid for chest imaging with a direct flat-panel-based digital radiographic system. The exposure factors that we considered were the tube potential and an anti-scatter moving grid. The incident air kerma was adjusted for each tube potential to yield an effective dose of 34 μSv. The scatter fraction (SF), transmission fraction (TF), effective modulation transfer function (eMTF), and effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS) were measured using a phantom that simulate the attenuation and scatter properties of the human chest. Our results showed that the resolution properties measured by using eMTFs were independent of the tube potential regardless of whether or not a grid was used. The noise properties through the phantom were greater with the use of an anti-scatter grid than without while the eDQE was largest at a lower tube potential, which we tested without a grid. In conclusion, we measured a high efficiency at a low tube potential without an anti-scatter grid for digital radiography (DR) in chest imaging. The eDQE reflected the real exam environment better than the general DQE because it better reflected the effect of the total X-ray system.

  3. Counter tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, R.; Holm, M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the best design tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer for quantitative analysis of Venusian dust and condensates. The principal objective of the project was to develop the best counter tube window geometry for the sensing element of the instrument. This included formulation of a mathematical model of the window and optimization of its parameters. The proposed detector and instrument has several important features. The instrument will perform a near real-time analysis of dust in the Venusian atmosphere, and is capable of measuring dust layers less than 1 micron thick. In addition, wide dynamic measurement range will be provided to compensate for extreme variations in count rates. An integral pulse-height analyzer and memory accumulate data and read out spectra for detail computer analysis on the ground.

  4. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  5. Effects of X-ray tube parameters on thickness measure precision in X-ray profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Wu Zhifang; Xing Guilai

    2011-01-01

    Instantaneous profile gauge technology has been widely used in metallurgy industry because it can on-line get the profile of steel strip. It has characters of high measure precision and wide measure range, but the X-ray tube parameters only can be set few different values during measurement. The relations of thickness measure precision and X-ray tube current, X-ray tube voltage were analyzed. The results show that the X-ray tube current affects the thickness measure precision and the X-ray tube voltage determines the thickness measure range. The method of estimating the X-ray current by thickness measure precision was provided in the end. This method is the base of X-ray source selection and X-ray source parameter's setting in the instantaneous profile gauge. (authors)

  6. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of Cathode Materials in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S.; Gao, Yuan; Yakovleva, M. V.; Xing, X. K.; Daroux, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in lithiated transition metal oxides because of their use as cathodes in lithium batteries. LiCoO 2 , LiNiO 2 and LiMn 2 O 4 are the three most widely used and studied materials, At present, although it is relative expensive and toxic, LiCoO 2 is the material of choice in commercial lithium ion batteries because of its ease of manufacture, better thermal stability and cycle life. However, the potential use of lithium ion batteries with larger capacity for power tools and electric vehicles in the future will demand new cathode materials with higher energy density, lower cost and better thermal stability. LiNiO 2 is isostructural with LiCoO 2 . It offers lower cost and high energy density than LiCoO 2 . However, it has much poorer thermal stability than LiCoO 2 , in the charged (delithiated) state. Co, Al, and other elements have been used to partially replace Ni in LiNiO 2 system in order to increase the thermal stability. LiMn 2 O 4 has the highest thermal stability and lowest cost and toxicity. However, the low energy density and poor cycle life at elevated temperature are the major obstacles for this material. In order to develop safer, cheaper, and better performance cathode materials, the in-depth understanding of the relationships between the thermal stability and structure, performance and structure are very important. The performance here includes energy density and cycle life of the cathode materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most powerful tools to study these relationships. The pioneer ex situ XRD work on cathode materials for lithium batteries was done by Ohzuku. His XRD studies on LiMn 2 O 4 , LiCoO 2 , LiNiO 2 , LiNi 0.5 Co 0.5 O 2 , and LiAl x Ni 1-x O 2 cathodes at different states of charge have provided important guidelines for the development of these new materials. However, the kinetic nature of the battery system definitely requires an in situ XRD technique to study the detail structural changes of the

  7. X-ray output and percentage ripple in x-ray tube voltage. X-ray generators for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Katoh, Yoh; Negishi, Toru; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Various characteristics of x-ray generators used for mammography (tube voltage, tube current, percentage average error of irradiation time, percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform, linearity, and reproducibility of the photographic effect) have already been clarified by the authors. In our more recent investigations, x-ray output and radiation quality as percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform were evaluated using the dynamic study method with the aluminum filter specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. In addition, we also assessed the effects of fluctuation in percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform on the x-ray spectrum. Based on the results obtained, the characteristics of an ideal x-ray generator for mammography are discussed. The results of this study showed that x-ray output differences in terms of percentage ripple ranged from 45% to 82% compared with that of a constant-potential high-voltage generator. With regard to radiation quality, differences of 0.01 to 0.02 mm were found in the half value layer using an aluminum filter. The thicker the x-ray absorber, the more marked the effects of percentage ripple. In terms of the x-ray spectrum, moreover, characteristic x-rays (at 17.4 and 19.5 keV) cannot be effectively used, although a molybdenum target or molybdenum filter is used. Based on these results, a constant potential high-voltage generator with percentage ripple of 4% or less in the tube voltage waveform should be employed for mammography. (author)

  8. Digital Distortion Caused by Traveling- Wave-Tube Amplifiers Simulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA missions demand increased data rates in satellite communications for near real-time transmission of large volumes of remote data. Increased data rates necessitate higher order digital modulation schemes and larger system bandwidth, which place stricter requirements on the allowable distortion caused by the high-power amplifier, or the traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA). In particular, intersymbol interference caused by the TWTA becomes a major consideration for accurate data detection at the receiver. Experimentally investigating the effects of the physical TWTA on intersymbol interference would be prohibitively expensive, as it would require manufacturing numerous amplifiers in addition to acquiring the required digital hardware. Thus, an accurate computational model is essential to predict the effects of the TWTA on system-level performance when a communication system is being designed with adequate digital integrity for high data rates. A fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, TWT interaction model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). It comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency-dependent AM (amplitude modulation)/AM and AM/PM (phase modulation) conversion, gain and phase ripple due to reflections, drive-induced oscillations, harmonic generation, intermodulation products, and backward waves. This physics-based TWT model can be used to give a direct description of the effects of the nonlinear TWT on the operational signal as a function of the physical device. Users can define arbitrary excitation functions so that higher order modulated digital signals can be used as input and that computations can directly correlate intersymbol interference with TWT parameters. Standard practice involves using communication-system-level software packages, such as SPW, to predict if adequate signal detection will be achieved. These models

  9. X-ray image intensifier camera tubes and semiconductor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor target for use in an image intensifier camera tube and a camera using the target are described. The semiconductor wafer for converting an electron image onto electrical signal consists mainly of a collector region, preferably n-type silicon. It has one side for receiving the electron image and an opposite side for storing charge carriers generated in the collector region by high energy electrons forming a charge image. The first side comprises a highly doped surface layer covered with a metal buffer layer permeable to the incident electrons and thick enough to dissipate some of the incident electron energy thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This layer comprises beryllium on niobium on the highly doped silicon surface zone. Low energy Kα X-ray radiation is generated in the first layer, the radiation generated in the second layer (mainly Lα radiation) is strongly absorbed in the silicon layer. A camera tube using such a target with a photocathode for converting an X-ray image into an electron image, means to project this image onto the first side of the semiconductor wafer and means to read out the charge pattern on the second side are also described. (U.K.)

  10. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography

  11. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  13. Metal/ceramic X-ray tubes for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, W.; Peter, D.; Reiber, K.

    1984-01-01

    As a wall material for X-ray tubes, glass has a number of disadvantages. The tube is relatively fragile, charge builds up on the tube wall, and current poths may form due to ''hopping'' of electrons. These problems can be avoided by means of metal/ceramic technology and an improved tube geometry. In a new generation of X-ray tubes for macroscopic testing of materials it has been possible to halve the linear dimensions and to reduce the weight to a quarter of that of conventional tubes with a glass wall. The new tubes have an earthed metal wall, so that there was no need for insulating oil around the tube. Typical examples of applications of the new tubes are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. YouTube and Academic Libraries: Building a Digital Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Although still a relatively new technology with less than 10 years of history, YouTube's extensive reach and integration in mainstream society as well as lifelong learning habits of online users cannot be understated. This article examines how the YouTube collection at the University of British Columbia Library's Irving K. Barber Learning Centre…

  15. Implementation of a Hardware Ray Tracer for digital design education

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, Jonas Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    Digital design is a large and complex field of electronic engineering, and learning digital design requires maturing over time. The learning process can be facilitated by making use of a single learning platform throughout a whole course. A learning platform built around a hardware ray tracer can be used in illustrating many important aspects of digital design. A unified learning platform allows students to delve into intricate details of digital design while still seeing the bigger pictur...

  16. Confirming nasogastric tube position with electromagnetic tracking versus pH or X-ray and tube radio-opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Allan, Kaylee; McWilliam, Helen; Manara, Alex; Brown, Jules; Toher, Deirdre; Rayner, Wendy

    Recent evidence suggests official statistics greatly underestimate the occurrence of complications from misplaced nasogastric (NG) tubes, even when detected. Current methods of confirming tube position do not provide adequate protection from misplacement. In addition, some tubes are inadequately radio-opaque. We prospectively audited placement of Cortrak polyurethane tubes (PUTs) to determine: accuracy of the electromagnetic (EM) trace in confirming tube position, radio-opacity of PUTs compared with previously placed polyvinylchloride (PVC) Ryles tubes and whether 12 French PUTs can be used to aspirate gastric residual volumes (GRVs). A total of 127 PUTs were placed in 113 patients. EM traces accurately confirmed tube position compared with X-ray (100% agreement). A 'gastric' EM trace has been defined for future use by other operators. PUTs were adequately radio-opaque with good agreement between interpreters (>98%) whereas PVC Ryles tubes were insufficiently radio-opaque (57-73%), invisible in 23% of cases and with poor agreement between interpreters leaving risk of error. The alternative of using pH confirmation was not possible in 44%. In these cases subsequent X-ray incurred a 2-hour delay to feed and medicines. In addition, neither post-placement pH testing nor X-ray warn of lung placement and potential trauma, whereas the EM trace warned of lung placement prior to damage in 7% of placements. 12 French, single-port PUTs appear adequate to aspirate large GRVs. EM tracing may be considered a standalone method of confirming NG tube position. Corflo (Cortrak) PUTs are adequately radio-opaque. Use of PVC Ryles and other inadequately radio-opaque tubes should stop.

  17. Monochromatic x-rays for low-dose digital mammography: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kwon, Young Man; Choi, Byoung-Jung; Son, Hyun Hwa; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Seong Hoon; Juhng, Sun Kwan

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using monochromatic x-ray imaging generated from an x-ray tube and a multilayer reflector for digital mammography with a low radiation dose was examined. A multilayer mirror was designed to select the x-ray peak with an energy of 21.5 keV generated from an x-ray tube with a tungsten target and was fabricated by the ion-beam sputtering deposition system. Monochromatic x-ray images were obtained from an experimental digital mammography setup with a scanning stage. The performance of the system was evaluated using a breast phantom, a spectrometer, and a radiation dosimeter. We measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and performed the 10% modulation function test to determine image quality and resolution. The monochromatic beam from the multilayer reflector had a full-width-at-half-maximum of 0.9 keV at 21.5 keV, and the reflectivity was 0.70, which was 90% of the designed value. The polychromatic and monochromatic x-rays showed radiation doses of 0.497 and 0.0415 mGy, respectively. The monochromatic x-ray image shows fibers, calcifications, and masses more clearly than the polychromatic x-ray images do. The image contrast of the monochromatic x-rays was 1.85 times higher than that of the polychromatic x-rays. The experimental mammography setup had a spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm with both x-rays. Monochromatic x-rays generated using a multilayer mirror may be a useful diagnostic tool for breast examination by providing high contrast imaging with a low radiation dose.

  18. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube

  19. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  20. Improvement of image contrast in x-ray transmission micrographs of organism with a titanium tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanazaki, Buniti; Shioda, Ichiro; Kitatsuji, Yasutsugu; Kuroda, Tsukasa.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the image contrast in X-ray transmission micrographs of organisms, a fine-focus sealed-off tube with a titanium target has been built, which can produce quasi monochromatic X-rays at the K sub(α) characteristic wavelength of 2.7 A. The intensity ratio of the characteristic ray to continuous ones reaches a maximum when a voltage of 8 kV is applied to the tube. Micrographs of organisms obtained with this tube show up a better image contrast than those taken with a copper-anode tube. (author)

  1. Using computational modeling to compare X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda Cassiano, Deisemar; Arruda Correa, Samanda Cristine; Monteiro de Souza, Edmilson; Silva, Ademir Xaxier da; Pereira Peixoto, José Guilherme; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The Practical Peak Voltage-PPV has been adopted to measure the voltage applied to an X-ray tube. The PPV was recommended by the IEC document and accepted and published in the TRS no. 457 code of practice. The PPV is defined and applied to all forms of waves and is related to the spectral distribution of X-rays and to the properties of the image. The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. An X-ray tube for Dental Radiology (operated from a single phase power supply) and an X-ray tube used as a reference (supplied from a constant potential power supply) were used in simulations across the energy range of interest of 40 kV to 100 kV. Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the tubes involved. - Highlights: • Computational Model was developed to X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology. • The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. • The energy range was 40–100 kV. • Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the Dental Radiology and reference X-ray tubes

  2. Miniature X-ray Tube for Electric Brachytherapy using Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    An electric brachytherapy using a miniature x-ray tube has a major advantage to reduce the x-ray exposure of human body during the cancer radiation therapy by optimal positioning of x-ray radiation source and treatment objectives. In the view of a smaller electronic x-ray source, the CNT field emitter based xray tube can be more minimized than thermionic filament emitter based one because of a simple power supplier connection of cold field emission in diode type as well as a higher electron emission brightness of CNT. This abstract is for introducing the design of a prototype CNT field emitter based miniature x-ray tube. We have vacuum sealed CNT miniature x-ray tube with 7∼10 mm diameter, and characteristics of electron emission and x-ray transportation using MCNP5 code are surveyed

  3. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of Cathode Materials in Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S.; Gao, Yuan; Yakovleva, M. V.; Xing, X. K.; Daroux, M. L.

    1998-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in lithiated transition metal oxides because of their use as cathodes in lithium batteries. LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} are the three most widely used and studied materials, At present, although it is relative expensive and toxic, LiCoO{sub 2} is the material of choice in commercial lithium ion batteries because of its ease of manufacture, better thermal stability and cycle life. However, the potential use of lithium ion batteries with larger capacity for power tools and electric vehicles in the future will demand new cathode materials with higher energy density, lower cost and better thermal stability. LiNiO{sub 2} is isostructural with LiCoO{sub 2}. It offers lower cost and high energy density than LiCoO{sub 2}. However, it has much poorer thermal stability than LiCoO{sub 2}, in the charged (delithiated) state. Co, Al, and other elements have been used to partially replace Ni in LiNiO{sub 2} system in order to increase the thermal stability. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has the highest thermal stability and lowest cost and toxicity. However, the low energy density and poor cycle life at elevated temperature are the major obstacles for this material. In order to develop safer, cheaper, and better performance cathode materials, the in-depth understanding of the relationships between the thermal stability and structure, performance and structure are very important. The performance here includes energy density and cycle life of the cathode materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most powerful tools to study these relationships. The pioneer ex situ XRD work on cathode materials for lithium batteries was done by Ohzuku. His XRD studies on LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, and LiAl{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} cathodes at different states of charge have provided important guidelines for the development of these new materials. However, the kinetic nature of the battery

  4. Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechenberg, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    The author, a senior physicist from Berkeley having some experience in historical accounts, covers well the standard story of J J Thomson's discovery of the electron, one hundred years ago. Starting from the investigations of cathode rays in Germany, France and mainly England, the successful path of J J is covered in some detail using available information (letters, notebooks, diaries, publications), as well as his later work on positive rays and the atomic model. Lesser emphasis is given to the parallel developments connected with the Zeeman effect. However, a synopsis of the story of β-rays, the measurement of the elementary charge and the rise of the Rutherford - Bohr nuclear model of the atom is included. Dahl presents the physical contents from the standard literature in a clear and convincing way. He illustrates the narrative with (well-chosen and well-reproduced) portraits of the people involved and sketches of their original apparatus. Hence the book can be recommended highly to physicists, who will be reminded of one of the most important events in the earlier history of their field. A broader public, including other scientists, and perhaps attentive high school graduates, might also benefit from the book, not to mention professional science historians (who may appreciate the detailed, reliable description of subtle experiments and their tricky interpretation). The author succeeds far less well in providing the general background (in the history of physics and beyond) of the Thomson story. The electron as a fundamental concept existed and was applied long before J Pluecker's discovery of cathodes rays (for example, by A-M Ampere and his successors), and the importance of the work by W Weber, F Neumann and R Clausius (to mention just a few scientists in the 19th century) is mainly suppressed. Dahl's treatment of P Lenard's work around 1900, for which Lenard won the Nobel prize before Thomson, is quite unfair. Further, Chapter 14 on the French N-rays and

  5. X-ray images in the digital mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.; Balter, S.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to computed tomography which presents actually the most important processing and transfer procedure of digital X-ray images, application of real time addition and substraction of X-ray images in a digital mode has found considerable interest. An estimation of the information contents of both digital and analog images is made in close relation to applications. As example of an image processing system on digital base a recently developed system for intravenous arteriography is described: the Philips-DVI. (orig.) [de

  6. Do X-rays after chest tube removal change patient management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret; Rylander, Michele; Beres, Alana L

    2017-05-01

    A link between childhood radiation and future cancer risks exists, and reduction of unnecessary radiation in childhood has been recommended. Pneumothoraces, pleural effusions, and many surgical procedures require placement of a chest tube/pigtail catheter. Traditional management is daily x-rays, with an x-ray after tube removal. Our hypothesis is the "post pull" x-ray rarely results in changing clinical management of the patient. With IRB approval, a 5-year retrospective chart review was performed. Inclusion criteria were chest tube or pigtail placed for any reason with complete records. Data collected were demographics, reason for and duration of placement, number of x-rays done prior to and after removal. Primary outcome was whether the "post pull" x-ray changed clinical management. A total of 179 episodes were evaluated. Seventeen were excluded for incomplete data, or death/transfer of the patient with the tube in situ. Forty-nine tubes/pigtails were placed for pneumothorax, 48 for pleural effusion/empyema, 9 for hemothorax, and 51 during operative procedure. A median of 5 x-rays was done post insertion. 99% of the patients (160/162) had a "post pull" x-ray performed after tube removal. In 9 cases the x-ray changed patient management. X-ray after chest tube/pigtail removal rarely changes patient management. We recommend considering imaging if there are clinical symptoms. Prognosis study, level II (retrospective cohort). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. X-ray spots emitted in a hollow cathode ns-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, M.; Ikhlef, A.; Louvet, G.; Roméas, P.; Mittal, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    A hollow cathode discharge using a tungsten pointed anode is fed by a low power Marx generator (1 J, 70 kV, 50 ns). The x-ray emission duration varies from 20 to 10 ns in the pressure range 0963-0252/5/1/009/img8 mbar, in air. The spatial distribution of the emitting sites has been determined, using a sensitive imaging device with a 5 ns exposure time, in the same range of pressures. This emission is strongly influenced by the occurrence of the `pseudo-spark' regime. X-rays are emitted by different mechanisms: (a) electron bremsstrahlung and by Auger cascade associated with particle emission from the Teflon insulator and also tungsten (0963-0252/5/1/009/img9 and 0963-0252/5/1/009/img10) characteristic lines; (b) pinching and collapse of the hot plasma surrounding the anode and the insulator. X-ray spots are observed. Their number is about 200 per shot, their radius is less than 40 0963-0252/5/1/009/img11m and their emission intensity is compatible with that of a dense plasma: 0963-0252/5/1/009/img12 with a temperature in the range 100 eV to 1 keV. Some of them are seen to follow linear trajectories, suggesting a 1 ns period wave propagation at 300 km 0963-0252/5/1/009/img13 which triggers the collapse.

  8. Fields Of View Of X-Ray-Telescope Collimator Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Harvey G.

    1992-01-01

    Results of theoretical analysis conducted to determine fields of view and irradiation patterns of collimator tubes of various shapes indicates, while background flux incident on surface at outlet of tube determined by ratio between diameter and length, shape of tube important in screening out background radiation.

  9. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  10. Note: A simple-structured anode exchangeable X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-hai; Lee, Chang Jun; Park, Rae-jun; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2013-05-01

    An anode exchangeable X-ray tube of very simple structure was developed. Aluminum, chromium, and copper anode targets were prepared and used to investigate X-ray spectra. X-ray images of a thin wood plate were taken using those targets. The measured energies of the characteristic X-rays of each target agreed well with the presented results. The difference of resolution and brightness of each image was found based on MTF values and intensities. The developed X-ray tube can give high durability, and higher quality X-ray images of an arbitrary object by exchanging anode targets.

  11. Microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, N. E.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Kholopova, E. D.; Guk, K. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development is described. The main steps of the algorithm work are presented. The results of using the algorithm for improving the printed circuit board image are shown

  12. Digital image analysis of X-ray television with an image digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Yasuo; Akaike, Hisahiko; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Kyuma, Yukishige

    1995-01-01

    When video signals of X-ray fluoroscopy were transformed from analog-to-digital ones with an image digitizer, their digital characteristic curves, pre-sampling MTF's and digital Wiener spectral could be measured. This method was advant ageous in that it was able to carry out data sampling because the pixel values inputted could be verified on a CRT. The system of image analysis by this method is inexpensive and effective in evaluating the image quality of digital system. Also, it is expected that this method can be used as a tool for learning the measurement techniques and physical characteristics of digital image quality effectively. (author)

  13. Teen Videos on YouTube: Features and Digital Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel; García-Jiménez, Antonio; Menor-Sendra, Juan

    2018-01-01

    As a mechanism for social participation and integration and for the purpose of building their identity, teens make and share videos on platforms such as YouTube of which they are also content consumers. The vulnerability conditions that occur and the risks to which adolescents are exposed, both as creators and consumers of videos, are the focus of…

  14. Study tube housing leakage of 111 conventional diagnostic X-ray machines using ion chamber survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalrinmawia, Jonathan; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at measuring the leakage radiation from X-ray tube and compare to national and international safety standard. The leakage radiation is formed at the anode inside the X-ray tube and transmitted through the tube housing. The tube housing is proposed to protect both patients and workers from leakage radiation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no tube housing leakage measurements have been done so far in the present study area

  15. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  16. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jacob N.; Miara, Lincoln J.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Basu, Soumendra N.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2012-12-01

    Commonly, SOFCs are operated at high temperatures (above 800°C). At these temperatures expensive housing is needed to contain an operating stack as well as coatings to contain the oxidation of the metallic interconnects. Lowering the temperature of an operating device would allow for more conventional materials to be used, thus lowering overall cost. Understanding the surface chemical states of cations in the surface of the SOFC cathode is vital to designing a system that will perform well at lower temperatures. The samples studied were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM-20) was grown on YSZ and NGO (neodymium gallate). The films on YSZ have a fiber texture. LSM-20 on NGO is heteroepitaxial. Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF-6428) films were grown on LAO and YSZ with a GDC barrier layer. Total X-ray Reflection Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to depth profile the samples. In a typical experiment, the angle of the incident beam is varied though the critical angle. Below the critical angle, the x-ray decays as an evanescent wave and will only penetrate the top few nanometers. TXRF experiments done on LSM films have suggested strontium segregates to the surface and form strontium enriched nanoparticles (1). It should be pointed out that past studies have focused on 30% strontium A-site doping, but this project uses 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite. XANES and EXAFS data were taken as a function of incoming angle to probe composition as a function of depth. XANES spectra can be difficult to analyze fully. For other materials density functional theory calculations compared to near edge measurements have been a good way to understand the 3d valence electrons (2).

  17. Studies of X-ray tube aging by non-invasive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the evaluation of an x ray tube aging with an anode made of tungsten, used in radio diagnostic. Workloads were applied, in accordance with Brazilian workload distribution, and periodic measurements of quantities related to the radiation quality of the beam were performed. For the purpose of this work, a single phase, full bridge clinical system was employed. For the long term x ray tube characteristics evaluation related to the applied workload, it was necessary to measure parameters that could quantitatively represent the tube aging, with special attention to the anode roughening. For the indirect measurement of tube aging, four parameters were chosen, some of them normally applied in x ray diagnostic quality control: first and second half value layers (HVL), focal spot dimensions, non invasive measurement of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) and x ray spectroscopy. These parameters were measured before any workload and after each workload intervals. To assure confidence of the results reproducibility conditions were stated to each evaluated parameter. The uncertainties involved in all measurement processes were calculated to evaluate the real contributions of x ray tube aging effects on non invasive parameters. Within all evaluated parameters, the most sensitive to long term workload were the mean energy obtained from spectroscopy and half value layers. A model related to these parameters was applied and estimates of x ray tube aging rate for different acceleration voltages and anodic currents were calculated. (author)

  18. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of N-containing carbon-based cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Koshigoe, Yuka; Ozaki, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Seizo; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    We report on the electronic structure of three different types of N-containing carbon-based cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells observed by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Prepared samples are derived from: (1) melamine and poly(furfuryl alcohol), (2) nitrogen-doped carbon black and (3) cobalt phthalocyanine and phenolic resin. C 1 s spectra show the importance of sp 2 carbon network formation for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. N 1 s spectra of the carbon-based cathode catalysts are decomposed into four components identified as pyridine-like, pyrrole- or cyanide-like, graphite-like, and oxide nitrogen. Samples having high oxygen reduction reaction activity in terms of oxygen reduction potential contain high concentration of graphite-like nitrogen. O 1 s spectra are similar among carbon-based cathode catalysts of different oxygen reduction reaction activity. There is no correlation between the ORR activity and oxygen content. Based on a quantitative analysis of our results, the oxygen reduction reaction activity of the carbon-based cathode catalysts will be improved by increasing concentration of graphite-like nitrogen in a developed sp 2 carbon network.

  19. Real-time digital X-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    A diagnostic anatomical X-ray apparatus comprising a converter and a television camera for converting an X-ray image of a subject into a series of television fields of video signals is described in detail. A digital memory system stores and integrates the video signals over a time interval corresponding to a plurality of successive television fields. The integrated video signals are recovered from storage and fed to a digital or analogue subtractor, the resulting output being displayed on a television monitor. Thus the display represents on-going changes in the anatomical X-ray image. In a modification, successive groups of fields are stored and integrated in three memories, cyclically, and subtractions are performed between successive pieces of integrated signals to provide a display of successive alterations in the X-ray image. For investigations of the heart, the integrating interval should be of the order of one cardiac cycle. (author)

  20. 81.114- University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Support / Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis of Lithioum Ion Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Landsberger, S.

    2006-11-11

    This project focuses on the use of the Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technique available at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin to precisely determine the hydrogen (proton) contents in layered oxide cathode samples obtained by chemical lithium extraction in order to obtain a better understanding of the factors limiting the practical capacities and overall performance of lithium ion battery cathodes. The project takes careful precautionary experimental measures to avoid proton contamination both from solvents used in chemical delithiation and from ambient moisture. The results obtained from PGAA are complemented by the data obtained from other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, redox titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectroscopic analysis of the evolved gas on heating. The research results broaden our understanding of the structure-property-performance relationships of lithium ion battery cathodes and could aid the design and development of new better performing lithium ion batteries for consumer (portable and electric vehicles), military, and space applications.

  1. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Flesher, A.C.; Bryant, C.J.; Lincoln, A.D.; Tucker, P.A.; Swanton, S.W.

    1986-08-01

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described:- the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive Multiwire proportional counter as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled to a digital microcomputer system. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multi-frame exposures. (author)

  2. The origins of radiotherapy : Discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienbock's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The

  3. Near monochromatic X-rays for digital slot-scan mammography: initial findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, Felix; Diekmann, S.; Richter, K.; Bick, U.; Fischer, T.; Hamm, B.; Lawaczeck, R.; Press, W.R.; Schoen, K.; Weinmann, H.J.; Arkadiev, V.; Bjeoumikhov, A.; Langhoff, N.; Rabe, J.; Roth, P.; Tilgner, J.; Wedell, R.; Krumrey, M.; Linke, U.; Ulm, G.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray spectra are composed of a broad bremsspectrum and anode-characteristic emission lines. In mammography typically molybdenum (Mo), rhodium (Rh) or tungsten (W) anodes are used in combination with Mo, Rh or aluminium filters. Only the photons with energies between 17 and 22 keV of the resulting spectrum are suitable for the soft tissue imaging needed for mammography. The aim of this article is to present first results obtained with a monochromator module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a conventional clinical mammography unit. The experimental setup consists of a Siemens Mammomat 300, an X-ray monochromator module and a linear array detector for image acquisition. The technique is similar to the slot-scan technique known from digital mammography. The experimental machine allows to obtain images both with polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays. Initial evaluation of the system was performed by examination of a contrast-detail phantom (CD-MAM-phantom, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Images done with the new monochromatic technique were compared to images of the phantom done with polychromatic spectra, with film-screen mammography as well as with digital mammography. The new technique with monochromatic slot-scan mammography resulted in correct identification of 93% of the phantom. Digital slot-scan mammography with polychromatic beam resulted in correct identification of 87%, digital full-field mammography in 83% and conventional film-screen mammography in 70% of the phantom. The results suggest that monochromatization has a potential for improving image quality or decreasing dose in X-ray mammography. (orig.)

  4. A conical-type X-ray guide tube for diffraction experiments with small crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    1986-01-01

    The divergence and intensity distribution of X-rays transported through a conical-type X-ray guide tube (XGT) were measured. Diverging X-rays from a point source were condensed by use of the conical-type XGT. The parallelism of X-rays through the XGT was better than that encountered for a cylindrical-type XGT proposed previously. The intensity of the X-ray beam around the central axis of the conical-type XGT was exceedingly high in comparison with that measured without the tube and almost uniform over a cross-sectional area 60 μm in diameter. The high intensity provides the possibility of performing diffraction experiments with crystals as small as 20 μm in diameter with a conventional X-ray diffraction system. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  6. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method of producing visible difference images derived from an x-ray image of an anatomical subject is described. X-rays are directed through the subject, and the image is converted into television fields comprising trains of analog video signals. The analog signals are converted into digital signals, which are then integrated over a predetermined time corresponding to several television fields. Difference video signals are produced by performing a subtraction between the ongoing video signals and the corresponding integrated signals, and are converted into visible television difference images representing changes in the x-ray image

  7. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  8. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  9. Reduction of background luminance generated in the output screen of x-ray image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro

    1985-01-01

    Background luminance of several origins introduced into an X-ray image intensifier tube deteriorates the contrast of its output image. The output screen, which consists of a phosphor layer usually prepared on a transparent substrate, generates influential background luminance in the X-ray image intensifier tube. A theoretical and experimental study on how reduce the background luminance of the output screen by increasing the thickness of the substrate is presented. In evaluating the effect of the background luminance, we calculated and measured the contrast ratio usually used as a characteristic index of the image intensifier tube. The theory and results from the experimental image intensifier tubes show good agreement. This method of background luminance reduction is not only more economical but also superior to the other methods utilizing dark substrates or optical fiber plates. (author)

  10. Effect of degradation of cathode-ray tube (CRT) brightness on diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokogawa, Shingo; Tagashira, Hiroyuki; Ishimaru, Haruo; Arakawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kawakami, Toshiaki [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). Hospital; Oishi, Shigeo

    1999-03-01

    We have been monitoring the change in brightness of CRT monitors for two years using a photo densitometer. In addition, an observer performance study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of detecting simulated lung nodule images on CRT with and without degradation of brightness. Our results suggested that degradation in the brightness of the CRT caused poorer detectability of simulated lung nodules, especially in the lung field. However, the detectability of these nodules could be improved if brightness and contrast were correctly adjusted by tuning the grid voltage of the CRT. (author)

  11. 77 FR 15336 - Revision to the Export Provisions of the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income.... Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-RCRA- 2011-1014. EPA's policy is that all... India where it is made back into new CRTs. If an exporter of used CRTs for recycling did not fulfill the...

  12. Cathode-ray-tube to reflection-print matching under mixed chromatic adaptation using RLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Roy S.; Choh, Heui-Keun

    1995-10-01

    Color-appearance models are used to relate chromatic stimuli viewed under one set of viewing and illuminating conditions to a differing set such that when each stimulus is viewed in its respective conditions, the stimuli match in color appearance. These models assume the observer has a steady-state adaptation to each condition. In practice, observers often view stimuli under mixed adaptation; this could occur when viewing CRT and reflection-print stimuli simultaneously. A visual experiment was performed to determine whether the RLAB color-appearance model could be used successfully to generate reflection prints that match the appearance of the CRT when viewed under mixed states of adaptation and in turn as stand- alone images viewed under a single state of adaptation. Sixteen observers viewed four pictorial images displayed on a D65 balanced CRT display in a room lit with cool-white fluorescent luminaries. The RLAB color-appearance model was used to calculate corresponding images where the observer's state of chromatic adaptation was assumed to be one of the following: adaptation to each device condition, a single adaptation at the midpoint of the two device conditions, adaptation to the CRT condition and a print adaptation shifted 25% toward the CRT condition, adaptation to the print condition and a CRT adaptation shifted 25% toward the print condition, and a CRT condition shifted 25% toward the print condition and a print condition shifted 25% toward the CRT condition. Each condition was compared pairwise and Thurstone's law of comparative judgments was used to calculate interval scales of quality. Observers first judged the reflection prints adjacent to the CRT display selecting the image closest in color appearance to the CRT image; they also categorized the closest image as `acceptable,' `marginally acceptable,' or `not acceptable.' The images were again scaled except the display was turned off; this determined the best stand-alone color reproduction. The observers determined that images generated where it was assumed that the CRT adaptation was shifted 25% toward the print condition and a print adaptation was shifted 25% toward the CRT condition produced both the closest match to the CRT display and the best stand-alone image. The mixed-adaptation matches were acceptable or marginally acceptable on average 84% of the time. This adaptational condition produced the most preferred stand-alone images due to shifts toward regions of known preferred color reproduction.

  13. User’s Manual for the Transparent Touch Sensitive Cathode Ray Tube Display Overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    must be sufficiently high to guarantee that the maximum delay in execution of the task is less than 33 milliseconds to avoid missing data points. 23...operation times out before IPTS points are read, ISTAT will be positive and less than IPTS. A nega- tive value indicates an error and provides the system...Software: 1. The task must be made priviledged by including a /PR:O switch on the task file specification. 2. The touch sensor interface module

  14. Foaming of waste cathode ray tube panel glass via CaCO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    parameters on the characteristics of foam. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. CaCO3 was used as a foaming agent and was mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Preliminary results show that milling conditions and particle size have a major influence on the foaming...... process and resulting density of samples. We investigate the influence of foaming agent concentration on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. We demonstrate how milling and foaming conditions affect the foam properties for different amounts of CaCO3. A minimum in the density...... is due to stronger interaction between the glass and CaCO3 particles, which lowers the decomposition temperature of the foaming agent....

  15. Some characteristics of the digitization pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.S.K.; Leung, S.K.; Ng, L.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of the digitization output pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes were studied under various operation conditions using square ultra-high voltage pulses. Properties reported by previous workers were compared. Two discharge mechanisms, the Townsend avalanche discharge and the streamer discharge, were observed to occur in sequence in some events. The output waveforms for both discharge mechanisms were studied in detail. The charge induced on a detecting probe was also estimated from the measured data. (Auth.)

  16. X-ray phase imaging of biological soft tissue using a direct-sensing x-ray HARP tube camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, K; Miyoshi, T; Igarashi, N; Takeda, T; Wu, J; Lwin, T-T; Kubota, M; Egami, N; Tanioka, K; Kawai, T; Wakatsuki, S

    2007-05-07

    A HDTV camera having a direct-sensing x-ray high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) tube was used, for the first time, to acquire x-ray phase maps. The tube can achieve a high sensitivity as a result of the avalanche multiplication process in the HARP target. A beryllium plate, rather than a glass plate, was used as the face plate of the tube to minimize the loss of x-rays due to absorption, and a 15 microm thick HARP target was directly formed on it. In the experiment, the x-ray phase shifts produced by a rat liver were measured using synchrotron x-rays (lambda = 0.0766 nm) and a triple Laue-case (LLL) x-ray interferometer. Interference patterns produced by the sample were observed with the direct-sensing x-ray HARP tube camera. A voltage of 1300 V was applied to the HARP target to give an output signal gain of two. The camera was operated in 1125 scanning-line mode, and real-time images were stored on a workstation at a rate of 30 images/s with an image format of 960 (H) x 1100 (V) pixels. A phase-map image of the sample was successfully obtained using the fringe scanning method and phase unwrapping. The observed phase shifts ranged from 50 degrees to 200 degrees . Trees of blood vessels in the rat liver were clearly depicted without using a contrast agent. The spatial resolution of the x-ray camera was estimated to be better than 35 microm in the vertical direction and 100 microm in the horizontal direction.

  17. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  18. Mechanical system design in the engineering design of digital x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Awwaluddin; I Putu Susila; Edy Purwanta; Abdul Jalil; Ahmad H

    2014-01-01

    Has been designed a mechanical system design to hold and moving the x-ray tube, detector films, and a place the holder control box. The design was conducted on the frame foundation, frame columns and frame arms in order to operate the device as well SS304 hollow measuring 40 x 60 x mm with thickness of 2 mm long 4.1 m, size 100 x 100 mm and 2 mm thick along the 2 m, and the size of 40 x 80 mm thickness 2 mm long 1.8 m is needed to reactive the design the linear guide way models HGW20HB 3 m. With the proposed design, the operation of the digital x-rays can be completed as well. (author)

  19. In-situ observation of deuteride formation in palladium electrochemical cathode by X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takao; Oka, Takashi; Taniguchi, Ryoichi

    1990-01-01

    In-situ X-ray diffraction observation of palladium foil cathode (10 μm) was carried out during electrolysis of 0.1N-LiOD heavy water solution in order to estimate the deuterium content in palladium during the detection of charged particles in our previous work. A complete transformation into β-palladium deuteride phase was observed, and its maximum lattice constant 4.06 A was evaluated as corresponding to D/Pd = 0.73. The deuterium concentration in the previous work was estimated as higher than this considering the difference in cell conditions. (author)

  20. Non-destructive evaluation of weld discontinuity in steel tubes by gamma ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. E.; Dantas, C. C.; Nery, M. S.; Barbosa, J. M.; Rolim, T. L.; Lima, E. A. O.; Melo, S. B.; Dos Santos, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Weld discontinuity in steel tubes was investigated and dimensioned in a data analysis sequence. The correlation matrix, cosine distance and hierarchical cluster were applied as multivariate data processing in this analysis. Welded rings of 9236 mm3 were scanned in gamma ray CT in test tubes and compared with steel base and references. The discontinuity volume detected in the welded rings was assessed based on the pixel volume in data sampling. By modeling gamma ray trajectories and rotation angles in CT scanning, a discontinuity of 0.3 mm was determined and a limit detection of 23 mm3 was obtained.

  1. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; 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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  2. Locating tube blockage that X-ray cannot detect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendron, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Alternate choices to X-ray use in detecting foreign materials in metal assemblies are available, including negative radiography, neutron radiography, liquid-crystal inspection and ultrasonics. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are given. Report is valuable in testings and inspections, including heat exchangers and piping systems.

  3. Verification of a novel method for tube voltage constancy measurement of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Belley, Matthew D; Chao, Nelson J; Dewhirst, Mark W; Yoshizumi, Terry

    2014-08-01

    For orthovoltage x-ray irradiators, the tube voltage is one of the most fundamental system parameters as this directly relates to the dosimetry in radiation biology studies; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercial portable quality assurance (QA) tool to directly test the constancy of the tube voltage greater than 160 kV. The purpose of this study is to establish the Beam Quality Index (BQI), a quantity strongly correlated to the tube voltage, as an alternative parameter for the verification of the tube voltage as part of the QA program of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators. A multipurpose QA meter and its associated data acquisition software were used to customize the measurement parameters to measure the BQI and collect its time-plot. BQI measurements were performed at 320 kV with four filtration levels on three orthovoltage x-ray irradiators of the same model, one of which had been recently energy-calibrated at the factory. For each of the four filtration levels, the measured BQI values were in good agreement (tube voltage for orthovoltage irradiators. The time-plot of BQI offers information on the behavior of beam energy at different phases of the irradiation time line. In addition, this would provide power supply performance characteristics from initial ramp-up to plateau, and finally, the sharp drop-off at the end of the exposure.

  4. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  5. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-11-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author).

  6. The use of x-ray micro-digital radiography for clay material inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, Gede B.; Louk, Andreas C.; Kurniasari, Herlina; Wiguna, Gede A.

    2014-06-01

    An x-ray micro-digital radiography (μ-DR) system has been developed at the Gadjah Mada University Indonesia. The μ- DR system was developed as an add-on unit on an x-ray Diffraction (XRD) system using one extra beam-port as its radiation source. A fluorescence screen encapsulated in a dark tube then coupled by a CCD camera was used as an imaging plate. The radiography objects were some sample clays for earthen or ceramic material of handicraft. The clays differ by particle size, namely: 40 mesh, 60 mesh, 80 mesh, and 100 mesh. The objects were put in front of the imaging plate and then they were exposed by x-ray beam. The image formed on the screen was captured by the CCD camera and then it was converted into digital microradiograph of a size of 720x576. Then, after noise suppression process and normalization procedure, the microradiograph were compared each other by considering particle size. This facility can be used as a non-destructive and testing material studies for examining the quality of earthen or ceramic handicraft.

  7. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  8. Measurement and quality control of the radiation output of X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, A.H.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is focused on the measurement of the radiation output in order to evaluate the performance of the medical X-ray tube and generator system. An ionometric method used to assess the consistency of radiation output and the variation of tube output with kV p and mA settings is described. The precision and accuracy achievable with the measurement technique described are discussed in relation to requirements and limitations of the quality-control parameter being measured. Use of a calibrated ionization chamber, carried out under well defined measurement conditions, provides a simple and reliable means to monitor the radiation output of X-ray tubes. (author)

  9. Characterization of the scattered radiation field around an x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Lara; Kauwenberghs, Kim; Vanhavere, Filip

    2011-05-07

    To determine patient doses or doses to the medical staff, Monte Carlo calculations are frequently applied. In these kinds of calculations the x-ray tube is often simplified to make the calculations faster. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of simplifications in the Monte Carlo set-up of the x-ray tube on the observed differences between measurements and calculations in the scattered field. At a distance of 50 and 100 cm from the focal spot, air kerma calculations are done for different angles from -90° to 90° from the central beam axis in steps of 15° with the Monte Carlo software code MCNP-X. Different calculations were performed where each time a component of the simulated x-ray tube (collimator, filters, etc) or the environment (walls) is included. Scattered doses are also measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the most simplified geometry of the x-ray tube, measurements are on average 70% larger than the calculated results. A much better agreement with the measurements is observed for more realistic calculations. The current work applies to a particular source in the SCK•CEN calibration laboratory; therefore the obtained results are representative and relevant for studies in calibration laboratories. As clinical sources have more shielding material and as in real imaging situations the scatter generated at the patient is much larger than the scatter leaking from the source, the results of this study have a limited impact on the wider field of clinical dosimetry.

  10. Line focus x-ray tubes-a new concept to produce high brilliance x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzsch, Stefan; Oelfke, Uwe

    2017-10-27

    Currently hard coherent x-ray radiation at high photon fluxes can only be produced with large and expensive radiation sources, such as 3[Formula: see text] generation synchrotrons. Especially in medicine, this limitation prevents various promising developments in imaging and therapy from being translated into clinical practice. Here we present a new concept of highly brilliant x-ray sources, line focus x-ray tubes (LFXTs), which may serve as a powerful and cheap alternative to synchrotrons and a range of other existing technologies. LFXTs employ an extremely thin focal spot and a rapidly rotating target for the electron beam which causes a change in the physical mechanism of target heating, allowing higher electron beam intensities at the focal spot. Monte Carlo simulations and numeric solutions of the heat equation are used to predict the characteristics of the LFXT. In terms of photon flux and coherence length, the performance of the line focus x-ray tube compares with inverse Compton scattering sources. Dose rates of up to 180 Gy [Formula: see text] can be reached in 50 cm distance from the focal spot. The results demonstrate that the line focus tube can serve as a powerful compact source for phase contrast imaging and microbeam radiation therapy. The production of a prototype seems technically feasible.

  11. Digital PIV Measurements of Acoustic Particle Displacements in a Normal Incidence Impedance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.; Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic particle displacements and velocities inside a normal incidence impedance tube have been successfully measured for a variety of pure tone sound fields using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The DPIV system utilized two 600-mj Nd:YAG lasers to generate a double-pulsed light sheet synchronized with the sound field and used to illuminate a portion of the oscillatory flow inside the tube. A high resolution (1320 x 1035 pixel), 8-bit camera was used to capture double-exposed images of 2.7-micron hollow silicon dioxide tracer particles inside the tube. Classical spatial autocorrelation analysis techniques were used to ascertain the acoustic particle displacements and associated velocities for various sound field intensities and frequencies. The results show that particle displacements spanning a range of 1-60 microns can be measured for incident sound pressure levels of 100-130 dB and for frequencies spanning 500-1000 Hz. The ability to resolve 1 micron particle displacements at sound pressure levels in the 100 dB range allows the use of DPIV systems for measurement of sound fields at much lower sound pressure levels than had been previously possible. Representative impedance tube data as well as an uncertainty analysis for the measurements are presented.

  12. Clinical assessment compared with chest X-Ray after removal of chest tube to diagnose pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, F. A.; Noor, Q. U. H.; Mehmood, U.; Imtiaz, T.; Zafar, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical judgment in ruling out pneumothorax during the removal of the chest tube by auscultating the chest before removal and after the extubation of the chest tube in comparison to x ray radiological results. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Pakistan, from August 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: A sample size of 100 was calculated. Patients were selected via non probability purposive sampling. Children under 14 years were not included. The patients with mal-positioned chest tube, surgical site infection, air leak and the patients with more than one chest tube on one side were excluded. A proforma was made and filled by one person. Chest tubes were removed by two trained senior registrars according to a protocol devised. It was ensured that there was no air leak present before removal clinically and radiologically. Another chest x-ray was done within 24 hours of extubation to detect any pathology that might have occurred during the process. Any complication in the patient clinically was observed till the x-ray film became available. Two sets of readings were obtained. Set A included auscultation findings and set B included x ray results. Results: Out of 100 patients, 60 (60 percent) were males and 40 (40 percent) females. The ages of the patients ranged between 17-77 years. Mean age of the patient was 43.27 ± 17.05 years. In set A out of 100 (100 percent) no pneumothorax developed clinically. In set B out of 100 patients 99 (99 percent) showed no pneumothorax on chest x ray, only 1 (1 percent) showed pneumothorax which was not significant (less than 15 percent on X ray). However, the patient remained asymptomatic clinically and there was no need of reinsertion of the chest tube. Conclusion: Auscultatory findings in diagnosing a significant pneumothorax are justified. Hence, if the chest tube is removed according to the protocol, clinically by

  13. [A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Fujii, Shigehisa; Shirakawa, Seiji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Nishii, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube is presented. The calculation procedure is to add an amount of characteristic X-ray photons that corresponds to the ratio of characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons to the bremsstrahlung spectrum obtained using semiempirical calculation. The bremsstrahlung spectrum was calculated by using a corrected Tucker's formula. The corrected content was a formula for calculating the self-absorption length in the target that originated in the difference of the incident angle to the target of the electron and the mass stopping power data. The measured spectrum was separated into the bremsstrahlung component and the characteristic photon component, and the ratio of the characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons was obtained. The regression was derived from the function of the tube voltage. Based on this calculation procedure, computer software was constructed that can calculate an X-ray spectrum in arbitrary exposure conditions. The X-ray spectrum obtained from this presumption calculating formula and the measured X-ray spectrum corresponded well. This formula is very useful for analyzing various problems related to mammography by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing visible difference images derived from an X-ray image of an anatomical subject, comprising the steps of directing X-rays through the anatomical subject for producing an image, converting the image into television fields comprising trains of on-going video signals, digitally storing and integrating the on-going video signals over a time interval corresponding to several successive television fields and thereby producing stored and integrated video signals, recovering the video signals from storage and producing integrated video signals, producing video difference signals by performing a subtraction between the integrated video signals and the on-going video signals outside the time interval, and converting the difference signals into visible television difference images representing on-going changes in the X-ray image

  15. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode

  16. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S.

    2015-08-01

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  17. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: x-ray tube imaging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-04-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  18. Comparative studies of physical characteristics and clinical efficacy of digitized chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, K.; Sato, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Adachi, S.; Kono, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of a cathode-ray-tube (CRT) image by using image physics, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and clinical evaluation. On the ROC study, they used images of a volunteer's chest with a simulated hairline positioned in different places. The hairline was positioned vertically and horizontally for the raster line. Statistically significant differences in accuracy were found between the different positions. Image physics showed a good correlation with clinical evaluation. The authors conclude that a 100-μm sampling pitch of digitization and >2,000 raster lines would be required for a primary diagnosis on a CRT

  19. An X-Ray Tube with Micron-sized Focal Spot using Multi-tipped CNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Ihsan, Aamir; Cho, Sung Oh

    2006-01-01

    A microfocus x-ray is developing as a high resolution imaging applications including diagnostic medical image and industrial inspection. A conventional thermionic x-ray tube is widely used because of its stability of electron emission and its high electron beam current with a large thermionic electron emission area. However, thermionic electrons are hard to focus as a spot due to a wide energy spread. The thermionic x-ray tube is limited to increase x-ray brightness over 10 7 phs/mm 2 mrad 2 s. A field emitter that has a low energy spread was considered as a point x-ray source, but the field emission current was relatively low. The electron beam current was limited because electrons were emitted only a single emission point. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a high brightness electron source and it can be deposited substrate-freely by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is possible to fabricate multi emitter, CNTs, on a sharp tip. In this study, a conical tungsten tip was used as a substrate of the CNTs to reduce the electron emission area and to increase the beam current by a high field enhancement factor. The emitted beam size and current were controlled by a focusing triode electron gun and an electromagnetic lens system to increase the electron beam brightness. X-ray was generated by using a transmission x-ray target that was optimally designed by MCNPX code

  20. Utility of Objective Chest Tube Management After Pulmonary Resection Using a Digital Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Imashimizu, Kota; Fukui, Mariko; Maeyashiki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Mikiko; Ueda, Takuya; Matsuzawa, Hironori; Hirayama, Shunki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Oh, Shiaki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical utility of chest tube management after pulmonary resection based on objective digital monitoring of pleural pressure and digital surveillance for air leaks. We prospectively recorded the perioperative data of 308 patients who underwent pulmonary resection between December 2013 and January 2016. We used information from a digital monitoring thoracic drainage system to measure peak air leakage during the first 24 hours after the operation, patterns of air leakage over the first 72 hours, and patterns of pleural pressure changes until the chest tubes were removed. There were 240 patients with lung cancer and 68 patients with other diseases. The operations included 49 wedge resections, 58 segmentectomies, and 201 lobectomies. A postoperative air leak was observed in 61 patients (20%). A prolonged air leak exceeding 20 mL/min lasting 5 days or more was observed in 18 patients (5.8%). Multivariate analysis of various perioperative factors showed forced expiratory volume in 1 second below 70%, patterns of air leakage, defined as exacerbating and remitting or without a trend toward improvement, and peak air leakage of 100 mL/min or more were significant positive predictors of prolonged air leak. Fluctuations in pleural pressure occurred just after the air leakage rate decreased to less than 20 mL/min. Digital monitoring of peak air leakage and patterns of air leakage were useful for predicting prolonged air leak after pulmonary resection. Information on the disappearance of air leak could be derived from the change in the rate of air leakage and from the increase in fluctuation of pleural pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of applicator system of miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for a skin cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Han Beom; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube is a small X-ray generation device generally with a diameter of less than 10 mm. Because of the feasible installation in a spatially constrained area and the possibility of electrical on/off control, miniature X-ray tubes can be widely used for nondestructive X-ray radiography, hand held X-ray spectrometers, electric brachytherapy, and interstitial or intracavitary radiation therapy or imaging with the substitution of radioactive isotopes. Miniature X-ray tubes have been developed mostly using thermionic electron sources or secondary X-ray emission. The X-ray tube show excellent field emission properties and good X-ray spectrum. Also, the flattening filter was made to irradiate uniformly. The X-ray dose radial uniformities between installed flattening filter and non-installed flattening filter were measured. When flattening filter is equipped, X-ray uniformity was improved from higher than 20% to lower than 10%. As a result, the fabricated applicator system of the miniature X-ray tube using optimized flattening filter exhibited fairly excellent properties

  2. Optimization of x-ray spectra in digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, D M; Tomal, A; Poletti, M E

    2012-04-07

    In this work, a Monte Carlo code was used to investigate the performance of different x-ray spectra in digital mammography, through a figure of merit (FOM), defined as FOM = CNR²/(¯)D(g), with CNR being the contrast-to-noise ratio in image and [Formula: see text] being the average glandular dose. The FOM was studied for breasts with different thicknesses t (2 cm ≤ t ≤ 8 cm) and glandular contents (25%, 50% and 75% glandularity). The anode/filter combinations evaluated were those traditionally employed in mammography (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), and a W anode combined with Al or K-edge filters (Zr, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn), for tube potentials between 22 and 34 kVp. Results show that the W anode combined with K-edge filters provides higher values of FOM for all breast thicknesses investigated. Nevertheless, the most suitable filter and tube potential depend on the breast thickness, and for t ≥ 6 cm, they also depend on breast glandularity. Particularly for thick and dense breasts, a W anode combined with K-edge filters can greatly improve the digital technique, with the values of FOM up to 200% greater than that obtained with the anode/filter combinations and tube potentials traditionally employed in mammography. For breasts with t < 4 cm, a general good performance was obtained with the W anode combined with 60 μm of the Mo filter at 24-25 kVp, while 60 μm of the Pd filter provided a general good performance at 24-26 kVp for t = 4 cm, and at 28-30 and 29-31 kVp for t = 6 and 8 cm, respectively.

  3. Whole-body CT with high heat-capacity X-ray tube and automated tube current modulation--effect of tube current limitation on contrast enhancement, image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Goshima, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshifumi; Tanahashi, Yukichi; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tube current limitation on contrast enhancement, image quality, and radiation dose in whole-body 64-detector CT with a high heat-capacity X-ray tube and automated tube current modulation. One hundred eighteen patients were randomized into three whole-body CT protocols: tube current limitation at 210 mA, 450 mA, and no limitation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dose-length product (DLP), estimated effective dose (ED), and image quality were assessed. Mean SNR of aorta was comparable among protocols, but that of liver was somewhat lower in 210-mA than in 450-mA and no-limitation protocols (pX-ray tube, an appropriate tube current limitation setting may help reduce excessive radiation dose without significant compromise in diagnostic acceptability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Flesher, A.C.; Tucker, P.A.; Swanton, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described: the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled, in the case of the Mark I to a Digital LSI 11-23 microcomputer system via CAMAC, and in the case of the Mark II to a Digital LSI 11-73 microcomputer system via custom-built data acquisition hardware mounted directly on the Q-bus of the microcomputer. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multiframe exposures. The dedicated digital memories have a resolution of 512x512 pixels of 16 bits, matching well to the spatial resolution of the xenon-filled MWPC (0.5 mm fwhm over an aperture of 200 mm x 200 mm). A 512x512x4 bit video graphics system displays the images in grey scales or colour. (orig.)

  5. X-ray image intensifier tube and radiographic camera incorporating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray sensitive image intensifier tube is described. It has an input window comprising at least one of iron, chromium and nickel for receiving an X-ray image. There is a flat scintillator screen adjacent for converting the X-ray image into a light pattern image. Adjacent to this is a flat photocathode layer for emitting photoelectrons in a pattern corresponding to the light pattern image. Parallel to this and spaced from it is a flat phosphor display screen. Electrostatic voltage is applied to the display screen and the photocathode layer to create an electric field between them to accelerate the photoelectrons towards the display screen. The paths of such parallel straight trajectories are governed solely by the electrostatic voltage applied, the image at the display screen being substantially equal in size to that of the X-ray image received at the input window. The tube envelope is preferably metallic to enable the basic components to be kept at a neutral potential and avoid spurious emissions. A radiographic camera with such an intensifier tube is also described. (U.K.)

  6. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of musculoskeletal tissues using a conventional x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleman, Carol; Li, Jun; Connor, Dean; Parham, Christopher; Pisano, Etta; Zhong, Zhong

    2009-08-01

    In conventional projection radiography, cartilage and other soft tissues do not produce enough radiographic contrast to be distinguishable from each other. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses a monochromatic x-ray beam and a silicon crystal analyzer to produce images in which attenuation contrast is greatly enhanced and x-ray refraction at tissue boundaries can be detected. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of conventional x-ray tube-based DEI for the detection of soft tissues in experimental samples. Cadaveric human tali (normal and degenerated) and a knee and thumb were imaged with DEI using a conventional x-ray tube and DEI setup that included a double-silicon crystal monochromator and a silicon crystal analyzer positioned between the imaged object and the detector. Diffraction-enhanced images of the cadaveric tali allowed the visualization of cartilage and its specific level of degeneration for each specimen. There was a significant correlation between the grade of cartilage integrity as assessed on the tube diffraction-enhanced images and on their respective histologic sections (r = 0.97, P = .01). Images of the intact knee showed the articular cartilage edge of the femoral condyle, even when superimposed by the tibia. In the thumb image, it was possible to visualize articular cartilage, tendons, and other soft tissues. DEI based on a conventional x-ray tube allows the visualization of skeletal and soft tissues simultaneously. Although more in-depth testing and optimization of the DEI setup must be carried out, these data demonstrate a proof of principle for further development of the technology for future clinical imaging.

  7. [Research on spectral characteristic of miniature X-ray tube and determination of beryllium window thickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Ge, Liang-Quan; Fan, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Zhu, Zhen-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Applying Monte Carlo method, the present paper simulates the emitted X-ray spectrum of miniature X-ray tube with thirteen thickness of beryllium window in the range from 50 to 500 microm. By analyzing the characteristic of the spectrums, the reasonable choice of thickness of beryllium window relies on the application and for the beryllium window it is not the thinner the better. Taking in-situ EDXRF as an example, though the emission X-ray intensity is higher as the thickness of the beryllium window becomes thinner, the proportion of useless low-energy X-ray (X-ray intensity also is higher (>20%). The accuracy of in-situ EDXRF will be reduced when the high-throughput low-energy X-ray enters the detector. Therefore, this paper puts forward several parameters as judgment index for beryllium window thickness, which is described as follows: 1)The intensity ratios of the K-series X-ray to middle-energy (5-25 keV) bremsstrahlung and middle-high-energy (5-50 keV) bremsstrahlung (F1 and F3); 2)The intensity ratios of useless low-energy X-ray (X-ray and middle-high-energy (5-50 keV) X-ray (F2 and F4), it can reflect the relative intensity of useless low-energy X-ray. The simulation results demonstrate that with the increase in the beryllium window thickness, the value of F1 (F3) improves slowly, and the value of F2 (F4) decreases rapidly. In addition to the judgment index discussed above, and considering the X-ray shielded by beryllium window, the beryllium window of miniature X-ray tube can be determined. Based on simulation analysis, the thickness of around 250 microm is appropriate to miniature X-ray tube applied in the in-situ EDXRF. Comparing the emitted spectrum with 50 microm-thick beryllium window, 71.66% of low-energy X-rays are shielded, only 21.31% of X-rays with energy from 5 to 50 keV is shielded, the intensity ratio of low-energy X-ray to total energy X-ray is less than 10%, and the intensity proportion of K-series X-ray to middle-high energy X-ray maintains a

  8. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: investigation of rotating-anode x-ray tube heat loadability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures, a closed bore hybrid x-ray/MRI (CBXMR) system is proposed in which an x-ray C-arm will be positioned with its isocenter approximately =1 m from the entrance of a clinical MRI scanner. This system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to improve clinical outcome. A key component of the CBXMR system will be a rotating anode x-ray tube to produce high-quality x-ray images. There are challenges in positioning an x-ray tube in the magnetic fringe field of the MRI magnet. Here, the effects of an external magnetic field on x-ray tube induction motors of radiography x-ray tubes and the corresponding reduction of x-ray tube heat loadability are investigated. Anode rotation frequency f(aode) was unaffected when the external magnetic field Bb was parallel to the axis of rotation of the anode but decreased when Bb was perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The experimental f(anode) values agreed with predicted values to within +/-3% over a Bb range of 0-30 mT. The MRI fringe field at the proposed location of the x-ray tube mounted on the C-arm (approximately =4 mT) reduced f(anode) by only 1%, so x-ray tube heat loadability will not be compromised when using CBXMR systems for percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. Eddy current heating power in the rotor due to an MRI fringe field was found to be two orders of magnitude weaker than the heating power produced on the anode due to a fluoroscopic exposure, so eddy current heating had no effect on x-ray tube heat loadability.

  9. Surface applicator of a miniature X-ray tube for superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Nam; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Park, Han Beom; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Sung Oh

    2018-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a surface applicator of a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based miniature X-ray tube for the use in superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer. To investigate the effectiveness of the surface applicator, the performance of the applicator was numerically and experimentally analyzed. The surface applicator consists of a graphite flattening filter and an X-ray shield. A Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP6, was used to optimize the geometries of both the flattening filter and the shield so that X-rays are generated uniformly over the desired region. The performance of the graphite filter was compared with that of conventional aluminum (Al) filters of different geometries using the numerical simulations. After fabricating a surface applicator, the X-ray spatial distribution was measured to evaluate the performance of the applicator. The graphite filter shows better spatial dose uniformity and less dose distortion than Al filters. Moreover, graphite allows easy fabrication of the flattening filter due to its low X-ray attenuation property, which is particularly important for low-energy electronic brachytherapy. The applicator also shows that no further X-ray shielding is required for the application because unwanted X-rays are completely protected. As a result, highly uniform X-ray dose distribution was achieved from the miniature X-ray tube mounted with the surface applicators. The measured values of both flatness and symmetry were less than 5% and the measured penumbra values were less than 1 mm. All these values satisfy the currently accepted tolerance criteria for radiation therapy. The surface applicator exhibits sufficient performance capability for their application in electronic brachytherapy of skin cancers. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Small-Sized Flat-Tip CNT Emitters for Miniaturized X-Ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small tip-type CNT emitters with the diameter of 0.8 mm were fabricated for miniaturized X-ray tubes. The CNT emitters were prepared by dropping CNTs and silver nanoparticles on a flat surface of a W metal tip followed by annealing at 800°C for 2 h under vacuum. The CNT emitters exhibit good field emission properties with the threshold electric field of 1.15 V/μm and the field enhancement factor of 12,050. CNTs were well attached to a flat W tip surface without coating on the side plane of the tip, and thus beam divergence could be minimized. Consequently, a miniaturized X-ray tube with the inner diameter of 5 mm was successfully demonstrated using the tip-type CNT emitter.

  11. Peak potential meter applied to X-ray tubes in mammal radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Frere, Annie F.; Andreeta, Jose P.

    1989-01-01

    It is of a great importance to identify accurately the real peak potential (or simply, KVp) applied to a X-ray tube purposed to medical diagnosis, since it defines the beam energetic quality in terms of photons penetration power. Mainly in mammographic systems. it is of fundamental relevance the KVp accurate measurement because the soft tissues involved in this kind of examination provides different absorption - and, hence, clear contrast on mammographic film - just in a very restrict energetic range. Thus a device to measure KVp with adequate accuracy in mammographic units, using the basic principles of scintillation detection, was developed. This system is therefore composed of a NaI(Tl) crystal which is a X-ray sensor - replacing radiographic films which usually are a source of errors in these measurements - , a photo multiplier tube and changed into amplified electric pulses. Finally the electronic circuit, after adequate pulses treatment, shows instantaneously the actual KVp value in the test on displays. (author)

  12. Miniature X-ray Source for Planetary Exploration Instruments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop a design model for a CNT cold cathode, low power, passively cooled, and grounded-anode X-ray tube that is compatible...

  13. Theoretical modeling of a portable x-ray tube based KXRF system to measure lead in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Weisskopf, Marc G; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2017-03-01

    K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) techniques have been used to identify health effects resulting from exposure to metals for decades, but the equipment is bulky and requires significant maintenance and licensing procedures. A portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device was developed to overcome these disadvantages, but introduced a measurement dependency on soft tissue thickness. With recent advances to detector technology, an XRF device utilizing the advantages of both systems should be feasible. In this study, we used Monte Carlo simulations to test the feasibility of an XRF device with a high-energy x-ray tube and detector operable at room temperature. We first validated the use of Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) for x-ray tube simulations, and found good agreement between experimental and simulated results. Then, we optimized x-ray tube settings and found the detection limit of the high-energy x-ray tube based XRF device for bone lead measurements to be 6.91 µg g -1 bone mineral using a cadmium zinc telluride detector. In conclusion, this study validated the use of MCNP in simulations of x-ray tube physics and XRF applications, and demonstrated the feasibility of a high-energy x-ray tube based XRF for metal exposure assessment.

  14. X-ray tube incorporating a rotating anode with magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes an X-ray tube incorporating a rotating anode. The rotor consists of a single, soft-magnetic dish which is fixed on the axis and which seals the magnetic yoke of the stator. Looking in the direction of the axis, one side is equipped with two circular pole surfaces, one at least of which is provided with circular pole-shoes, separated from one another by concentric grooves. (T.P.)

  15. Performance of the CMS drift-tube chamber local trigger with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; 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    2010-01-01

    The performance of the Local Trigger based on the drift-tube system of the CMS experiment has been studied using muons from cosmic ray events collected during the commissioning of the detector in 2008. The properties of the system are extensively tested and compared with the simulation. The effect of the random arrival time of the cosmic rays on the trigger performance is reported, and the results are compared with the design expectations for proton-proton collisions and with previous measurements obtained with muon beams.

  16. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  17. Design of high voltage power supply of miniature X-ray tube based on resonant Royer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiyao; Zeng Guoqiang; Tan Chengjun; Luo Qun; Gong Chunhui; Huang Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, X rays are widely used in various fields. With the rapid development of national economy, the demand of high quality, high reliability, and high stability miniature X-ray tube has grown rapidly. As an important core component of miniature X-ray tube, high voltage power supply has attracted wide attention. Purpose: To match miniature, the high voltage power supply should be small, lightweight, good quality, etc. Based on the basic performance requirements of existing micro-X-ray tube high voltage power supply, this paper designs an output from 0 to -30 kV adjustable miniature X-ray tube voltage DC power supply. Compared to half-bridge and full-bridge switching-mode power supply, its driving circuit is simple. With working on the linear condition, it has no switching noise. Methods: The main circuit makes use of DC power supply to provide the energy. The resonant Royer circuit supplies sine wave which drives to the high frequency transformer's primary winding with resultant sine-like high voltage appearing across the secondary winding. Then, the voltage doubling rectifying circuit would achieve further boost. In the regulator circuit, a feedback control resonant transistor base current is adopted. In order to insulate air, a silicone rubber is used for high pressure part packaging, and the output voltage is measured by the dividing voltage below -5 kV. Results: The stability of circuit is better than 0.2%/6 h and the percent of the output ripple voltage is less than 0.3%. Keeping the output voltage constant, the output current can reach 57 μA by changing the size of load resistor. This high voltage power supply based on resonant Royer can meet the requirement of miniature X-ray tube. Conclusions: The circuit can satisfy low noise, low ripple, low power and high voltage regulator power supply design. However, its efficiency is not high enough because of the linear condition. In the next design, to further reduce power consumption, we

  18. Analysis of the design of an X-ray tube using Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena V, J. D.; Sosa A, M. A.; Ceron, P. V.; Vallejo, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the Monte Carlo analysis of the X-rays produced by a rotating X-ray tube of the Siemens brand that is used in tomographs for clinical use. The work was done with the MCNP6 code with which the tube was modeled and the primary X-ray spectra produced during the interaction of monoenergetic electrons of 130 keV were calculated. The X-ray spectra were obtained by varying some parameters such as: the angle of the anode (15 to 20 degrees), the type of target (Tungsten, Molybdenum and Rhodium) and the thickness of the filter (3, 5, 10 and 15 mm). In order to have a good statistic 10 7 stories were used. Though the estimators f2 and f5 the X-ray spectra and the total fluencies were estimated. This information will be used to calculate the dose absorbed in the lens and the thyroid gland in patients undergoing radio diagnosis procedures. (Author)

  19. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of light elements with synchrotron radiation and special X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Bauer, V.; Kregsamer, P.; Goergl, R.; Pianetta, P.; Ryon, R.; Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L.

    1997-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) of light elements, such as C, O and Al (atomic numbers 5-13) generally has poor sensitivity and detection limits due to poor excitation and low fluorescent yields. Special excitation sources are necessary to compensate for these physical limitations. Synchrotron radiation is the ideal source for TXRF due to its high intensity and wide spectral range extending into the low energy region required for light elements. For more routine use, special X-ray tubes can be constructed. Experiments have been performed at the Standford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using beamline III-4, which is specially designed for the sue of low energy photons. Light elements on Si wafers have been analyzed, leading to detection limits below 100 fg for Na, Mg and Al, which corresponds to about 10 9 atoms. A new vacuum chamber is introduced meeting the requirements of wafer handling without the risk of contamination and offering the possibility of scanning a certain area of the wafer. Boron was detected on a wafer with 10 14 atoms cm -2 implanted in the surface layer. A special windowless X-ray tube with Mo, Al and Si as anode materials was also tested. With the optimization of anode geometry, beam path and excitation conditions, a detection limit of 5 pg (corresponds to 10 11 atoms) for Al was achieved. (Author)

  20. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of light elements with synchrotron radiation and special X-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Bauer, V.; Kregsamer, P.; Goergl, R. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Wien (Austria); Pianetta, P. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab. (Canada); Ryon, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. CA (United States); Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L. [Wacker Siltronic AG, Burghausen (Germany)

    1997-06-20

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) of light elements, such as C, O and Al (atomic numbers 5-13) generally has poor sensitivity and detection limits due to poor excitation and low fluorescent yields. Special excitation sources are necessary to compensate for these physical limitations. Synchrotron radiation is the ideal source for TXRF due to its high intensity and wide spectral range extending into the low energy region required for light elements. For more routine use, special X-ray tubes can be constructed. Experiments have been performed at the Standford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using beamline III-4, which is specially designed for the sue of low energy photons. Light elements on Si wafers have been analyzed, leading to detection limits below 100 fg for Na, Mg and Al, which corresponds to about 10{sup 9}atoms. A new vacuum chamber is introduced meeting the requirements of wafer handling without the risk of contamination and offering the possibility of scanning a certain area of the wafer. Boron was detected on a wafer with 10{sup 14} atoms cm{sup -2} implanted in the surface layer. A special windowless X-ray tube with Mo, Al and Si as anode materials was also tested. With the optimization of anode geometry, beam path and excitation conditions, a detection limit of 5 pg (corresponds to 10{sup 11} atoms) for Al was achieved. (Author).

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  2. Determination of residual stresses in autofrettaged steel tubes by neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintschovius, L.; Macherauch, E.; Scholtes, B.

    1986-01-01

    The residual stress state of an autofrettaged 30 CrNiMo 8 steel tube has been investigated by neutron and X-ray diffraction. The results of X-ray measurements on the face of a ring cut out of the tube agree well with the neutron results obtained on the central part of an unmachined specimen. The experimentally determined residual stress distributions resemble only to a first approximation that expected from theoretical estimations. As expected, the tangential stress component at the inner diameter was found to be largest and is compressive. However, the distributions of the tangential and radial residual stress components show large deviations from the expected values. The differences between experiment and theory are probably due to neglecting the Bauschinger effect, the decarburization of the surface layers and the residual stresses produced by an alignment procedure before the autofrettage process. Annealing the tube for 1 h at 450 0 C has little effect on the residual stress distribution, except for a reduction in the steep gradient of the tangential stress component close to the inner surface. (orig.)

  3. Estimation of the effective focal spot sizes in medical diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabska, Iwona; Fabiszewska, Ewa; Pasicz, Katarzyna; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    For evaluation of the effective focal spot sizes (EFSS), a method suggested by the EN 60336:2005 standard (standard) could be used. In this study we checked whether it is possible to make some deviations from the requirements of the standard without a significant effect on the result. An image receptor with one intensifying screen or two intensifying screens may be used, but the optical value of the slit image shall be in the range of 1.0÷1.4 and the X-ray tube power shall be ranged of about 30%÷50% of the nominal anode input power. A precision scaled magnifier (magnification of 5÷10x and scale of 0.1 mm) may be used for the slit radiogram width measurement instead of a time-consuming scanning of the slit radiogram. These deviations from the requirements of the EN 60336:2005 standard allows to shorten measurement time and to decrease tube current value during X-ray exposures, which reduces the risk of the Xray tube damage.

  4. Digital gamma-ray spectroscopy based on FPGA technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bolic, M

    2002-01-01

    A digital pulse processing system convenient for high rate gamma-ray spectroscopy with NaI(Tl) detectors has been designed. The new programmable logic device has been used for implementation of dedicated high-speed pulse processor, as the central part of the system. The processor is capable to operate at the speed of fast ADC, preserving maximum throughput of the system. Special care has been taken to reduce the distortion of energy spectrum caused by pile-up at high-count rates. The developed system is highly flexible, and the parameters of its operation can be changed in software. The performance of the system was tested for high counting rate of 400000 s sup - sup 1.

  5. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation analysis of…

  6. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  7. Numerical computation of the Shock Tube Problem by means of wave digital principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mengel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations can be solved numerically by means of wave digital principles. The great advantage of this method is the simultaneous achievement of high robustness, massive parallelism full localness and high accuracy. Among others this method will be applied in order to solve the Euler-equations according to one dimension in space. Especially the so called Shock Tube Problem will be examined. The analytical solution of this problem contains two discontinuities, namely a shock and a contact discontinuity. These result in oscillations which are due to numerical integration methods of higher order. Also solutions of the Wave Digital Method contain these oscillations, contrary to what had been observed of Yuhui Zhu (2000. This behaviour is also known as Gibbs Phenomena. The Navier-Stokes-equations, which are from a physical point of view more exactly, additionally take viscosity terms into account. This leads to smooth solutions near shocks. It will be shown that this approach leads to the suppression of the oscillations near the shock. Furthermore it will be shown that quite good results for the computation of velocity and pressure can be obtained.

  8. Effect of particle size, filler loadings and x-ray tube voltage on the transmitted x-ray transmission in tungsten oxide-epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Azman, N Z; Siddiqui, S A; Hart, R; Low, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of particle size, filler loadings and x-ray tube voltage on the x-ray transmission in WO(3)-epoxy composites has been investigated using the mammography unit and a general radiography unit. Results indicate that nano-sized WO(3) has a better ability to attenuate the x-ray beam generated by lower tube voltages (25-35 kV) when compared to micro-sized WO(3) of the same filler loading. However, the effect of particle size on x-ray transmission was negligible at the higher x-ray tube voltages (40-120 kV). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The concordance of ultrasound technique versus X-ray to confirm endotracheal tube position in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, R; Dangman, B; Pinheiro, J M B

    2015-07-01

    Given the distressingly high incidence of ETT malposition in the neonatal population, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation to confirm endotracheal tube (ETT) position. Our objective is to determine if ultrasound technique is concordant with X-ray in determining whether an ETT is deeply positioned or not. Prospective observational clinical trial. After obtaining informed consent, patients with an ETT who required X-ray for clinical reasons underwent sonographic evaluation of the ETT by an ultrasound technologist or pediatric radiologist, usually within the hour. A total of 56 image pairs were obtained from 29 patients. Ninety-eight percent of the ultrasound/X-ray image pairs were suitable for analysis. The concordance of ultrasound with X-ray to identify deeply and not deeply positioned ETTs was 95% (53/56). The sensitivity of ultrasound to detect deeply positioned ETTs on X-ray was 86% (6/7). The specificity of ultrasound to detect ETTs that were not deeply positioned on X-ray was 96% (47/49). As the largest clinical trial of its kind to date, with the greatest number of ultrasound operators, we have further established US as a feasible imaging modality to determine whether an ETT is deeply positioned or not.

  10. Investigation of a novel x-ray tube for the calibration of the x-ray crystal spectrometer in the KSTAR machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, J.G.; Lee, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel x-ray tube with a line filament has been developed for the in-situ calibration of the x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) in the KSTAR machine. The characteristics of the x-ray tube are investigated from the x-ray images obtained by using a pinhole and a CCD detector. It is found that the image has the width of about 0.1 mm, which is much improved as compared with the previous experimental results. In addition, there is a uniform region around the center of the image within its full length of 13.5 mm. This work may lead to the development of a novel x-ray tube with a line focus, which is required for the calibration of the XCS. Experimental results from the investigation of the x-ray tube are presented and the technical issues in a design of the in-situ calibration system using the x-ray tube for the KSTAR XCS are discussed. (author)

  11. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Chika; Ohara, Hiromu; Ishisaka, Akira; Shimada, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  12. Doses under automatic exposure control (AEC) for direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Louise; Faulkner, Ronan; Clancy, Conor; Gallagher, Aoife; Devine, Mark; Gorman, Dermot; O'Reilly, Geraldine; Dowling, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Current guidelines quote tolerances for automatic exposure control (AEC) device performance for X-ray systems as 'Baseline ± X %'. However, in the situation where a baseline figure has not yet been achieved, as in the case of commissioning assessments, this tolerance is not relevant. The purpose of this work is to provide mean doses for direct digital radiography (DDR) X-ray system, operating in AEC, against which comparisons can be made. Dose measurements have been recorded under AEC operation on 29 DDR detectors from three different manufacturers. Two different testing protocols were examined: (1) water equivalent phantoms in front of the DDR detector and (2) aluminium block at the tube head. The average patient exit dose, using the aluminium block was 4.6 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 4.0 μGy with the grid removed. Using the water phantoms, the average dose was measured at 17.1 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 5.4 μGy with grid removed. Based on these results, it is clear that different testing configurations significantly impact on the measured dose.

  13. X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Alekseev, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite has been developed. The method is based on constructing coordinate grid of stereographic projection determining quantity and coordinates of points where measurements should be performed depending on a specimen slope pitch. Complete stereographic projection obtained so is a base both for constructing pole figures showing distribution normales of plane system being studied and for calculating texture coefficients determining property anisotropy in materials under investigation. This method can be applied to study texture in items of any materials independent of the item shape

  14. Description of x-ray tube spectra by the depth distribution function of Pouchou and Pichoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobmann, B.; Wernisch, J.; Ebel, H.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm for calculating the x-ray tube continuum based on the depth distribution function (DDF) proposed by Pochou and Pichoir, extended the description of white and characteristic radiation given by Wiederschwinger et al to the low energy range from 5 to 30 keV and compared the results from these algorithms to the signals obtained from algorithms using the absorption correction of Philibert and of Sewell et al. Preceding calculations the measured spectra were separated into characteristic peak spectra and into the corresponding white spectra, where the background below the peak areas was numerically interpolated. 13 refs., 5 figs

  15. Detection efficiency vs. cathode and anode separation in cylindrical vacuum photodiodes used for measuring x-rays from plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, T. K.; Talukdar, N.; Neog, N. K.; Rao, C. V. S.; Shyam, A.

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study on the performance of cylindrical vacuum photodiodes (VPDs) for x-ray detection in plasma focus device has been carried out. Various parameters of VPD such as electrode's diameter, electrode's separation, and its sensitivity are experimentally tested in plasma focus environment. For the first time it is found experimentally that the electrode-separation in the lateral direction of the two coaxial electrodes of cylindrical VPD also plays an important role to increase the efficiency of the detector. The efficiency is found to be highest for the detector with smaller cathode-anode lateral gap (1.5 mm) with smaller photo cathode diameter (10 mm). A comparison between our VPD with PIN (BPX-65) diode as an x-ray detector has also been made.

  16. FFT Analysis of the X-ray Tube Voltage Waveforms of High-Frequency Generators for Radiographic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Saito, H.; Ito, D.; Shimura, H.; Zuguchi, M.; Takai, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method for analyzing the voltage waveform from high-frequency X-ray generators for radiographic systems. Material and Methods: The output signal of the actual voltage across the tube of a high-frequency generator was measured using the built-in voltage sense taps that are used for voltage regulation feedback in X-ray generators. The output signal was stored in an analyzing recorder, and the waveforms were analyzed using FFT analysis. The FFT analysis of high-frequency generators consisted of obtaining the power spectrum, comparing the major frequency components in the tube voltage waveforms, and examining the intensity of each frequency component. Results: FFT analysis enables an objective comparison of the complex tube voltage waveforms in high-frequency X-ray generators. FFT analysis detected the change in the X-ray tube voltage waveform that occurred when there were problems with the high-frequency generator. Conclusion: High-frequency X-ray generators are becoming the universal choice for radiographic systems. The X-ray tube voltage and its waveform are important features of an X-ray generator, and quality assurance (QA) is important, too. As a tool for engineers involved in the design and development of X-ray generators, we can see that our methods (FFT analysis) might have some value as a means of describing generator performance under varying conditions. Furthermore, since the X-ray tube voltage waveform of a high-frequency generator is complex, FFT analysis may be useful for QA of the waveform

  17. kV x-ray dual digital tomosynthesis for image guided lung SBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Boyd, Douglas; Kim, Namho; Hernandez, Andrew; Daly, Megan; Boone, John

    2016-03-01

    Two simulated sets of digital tomosynthesis images of the lungs, each acquired at a 90 degree angle from the other, with 19 projection images used for each set and SART iterative reconstructed, gives dual tomosynthesis slice image quality approaching that of spiral CT, and with a data acquisition time that is 3% of that of cone beam CT. This fast kV acquisition, should allow near real time tracking of lung tumors in patients receiving SBRT, based on a novel TumoTrakTM multi-source X-ray tube design. Until this TumoTrakTM prototype is completed over the next year, its projected performance was simulated from the DRR images created from a spiral CT data set from a lung cancer patient. The resulting dual digital tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the lung tumor were exceptional and approached that of the gold standard Feldkamp CT reconstruction of breath hold, diagnostic, spiral, multirow, CT data. The relative dose at 46 mAs was less than 10% of what it would have been if the digital tomosynthesis had been done at the 472 mAs of the CT data set. This is for a 0.77 fps imaging rate sufficient to resolve respiratory motion in many free breathing patients during SBRT. Such image guidance could decrease the magnitudes of targeting error margins by as much as 20 mm or more in the craniocaudal direction for lower lobe lesions while markedly reducing dose to normal lung, heart and other critical structures. These initial results suggest a wide range of topics for future work.

  18. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mihye; Lillaney, Prasheel; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Hybrid x-ray/MR systems can enhance the diagnosis and treatment of endovascular, cardiac, and neurologic disorders by using the complementary advantages of both modalities for image guidance during interventional procedures. Conventional rotating anode x-ray tubes fail near an MR imaging system, since MR fringe fields create eddy currents in the metal rotor which cause a reduction in the rotation speed of the x-ray tube motor. A new x-ray tube motor prototype has been designed and built to be operated close to a magnet. To ensure the stability and safety of the motor operation, dynamic characteristics must be analyzed to identify possible modes of mechanical failure. In this study a 3D finite element method (FEM) model was developed in order to explore possible modifications, and to optimize the motor design. The FEM provides a valuable tool that permits testing and evaluation using numerical simulation instead of building multiple prototypes.Methods: Two experimental approaches were used to measure resonance characteristics: the first obtained the angular speed curves of the x-ray tube motor employing an angle encoder; the second measured the power spectrum using a spectrum analyzer, in which the large amplitude of peaks indicates large vibrations. An estimate of the bearing stiffness is required to generate an accurate FEM model of motor operation. This stiffness depends on both the bearing geometry and adjacent structures (e.g., the number of balls, clearances, preload, etc.) in an assembly, and is therefore unknown. This parameter was set by matching the FEM results to measurements carried out with the anode attached to the motor, and verified by comparing FEM predictions and measurements with the anode removed. The validated FEM model was then used to sweep through design parameters [bearing stiffness (1×10 5 –5×10 7 N/m), shaft diameter (0.372–0.625 in.), rotor diameter (2.4–2.9 in.), and total length of motor (5.66–7.36 in.)] to increase

  19. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lillaney, Prasheel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Hybrid x-ray/MR systems can enhance the diagnosis and treatment of endovascular, cardiac, and neurologic disorders by using the complementary advantages of both modalities for image guidance during interventional procedures. Conventional rotating anode x-ray tubes fail near an MR imaging system, since MR fringe fields create eddy currents in the metal rotor which cause a reduction in the rotation speed of the x-ray tube motor. A new x-ray tube motor prototype has been designed and built to be operated close to a magnet. To ensure the stability and safety of the motor operation, dynamic characteristics must be analyzed to identify possible modes of mechanical failure. In this study a 3D finite element method (FEM) model was developed in order to explore possible modifications, and to optimize the motor design. The FEM provides a valuable tool that permits testing and evaluation using numerical simulation instead of building multiple prototypes.Methods: Two experimental approaches were used to measure resonance characteristics: the first obtained the angular speed curves of the x-ray tube motor employing an angle encoder; the second measured the power spectrum using a spectrum analyzer, in which the large amplitude of peaks indicates large vibrations. An estimate of the bearing stiffness is required to generate an accurate FEM model of motor operation. This stiffness depends on both the bearing geometry and adjacent structures (e.g., the number of balls, clearances, preload, etc.) in an assembly, and is therefore unknown. This parameter was set by matching the FEM results to measurements carried out with the anode attached to the motor, and verified by comparing FEM predictions and measurements with the anode removed. The validated FEM model was then used to sweep through design parameters [bearing stiffness (1×10{sup 5}–5×10{sup 7} N/m), shaft diameter (0.372–0.625 in.), rotor diameter (2.4–2.9 in.), and total length of motor (5.66–7.36 in.)] to

  20. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO 2 optical fibers

  1. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Y; Błachucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  2. X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging as Multiscale Probes of Intercalation Phenomena in Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Gregory A.; De Jesus, Luis R.; Andrews, Justin L.; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-09-01

    Intercalation phenomena are at the heart of modern electrochemical energy storage. Nevertheless, as out-of-equilibrium processes involving concomitant mass and charge transport, such phenomena can be difficult to engineer in a predictive manner. The rational design of electrode architectures requires mechanistic understanding of physical phenomena spanning multiple length scales, from atomistic distortions and electron localization at individual transition metal centers to phase inhomogeneities and intercalation gradients in individual particles and concentration variances across ensembles of particles. In this review article, we discuss the importance of the electronic structure in mediating electrochemical storage and mesoscale heterogeneity. In particular, we discuss x-ray spectroscopy and imaging probes of electronic and atomistic structure as well as statistical regression methods that allow for monitoring of the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of intercalation. The layered α-phase of V2O5 is used as a model system to develop fundamental ideas on the origins of mesoscale heterogeneity.

  3. Geometric calibration of a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system based on distributed carbon nanotube X-ray source arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhui; Zhang, Na; Gao, Juan; Hu, Zhanli

    2017-01-01

    Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT) with distributed X-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes has been recently proposed as an approach that can prevent motion blur produced by traditional DBT systems. In this paper, we simulate a geometric calibration method based on a proposed multi-source CNT X-ray sDBT system. This method is a projection matrix-based approach with seven geometric parameters, all of which can be obtained from only one projection datum of the phantom. To our knowledge, this study reports the first application of this approach in a CNT-based multi-beam X-ray sDBT system. The simulation results showed that the extracted geometric parameters from the calculated projection matrix are extremely close to the input values and that the proposed method is effective and reliable for a square sDBT system. In addition, a traditional cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system was also simulated, and the uncalibrated and calibrated geometric parameters were used in image reconstruction based on the filtered back-projection (FBP) method. The results indicated that the images reconstructed with calibrated geometric parameters have fewer artifacts and are closer to the reference image. All the simulation tests showed that this geometric calibration method is optimized for sDBT systems but can also be applied to other application-specific CT imaging systems.

  4. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods: Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results: Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion: The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography.

  5. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  6. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  7. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  8. Compression of the digitized X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terae, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Takamura, Akio; Irie, Goro; Inamura, Kiyonari.

    1987-01-01

    Medical images are using an increased amount of space in the hospitals, while they are not accessed easily. Thus, suitable data filing system and precise data compression will be necessitated. Image quality was evaluated before and after image data compression, using local filing system (MediFile 1000, NEC Co.) and forty-seven modes of compression parameter. For this study X-ray images of 10 plain radiographs and 7 contrast examinations were digitized using a film reader of CCD sensor in MediFile 1000. Those images were compressed into forty-seven kinds of image data to save in an optical disc and then the compressed images were reconstructed. Each reconstructed image was compared with non-compressed images in respect to several regions of our interest by four radiologists. Compression and extension of radiological images were promptly made by employing the local filing system. Image quality was much more affected by the ratio of data compression than by the mode of parameter itself. In another word, the higher compression ratio became, the worse the image quality were. However, image quality was not significantly degraded until the compression ratio was about 15: 1 on plain radiographs and about 8: 1 on contrast studies. Image compression by this technique will be admitted by diagnostic radiology. (author)

  9. Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Takman, P. [Excillum AB, Finlandsgatan 14, 164 74 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50–100 μm spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-Kα radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 μm slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm{sup 2} was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented. - Highlights: • Using a new X-ray source for TXRF • Liquid metal jet X-ray source from Excillum • Offers improvements for lab based TXRF spectrometers • Can also be important for related techniques.

  10. Nasal position of nasotracheal tubes: a retrospective analysis of intraoperatively generated three-dimensional X-rays during maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümer, Lili; Schön, Gerhard; Klatt, Jan; Hanken, Henning; Schmelzle, Rainer; Pohlenz, Philipp

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the position of the nasotracheal tube in the nose and to show its anatomical relationship with the maxillary sinus ostium. Fifty data sets from patients who had undergone endonasal intubation were analyzed for tube positioning. There was a drop-out of eight data sets due to missing information concerning tube size and mode. Tube positioning was determined at the maxillary sinus ostium in the intraoperatively generated three-dimensional X-ray data sets. The type of tube, the tube size, and the presence of maxillary sinusitis were analyzed 30 minutes after intubation. The tube was positioned in the middle nasal meatus in 35 (83.3%) patients and not in the middle nasal meatus in 7 (16.7%) patients. The difference in comparison with equal distribution was significant (P tubes are positioned in the middle nasal meatus. This result can be part of the answer to the question of the causal relationship between position of the breathing tube and the onset of maxillary sinusitis. The indications for prolonged nasotracheal intubation instead of orotracheal intubation or early tracheostomy should be considered carefully.

  11. An image processing system for digital chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocklin, M.; Gourlay, A.; Jackson, P.; Kaye, G.; Miessler, M.; Kerr, I.; Lams, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper investigates the requirements for image processing of digital chest X-ray images. These images are conventionally recorded on film and are characterised by large size, wide dynamic range and high resolution. X-ray detection systems are now becoming available for capturing these images directly in photoelectronic-digital form. The hardware and software facilities required for handling these images are described. These facilities include high resolution digital image displays, programmable video look up tables, image stores for image capture and processing and a full range of software tools for image manipulation. Examples are given of the applications of digital image processing techniques to this class of image. (Auth.)

  12. A preclinical microbeam facility with a conventional x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzsch, Stefan; Cummings, Craig; Eismann, Stephan; Oelfke, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an innovative treatment approach in radiation therapy that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide and a few hundreds of micrometer spaced planar x-ray beams as treatment fields. In preclinical studies these fields efficiently eradicated tumors while normal tissue could effectively be spared. However, development and clinical application of microbeam radiation therapy is impeded by a lack of suitable small scale sources. Until now, only large synchrotrons provide appropriate beam properties for the production of microbeams. In this work, a conventional x-ray tube with a small focal spot and a specially designed collimator are used to produce microbeams for preclinical research. The applicability of the developed source is demonstrated in a pilot in vitro experiment. The properties of the produced radiation field are characterized by radiochromic film dosimetry. 50 μm wide and 400 μm spaced microbeams were produced in a 20 × 20 mm 2 sized microbeam field. The peak to valley dose ratio ranged from 15.5 to 30, which is comparable to values obtained at synchrotrons. A dose rate of up to 300 mGy/s was achieved in the microbeam peaks. Analysis of DNA double strand repair and cell cycle distribution after in vitro exposures of pancreatic cancer cells (Panc1) at the x-ray tube and the European Synchrotron leads to similar results. In particular, a reduced G2 cell cycle arrest is observed in cells in the microbeam peak region. At its current stage, the source is restricted to in vitro applications. However, moderate modifications of the setup may soon allow in vivo research in mice and rats.

  13. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Hinshaw, Waldo; Bennett, N Robert; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    Using hybrid x-ray∕MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine

  14. Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Takman, P.

    2014-09-01

    Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50-100 μm spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-Kα radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 μm slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm2 was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented.

  15. Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Xin; Rajaram, Ramya; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Yang Guang; Phan, Tuyen; Lalush, David S.; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a limited angle computed tomography technique that can distinguish tumors from its overlying breast tissues and has potentials for detection of cancers at a smaller size and earlier stage. Current prototype DBT scanners are based on the regular full-field digital mammography systems and require partial isocentric motion of an x-ray tube over certain angular range to record the projection views. This prolongs the scanning time and, in turn, degrades the imaging quality due to motion blur. To mitigate the above limitations, the concept of a stationary DBT (s-DBT) scanner has been recently proposed based on the newly developed spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technique using the carbon nanotube. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the 25-beam MBFEX source array that has been designed and fabricated for the s-DBT system. The s-DBT system records all the projection images by electronically activating the multiple x-ray beams from different viewing angles without any mechanical motion. The configuration of the MBFEX source is close to the published values from the Siemens Mammomat system. The key issues including the x-ray flux, focal spot size, spatial resolution, scanning time, beam-to-beam consistency, and reliability are evaluated using the standard procedures. In this article, the authors describe the design and performance of a distributed x-ray source array specifically designed for the s-DBT system. They evaluate the emission current, current variation, lifetime, and focal spot sizes of the source array. An emission current of up to 18 mA was obtained at 0.5x0.3 mm effective focal spot size. The experimentally measured focal spot sizes are comparable to that of a typical commercial mammography tube without motion blurring. Trade-off between the system spatial resolution, x-ray flux, and scanning time are also discussed. Projection images of a breast phantom were

  16. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S.; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide; Jesus, Edgar de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  17. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  18. Comparisons between digital gamma-ray spectrometer (DSPec) and standard nuclear instrumentation methods (NIM) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Russo, P.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1998-03-01

    Safeguards isotopic measurements require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability and throughput. Up until about a year ago, gamma ray spectroscopy has always been done using the analog amplifier, which processes the pulses from the preamplifier to remove the noise, reject the pile up signals, and shape the signals into some desirable form before sending them to the analog to digital converter (ADC) to be digitized. In late 1996, EG and G Ortec introduced a digital gamma ray spectrometer (DSPec) which uses digital technology to analyze the preamplifiers' pulses from all types of germanium and silicon detectors. Considering its performance, digital based spectroscopy may become the way of future gamma ray spectroscopy

  19. X-ray detection with a scintillating YAP-window hybrid photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    A YAP(YAlO/sub 3/:Ce)-scintillating window, coated on its inner surface with an S20-photocathode, seals a cross-focusing hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) equipped with a small p-i-n anode of 2-mm diameter. This new radiation detector separates X-ray lines down to about 2-keV peak energy from the HPMT noise. Its detection efficiency for high gamma energies depends on the YAP-window thickness and amounts to about 18% attenuation at 400-keV energy in the present version. Competitive radiation detectors like Si photodiodes and Si drift chambers are discussed and compared to our prototype, with particular attention given to their energy resolution and noise performance, which limits their active area considerably. (19 refs).

  20. Visibility of microcalcification in cone beam breast CT − Effects of x-ray tube voltage and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C.; Chen, Lingyun; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Liu, Xinming; Han, Tao; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Tu, Shu-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Mammography is the only technique currently used for detecting microcalcification (MC) clusters, an early indicator of breast cancer. However, mammographic images superimpose a three-dimensional compressed breast image onto two-dimensional projection views, resulting in overlapped anatomical breast structures that may obscure the detection and visualization of MCs. One possible solution to this problem is the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a flat-panel (FP) digital detector. Although feasibility studies of CBCT techniques for breast imaging have yielded promising results, they have not shown how radiation dose and x-ray tube voltage affect the accuracy with which MCs are detected by CBCT experimentally. We therefore conducted a phantom study using FP-based CBCT system with various mean glandular doses and kVp values. An experimental CBCT scanner was constructed with a data-acquisition rate of 7.5 frames/s. 10.5- and 14.5cm-diameter breast phantoms made of gelatin were used to simulate uncompressed breasts consisting of 100% glandular tissue. Eight different MC sizes of calcium carbonate grains, ranging from 180–200 µm to 355–425 µm, were used to simulate MCs. MCs of the same size were arranged to form a 5×5 MC cluster and embedded in the breast phantoms. These MC clusters were positioned at 2.8 cm away from the center of the breast phantoms. The phantoms were imaged at 60, 80, and 100 kVp. With a single scan (360 degrees), 300 projection images were acquired with 0.5×, 1×, and 2× mean glandular dose limit for 10.5-cm phantom and with 1×, 2×, and 4× for 14.5-cm phantom. Feldkamp algorithm with a pure ramp filter was used for image reconstruction. The normalized noise level was calculated for each x-ray tube voltage and dose level. The image quality of CBCT images was evaluated by counting the number of visible MCs for each MC cluster for various conditions. The average percentage of the visible MCs were computed and plotted as a

  1. Optimal digital filtering in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messai, A.; Nour, A.; Abdellani, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the subject of the digital nuclear spectroscopy as seen as a counterpart of the classic analogue approach. Consequently, we will present the design as well as the implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) board, of the various necessary digital pulse processing techniques via digital filtering in order to provide the principal tasks which often take place in a generic 'Gamma' digital spectroscopic setup. The first part will be devoted to the design of the digital IIR filter used for the charge preamplifier's slow-pole compensation. This will be followed by the practical estimation of the power spectral density relating to the electrical noise components present at the spectrometer's input. Thereafter, a very detailed attention will be given to the design of the digital optimal filter to be used for the charge measurements. We follow by another FIR filter that deals with the digital estimation of the reference line of measurements. Finally, we give a hardware implementation of the designed filters on the board: 'TMS320C6713-DSK', a DSP KIT developed by 'DIGITAL Spectrum'. (authors)

  2. Wavelet processing and digital interferometric contrast to improve reconstructions from X-ray Gabor holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan C; Misawa, Masaki; Matsuda, Kiyofumi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Yasumoto, Masato

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the application of an undecimated wavelet transformation together with digital interferometric contrast to improve the resulting reconstructions in a digital hard X-ray Gabor holographic microscope is shown. Specifically, the starlet transform is used together with digital Zernike contrast. With this contrast, the results show that only a small set of scales from the hologram are, in effect, useful, and it is possible to enhance the details of the reconstruction.

  3. Effect of tissue heterogeneity on the choice of operating mode of an X-ray tube in X-ray diagnostic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitskij, R.V.; Gurevich, L.A.; Khasidashvili, I.Sh.

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent thickness of different parts of human body of different constitutions was established according to changes of exposure dose behind pulmonary and bone heterogeneity necessary for creation of X-ray diagnostic equipment. Heterogeneity was estimated using correction factor (heterogeneity factor), indicating the relation of exposure doses behind homogeneous and heterogeneous objects of equal thickness. Dosimetry was conducted to establish heterogeneity factor. Equivalent thickness was established experimentally during investigations of pulmonary and bone tissues depending on X-ray tube voltage

  4. Comparison of digital and traditional thoracic drainage systems for postoperative chest tube management after pulmonary resection: A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Nojiri, Shuko; Oh, Shiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Imashimizu, Kota; Fukui, Mariko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a digital thoracic drainage system (group D) is clinically useful compared with a traditional thoracic drainage system (group T) in chest tube management following anatomic lung resection. Patients scheduled to undergo segmentectomy or lobectomy were prospectively randomized before surgery to group D or T. A stratification randomization was performed according to the following air leak risk factors: age, sex, smoking status, and presence of emphysema and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The primary end point was the duration of chest tube placement. No statistically significant differences were found between groups D (n = 135) and T (n = 164) with regard to the duration of chest tube placement (median, 2.0 vs 3.0 days; P = .149), duration of hospitalization (median, 6.0 vs 7.0 days; P = .548), or frequency of postoperative adverse events (25.1% vs 20.7%; P = .361). In subgroup analyses of the 64 patients with postoperative air leak (20 in group D and 44 in group T), the duration of chest tube placement (median, 4.5 vs 4.0 days; P = .225) and duration of postoperative air leak (median, 3.0 vs 3.0 days; P = .226) were not significantly different between subgroups. The use of a digital thoracic drainage system did not shorten the duration of chest tube placement in comparison to a traditional thoracic drainage system after anatomic lung resection. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of x-ray tube potential on image quality and patient dose for lumbar spine computed radiography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindhaban, A; Al Khalifah, K; Al Wathiqi, G; Al Ostath, H

    2005-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing x-ray tube voltage on patient dose and image quality during computed radiography (CR) examination of the lumbar spine. Images of a pelvis - lumbar spine phantom were obtained at three different tube voltages using two CR systems. The images were evaluated by image scores (IS) using the image quality criteria proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), by measuring the signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast-to-noise ratio. The entrance surface dose (ESD) to the phantom was also measured using ionisation chambers and the resulting gonad dose (G) and effective dose (E) were calculated. The CEC recommended tube voltages can be exceeded with CR systems for lumbar spine radiography. The ESD, G and E decreased by 25%-50% with both CR systems when tube voltage was increased. Although the decrease in IS was statistically significant (P tube voltages were diagnostically acceptable. The balance between image quality and patient dose can be optimised by using higher x-ray tube voltages for lumbar spine CR examinations.

  6. The digital revolution, images and X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmott, Lawrence F

    2005-01-01

    The digital revolution is upon us. Are you ready to take advantage of it? Do you even know what it means? If you begin with the basics, the rest falls into place. In this overview of the digital revolution and its impact on dentistry, we start from the beginning of an amazing, and magical, quest to capture the best images.

  7. Experimental evaluation of the image quality and dose in digital mammography: Influence of x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, A.; Perez, A. M. M. M.; Silva, M. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied experimentally the influence of x-ray spectrum on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (MDG) for two digital mammography systems: Senographe 2000D (GE Medical Systems) and Lorad Selenia (Hologic), with indirect and direct detector imaging technology, respectively. CNR and MGD were determined using PMMA phantoms simulating breasts with thicknesses of 4 cm and 6 cm. All available anode/filter combinations of the systems were evaluated for a wide range of tube voltages values. Results indicated that the Rh/Rh combination provides the highest image quality with the lower mean glandular dose for the Senographe 2000D system. For the Lorad Selenia system, the W/Ag combination at 30 kV showed the best performance, in terms of dose saving and image quality improvement in relation to all tube voltage range. The comparison between the optimal x-ray spectra and those selected by the AEC mode showed that this automatic selection mechanism could be readjusted to optimize the relationship between image quality and dose.

  8. Recent developments on ISPA-cameras for gamma ray imaging gamma imaging with an electrostatic crossed focussed ISPA-tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Gys, Thierry; Leutz, H; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    The Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube is a position-sensitive hybrid photon detector. Originally developed for high-energy physics purposes, it has also been used for biomedical applications. Two kinds of ISPA-tube prototypes have been tested successfully in the field of gamma ray imaging. The current developments aim at obtaining a detector dedicated to single-photon emission imaging. In this paper, we present the first use in a gamma camera of a new ISPA-tube prototype having an increased active input surface of 40 mm diameter and a de-magnifying electron optics. The quartz input window of the tube is optically coupled to a 3.5 cm/sup 2/ YAlO/sub 3/:Ce detector array with 0.6 mm/sup 2/ single elements. (11 refs).

  9. Determination of semi-reducing layer and applied stress through spectra emitted by an X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a method for assessment of half value layer (HVL) and peak tube voltage (kVp) by means of experimental x-ray spectra measured using a CdTe detector. The work also evaluated spectrometry parameters such as dead time and count rate, and x-ray tube characteristics that can affect the assessment of these quantities. Two sets of x-ray spectra were measured: A) using Cu filters with different thicknesses and fixed tube current, and B) keeping a fixed Cu filtration and different tube current and, so, ranging the count rates. The spectrometer was energy calibrated using standard radioactive sources. kVp value was estimated by means of experimental measured x-ray spectra, using linear regression in order to search the end point of each spectrum. HVL was estimated after the correction of the measured spectra, using an analytical method implemented using Matlab® software. For comparison, HVL was also determined using a 30 cm 3 ion chamber and high purity Al filters. (author)

  10. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...

  11. Small-Bowel Feeding Tube Placement at Bedside: Electronic Medical Device Placement and X-Ray Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michaelann; Roberts, Susan; Carson, Jo Ann

    2018-03-12

    The use of an electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) can allow trained clinicians to safely perform small-bowel feeding tube (SBFT) placement at the bedside. Before initiation of enteral nutrition, most facilities require a radiology confirmation of tube placement. Requirement of X-ray confirmation delays the start of nutrition and leads to increased costs and utilization of resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of agreement between clinician interpretation of SBFT placement using the EMPD images and X-ray confirmation on tip of SBFT placement. This single-center, retrospective, observational study used data completed by registered dietitians or registered nurses after SBFT placement and compared it with radiology reports in the electronic health record. All tube placements were performed using the EMPD and were determined to be in 1 of 4 locations: stomach, duodenum, at the ligament of Trietz, or not specified within the small bowel. A total of 280 tube placements were analyzed. When differentiating between stomach and small bowel, the rate of agreement using a κ statistic was substantial agreement (κ = 0.67) and when determining tip-of-tube location within the small bowel excluding not specified locations, there was almost perfect agreement with a κ = 0.93 and n = 84. These findings suggest that EMPD images provide substantial agreement with X-ray confirmation and almost perfect agreement when the tip of the tube is within the small bowel. This indicates that the EMPD could be used without X-ray confirmation. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current.

  13. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current

  14. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  15. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs

  16. Control system of digital x-ray systems by quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, S.V.; Kovalenko, Yu.N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposed a control system of X-ray digital equipment on quality indicators. Two basic parameters were determined: image quality and patients' radiation load. A method for monitoring these indicators is proposed. The criterion of equipment suitability is to obtain control digital X-ray images of diagnostically acceptable quality at a fixed low entrance dose in the plane of the digital detector. It is shown that the control system of X-ray digital equipment based on indicators of quality is the most appropriate in situations of deficit of financial resources, since minimizing the costs for the purchase and running of control systems, does not require highly skilled technical personnel, and reduces the duration of the equipment inspection. (authors)

  17. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1997-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts input data from a detector-preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system achieves high throughputs at low cost by dividing the required digital processing steps between a ''hardwired'' processor implemented in combinatorial digital logic, which detects the presence of the x-ray signals in the digitized data stream and extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, and a programmable digital signal processing computer, which refines the filtered amplitude estimates and bins them to produce the desired spectral analysis. One set of algorithms allow this hybrid system to match the resolution of analog systems while operating at much higher data rates. A second set of algorithms implemented in the processor allow the system to be self calibrating as well. The same processor also handles the interface to an external control computer. 19 figs

  18. Patient dosimetry and image quality in digital radiology from online audit of the X-ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ten, J. I.; Gonzalez, L.; Guibelalde, E.; Prieto, C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work describes an online patient dosimetry and an image quality system in digital radiology. For the patient dosimetry audit, current mean values of entrance surface dose (ESD) were compared with local and national reference values (RVs) for the specific examination type evaluated. Mean values exceeding the RV trigger an alarm signal and then an evaluation of the technical parameters, operational practice and image quality was begun, using data available in the DICOM header to derive any abnormal settings or performance to obtain the image. The X-ray tube output for different kV p values is measured periodically, to allow for the automatic calculation of ESD. The system allows also for image audit, linking the dose imparted, the image quality and the alarm condition, if produced. Results and the benefits derived from this online quality control are discussed here. (authors)

  19. Digital assistance of nasogastric tube insertion in intubated patients under general anesthesia: A single-blinded prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Alrefaey; Elmorhedi, Mohammed; Abdalla, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion may pose a special problem in patients under general anesthesia with first attempt failure rates up to 50%. To increase insertion success rate and decreases related complications, several techniques have been developed. In this study, digital assistance technique is compared to the classic insertion technique in neck flexion. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, 160 patients were randomly allocated into two groups; control group (Group C, n = 80) where NGT tube will be inserted with the neck in flexion position and digital facilitation group (Group D, n = 80). Results: Overall success rate and first attempt success were statistically higher in Group D compared to Group C (94% vs. 81%, P = 0.02, 80% vs. 62%, P = 0.01 respectively) with significantly lower insertion time in Group D (13 ± 5 s. vs. 10 ± 3 s., P = 0.00). Conclusions: Digital assistance of NGT insertion in the anesthetized or unconscious patient is an effective, fast, and safe method that can be either used as a routine technique or as a rescue in case of failed other methods. PMID:28757827

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, RAY COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  1. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  2. Lead extraction from Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) funnel glass: Reaction mechanisms in thermal reduction with addition of carbon (C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingwen; Ning, Xun-An; Chen, Da; Chuang, Kui-Hao; Shih, Kaimin; Wang, Fei

    2018-04-09

    This study quantitatively determined the extraction of lead from CRT funnel glass and examined the mechanisms of thermally reducing lead in the products of sintering Pb-glass with carbon in the pre-heated furnace. The experimentally derived results indicate that a 90.3 wt% lead extraction efficiency can be achieved with 20 wt% of C addition at 950 °C for 3 min under air. The formation of viscous semi-liquid glass blocked the oxygen supply between the interaction of C and Pb-glass, and was highly effective for the extraction of metallic Pb. A maximum of 87.3% lead recover was obtained with a C to Na 2 CO 3 ratio of 1/3 at 1200 °C. The decrease of C/Na 2 CO 3 ratio enhanced the metallic lead recovery by increasing the glass viscosity for effective sedimentation of metallic lead in the bottom. However, with the further increase of temperature and treatment time, re-vitrification of lead back to silicate-glass matrix was detected in both Pb-glass/C and Pb-glass/C/Na 2 CO 3 systems. The findings indicated that with proper controls, using C as an inexpensive reagent can effectively reduce treatment time and energy, which is crucial to a waste-to-resource technology for economically recovering lead from the waste CRT glass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chest tube placement in thorax trauma - comparison chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, P.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E.; Tesch, C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of chest tube placement in patients with thoracic trauma with regard to chest tube malposition in chest radiography in the supine position compared to additional computed tomography of the thorax. Material and methods: Apart from compulsory chest radiography after one or multiple chest tube insertions, 31 severely injured patients with thoracic trauma underwent a CT scan of the thorax. These 31 patients with 40 chest tubes constituted the basis for the present analysis. Results: In chest radiography in the supine position there were no chest tube malpositions (n=40); In the CT scans 25 correct positions, 7 pseudo-malpositions, 6 intrafissural and 2 intrapulmonary malpositions were identified. Moreover 16 sufficient, 18 insufficient and 6 indifferent functions of the chest tubes were seen. Conclusion: In case of lasting clinical problems and questionable function of the chest tube, chest radiography should be supplemented by a CT scan of the thorax in order to estimate the position of the chest tube. (orig.) [de

  4. Comparison of pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube with pulsed fluoroscopy by primary control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Daisuke; Sato, Kunihiko; Shimura, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) procedures may involve high radiation doses that are potentially harmful to the patient. In IVR procedures, pulsed fluoroscopy can greatly decrease the radiation that the physician and patient receive. There are two types of pulsed fluoroscopy: direct control and primary (indirect) control. The purpose of this study was to compare pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control, using a grid-controlled x-ray tube, with pulsed fluoroscopy using primary control. For both types of pulsed fluoroscopy, we measured the waveforms (x-ray tube voltage, x-ray tube current, and x-ray output) and the relative radiation dose. In addition, we compared the decrease in radiation during pulsed fluoroscopy using a care filter. The studies were performed using a Siemens Bicor Plus x-ray System (direct control) and a Siemens Multistar Plus x-ray System (primary control). Using primary pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.5-1.0 msec, or longer with a lower x-ray tube current. Using direct pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.1 msec, and was independent of x-ray tube current. The rate of radiation reduction with primary pulse control using the care filter with a lower x-ray tube current had a slope exceeding 10%. Pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube permits an optimal radiation dose. To decrease the radiation in primary pulse control, a care filter must be used, particularly with a lower x-ray tube current. (author)

  5. Development of a time-to-digital converter ASIC for the upgrade of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhong; Liang, Yu; Xiao, Xiong; An, Qi; Chapman, John W.; Dai, Tiesheng; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer for the high-luminosity LHC requires new trigger and readout electronics for various elements of the detector. We present the design of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) ASIC prototype for the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) detector. The chip was fabricated in a GlobalFoundries 130 nm CMOS technology. Studies indicate that its timing and power dissipation characteristics meet the design specifications, with a timing bin variation of ±40 ps for all 48 TDC slices and a power dissipation of about 6.5 mW per slice.

  6. Evidence that the X-Ray Plasma in Microflares is in a Sequence of Subresolution Magnetic Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the cooling of the X-ray emitting thermal plasma in microflares observed in active regions by the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. A typical microflare appears to be a transient brightening of an entire small magnetic loop, often having a diameter near the limit of resolution (approximately 2 x 10(exp 8) cm) (Shimizu 1995, PASJ, 47, 251). The X-ray plasma in the loop cools by emission of XUV radiation and by heat conduction to the cooler plasma at the feet of the loop. The cooling rate is determined by the plasma temperature and density and the loop length. The plasma density is determined from the observed X-ray brightness of the loop in combination with the temperature, the loop diameter, and the filling factor. The filling factor is the volume fraction of the loop occupied by the subset of magnetic tubes that is filled by the X-ray plasma and that contains practically all of the X-ray plasma present in the microflare loop. Taking typical values from the hundreds of microflares measured by Shimizu (1995) (X-ray brightness through the thin aluminum filter approximately 4 x 10(exp 3) DN/s/pixel, lifetime approximately 5 min, temperature approximately 6 x 10(exp 6) K, loop length approximately 10(exp 9) cm, loop diameter approximately 3 x 10(exp 8) cm), we find that for filling factors greater than approximately 1% (1) the cooling time is much shorter than the duration of the microflare, and (2) conductive cooling strongly dominates over radiative cooling. Because the cooling time is so short and because the conductive heat flux goes mainly into increasing the plasma density via chromospheric evaporation, we are compelled to conclude that (1) heating to X-ray temperatures continues through nearly the entire life of a microflare, (2) the heating keeps changing to different field lines, so that any one magnetic tube in the sequence of heated tubes emits X-rays only briefly in the life of the microflare, and (3) at any instant during the microflare the tubes

  7. On the features of bursts of neutrons, hard x-rays and alpha-particles in the pulse vacuum discharge with a virtual cathode and self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Samoylov, I. S.; Ostashev, V. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we continue the discussion of the experimental results on the yield of DD neutrons and hard x-rays in the nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD) with a virtual cathode, which was started in the previous article of this issue, and previously (Kurilenkov Y K et al 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4375). We have considered here the regimes of very dense interelectrode aerosol ensembles, in which diffusion of even hard x-rays is found. The yield of DD neutrons in these regimes is conditioned not only by the head-on deuteron-deuteron collisions in the potential well of virtual cathode, but also by the channel of “deuteron-deuterium cluster” reaction, which exceeds overall yield of neutrons per a shot by more than an order of magnitude, bringing it up to ∼ 107/(4π). Very bright bursts of hard x-rays are also represented and discussed here. Presumably, their nature may be associated with the appearance in the NVD of some properties of random laser in the x-ray spectrum. Good preceding agreeing of the experiment on the DD fusion in the NVD with its particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provides a basis to begin consideration of nuclear burning “proton-boron” in the NVD, which will be accompanied by the release of alpha particles only. With this objective in view, there has been started the PIC-simulation of aneutronic burning of p-B11, and its preliminary results are presented.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a computed tomography x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova, Magdalena; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-10-07

    The dose delivered to patients during computed tomography (CT) exams has increased in the past decade. With the increasing complexity of CT examinations, measurement of the dose becomes more difficult and more important. In some cases, the standard methods, such as measurement of the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), are currently under question. One approach to determine the dose from CT exams is to use Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Since the patient geometry can be included in the model, Monte Carlo simulations are potentially the most accurate method of determining the dose delivered to patients. In this work, we developed a MC model of a CT x-ray tube. The model was validated with half-value layer (HVL) measurements and spectral measurements with a high resolution Schottky CdTe spectrometer. First and second HVL for beams without additional filtration calculated from the MC modelled spectra and determined from attenuation measurements differ by less than 2.5%. The differences between the first and second HVL for both filtered and non-filtered beams calculated from the MC modelled spectra and spectral measurements with the CdTe detector were less than 1.8%. The MC modelled spectra match the directly measured spectra. This works presents a first step towards an accurate MC model of a CT scanner.

  9. Inspection of small multi-layered plastic tubing during extrusion, using low-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentrout, C.; Basinger, T.; Beyer, J.; Colesa, B.; Olsztyn, P.; Smith, K.; Strandberg, C.; Sullivan, D.; Thomson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The automotive industry uses nylon tubing with a thin ETFE (ethylene-tetrafluroethylene) inner layer to carry fuel from the tank to the engine. This fluorocarbon inner barrier layer is important to reduce the migration of hydrocarbons into the environment. Pilot Industries has developed a series of real-time inspection stations for dimensional measurements and flaw detection during the extrusion of this tubing. These stations are named LERA TM (low-energy radioscopic analysis), use a low energy X-ray source, a special high-resolution image converter and intensifier (ICI) stage, image capture hardware, a personal computer, and software that was specially designed to meet this task. Each LERA TM station operates up to 20 h a day, 6 days a week and nearly every week of the year. The tubing walls are 1-2 mm thick and the outer layer is nylon and the inner 0.2 mm thick layer is ethylene-tetrafluroethylene

  10. The impact of x-ray tube configuration on the eye lens and extremity doses received by cardiologists in electrophysiology room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J; Zmyślony, M; Bissinger, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the x-ray tube configuration on the radiation doses to eye lens and extremities of cardiologists performing pacemaker implantation procedures in electrophysiology laboratory. The measurements were performed on one, widely used, portable C-arm system, first with x-ray tube mounted above the patient table and image intensifier below it and then on a reinstalled (but essentially the same) system with under-table x-ray tube configuration. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, placed in various positions near the eye lens, on the hands and ankle, were used during every procedure. The comparison of doses received by cardiologists after changing the x-ray tube configuration from over- to under-table shows statistically significant dose reduction (p < 0.009) for the eye lens closest to the x-ray tube, left finger, left wrist, while for the ankle a dose increase is observed. The corresponding over- to under-table x-ray tube median dose ratios are 4.1 for the right eye, 4.8 for the left finger, 3.0 for left wrist and, finally, 0.13 for the right ankle. Systems with under-table x-ray tube are preferable from a radiation protection point of view. The observed significant increase in doses to the legs should be partially compensated by the use of a protective lead curtain. (note)

  11. The impact of x-ray tube configuration on the eye lens and extremity doses received by cardiologists in electrophysiology room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domienik, J; Bissinger, A; Zmyślony, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the x-ray tube configuration on the radiation doses to eye lens and extremities of cardiologists performing pacemaker implantation procedures in electrophysiology laboratory. The measurements were performed on one, widely used, portable C-arm system, first with x-ray tube mounted above the patient table and image intensifier below it and then on a reinstalled (but essentially the same) system with under-table x-ray tube configuration. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, placed in various positions near the eye lens, on the hands and ankle, were used during every procedure. The comparison of doses received by cardiologists after changing the x-ray tube configuration from over- to under-table shows statistically significant dose reduction (p x-ray tube, left finger, left wrist, while for the ankle a dose increase is observed. The corresponding over- to under-table x-ray tube median dose ratios are 4.1 for the right eye, 4.8 for the left finger, 3.0 for left wrist and, finally, 0.13 for the right ankle. Systems with under-table x-ray tube are preferable from a radiation protection point of view. The observed significant increase in doses to the legs should be partially compensated by the use of a protective lead curtain.

  12. Applying x-ray digital imaging to the verification of cadmium in fuel-storage components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, R.D.; Cook, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor utilizes large underwater fuel-storage arrays to stage irradiated fuel before it is shipped from the facility. Cadmium is required as a thermal neutron absorber in these fuel-storage arrays to produce an acceptable margin of nuclear subcriticality during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Due to incomplete documentation from the time of their fabrication, the presence of cadmium within two stainless-steel parts of fuel-storage arrays must be experimentally verified before they are reused in new fuel-storage arrays. A cadmium-verification program has been developed in association with the Waste Examination and Assay Facility located at the Oak Ridge national Laboratory to nondestructively examine these older shroud assemblies. The program includes the following elements (1) x-ray analog imaging, (2) x-ray digital imaging, (3) prompt-gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, and (4) neutron-transmission measurements. X-ray digital imaging utilizes an analog-to-digital convertor to record attenuated x-ray intensities observed on a fluorescent detector by a video camera. These x-ray intensities are utilized in expressions for cadmium thickness based upon x-ray attenuation theory

  13. Comparison of different methods for determining the size of a focal spot of microfocus X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.; Hanke, R.; Krueger, P.; Sukowski, F.; Uhlmann, N.; Voland, V.

    2008-01-01

    The EN 12543-5 describes a method for determining the focal spot size of microfocus X-ray tubes up to a minimum spot size of 5 μm. The wide application of X-ray tubes with even smaller focal spot sizes in computed tomography and radioscopy applications requires the evaluation of existing methods for focal spot sizes below 5 μm. In addition, new methods and conditions for determining submicron focal spot sizes have to be developed. For the evaluation and extension of the present methods to smaller focal spot sizes, different procedures in comparison with the existing EN 12543-5 were analyzed and applied, and the results are presented

  14. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin; Zhang Qi; Zheng Futang

    2000-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  15. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin

    2003-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  16. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Tobias J; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Schwab, Alexander; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M

    2013-07-01

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90° allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 ± 231.7 cGy*cm(2) versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 ± 103.8 cGy*cm(2)). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time.

  17. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  18. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  19. Possible radiation dose reduction by using digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrates the importance of the introduction of the quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiology departments. The basic aim of quality assurance program is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable while still providing an adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this process, the conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patients exposure, cost reduction by reduction of the film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations show , that there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, two digital and two analogue. Our material consisted of 169 randomly selected patients, 115 of them were examined with digital equipment and 54 patients with the analogue equipment. The obtained results have confirmed the dose reduction and increase of diagnostic accuracy when using the digital equipment, with the added benefit of a good image quality. (authors)

  20. Investigations on microstructure of Chinese traditional medicine using phase-contrast imaging with microfocus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xiao Tiqiao; Chen Min; Liu Lixiang; Luo Yuyu; Du Guohao; Xu Hongjie

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic morphology of plant cells and their ergastic substances is an important standard for the identification of Chinese traditional medicine. The authors have developed a new method, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) based on the microfocus X-ray tube, to explore microstructures of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicate that XPCI is capable of distinguishing the structures commonly used in the identification. Non-destructive detection and high sensibility are counted among the major advantages of XPCI. The possibility of future applications of XPCI in the field of medicine identification is discussed. (authors)

  1. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshimichi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kuroyanagi, Kinya; Ota, Yoshiko

    1997-01-01

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  2. Electron beam produced in a transient hollow cathode discharge: beam electron distribution function, X-ray emission and solid target ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis aims at a better knowledge of phenomena occurring during transient hollow cathode discharges. The author first recalls the characteristics of such a discharge which make it different from conventional pseudo-spark discharges. The objective is to characterise the electron beam produced within the discharge, and the phenomena associated with its interaction with a solid or gaseous target, leading to the production of an X ray or visible radiation. Thus, the author reports the measurement (by magnetic deflection) of the whole time-averaged electronic distribution function. Such a knowledge is essential for a better use of the electron beam in applications such as X-ray source or material ablation. As high repetition frequency pulse X ray sources are very interesting tools, he reports the development and characterisation of Bremsstrahlung X rays during a beam-target interaction. He finally addresses the implementation of a spectroscopic diagnosis for the filamentary plasma and the ablation of a solid target by the beam [fr

  3. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  4. Studying the luminescence efficiency of Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor material for digital X-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, N.; Liaparinos, P.; Michail, C.; David, S.; Fountos, G.; Wójtowicz, M.; Zych, E.; Kandarakis, I.

    2012-01-01

    Scintillator materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with available photoreceptors like radiographic film or photoreceptors suitable for digital imaging like a-Si, charge-coupled devises (CCD), complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and GaAs). In addition, scintillators can be utilized in non-medical imaging detectors such as industrial detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) and detectors used for security purposes (i.e. airport luggage control). Image quality and dose burden in the above applications is associated with the amount of optical photons escaping the scintillator as well as the amount of optical photons captured by the photoreceptor. The former is characterized by the scintillator efficiency and the latter by the spectral matching between the emission spectrum of the scintillator and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. Recently, a scintillator material, europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Eu), has shown improved scintillating properties. Lu2O3:Eu samples of compact nanocrystalline non-agglomerated powder were developed in our laboratory using homogeneous precipitation from a water-toluene solution in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. In order to test their light-emission properties, experimental measurements under the excitation of X-ray spectra with X-ray tube voltages between 50 kVp and 140 kVp were performed. This range of applied voltages is appropriate for X-ray radiology, NDT and security applications. Lu2O3:Eu was evaluated with respect to output yield and spectral compatibility of digital imaging photoreceptors (CCD-based, CMOS-based, amorphous silicon a:Si flat panels, ES20 and GaAs). High light yield and spectral compatibility increase the performance of the medical detector and reduce the dose burden to the personnel involved. In addition a theoretical model was used to determine the values for the Lu2O3:Eu optical photon light propagation parameters. The

  5. X-ray dynamic defectoscopy utilizing digital image correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandejsek, Ivan; Nachtrab, F.; Uhlmann, N.; Vavřík, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 185-186 ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on Radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 28.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Computed tomography * X-ray Defectoscopy * non-contact technique Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  6. Residual stress measurements in inconel alloy 600 tubing using an advanced x-ray instrument and Cr K /SUB beta/ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovich, D.P.; Ruud, C.O.; Snoha, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residual stresses in an inconel alloy 600 U-bend tube, used in heat exchangers in nuclear reactors, were studied using an advanced x-ray instrument developed at The Pennsylvania State University. The work funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) mapped both the axial and circumferential (hoop) stresses on the outside surface of the tube. The residual stresses, inherent in the fabrication of the U-bend tubes, are a major contributor to stress corrosion cracking

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the LixFePO4 cathode during cycling using a novel electrochemical in situ reaction cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; Cairns, E.L.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Cramer, S.P.; California Univ., Davis, CA

    2004-01-01

    The extraction and insertion of lithium in LiFePO 4 has been investigated in practical Li-ion intercalation electrodes for Li-ion batteries using Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A versatile electrochemical in situ reaction cell was utilized, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments on battery electrodes during the lithium-extraction/insertion process in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. The electrode contained about 7.7 mg of LiFePO 4 on a 20 μm-thick Al foil. In order to determine the charge compensation mechanism and structural perturbations occurring in the system during cycling, in situ X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) measurements were conducted on the cell at a moderate rate using typical Li-ion battery operating voltages (3.0-4.1 V versus Li/Li + ).XAS studies of the LiFePO 4 electrode measured at the initial state (LiFePO 4 ) showed iron to be in the Fe(II) state corresponding to the initial state (0.0 mAh) of the battery, whereas in the delithiated state (FePO 4 ) iron was found to be in the FE(III) state corresponding to the final charged state (3 m Ah) of the battery. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region of the XAS spectra revealed a high-spin configuration for the two states [Fe(II), d 6 and Fe(III), d 5 ]. The XAFS data analysis confirmed that the olivine structure of the LeFePO 4 and FePO 4 is retained by the electrodes, which is in agreement with the X-ray diffraction observations on these compounds. The XAFS data that were collected continuously during cycling revealed details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction. These measurements on the LiFePO 4 cathode show that the material retains good structural short-range order leading to superior cycling

  8. Quality assessment of the digitalization process of analog x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, D.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted diagnosis enabled doctors for a second point-of-view on the test results. This improves the diseases' early detection and significantly reduces the chance of errors. These methods very nicely complemented the possibilities of digital medical imaging apparatus, but in analog images their applicability and results entirely depend on the quality of analog images digitalisation. Today many standards and remarks for good practices discuss the digital apparatus image quality but the digitalisation process of analog medical images is not a part of them. Medical imaging apparatus have become digital, but within an entirely digital medical environment is necessary for their ability to blend with the old analog medical imaging carriers. The life of patients doesn't start with the beginning of digital era and for the aim of tracking diseases it is necessary to use the new digital images as well as older analog ones. For the generation of 40-50 years a large archive of images is piled up, which should be accounted of in the diagnosis process. This article is the author's study of the digitalized image quality problem. It offers a new approach to the x-ray image digitalisation - getting the HDR-image by optical sensor. After the HDR-image generation method offers to be used a digital signal processing to improve the quality of the final 16 bit gray scale medical image. The new method for medical image enhancement is proposed - it improves the image contrast, it increases or preserves the dynamic range and it doesn't lead to the loss of small low contrast structures in the image. Key words: Quality of Digital X-Rays Images

  9. A high speed digitizing photomultiplier tube base for the KTeV CsI calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.

    1994-11-01

    A circuit has been designed to digitize PMT signals over an 18-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution. The crucial element of the circuit is the custom charge integrating and encoding (QIE) ASIC. This chip is designed to operate at rates up to 53 MHz, and, in conjunction with an 8-bit FADC, generates 12-bit floating point output. Bench tests of a 17-bit version of the digital base demonstrated excellent noise performance, linearity and pedestal and gain stability. Twenty-five channels of digitizing PMT bases have been built and used for readout of a CsI array in a test beam at CERN. Performance of these devices in a beam environment is discussed

  10. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Richard D.; Wilde, Jim C.H.; Douglas, Tania S.; As, Arjan Bastiaan van

    2009-01-01

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided. (orig.)

  11. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in liquid scintillators using pulse gradient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.D.; Mackin, R.O.; Joyce, M.J.; Peyton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A method for the digital discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in mixed radiation fields is described. Pulses in the time domain, arising from the interaction of photons and neutrons in a liquid scintillator, have been produced using an accepted empirical model and from experimental measurements with an americium-beryllium source. Neutrons and γ-rays have been successfully discriminated in both of these data sets in the digital domain. The digital discrimination method described in this paper is simple and exploits samples early in the life of the pulse. It is thus compatible with current embedded system technologies, offers a degree of immunity to pulse pile-up and heralds a real-time means for neutron/γ discrimination that is fundamental to many potential industrial applications

  12. Automatic analysis of quality of images from X-ray digital flat detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Since last decade, medical imaging has grown up with the development of new digital imaging techniques. In the field of X-ray radiography, new detectors replace progressively older techniques, based on film or x-ray intensifiers. These digital detectors offer a higher sensibility and reduced overall dimensions. This work has been prepared with Trixell, the world leading company in flat detectors for medical radiography. It deals with quality control on digital images stemming from these detectors. High quality standards of medical imaging impose a close analysis of the defects that can appear on the images. This work describes a complete process for quality analysis of such images. A particular focus is given on the detection task of the defects, thanks to methods well adapted to our context of spatially correlated defects in noise background. (author)

  13. Simulations of sonic boom ray tube area fluctuations for propagation through atmospheric turbulence including caustics via a Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Pierce, Allan D.

    1992-01-01

    A theory which gives statistical predictions for how often sonic booms propagating through the earth's turbulent boundary layer will encounter caustics, given the spectral properties of the atmospheric turbulence, is outlined. The theory is simple but approximately accounts for the variation of ray tube areas along ray paths. This theory predicts that the variation of ray tube areas is determined by the product of two similar area factors, psi (x) and phi (x), each satisfying a generic harmonic oscillator equation. If an area factor increases the peak acoustic pressure decreases, and if the factor decreases the peak acoustic pressure increases. Additionally, if an area factor decreases to zero and becomes negative, the ray has propagated through a caustic, which contributes a phase change of 90 degrees to the wave. Thus, it is clear that the number of times that a sonic boom wave passes through a caustic should be related to the distorted boom waveform received on the ground. Examples are given based on a characterization of atmospheric turbulence due to the structure function of Tatarski as modified by Crow.

  14. Observation of X-ray intensity distribution from the anode of a fine-focus tube using Δω - Δ2θ scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.; Maslen, V.W.

    1995-01-01

    A split intensity distribution from the anode of fine focus x-ray tubes probably due to tungsten deposited on the target is reported. Such a doubling of the target complicates the interpretation of Δ ω -Δ2θ intensity distributions and introduces systematic errors in the determination of lattice parameters. It is estimated that the increasing tungsten deposit affects, in time, the intensity of x-ray tubes. 4 refs., 4 figs

  15. Radiologist evaluation of an X-ray tube-based diffraction-enhanced imaging prototype using full-thickness breast specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, Laura; Parham, Chris; Connor, Dean M; Zhong, Zhong; Kim, Eunhee; Zeng, Donglin; Livasy, Chad; Cole, Elodia; Kuzmiak, Cherie; Koomen, Marcia; Pavic, Dag; Pisano, Etta

    2009-11-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted, scattered, or refracted x-rays. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging because of monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism, and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. The authors' laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) using a readily available tungsten x-ray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60 keV. Images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens were acquired on synchrotron-based DEI (DEI-SR), DEI-PR, and digital mammographic systems. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and correlation with pathology after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. For mammographic features (mass, calcification), no significant differences were detected between the DEI-SR and DEI-PR systems. Benign lesions were perceived as better seen by radiologists using the DEI-SR system than the DEI-PR system at the [111] reflectivity, with generalizations limited by small sample size. No significant differences between DEI-SR and DEI-PR were detected for any other lesion type (atypical, cancer) at either crystal reflectivity. Thus, except for benign lesion characterizations, the DEI-PR system's performance was roughly equivalent to that of the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  16. The digital ASIC for the digital front end electronics of the SPI astrophysics gamma-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Mur, M.; Schanne, S.

    1998-01-01

    The SPI spectrometer is one of the gamma-ray astronomy instruments that will be installed on the ESA INTEGRAL satellite, intended to be launched in 2001 by the European Space Agency. The Digital Front-End Electronics sub-system (DFEE) is in charge of the real time data processing of the various measurements produced by the Germanium (Ge) detectors and the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield. The central processing unit of the DFEE is implemented in a digital ASIC circuit, which provides the real time association of the various time signals, acquires the associated energy measurements, and classifies the various types of physics events. The paper gives the system constraints of the DFEE, the architecture of the ASIC circuit, the technology requirements, and the strategy for test and integration. Emphasis is given to the high level language development and simulation, the automatic circuit synthesis approach, and the performance estimation

  17. WE-H-204-01: William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-Ray Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.

    2016-01-01

    “William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube” David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873–1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896. That same year he went to Europe to study under renowned physicists of the time. Coolidge received his Ph.D. summa cum laude from the University of Leipzig in 1899 and soon after joined the staff of MIT. While studying at Leipzig, he met Roentgen. In 1905 he was asked to join the newly established General Electric Research Laboratory in Schenectady, NY. He promptly began fundamental work on the production of ductile tungsten filaments as a replacement for fragile carbon filaments used in incandescent light bulbs. This improved light bulb was brought to market by GE in 1911. It was subsequent application of his tungsten work that led Coolidge to his studies in X ray production. Circa 1910, the state-of-the-art X-ray tube was a “gas tube” or “cold cathode” type tube. These crude X-ray tubes relied on residual gas molecules as a source of electrons for bombardment of low to medium atomic number metal targets. In 1912 Coolidge described the use of tungsten as an improved anode target material for X-ray tubes. Shortly after in 1913 he published a paper in Physical Review describing “A Powerful Roentgen Ray Tube With a Pure Electron Discharge.” This tube used a tungsten filament as a thermionic source of electrons under high vacuum to bombard a tungsten anode target. Great improvements in X-ray tube stability, output and performance were obtained with the “hot cathode” or “Coolidge tube.” With some variation in filament and target geometry, this 100 year

  18. Study of the Microfocus X-Ray Tube Based on a Point-Like Target Used for Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rifeng; Zhou, Xiaojian; Li, Xiaobin; Cai, Yufang; Liu, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    For a micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) system, the microfocus X-ray tube is an essential component because the spatial resolution of CT images, in theory, is mainly determined by the size and stability of the X-ray focal spot of the microfocus X-ray tube. However, many factors, including voltage fluctuations, mechanical vibrations, and temperature changes, can cause the size and the stability of the X-ray focal spot to degrade. A new microfocus X-ray tube based on a point-like micro-target in which the X-ray target is irradiated with an unfocused electron beam was investigated. EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation code was employed for the calculation of the X-ray intensity produced from the point-like micro-target and the substrate. The effects of several arrangements of the target material, target and beam size were studied. The simulation results demonstrated that if the intensity of X-rays generated at the point-like target is greater than half of the X-ray intensity produced on the substrate, the X-ray focal spot is determined in part by the point-like target rather than by the electron beam in the conventional X-ray tube. In theory, since it is able to reduce those unfavorable effects such as the electron beam trajectory swinging and the beam size changing for the microfocus X-ray tube, it could alleviate CT image artifacts caused by the X-ray focal spot shift and size change.

  19. Measurement of the trailing edge of cosmic-ray track signals from a round-tube drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, M; Odaka, S

    2000-01-01

    The trailing edge of tube drift-chamber signals for charged particles is expected to provide information concerning the particle passage time. This information may be useful for separating meaningful signals from overlapping garbage at high-rate experiments, such as the future LHC experiments. We carried out a cosmic-ray test using a small tube chamber in order to investigate the feasibility of this idea. We achieved a trailing-edge time resolution of 12 ns in rms by applying simple pulse shaping to eliminate a signal tail. A comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation indicates the importance of well-optimized signal shaping to achieve good resolution. The resolution may be further improved with better shaping.

  20. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, C J

    2011-04-07

    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, Ū(P), the average, Ū, the effective, U(eff) or the maximum peak, U(P) tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average Ū or the average peak, Ū(p) voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak k(PPV,kVp) and the average k(PPV,Uav) conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated-according to the proposed method-PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from Ū(p) and Ū measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  1. Novel large-area MIS-type x-ray image sensor for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameshima, Toshio; Kaifu, Noriyuki; Takami, Eiichi; Morishita, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a brand new, large-area X-ray image sensor for Digital Radiography System (DRS). The sensor utilizes a thin film transistor (TFT)/metal insulator semiconductor (MIS)-type photoelectric converter array made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The sensor has 2688 X 2688 pixels at a pitch of 160 micrometer. The active area is 17 inch X 17 inch. The sensor utilizes scintillator coupled to the array. The light generated by X-rays is detected by the MIS-type photoelectric converters, and the resultant signals are scanned out by switching the TFTs. The a-Si TFT/MIS-type photoelectric converter array is characterized by high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and simple fabrication process. We will describe the principle and the performance of the sensor. In addition, we will present some X-ray images of a human subject obtained with this sensor. Dynamic range of the sensor covers most of the exposure range for radiography. SNR is limited almost only by the X-ray photon noise. MTF is sufficient for digital chest radiography. X-ray images have good contrast. The experimental results and obtained images show that the brand new sensor has great advantages for replacing X-ray film. The simple fabrication process of the sensor promises high productivity and low cost of DRS.

  2. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B

    2017-02-15

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging, the heat generated by the x-ray tube changes the imaging geometry of x-ray scanner, and further introduces noticeable errors in DVC measurements. In this work, to provide practical guidance high-accuracy DVC measurement, the errors in displacements and strains measured by DVC due to the self-heating for effect of a commercially available x-ray scanner were experimentally investigated. The errors were characterized by performing simple rescan tests with different scan durations. The results indicate that the maximum strain errors associated with the self-heating of the x-ray scanner exceed 400 µε. Possible approaches for minimizing or correcting these displacement and strain errors are discussed. Finally, a series of translation and uniaxial compression tests were performed, in which strain errors were detected and then removed using pre-established artificial dilatational strain-time curve. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed strain error correction approach.

  3. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B; Pan, B; Tao, R; Lubineau, G

    2017-01-01

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging, the heat generated by the x-ray tube changes the imaging geometry of x-ray scanner, and further introduces noticeable errors in DVC measurements. In this work, to provide practical guidance high-accuracy DVC measurement, the errors in displacements and strains measured by DVC due to the self-heating for effect of a commercially available x-ray scanner were experimentally investigated. The errors were characterized by performing simple rescan tests with different scan durations. The results indicate that the maximum strain errors associated with the self-heating of the x-ray scanner exceed 400 µε . Possible approaches for minimizing or correcting these displacement and strain errors are discussed. Finally, a series of translation and uniaxial compression tests were performed, in which strain errors were detected and then removed using pre-established artificial dilatational strain-time curve. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed strain error correction approach. (paper)

  4. A new approach of digital signal processing in gamma- and X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D C

    1999-01-01

    A new approach of digital signal processing in gamma- and X-ray spectroscopy which overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art systems is described. The basic technical equipment consists of an energy resolving detector with a preamplifier followed by a fast sampling analog digital converter. The basic idea of the approach is the numerical decomposition of the measured signal into distributions caused by single photon absorption processes using standard pulses. The working principle and potential of the approach is demonstrated by the example of preamplifier pulses with large overlap on time scale.

  5. On the technique of digital X-ray image processing, especially of digital substraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.

    1983-01-01

    Digital radiography, especially in the form of subtraction angiography, has found special consideration during the last two years as could be noted at many radiological conventions. Also a series of symposia was especially devoted to this subject. The extensive picture material shown at these conventions does not only document an important extension of the fields of application, but also an important increment in clinical and technical experience. Two pictures may represent many other examples: with a time lag of less than one year the improvement of objective and subjective image quality is easy to recognize. The principle and the technology of digital radiography were demonstrated at these conventions as well as in this magazine, and they also were discussed in detail; therefore a comprehensive review with only a few concepts necessary for defining the topic is sufficient here. Of the different imaging techniques, the fluorographic and the pulsed operation techniques are discussed, especially with regard to the storage method used. The definition of these concepts follows later. Special emphasis is put on some considerations of the signal-to-noise ratio that represents an essential criterion of the image quality. (orig.) [de

  6. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  7. Elemental analysis of the ancient bronze coins by x-ray fluorescence technique using simultaneously radioisotope source and x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Quynh; Truong Thi An; Tran Duc Thiep; Nguyen Dinh Chien; Dao Tran Cao; Nguyen Quang Liem

    2004-01-01

    The results on elemental analysis of the Vietnamese ancient bronze coins during the time of the Nguyen dynasty (19th century) are presented. The samples were provided by the vietnam National Historical Museum and the elemental analysis was performed on the home-made model EDS-XT-99-01 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the Institute of Materials Science, NCST of Vietnam. The samples exited simultaneously by radioisotope source and X-ray tube. The analytical results show the similarity in the elemental composition of the coins issued by different kings of the Nguyen dynasty, but there is the difference in the concentration of the used elements. Another interesting point is that all the coins have zinc (Zn) in their composition, which shows clearly the influence of the occidental metallurgical technology on the money-making technique in Vietnam during the 19th century. (author)

  8. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. - Highlights: • A material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography is proposed. • To solve the materials overlapping problem of the current dual energy algorithm. • The experimental results with the 4/7 MV container inspection system are shown.

  9. Errors in the determination of the total filtration of diagnostic x-ray tubes by the HVL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, B.J.; Cranley, K.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal technique and an analysis of errors are essential for interpreting whether the total filtration of a diagnostic x-ray tube is acceptable. The study discusses this problem from a theoretical viewpoint utilising recent theoretical HVL-total-filtration data relating to 10 0 and 16 0 tungsten target angles and 0-30% kilovoltage ripples. The theory indicates the typical accuracy to which each appropriate parameter must be determined to maintain acceptable errors in total filtration. A quantitative approach is taken to evaluate systematic errors in a technique for interpolation of HVL from raw attenuation curve data. A theoretical derivation is presented to enable random errors in HVL due to x-ray set inconsistency to be estimated for particular experimental techniques and data analysis procedures. Further formulae are presented to enable errors in the total filtration estimate to be readily determined from those in the individual parameters. (author)

  10. Screening of foods and related products for toxic elements with a portable X-ray tube analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Capabilities of a portable X-ray tube-based analyzer were evaluated for screening foods, thin films, and ceramic glazes for toxic elements. A beverage spiked with Cr, Cu, and As and cocoa powder spiked with As and Pb could easily be distinguished from unadulterated products when analyzed through their original container walls. With calibration, results for thin films and ceramic glazes yielded accurate Pb results. Limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-15 and 15 μg cm -2 , respectively, for Pb and Cd in thin films and about 2 μg cm -2 for Pb in glazes. With analysis times of 0.5-1 min, sensitivities and LODs were superior to those obtained with radioisotopic X-ray fluorescence analysis. (author)

  11. Digital tomosynthesis using a 35 mm X-ray cinematogram during an isocentric rotational motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hirofumi; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Maeda, Tohru; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Sugahara, Tetsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is performed using a 35 mm X-ray cinematogram obtained during an isocentric rotational motion of the cineangiographic apparatus. Formula of image shift for digital tomosynthesis using an isocentric rotational motion is induced by perspective projection and affine transformation. Images of desired layer are aligned at the same point in the image processor and summed. Resultant final image is displayed in sharp focus. We can set tomosynthetic factors on any desired projection, sweep angle and depth as concerns digital tomosynthesis using an isocentric rotational motion. Especially we emphasize that tomosynthesis tilted for central axis of isocentric rotational motion can be obtained, using shear transformation of image in the image processor. (author)

  12. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Based Algorithm for Digital X-ray Mammogram Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mutihac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basics of Bayesian statistics in inverse problems using the maximum entropy principle are summarized in connection with the restoration of positive, additive images from various types of data like X-ray digital mammograms. An efficient iterative algorithm for image restoration from large data sets based on the conjugate gradient method and Lagrange multipliers in nonlinear optimization of a specific potential function was developed. The point spread function of the imaging system was determined by numerical simulations of inhomogeneous breast-like tissue with microcalcification inclusions of various opacities. The processed digital and digitized mammograms resulted superior in comparison with their raw counterparts in terms of contrast, resolution, noise, and visibility of details.

  13. Shift focal spot X-ray tube to the imposition anode under long exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodovskiy, A. V.; Bessonov, V. B.; Larionov, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray non-destructive testing is an integral part of any modern industrial production. Microfocus X-ray sources make it possible to obtain projected images with an increased spatial resolution by using a direct geometric magnification during the survey. On the basis of the St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University staff of the department of electronic devices and equipment has been designed model of microfocus X-ray computed tomography.

  14. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, M.; Schioppa, E.jr.; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I.T.; Zietara, K.; della Volpe, D.; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Bilnik, W.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idzkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandát, Dušan; Marszalek, A.; Medina Miranda, L. D.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Pasko, P.; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Seweryn, K.; Sliusar, V.; Skowron, K.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Walter, R.; Wiecek, M.; Zagdanski, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-31, č. článku 47. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon photomultiplier * digitizing camera * gamma-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  15. Depth of quantization in signals of the digital X-ray television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthan, J.

    1989-01-01

    The technological realization of image acquisition and processing in digital X-ray television in methodical dependence on the image-forming purpose places particular requirements in signal quantization. By evaluation of experimental results with simultaneous modification of a special calculation method an optimum quantization stage is ascertained with method-relevant quantization characteristic. In addition to consideration made so far in this field a self-contained solution is presented with inclusion of vision physiology and information gain. (author)

  16. Optimizing imaging quality and radiation dose by the age-dependent setting of tube voltage in pediatric chest digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hui; Liu, Wen Ya; He, Xiao Ye; Zhou, Xiao Shan; Zeng, Qun Li; Li, Bai Yan [Xinjiang Medical University, Affiliated Hospital 1, Medical Imaging Research Center, Urumqi (China)

    2013-01-15

    The quality and radiation dose of different tube voltage sets for chest digital radiography (DR) were compared in a series of pediatric age groups. Forty-five hundred children aged 0-14 years (yr) were randomly divided into four groups according to the tube voltage protocols for chest DR: lower kilovoltage potential (kVp) (A), intermediate kVp (B), and higher kVp (C) groups, and the fixed high kVp group (controls). The results were analyzed among five different age groups (0-1 yr, 1-3 yr, 3-7 yr, 7-11 yr and 11-14 yr). The dose area product (DAP) and visual grading analysis score (VGAS) were determined and compared by using one-way analysis of variance. The mean DAP of protocol C was significantly lower as compared with protocols A, B and controls (p < 0.05). DAP was higher in protocol A than the controls (p <0.001), but it was not statistically significantly different between B and the controls (p = 0.976). Mean VGAS was lower in the controls than all three protocols (p < 0.001 for all). Mean VGAS did not differ between protocols A and B (p = 0.334), but was lower in protocol C than A (p = 0.008) and B (p 0.049). Protocol C (higher kVp) may help optimize the trade-off between radiation dose and image quality, and it may be acceptable for use in a pediatric age group from these results.

  17. Image quality of digital chest X-rays: wet versus dry laser printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zähringer, M; Wassmer, G; Krug, B; Winnekendonk, G; Gossmann, A; Lackner, K J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of digital chest x-rays (Thoravision) obtained with 2 "wet" laser imagers of different matrix sizes and a "dry" system. Fifty chest x-rays in 2 planes were printed out in normal (100%) and reduced (61%) format using 3 different systems: 2 "wet" laser imagers (Agfa Matrix LR 3300, 4256 x 5174 pixels, 315 dpi; Agfa Scopix LR 5200, 8512 x 10348 pixels, 630 dpi), and one "dry" system (Agfa Drystar 3000,4352 x 5295 pixels, 330 dpi). All tests yielded normal findings. Anonymous images were evaluated by 4 independent reviewers on record forms rating the detectability of predefined anatomic structures. When the image quality of diagnosis-relevant, anatomic structures was evaluated on digital chest x-rays reproduced in normal and reduced format, the wet laser imagers did not show significant advantages over the dry system, Agfa Drystar 3000. The Agfa Drystar 3000 system is a feasible alternative for reproducing digital images, particularly for decentralized archives.

  18. X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun at UTNL

    CERN Document Server

    Fukasawa, Atsushi; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Kennichi; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakae, Hisaharu; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji

    2005-01-01

    The X-band (11.424 GHz) linac for compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source are under construction at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. This linac designed to accelerate up to 35 MeV, and this electron beam will be used to produce hard X-ray by colliding with laser. It consists of a thermionic cathode RF gun, an alpha magnet, and a traveling wave tube. The gun has 3.5 cells (unloaded Q is 8250) and will be operated at pi-mode. A dispenser cathode is introduced. Since the energy spread of the beam from the gun is predicted to be broad due to the continuous emission from the thermionic cathode, a slit is placed in the alpha magnet to eliminate low energy electrons. The simulation on the injector shows the beam energy 2.9 MeV, the charge 23 pC/bunch, and the emittance less than 10 mm.mrad. The experiment on the gun is planed in the beginning of 2005, and the details will be discussed on the spot.

  19. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  20. Feasibility of employing thick microbeams from superficial and orthovoltage kVp x-ray tubes for radiotherapy of superficial cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali-Zonouzi, P.; Shutt, A.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Preclinical investigations of thick microbeams show these to be feasible for use in radiotherapeutic dose delivery. To create the beams we access a radiotherapy x-ray tube that is familiarly used within a conventional clinical environment, coupling this with beam-defining grids. Beam characterisation, both single and in the form of arrays, has been by use of both MCNP simulation and direct Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry. As a first step in defining optimal exit-beam profiles over a range of beam energies, simulation has been made of the x-ray tube and numbers of beam-defining parallel geometry grids, the latter being made to vary in thickness, slit separation and material composition. For a grid positioned after the treatment applicator, and of similar design to those used in the first part of the study, MCNP simulation and Gafchromic EBT film were then applied in examining the resultant radiation profiles. MCNP simulations and direct dosimetry both show useful thick microbeams to be produced from the x-ray tube, with peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDRs) in the approximate range 8.8-13.9. Although the potential to create thick microbeams using radiotherapy x-ray tubes and a grid has been demonstrated, Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) would still need to be approved outside of the preclinical setting, a viable treatment technique of clinical interest needing to benefit for instance from substantially improved x-ray tube dose rates.

  1. High resolution digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, J.

    1983-01-01

    A digital radiography system includes an x-ray source for projecting a beam of x-rays toward and through an object to be examined onto the input face of an image intensifier tube. A multi-hole collimator is disposed between the object and the image intensifier tube for producing a two-dimensional array of spaced pencil beams, and these pencil beams are raster scanned relative to the object being examined and across the input face of the image intensifier tube through small distances corresponding generally to the distance between the holes in the collimator. The succession of images which are produced on the output face of the image intensifier tube during the scanning of the pencil beams are scanned by a video camera whose output signals are digitized and stored as partial images, and the partial images are thereafter interleaved with one another to provide a composite comparatively high resolution image of the object being examined

  2. Cathode degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, D.A.; Selman, J.R.; Ong, E.T.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year study of cathode degradation in molten carbonate fuel cells involving both experimental and theoretical work. A keystone of the study is the development of a mathematical model, which describes cathode degradation in terms of the fundamental processes of a fluxing mechanism, i.e., dissolution, transport and precipitation. New fundamental data have been obtained on the solubility of NiO, especially on the effect of water vapor, and on the kinetics of NiO dissolution in (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and these data have been incorporated in the model. Laboratory cell testing in 3 cm{sup 2} cells has been carried out to obtain experimental data on degradation rates for direct comparison with the calculated results from the model. These comparisons have helped to verify several aspects of the model. For example, the model predicts with fair accuracy the location of the Ni deposit in the tile and the deposition rate. It is also fair to point out that the model is a relatively simple representation of complex processes, and it does not answer all questions about cathode degradation. Further work is needed. Because of its fundamental basis, the model can readily be upgraded and extended when further experimental data become available. The solubility studies, modeling efforts and cell testing have interacted iteratively to optimize progress. 94 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Characterization of electron bunches from field emitter array cathodes for use in next-generation x-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    PSI is interested in developing an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) as a companion radiation source to the existing Swiss Light Source. In order to achieve radiation wavelengths as low as 1 Α, the X-FEL requires excellent electron beam quality and high beam energy. The energy requirements and thus the size and cost of the project can be reduced considerably if an ultra-low emittance electron source is developed. Therefore PSI has started the Low Emittance Gun Project with the aim to design a novel type of electron source that will deliver an electron beam with unprecedented emittance at high peak currents to the linear accelerator of the proposed X-FEL. A source candidate for such a gun is field emission from cold cathodes. In order to gain first experience with field emission guns, investigate the dynamics of space charge dominated electron beams and to develop diagnostics capable of resolving ultra-low emittances, it was decided to build a 100 keV DC gun test stand. In the scope of this thesis, the test stand has been designed, assembled and commissioned. For the first time, transverse phase space measurements of bunches emitted by field emitter arrays in pulsed DC accelerating fields have been performed. (author)

  4. Determination voltage applied to an X-ray tube using the spectrum; Determinacao da tensao aplicada em um tubo de raios-X usando o espectro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves, E-mail: malbuqueque@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, Guilherme [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work shows the methodology used to determine the voltage applied in an X-ray tube using their spectra. The measurements were made using a detector Cadmium telluride . Before the measurements are carried out detector was calibrated with a source of {sup 241}Am. After obtaining the spectra , the mean energies were calculated , the electron accelerating potential (k Vp ) of each spectrum is constructed a calibration straight for the kVp this tube. (author)

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitomirsky, V.N.; Kim, S.K.; Burstein, L.; Boxman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings with alternating Zr-O and Al-O layers having a bi-layer period of 6-7 nm and total coating thickness of 1.0-1.2 μm were deposited using a cathodic vacuum arc plasma process on rotating Si substrates. Plasmas generated from two cathodes, Zr and Al, were deposited simultaneously in a mixture of Ar and O 2 background gases. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings, as well as bulk ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 reference samples, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra were analyzed on the surface and after sputtering with a 4 kV Ar + ion gun. High resolution angle resolved spectra were obtained at three take-off angles: 15 o , 45 o and 75 o relative to the sample surface. It was shown that preferential sputtering of oxygen took place during XPS of bulk reference ZrO 2 samples, producing ZrO and free Zr along with ZrO 2 in the XPS spectra. In contrast, no preferential sputtering was observed with Al 2 O 3 reference samples. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings contained a large amount of free metals along with their oxides. Free Zr and Al were observed in the coating spectra both before and after sputtering, and thus cannot be due solely to preferential sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Zr-O/Al-O coatings had a nano-multilayered structure with well distinguished alternating layers. However, both of the alternating layers of the coating contained of a mixture of aluminum and zirconium oxides and free Al and Zr metals. The concentration of Zr and Al changed periodically with distance normal to the coating surface: the Zr maximum coincided with the Al minimum and vice versa. However the concentration of Zr in both alternating layers was significantly larger than that of Al. Despite the large free metal concentration, the Knoop hardness, 21.5 GPa, was relatively high, which might be attributed to super-lattice formation or formation of a metal-oxide nanocomposite within the layers.

  6. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  7. MO-AB-BRA-08: A Modular Multi-Source X-Ray Tube for Novel Computed Tomography Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B; Radtke, J; Chen, G; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Petry, G; Swader, R; Eliceiri, K [Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and build a practical implementation of an x-ray line source for the rapidly increasing number of multi-source imaging applications in CT. Methods: An innovative x-ray tube was designed using CST Particle Studio, ANSYS, and SolidWorks. A slowly varying magnetic field is synchronized with microsecond gating of multiple thermionic electron sources. Electrostatic simulations were run to optimize the geometry of the optics and prevent electrode arcing. Magnetostatic simulations were used for beam deflection studies and solenoid design. Particle beam trajectories were explored with an emphasis on focusing, acceleration, deflection, and space charge effects. Thermal constraints were analyzed for both transient and steady-state regimes. Electromagnetic simulations informed the design of a prototype unit under construction. Results: Particle tracking simulations for a benchtop system demonstrate that three 80 keV electron beams are able to be finely controlled and laterally swept a combined distance of 15 cm over a stationary target with an oscillating magnetic field in the hundreds of gauss. The beams are pulsed according to scanning sequences developed for implementation in a mock stationary CT scanner capable of a 30 ms temporal resolution. Beam spot diameters are approximately 1 mm for 30 mA beams and the stationary target stays well within thermal limits. The relevant hardware and control circuits were developed for incorporation into a physical prototype. Conclusion: A new multi-source x-ray tube was designed in a modular form factor to push the barriers of high-speed CT and spur growth in emerging imaging applications. This technology can be used as the basis for a stationary high-speed CT scanner, a system for generating a virtual fan-beam for dose reduction, or for reducing scatter radiation in cone-beam CT utilizing a tetrahedron beam CT geometry. A 2.4 kW benchtop system is currently being built to show proof of concept for the tube. Support

  8. Noise and signal detection in digital x-ray detectors using the spatial definition of SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Badano, Aldo; Park, Subok; Liu, Haimo; Myers, Kyle J.

    2009-02-01

    For task specific evaluation of imaging systems it is necessary to obtain detailed descriptions of their noise and deterministic properties. In the past we have developed an experimental and theoretical methodology to estimate the deterministic detector response of a digital x-ray imaging system, also known as the H matrix. In this paper we have developed the experimental methodology for the evaluation of the quantum and electronic noise of digital radiographic detectors using the covariance matrix K. Using the H matrix we calculated the transfer of a simulated coronary artery constriction through an imaging system's detector, and with the covariance matrix we calculated the detectability (or Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and the detection probability. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix were presented and the electronic and quantum noise were analyzed. We found that the exposure at which the electronic noise equals the quantum noise at 90 kVp was 0.2 μR. We compared the ideal Hotelling observer with the Fourier definition of the SNR for a toroidal stenosis on a cylindrical vessel. Because of the shift-invariance and cyclo-stationarity assumptions, the Fourier SNR overestimates the performance of imaging systems. This methodology can be used for task specific evaluation and optimization of a digital x-ray imaging system.

  9. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering and Management

    2005-05-01

    For superheater tubes, the adherence of the inner steamside oxide is especially important as spallation of this oxide results in a) blockage of loops which cause insufficient steam flow through the superheaters and subsequently overheating and tube failure and b) spalled oxide can cause erosion of turbine blades. Oxide spallation is a serious problem for austenitic steels where the significant differences of the thermal expansion coefficients of steel and oxide cause relatively high thermal stresses. Usually, various oxides layered within the scale are suggested from microscopical observations of the morphology and/or topography of the oxide scale accompanied by the analysis of chemical elements present. Reports about the application of X-ray diffraction on the study of steamside oxide formation are very scarce in literature. If applied at all, XRD-studies are restricted to ideally flat samples oxidized under laboratory conditions, but relation to real operating conditions and the effect of the real sample geometry is missing. Within the frame of the project, steamside oxides on plant exposed components of ferritic/ martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 as well as fine- and coarse-grained austenitic TP347H were studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Depth dependent phase analysis on sample segments cut from the tubes was carried out by means of grazing incidence diffraction and, in order to obtain information from a larger depth, conventional XRD was combination with stepwise mechanical removal of the steamside oxides. After each removal step phase analysis was performed both on the segments and on the removed powders. Phase specific stress analysis was carried out on rings cut from the tube. Results show that steamside oxides on X20CrMoV12-1 consist of pure Hematite at the surface followed by a relatively thick layer of pure Magnetite. Both phases are under relatively high tensile stresses. While the phase composition of the Hematite layer appears to be the same for all

  10. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...... database for women is presented. It has its maximum in the third decade, and a moderate biologic variation that seems to decline with age. It was found that DXR-MCI was independent of body weight and body surface area, whereas all DXA-BMD values were significantly dependent on them. Body height...... for precise and accurate measurements of MCI (DXR-MCI). We hypothesized that DXR-MCI in contrast to projected areal bone mineral density (BMD) (DXA-BMD) is independent of bone size and studied 384 normal women by measuring DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and distal radius. A normative MCI...

  11. Barium-Dispenser Thermionic Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Green, M.; Feinleib, M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved reservoir cathode serves as intense source of electrons required for high-frequency and often high-output-power, linear-beam tubes, for which long operating lifetime important consideration. High emission-current densities obtained through use of emitting surface of relatively-low effective work function and narrow work-function distribution, consisting of coat of W/Os deposited by sputtering. Lower operating temperatures and enhanced electron emission consequently possible.

  12. Three Dimensional Digital Sieving of Asphalt Mixture Based on X-ray Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform three-dimensional digital sieving based on X-ray computed tomography images, the definition of digital sieve size (DSS was proposed, which was defined as the minimum length of the minimum bounding squares of all possible orthographic projections of an aggregate. The corresponding program was developed to reconstruct aggregate structure and to obtain DSS. Laboratory experiments consisting of epoxy-filled aggregate specimens were conducted to investigate the difference between mechanical sieve analysis and the digital sieving technique. It was suggested that concave surface of aggregate was the possible reason for the disparity between DSS and mechanical sieve size. A comparison between DSS and equivalent diameter was also performed. Moreover, the digital sieving technique was adopted to evaluate the gradation of stone mastic asphalt mixtures. The results showed that the closest proximity of the laboratory gradation curve was achieved by calibrated DSS, among gradation curves based on calibrated DSS, un-calibrated DSS and equivalent diameter.

  13. Transmission diffraction-tomography system using a high-energy X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, D J; Jenneson, P M; Crook, R; Vincent, S M

    2010-01-01

    A high-energy bench-top energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system for 3-dimensional mapping of the crystalline structure and phase transformations in steel is described, for which preliminary data and system development are presented here. The use of precision tungsten slit screens with up to 225 keV X-rays allows for diffraction through samples of 304 L austenitic stainless steel of thickness 3-10 mm, while sample positioning is carried out with a precision goniometer and translation stage system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stable Field Emitters for a Miniature X-ray Tube Using Carbon Nanotube Drop Drying on a Flat Metal Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heo SungHwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stable carbon nanotube (CNT field emitters for a vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube have been fabricated. The field emitters with a uniform CNT coating are prepared by a simple drop drying of a CNT mixture solution that is composed of chemically modified multi-walled CNTs, silver nanoparticles, and isopropyl alcohol on flat tungsten tips. A highly thermal- and electrical-conductive silver layer strongly attaches CNTs to the tungsten tips. Consequently, the field emitters exhibit good electron emission stability: continuous electron emission of around 100 μA at 2.3 V/μm has stably lasted over 40 h even at non-high vacuum ambient (~10−3 Pa.

  15. A digital system for image acquisition and its application to X-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, H.P.; Guedes, G.P.; Barbosa, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    A digital system for image acquisition is described. Which is able to process two electric signals of amplitude varying from 0 to 10 Volts and correlate them in a two dimensional histogram. X and Y coordinates for every event are derived from the amplitudes of two coincident - within an AND gate transition time - pulses. The system is composed of two Analog-to-digital Converters (ADC's), control electronics and a coincidence gate generator, implement in a card that is plugged to any IBM compatible PC ISA bus. Data acquisition rate may be as high as 3.6 x 10 5 events per second in computers equipped with Pentium 233 MHZ processor. Software code has been written in the Delphi environment using Assembly routines. Image size may be chosen from 256 x 256 to 1024 x 1024 pixels. Images are shown that illustrate the applicability to detection systems based on two dimensional position sensitive X-ray detectors. (author)

  16. X-ray film digitization using a personal computer and hand-held scanner: a simple technique for storing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Nunez, C. F.; Lloret-Alcaniz, A.

    1998-01-01

    To develop a simple, low-cost technique for the digitization of X-ray films for personal use. A 66-MHz 486 PC with 8 MB of RAM, a Logitech ScanMan 256 hand-held scanner and a standard negatoscope with the power source converted to direct current. Although the system was originally designed for the digitization of mammographies, it has also been used with computed tomography, magnetic resonance, digital angiography and ultrasonographic images, as well as plain X-rays. After a minimal training period, the system digitized X-ray films easily and rapidly. Although the scanning values vary depending on the type of image to be digitized, an input spatial resolution of 200 dpi and a contrast resolution of 256 levels of gray are generally adequate. Of the storage formats tested, JPEG presented the best quality/image size ratio. A simple, low-cost technique has been developed for the digitization of X-ray films. This technique enables the storage of images in a digital format, thus facilitating their presentation and transmission. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Comparison of simulated and measured spectra from an X-ray tube for the energies between 20 and 35 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yücel, M.; Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Ozben, C.S.; Yücel, E. Barlas

    2015-01-01

    Design and production of a simple and low cost X-ray imaging system that can be used for light industrial applications was targeted in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In this study, production, transmission and detection of X-rays were simulated for the proposed imaging device. OX/70-P dental tube was used and X-ray spectra simulated by Geant4 were validated by comparison with X-ray spectra measured between 20 and 35 keV. Relative detection efficiency of the detector was also determined to confirm the physics processes used in the simulations. Various time optimization tools were performed to reduce the simulation time

  18. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Note: Coaxial-heater hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin; Kokal, Ugur; Turan, Nazli; Celik, Murat

    2017-06-01

    The design and tests of a LaB6 hollow cathode with a novel heater are presented. In the new design, the heater wire is completely encapsulated around the cathode tube and a coaxial return electrode, thereby eliminating hot spots on the heater wire due to the free hanging regions. Since the new heater confines the Joule heating to the region of interest, where the LaB6 emitter is placed, the heater terminals are further secured from overheating. The cathode with the presented heater design has been successfully tested and is able to deliver currents in the 0.5-15 A range.

  20. Note: Coaxial-heater hollow cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin; Kokal, Ugur; Turan, Nazli; Celik, Murat

    2017-06-01

    The design and tests of a LaB 6 hollow cathode with a novel heater are presented. In the new design, the heater wire is completely encapsulated around the cathode tube and a coaxial return electrode, thereby eliminating hot spots on the heater wire due to the free hanging regions. Since the new heater confines the Joule heating to the region of interest, where the LaB 6 emitter is placed, the heater terminals are further secured from overheating. The cathode with the presented heater design has been successfully tested and is able to deliver currents in the 0.5-15 A range.

  1. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in

  2. Crystal distortion of monoclinic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals using X-ray digital topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Kei; Fujii, Daiki; Tsukashima, Shiro; Kishi, Takeharu; Tachibana, Masaru; Kojima, Kenichi

    2014-09-01

    The crystal distortion of monoclinic hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals was observed by the X-ray digital topography. The local rocking curves were obtained by the series of the topographic images. The single, double, triple, and multiple peaks of the local rocking curves were observed. The mapping of the full width of the one tenth maximum (FW10M) of the local rocking curves was obtained. It was found that the magnitude of FW10M depended on the distance of the peak splitting. The distribution of the distortion in the monoclinic HEWL crystals was investigated by the analysis of the local rocking curves.

  3. Investigation of electron emission properties of Ba-activated tungsten cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, I; Josepovits, V K; Sneider, J; Toth, Z

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the electron emission properties of high-pressure discharge lamp cathode tips. The work function (Φ) of the cathode tip was measured by using the Kelvin probe method and by work function spectroscopy (WFS). The Kelvin probe method was used to measure the average work function of tips under atmospheric pressure in air. By WFS we could measure the local work function value of tips in the selected spots under ultra high vacuum conditions. The chemical composition analysis was carried out in the same chamber by Auger electron spectroscopy. The focus of this study is to investigate the influence of sintering temperature of cathodes (1500-1700 deg. C) and lamp operation time (0-12 000 h) on the work function. The comparison of the work function of both cathodes as a function of operation time originating from the two different ends of the ceramic tube is also considered. In order to understand the structure of the layers on the cathode tips we also give results obtained on a flat tungsten foil covered with Ba-containing emission material. The flat samples were measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and WFS

  4. Development of gas microstrip detectors for digital x-ray imaging and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, M S; Dubeau, J; Gobbi, D G; Johns, P C; Karlen, Dean A; Oakham, F G; Waker, A J

    1998-01-01

    Our recent work in the application of gas microstrip detector (GMD) technology to the fields of digital X-ray imaging and radiation dosimetry Is described. The GMD can measure the position and the energy of individual photons at the high counting rates encountered in X-ray imaging. GMD-based imaging systems have high detective quantum efficiency and permit improvement of image quality and contrast using display windowing and measured energy information. Results are presented on the performance of a prototype GMD imaging system operated with a xenon/methane 90/10 gas mixture at 1 atm. Results are also presented on the performance of a GMD filled with tissue equivalent gases for applications in the field of radiation dosimetry in mixed neutron and gamma fields. The results show that the GMD can be used for dosimetric discrimination between different types of radiation in mixed-field environments.

  5. Digital in-line X-ray holography with zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, R; Gorniak, T; Nisius, T; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Staier, F; Wilhein, T; Rehbein, S; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-07-01

    Single pulse imaging with radiation provided by free-electron laser sources is a promising approach towards X-ray microscopy, which is expected to provide high resolution images of biological samples unaffected by radiation damage. One fully coherent imaging technique for this purpose is digital in-line holography. Key to its successful application is the creation of X-ray point sources with high photon flux. In this study we applied zone plates to create such point sources with synchrotron radiation provided by the storage ring BESSY II. The obtained, divergent light cone is applied to holographic microscopy of biological objects such as critical point dried Navicula perminuta diatoms and human cells using photons with an energy of 250 eV. Compared to conventional experiments employing pinholes, exposure times are reduced by two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elucidating the degradation mechanism of the cathode catalyst of PEFCs by a combination of electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, J; van der Vliet, D F; Yanson, A; Rodriguez, P

    2016-08-10

    In this study, we report a methodology which enables the determination of the degradation mechanisms responsible for catalyst deterioration under different accelerated stress protocols (ASPs) by combining measurements of the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and Pt content (by X-ray fluorescence). The validation of this method was assessed on high surface area unsupported Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs), Pt nanoparticles supported on TaC (Pt/TaC) and Pt nanoparticles supported on Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vulcan). In the load cycle protocol, the degradation of Pt-NPs and Pt/Vulcan follows associative processes (e.g. agglomeration) in the first 2000 cycles, however, in successive cycles the degradation goes through dissociative processes such as Pt dissolution, as is evident from a similar decay of ECSA and Pt content. In contrast, the degradation mechanism for Pt nanoparticles dispersed on TaC occurs continuously through the dissociative processes (e.g. Pt dissolution or particle detachment), with similar decay rates of both Pt content and ECSA. In the start-up/shut-down protocol, high surface area Pt-NPs follow associative processes (e.g. Ostwald ripening) in the first 4000 cycles, after which the degradation continues through dissociative processes. On the other hand, dissociative mechanisms always govern the degradation of Pt/TaC under start-up/shut-down protocol conditions. Finally, we report that Pt nanoparticles supported on TaC exhibit the highest catalytic activity and long term durability of the three nanoparticle systems tested. This makes Pt/TaC a potentially valuable catalyst system for application in polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes.

  7. A beam optics study of a modular multi-source X-ray tube for novel computed tomography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brandon J.; Radtke, Jeff; Chen, Guang-Hong; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Mackie, Thomas R.

    2017-10-01

    A modular implementation of a scanning multi-source X-ray tube is designed for the increasing number of multi-source imaging applications in computed tomography (CT). An electron beam array coupled with an oscillating magnetic deflector is proposed as a means for producing an X-ray focal spot at any position along a line. The preliminary multi-source model includes three thermionic electron guns that are deflected in tandem by a slowly varying magnetic field and pulsed according to a scanning sequence that is dependent on the intended imaging application. Particle tracking simulations with particle dynamics analysis software demonstrate that three 100 keV electron beams are laterally swept a combined distance of 15 cm over a stationary target with an oscillating magnetic field of 102 G perpendicular to the beam axis. Beam modulation is accomplished using 25 μs pulse widths to a grid electrode with a reverse gate bias of -500 V and an extraction voltage of +1000 V. Projected focal spot diameters are approximately 1 mm for 138 mA electron beams and the stationary target stays within thermal limits for the 14 kW module. This concept could be used as a research platform for investigating high-speed stationary CT scanners, for lowering dose with virtual fan beam formation, for reducing scatter radiation in cone-beam CT, or for other industrial applications.

  8. User certification of hand-held x-ray tube based analytical fluorescent devices in a canadian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety education aims to reduce personal injury and improve well being. This health promotion principle is applied in the case of hand-held open beam x-ray tube based analytical x-ray devices. Such devices not only are light weight and portable, but also present high radiation exposure levels at the beam exit port and potentially can be used in a variety of industrial applications for determination of material composition. There is much potential for radiation risks to occur with resultant adverse effects if such devices are not used by trained individuals within controlled environments. A level of radiation safety knowledge and understanding of the device design, construction and performance characteristics appear warranted. To reduce radiation risks, user certification at a federal level was introduced in 2004 based on International Standards Organization 20807, since that standard comprises elements commensurate with risk reduction strategies. Within these contexts, a federally certified user is deemed to have acquired a level of safety knowledge and skills to facilitate safe use of the device. Certification, however, does not absolve the holder from obligations of compliance with applicable provincial, territorial or federal laws respecting device operation. The union of federal certification and applicable legislative mandated operational criteria reduces radiation risks overall. (author)

  9. Limitations of Routine Verification of Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using X-Ray and Auscultation: Two Case Reports of Life-Threatening Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejo, Takahide; Oya, Soichi; Tsukasa, Tsuchiya; Yamaguchi, Naomi; Matsui, Toru

    2016-12-01

    Several bedside approaches used in combination with thoracoabdominal X-ray are widely used to avoid severe complications that have been reported during nasogastric tube management. Although confirmation by X-ray is considered the gold standard, it is not yet perfect. We present 2 cases of rare complications in which the routine verification methods could not detect all the complications related to the nasogastric tube placement. Case 1 was a 17-year-old male who presented with a brain tumor and repeatedly required nasogastric tube placement. Despite normal auscultatory and X-ray findings, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly after resuming the enteral nutrition (EN). Computed tomography images showed the presence of hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG). Urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed esophagogastric submucosal tunneling of the tube that required an emergency open total gastrectomy. Case 2 was a 76-year-old man with long-term EN after stroke. While the last auscultatory verification was normal, he suddenly developed extensive HPVG due to gastric mucosal injury following EN, which resulted in progressive intestinal necrosis, general peritonitis, and death. These 2 cases indicated that routine verification methods consisting of auscultation and X-ray may not be completely reliable, and the awareness of the limitations of these methods should be reaffirmed because expeditious examinations and necessary interventions are critical in preventing life-threatening complications.

  10. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  11. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  12. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.R.; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  13. Comparison of vessel contrast measured with a scanning-beam digital x-ray system and an image intensifier/television system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Heanue, Joseph A.; Betts, Timothy D.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Vessel contrast was measured in the fluoroscopic images produced by a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system and an image intensifier/television (II/TV) based system. The SBDX system electronically scans a series of pencil x-ray beams across the patient, each of which is directed at a distant small-area detector array. The reduction in detected scatter achieved with this geometry was expected to provide an increase in image contrast. Vessel contrast was evaluated from images of a phantom containing iodinated tubes. The vessels were inserted into an acrylic stack to provide a patient-mimicking scattering medium. Vessel diameter ranged from 0.3 to 3.1 mm. Images were acquired at 100 kVp with the SBDX and II/TV systems and averaged to reduce x-ray noise. The II/TV system was operated in the 6-in. image intensifier mode with an anti-scatter grid. The increase in contrast in the SBDX images, expressed as a ratio of the measured SBDX and II/TV contrasts, ranged from 1.63 to 1.79 for individual vessels. This agreed well with a prediction of the contrast improvement ratio for this experiment, based on measurements of the scatter fraction, object-plane line spread functions, and consideration of the source spectrum and detector absorption properties. The predicted contrast improvement ratio for SBDX relative to II/TV images was 1.62 to 1.77

  14. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis—Application to digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni, E-mail: didomenico@fe.infn.it; Cardarelli, Paolo; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122, Italy and INFN - sezione di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy); Contillo, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The quality of a radiography system is affected by several factors, a major one being the focal spot size of the x-ray tube. In fact, the measurement of such size is recognized to be of primary importance during acceptance tests and image quality evaluations of clinical radiography systems. The most common device providing an image of the focal spot emission distribution is a pin-hole camera, which requires a high tube loading in order to produce a measurable signal. This work introduces an alternative technique to obtain an image of the focal spot, through the processing of a single radiograph of a simple test object, acquired with a suitable magnification. Methods: The radiograph of a magnified sharp edge is a well-established method to evaluate the extension of the focal spot profile along the direction perpendicular to the edge. From a single radiograph of a circular x-ray absorber, it is possible to extract simultaneously the radial profiles of several sharp edges with different orientations. The authors propose a technique that allows to obtain an image of the focal spot through the processing of these radial profiles by means of a pseudo-CT reconstruction technique. In order to validate this technique, the reconstruction has been applied to the simulated radiographs of an ideal disk-shaped absorber, generated by various simulated focal spot distributions. Furthermore, the method has been applied to the focal spot of a commercially available mammography unit. Results: In the case of simulated radiographs, the results of the reconstructions have been compared to the original distributions, showing an excellent agreement for what regards both the overall distribution and the full width at half maximum measurements. In the case of the experimental test, the method allowed to obtain images of the focal spot that have been compared with the results obtained through standard techniques, namely, pin-hole camera and slit camera. Conclusions: The method was

  15. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Nullens, H.; Espen, P. van

    1983-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  16. Gamma-Ray-emitting Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Ajello, M.; Rakshit, S.; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Stalin, C. S.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D.

    2018-01-01

    The detection of significant γ-ray emission from radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1s) galaxies enables us to study jets in environments different than those in blazars. However, due to the small number of known γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 (γ-NLSy1) galaxies, a comprehensive study could not be performed. Here, we report the first detection of significant γ-ray emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGNs), recently classified as NLSy1 from their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optical spectrum. Three flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) present in the third Large Area Telescope AGN catalog (3LAC) are also found as γ-NLSy1 galaxies. Comparing the γ-ray properties of these objects with 3LAC blazars reveals their spectral shapes to be similar to FSRQs, however, with low γ-ray luminosity (≲1046–47 erg s‑1). In the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer color–color diagram, these objects occupy a region mainly populated by FSRQs. Using the H β emission line parameters, we find that on average γ-NLSy1 have smaller black hole masses than FSRQs at similar redshifts. In the low-resolution SDSS image of one of the γ-NLSy1 source, we find the evidence of an extended structure. We conclude by noting that overall many observational properties of γ-NLSy1 sources are similar to FSRQs, and therefore these objects could be their low black hole mass counterparts, as predicted in the literature.

  17. Fluoroscopy-guided placement of nasoenteral tubes in children using intermittent digital pulse fluoroscopy and last image save/grab technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A G; Simmons, C E; Collins, H; Tipnis, S V; Hill, J G; Ritenour, E R

    2016-09-01

    To document the radiation exposure metrics, including fluoroscopic radiation time and radiation dose-area product, in children fluoroscopy time, and radiation dose-area product were collected retrospectively in all paediatric patients who underwent fluoroscopically guided nasoenteral tube placement during a 5-year period. Three paediatric radiology faculty members, a radiologist assistant, and trainee residents during their paediatric radiology rotation performed the procedures on two different digital fluoroscopic machines using radiation-minimising techniques. Median values of the fluoroscopy time and radiation dose-area product were calculated and compared to values reported in the literature using the Wilcoxon procedure. There were 41 male and 33 female patients with a median age of 4 years and 6 months. Median fluoroscopy time used for placing a nasoenteral tube was 1.25 minutes with a median radiation exposure dose-area product of 0.245 Gy·cm(2). All patients had successful placement of nasoenteral tube without immediate procedure-related complications. Fluoroscopy-guided nasoenteral feeding tube placement can be performed successfully with minimal radiation exposure without compromising procedural success. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiation of intense characteristic x-rays from weakly ionized linear molybdenum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi

    2003-01-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, a high-voltage main condenser of approximately 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod molybdenum target of 2.0 mm in diameter by the electric field in the x-ray tube, weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons, forms by target evaporation. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, the linear plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The K lines were quite sharp and intense, and hardly any bremsstrahlung rays were detected. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 700 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of approximately 35 μC/kg at 1.0 m from the x-ray source with a charging voltage of 50 kV. (author)

  19. A multiple time-gated system for pulsed digital gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, H.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Hennig, W.; Chu, Y.X.; Warburton, W.K.; Mitra, S.; Wielopolski, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) systems that use pulsed neutron generators (NGs) employ spectrum gating procedures to segregate nuclear processes by acquiring gamma-ray spectra separately when the generator is on (HIGH gate) and off (LOW gate). Often, the actual neutron burst lags the leading edge of the HIGH gate signal by a few μs. Thus, count rates vary not only between the on and off states of the NG, but within them as well. Recent advances in digital gamma-ray spectrometers that allowed the concurrent acquisition of data by sorting events into two separate spectra based on gate status suggested that a time-resolved analysis that further subdivided the neutron pulse cycle could obtain further information to separate gamma-rays produced by different nuclear reactions. In this paper we introduce a gating system for time-resolved NAA that is capable of concurrently acquiring as many as 16 spectra from up to 8 user-defined time intervals during each of the HIGH gate and LOW gate periods, each with all required timing and count rate information. We present the new gating system's implementation, operation and some first experimental test results. (author)

  20. Structural noise from automatic exposure control device and its relationship to X-ray tube voltage used for calibration of a flat-panel detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masayoshi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Toshifumi; Sanada, Shigeru; Abe, Shuji; Mitou, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In flat-panel detector (FPD) systems, the ion-chamber dosimeters used for automatic exposure control (AEC), which are placed between the detector and the source, should not affect clinical images because of FPD gain correction, but can sometimes still introduce fixed-pattern noise. In this study, we investigated whether such artifacts were caused by structural noise from the AEC detector on the basis of the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the mean square error (MSE) of FPD images taken at various tube voltages either with or without the AEC detector. When the NPS was measured without the AEC detector, the NPS did not increase in the low special-frequency band at all radiation qualities tested, irrespective of X-ray calibration tube voltages. However, when the NPS was measured while the AEC detector was used, the NPS increased in the low special-frequency band at all radiation qualities when the X-ray calibration tube voltages were at low levels. Similarly, the MSE increased when the X-ray calibration tube voltages were at low levels. From these results, artifacts in the AEC detector appear to be suppressed when a radiation quality of approximately 90 kV is used at four different standardized radiations quality (RQA3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9).

  1. The x-ray light valve: A potentially low-cost, digital radiographic imaging system-concept and implementation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Christie Ann; Koprinarov, Ivaylo; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    New x-ray radiographic systems based on large-area flat-panel technology have revolutionized our capability to produce digital x-ray images. However, these imagers are extraordinarily expensive compared to the systems they are replacing. Hence, there is a need for a low-cost digital imaging system for general applications in radiology. A novel potentially low-cost radiographic imaging system based on established technologies is proposed--the X-Ray Light Valve (XLV). This is a potentially high-quality digital x-ray detector made of a photoconducting layer and a liquid-crystal cell, physically coupled in a sandwich structure. Upon exposure to x rays, charge is collected on the surface of the photoconductor. This causes a change in the optical properties of the liquid-crystal cell and a visible image is generated. Subsequently, it is digitized by a scanned optical imager. The image formation is based on controlled modulation of light from an external source. The operation and practical implementation of the XLV system are described. The potential performance of the complete system and issues related to sensitivity, spatial resolution, noise, and speed are discussed. The feasibility of clinical use of an XLV device based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) as the photoconductor and a reflective electrically controlled birefringence cell is analyzed. The results of our analysis indicate that the XLV can potentially be adapted to a wide variety of radiographic tasks

  2. Nanotube cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  3. Nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  4. arXiv Development of a time-to-digital converter ASIC for the upgrade of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00225390; Xiao, Xiong; An, Qi; Chapman, John W.; Dai, Tiesheng; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer for the high-luminosity LHC requires new trigger and readout electronics for various elements of the detector. We present the design of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) ASIC prototype for the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) detector. The chip was fabricated in a GlobalFoundries 130 nm CMOS technology. Studies indicate that its timing and power dissipation characteristics meet the design specifications, with a timing bin variation of ± 40 ps for all 48 TDC slices and a power dissipation of about 6.5 mW per slice.

  5. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Federica [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Universita degli studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dellasega, David [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  6. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, M., E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Delogu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, s.p. per Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available.

  7. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...... was observed to be 0.60% in a clinical study of 24 women and the in vitro variation over 12 different radiological clinics was found to be 1% of the young normal BMDDXR level. In a cohort of 416 women BMDDXR was found to be closely correlated with BMD at the distal forearm measured by dual-energy X...

  8. [Comparison of LCD and CRT monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2006-05-20

    Soft copy reading of digital images has been practiced commonly in the PACS environment. In this study, we compared liquid-crystal display (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Digital chest images with a 1000x1000 matrix size and a 8 bit grayscale were displayed on LCD/CRT monitor with 2M pixels in each observer test. Eight and ten radiologists participated in the observer tests for detection of nodules and interstitial diseases, respectively. In each observer test, radiologists marked their confidence levels for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules or interstitial diseases. The detection performance of radiologists was evaluated by ROC analyses. The average Az values (area under the ROC curve) in detecting pulmonary nodules with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.792 and 0.814, respectively. In addition, the average Az values in detecting interstitial diseases with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.951 and 0.953, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LCD and CRT for both detection of pulmonary nodules (P=0.522) and interstitial lung diseases (P=0.869). Therefore, we believe that the LCD monitor instead of the CRT monitor can be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases in digital chest images.

  9. A portable versatile x-and γ-ray dosemeter with digital display for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A multipurpose dosemeter based on analogue-to-digital (A-D) conversion has been developed using solid state devices, micropower integrated circuits and displays. The A-D converter combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer, a voltage-to-frequency converter, the automatic Townsend balance, LED(LCD) display for exposure, analogue output and has a voltage-measuring accuracy of +-O.1% FS+-1 digit. The dosemeter which is designed to measure a wide range of X- and γ-ray exposure rates (1 mRh -1 to 1000 R min -1 ) and exposures (1 mR to 1000 R) with a variety of air-equivalent ionisation chambers, is compact, rugged and battery or AC mains powered. It is designed to provide trouble-free performance, easy operation and maintenance and to be independent of climatic conditions. Combining the features of a survey meter, dosemeter and a radioisotope calibrator, it can be fabricated using the facilities locally available in hospitals or universities. (author)

  10. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (p0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  11. Wire- and cathode pulses in a counter of square cross section with a thin wire as central conductor operating in limited streamer mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Ch.; Erd, Ch.; Leder, G.; Pernicka, M.; Regler, M.; Schnizer, B.

    1989-11-01

    Streamer tubes are becoming increasingly important in high-energy physics experiments. They are used as drift tubes for the localisation of charged-particle tracks, and also as sampling devices in sandwich calorimeters with cathode readout only. The streamer pulses carry charges which are several orders of magnitude larger than pulses from proportional chambers; this provides a good signal-to-noise ratio and makes them appropriate for a wide field of applications in highly compact detectors. The signals induced on the cathodes are also important for measuring — in addition to the anode wire - a second coordinate, and for resolving ambiguities in track recognition. When connecting the signals from two opposite cathodes to the two inputs of a differential amplifier, a left/right bit could be added after suitable buffering via the same signal line as used for time digitalisation. Another essential feature is the association of time information from the anode wire and the cathode. For the streamer tube used in this experiment the pulses induced on the cathode on either side of the particle, and on the anode, are measured by a fast analog-to-digital converter. A simple two-dimensional model ρ( r, θ) at t = 0, without any time-dependent effects other than a constant electron drift velocity of 50 μm/ns, is used to compare the charge distribution in a streamer with the measurements of the pulse lengths at the two opposite cathode strips. First the field generated by a static voltage is calculated. Then the effect of a "space charge" is evaluated. The Green's function of the square domain is a prerequisite for determining the field and the surface charge distribution on the electrodes. It is obtained from that of a concentric circular counter by a conformal mapping. Representations of Green's functions are calculated by series expansions.

  12. Dentists' use of digital radiographic techniques: Part I - intraoral X-ray: a questionnaire study of Swedish dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Björn; Ståhlnacke, Katri; Karlsson, Reet; Fält, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to gain knowledge about the dentist's use and choice of digital intraoral imaging methods. A questionnaire sent to 2481 dentists within the Swedish Dental Society contained questions about the type of X-ray technique used, problems experienced with digital radiography, and reasons for choosing digital technology, and about indications, clinic size and type of service. Response rate was 53%. Ninety-eight percent of the dentists had made the transition to digital radiography; only 2% used film technique, and solid-state detector (SSD) was the most used digital technique. More years in service decreases the likelihood of applying individual indications for performing a full mouth examination. More retakes were done with SSDs compared to storage phosphor plates. Reasons for choosing digital techniques were that work was easier and communication with the patients improved. However, dentists also experienced problems with digital techniques, such as exposure and projection errors and inadequate image quality. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority states that all radiological examinations should be justified, something not always followed. This study showed that 98% of the respondents, Swedish dentists within the Swedish Dental Society, used digital techniques, and the most used was the solid-state technique.

  13. Impact of X-ray tube settings and metallic leads on neurological PET imaging when using CT-based attenuation correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Ay, Mohammad; Zaidi, Habib

    2007-02-01

    The use of X-ray CT images for CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) of PET data results in the decrease of overall scanning time and creates a noise-free attenuation map (μmap). Given that different tube voltages and currents are used in clinical PET/CT scanning protocols depending on patient size and the body region under study, this work was designed to evaluate the effect of tube settings and the presence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) metallic leads on the accuracy of CTAC. A commercial anthropomorphic head phantom and an in-house made polyethylene phantom were used in order to quantitatively measure the effect of the nominated parameters, using quantitative analysis of created μmaps, generated attenuation correction factors and reconstructed neurological PET emission data. A maximum absolute relative difference of 0.9% was observed between average CT numbers of images acquired at 300 mA and those acquired with tube currents from 20 to 280 mA in steps of 20 mA. Slopes equal to 5.79×10 -5, 5.34×10 -5 and 3.92×10 -5 for calibration curves corresponding to CT numbers greater than 0 HU were obtained at tube voltages of 140, 120 and 80 kVp, respectively. A relative difference of 36% and 27% for CT numbers of cortical bone measured at 80 kVp were observed in comparison with images acquired at 140 and 120 kVp, respectively. It was concluded that the attenuation map derivation is independent of tube current used for the settings explored in this work. Likewise, the visual qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of neurological PET emission images is independent of X-ray tube voltage. The DBS metallic leads do not create any visible or quantifiable artifacts in the reconstructed neurological PET images owing to their small size.

  14. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malevich, E.E.; Kisel, E.M.; Shpita, I.D.; Lazovsky, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    with higher frequency of a pulsation the share of unproductive radiation is higher. At x-raying controlled by the grid pulses are generated by the x-ray tube with the grid control. The grid, located between the cathode and the anode, passes the electron cloud without the expenses of time for dispersal and attenuation. It gives sharply outlined, rectangular x-ray pulses with homogeneous quality of radiation. Function GC F -x-raying controlled by the grid - enables to receive precisely outlined contours of moving objects: a heart, a gullet, - and also to carry out examination of the children without information loss during simultaneous dose decrease. Besides the image remains precise even during the movement of the electron-optical converter. Owing to radiation parameters adjustment during the examination the effect of the lighted image is eliminated. X-raying devices Easy Diagnose and Diagnose-76 'Philips' are equipped with the system of digital x-ray image processing besides they are completed with the x-ray tube with Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy that allows to carry out pulse x-raying with number of pulses 2, 3, 6 and 12 per a second. So, with 12 pulses per second the irradiation dose in comparison with continuous radiation decreases on 40%. The examinations of a chest, gullet, stomach and thick gut were carried out at the frequency of 12 and 6 pulses per second. In the hospital of the Ministry of Internal Affairs where device Easy Diagnose is established, at examinations of a gastro enteric path (stomach x-raying, irrigoscopy) usually pulse x-raying is used with frequency 12 pulses per second. It allows significantly reduce the beam load on a patient. The calculation of beam loads on a patient was carried out on the basis of exposition dose level at the beam input in the body of a patient (entrance dose). The way is applied for especially exact calculations, as definitions of effective doses on separate organs and all body are difficult. The irradiation dose is in

  15. Dose evaluation for digital X-ray imaging of premature neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkels, T.J.M.; Jeukens, C.R.L.P.N.; Andriessen, P.; Van der Linden, A.N.; Dam, A.J.; Van Straaten, H.L.M.; Cottaar, E.J.E.; Van Pul, C.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a commonly used diagnostic method for premature neonates. However, because of higher radiosensitivity and young age, premature neonates are more sensitive to the detrimental effects of ionising radiation. Therefore, it is important to monitor and optimise radiation doses at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The number of X-ray examinations, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses are evaluated for three Dutch NICUs using digital flat panel detectors. Thorax, thorax abdomen and abdomen protocols are included in this study. Median number of examinations is equal to 1 for all three hospitals. Median DAP ranges between 0.05 and 1.02 μGy m2 for different examination types and different weight categories. These examinations result in mean effective doses between 4 ± 4 and 30 ± 10 μSv per examination. Substantial differences in protocols and doses can be observed between hospitals. This emphasises the need for up-to-date reference levels formulated specifically for premature neonates. (authors)

  16. Digital Image Correlation of 2D X-ray Powder Diffraction Data for Lattice Strain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the ‘caking’ (radial binning or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short. As an example of using XRD-DIC, residual strain values along the central line in a Mg AZ31B alloy bar after 3-point bending are calculated by using both XRD-DIC and the conventional ‘caking’ with fitting procedures. Comparison of the results for strain values in different azimuthal angles demonstrates excellent agreement between the two methods. The principal strains and directions are calculated using multiple direction strain data, leading to full in-plane strain evaluation. It is therefore concluded that XRD-DIC provides a reliable and robust method for strain evaluation from 2D powder diffraction data. The XRD-DIC approach simplifies the analysis process by skipping 2D to 1D conversion, and opens new possibilities for robust 2D powder diffraction data analysis for full in-plane strain evaluation.

  17. Evaluation of body simulator for chest and abdomen in digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sidney S.; Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Oliveira, Giovanni Antônio P.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of body simulators to control the quality of X-ray images is a practice that guarantees the control of essential parameters for diagnosis by the technique. The evolution of the equipment, between the analogue, digital computerized radiology (CR) and direct radiography (DR), requires evaluation of the equivalence in grayscale, of simulators, for an adjustment according to the specific technology of obtaining the image. In this sense, the present work presents the evaluation of a body simulator with regard to the representation of mean values of signal, noise and contrast obtained in chest radiographs and panoramic of the abdomen. For the thorax the cardiac region was considered as simulation target and for the abdomen simulation of the liver and small intestine. We used a retrospective study of images obtained with X-ray equipment - CR system, in which the images were studied using the ImageJ program, generating a data catalog. These were subsequently compared with those obtained experimentally using gel filled polymer body simulator. For the validation of the simulator, it was observed the gel equivalence of filling of the polymer box required to reach the image parameters of the cataloged radiographs. The results are discussed as to the physical principles of radiation interaction with biological and equivalent tissues

  18. A study on the digital image transfer application mass chest X-ray system up-grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Park, Jong Sam; Lee, Jon Il

    2003-01-01

    By converting movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles into digital systems and upgrading it to share information with the hospital's medical image information system, excellencies have been confirmed as a result of installing and running this type of system and are listed hereinafter. Upgrading analog systems, such as indirect mass chest X-ray devices dependent on printed film, to digital systems allows them to be run and managed much more efficiently, contributing to the increase in the stability and the efficiency of the system. Unlike existing images, communication based on DICOM standards allow images to be compatible with the hospital's outer and inner network PACS systems, extending the scope of the radiation departments information system. Assuming chest-exclusive indirect mass chest X-rays, a linked development of CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis, Detector) becomes possible. By applying wireless Internet, Web-PACS for movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles will become possible. Research in these fields must continue and if the superior image quality and convenience of digital systems are confirmed, I believe that the conversion of systems still dependent on analog images to modernized digital systems is a must

  19. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-01-01

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  20. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-09-10

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  1. X-Ray Flare Oscillations Track Plasma Sloshing along Star-disk Magnetic Tubes in the Orion Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Fabio; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Flaccomio, Ettore; Petralia, Antonino; Sciortino, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    Pulsing X-ray emission tracks the plasma “echo” traveling in an extremely long magnetic tube that flares in an Orion pre-main sequence (PMS) star. On the Sun, flares last from minutes to a few hours and the longest-lasting ones typically involve arcades of closed magnetic tubes. Long-lasting X-ray flares are observed in PMS stars. Large-amplitude (∼20%), long-period (∼3 hr) pulsations are detected in the light curve of day-long flares observed by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on-board Chandra from PMS stars in the Orion cluster. Detailed hydrodynamic modeling of two flares observed on V772 Ori and OW Ori shows that these pulsations may track the sloshing of plasma along a single long magnetic tube, triggered by a sufficiently short (∼1 hr) heat pulse. These magnetic tubes are ≥20 solar radii long, enough to connect the star with the surrounding disk.

  2. Proposal of a high rigidity and high speed rotating mechanism using a new concept hydrodynamic bearing in X-ray tube for high speed computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Harunobu; Yoshii, Yasuo; Nakamuta, Hironori; Iwase, Mitsuo; Kitade, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a high rigidity and high speed rotating mechanism using a new concept hydrodynamic bearing in X-ray tube for high speed computed tomography is proposed. In order to obtain both the stability and the high load carrying capacity, the hydrodynamic bearing lubricated by liquid metal (Gallium alloy), named as the hybrid hydrodynamic bearing generates the lubricating film by wedge effect on the plane region between the spiral grooves under high loading condition. The parallelism between the bearing and the rotating body can be secured by optimizing the rigidity distribution of stationary shaft in the proposed rotating mechanism. By carrying out the fundamental design by numerical analyses, it has been made clear that the hybrid hydrodynamic bearing and the rotating mechanism are suitable for the X-ray tube used in the CT with ever-increasingly scanning speed. (author)

  3. Outgassing rate analysis of a velvet cathode and a carbon fiber cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Kun; Fan, Yu-Wei; Qian, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Xun, Tao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the outgassing-rates of a carbon fiber array cathode and a polymer velvet cathode are tested and discussed. Two different methods of measurements are used in the experiments. In one scheme, a method based on dynamic equilibrium of pressure is used. Namely, the cathode works in the repetitive mode in a vacuum diode, a dynamic equilibrium pressure would be reached when the outgassing capacity in the chamber equals the pumping capacity of the pump, and the outgassing rate could be figured out according to this equilibrium pressure. In another scheme, a method based on static equilibrium of pressure is used. Namely, the cathode works in a closed vacuum chamber (a hard tube), and the outgassing rate could be calculated from the pressure difference between the pressure in the chamber before and after the work of the cathode. The outgassing rate is analyzed from the real time pressure evolution data which are measured using a magnetron gauge in both schemes. The outgassing rates of the carbon fiber array cathode and the velvet cathode are 7.3 ± 0.4 neutrals/electron and 85 ± 5 neutrals/electron in the first scheme and 9 ± 0.5 neutrals/electron and 98 ± 7 neutrals/electron in the second scheme. Both the results of two schemes show that the outgassing rate of the carbon fiber array cathode is an order smaller than that of the velvet cathode under similar conditions, which shows that this carbon fiber array cathode is a promising replacement of the velvet cathode in the application of magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators and relativistic magnetrons.

  4. Effect of low- and sublethal doses X-rays and UV-light on the content of nicotineamide compounds during the tube growth of Pinus silvestris pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of low and sublethal doses of UV- and X-rays on the nicotinamide contents of the pollen of Pinus Silvestris is examined through the growth of the pollen tubes. It is shown that the nicotinamide system is destroyed by the radiation. Reactivation of the nicotinamide compounds was dosedependent. Radiation with low doses leads to normal values and values above normal. (AJ) [de

  5. Comparative study of the Quality Control of x-ray tubes and generators in hospital assistance and primary assistance in Galician autonomous community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombar Camean, M.; Lobato Busto, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality guarantee in Diagnostic Radiology is defined as the organized effort of surgical staff to guarantee sufficient quality images, which provide the correct diagnostic information, as cheaply as possible and with the least exposure to radiation for the patient. In this paper a comparative study about the quality control of x-ray tube and generators in hospital assistance and primary assistance is present. In the conclusions, it is confirmed that the antiquity and poor conservation of the primary attendance x-ray equipment, have influence on the studied constants and therefore, influence the doses received by the patients. (author)

  6. Iodine X-ray fluorescence computed tomography system utilizing a cadmium telluride detector in conjunction with a cerium-target tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Osahiko, E-mail: osahiko.hagiwara@gmail.co [3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, 2-17-6 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8515 (Japan); Watanabe, Manabu [The 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, 2-17-6 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8515 (Japan); Sato, Eiichi [Department of Physics, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro [The 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, 2-17-6 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8515 (Japan); Sato, Shigehiro [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka, Iwate 020-0023 (Japan); Ogawa, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka, Iwate 020-0023 (Japan); Onagawa, Jun [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, 1-13-1 Chuo, Tagajo, Miyagi 985-8537 (Japan)

    2011-06-01

    An X-ray fluorescence computed tomography system (XRF-CT) is useful for determining the main atoms in objects. To detect iodine atoms without using a synchrotron, we developed an XRF-CT system utilizing a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector and a cerium X-ray generator. CT is performed by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object. When cerium K-series characteristic X-rays are absorbed by iodine atoms in objects, iodine K fluorescence is produced from atoms and is detected by the CdTe detector. Next, event signals of X-ray photons are produced with the use of charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Iodine K{alpha} fluorescence is isolated using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted using a counter card. In energy-dispersive XRF-CT, the tube voltage and tube current were 70 kV and 0.40 mA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity was 115.3 {mu}Gy/s at a distance of 1.0 m from the source. The demonstration of XRF-CT was carried out by the selection of photons in an energy range from 27.5 to 29.5 keV with a photon-energy resolution of 1.2 keV.

  7. Confirming nasogastric tube placement: Is the colorimeter as sensitive and specific as X-ray? A diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordiffi, Siti Zubaidah; Goh, Mien Li; Phua, Jason; Chan, Yiong-Huak

    2016-09-01

    The effect of delivering enteral nutrition or medications via a nasogastric tube that is inadvertently located in the tracheobronchial tract can cause respiratory complications. Although radiographic examination is accepted as the gold standard for confirming the position of patients' enteral tubes, it is costly, involves risks of radiation, and is not failsafe. Studies using carbon dioxide sensors to detect inadvertent nasogastric tube placements have been conducted in intensive care settings. However, none involved patients in general wards. The objective of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic measure of colorimeter, with radiographic examination as the reference standard, to confirm the location of nasogastric tubes in patients. A prospective observational study of a diagnostic test. This study was conducted in the general wards of an approximately 1100-bed acute care tertiary hospital of an Academic Medical Center in Singapore. Adult patients with nasogastric tubes admitted to the general wards were recruited into the study. The colorimeter was attached to the nasogastric tube to detect for the presence of carbon dioxide, suggestive of a tracheobronchial placement. The exact location of the nasogastric tube was subsequently confirmed by a radiographic examination. A total of 192 tests were undertaken. The colorimeter detected carbon dioxide in 29 tested nasogastric tubes, of which radiographic examination confirmed that four tubes were located in the tracheobronchial tract. The colorimeter failed to detect carbon dioxide in one nasogastric tube that was located in the tracheobronchial tract, thus, demonstrating a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI (0.376, 0.964)]. The colorimeter detected absence of carbon dioxide in 163 tested nasogastric tubes in which radiographic examination confirmed 160 gastrointestinal and one tracheobronchial placements, demonstrating a specificity of 0.865 [95% CI (0.808, 0.907)]. The colorimeter detected one tracheobronchial

  8. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao

    2012-01-01

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  9. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  10. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  11. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste

  12. Cyberbullying of Teachers by Students on YouTube: Challenging the Image of Teacher Authority in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the cyberbullying of teachers in schools by their students. One aspect of this phenomenon is the posting of visual recordings of teachers and teacher-student interaction on easily accessible websites such as YouTube. Whilst research on the cyberbullying of students by other students has received a great deal of…

  13. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years......Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  14. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  15. Comparison of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional X-ray of the equine digit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiter, M.

    1996-10-01

    An anatomical study of the equine digit with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed. In addition, the observed pathologic findings were compared with their diagnosticity in associated radiographs. Twenty isolated forelimbs were radiographed and compared with the according CT-images. From 19 isolated forelimbs and one hindlimb MR-images were taken using spinecho and overview gradient-echo sequences. The appearance of bone and soft tissue is described in various sectional positions. CT images allow excellent evaluation of bone tissue in cases in which the X-ray examination suffers from the superimposition of adjacent structures. Thus, in several cases of navicular disease additional findings were made using CT. An insertional desmopathy of the interosseus, a cartilagineous fetlock chip, a separation of the hoof wall and osteophytes of the distal phalanx were found with CT but not in the associated radiographs. MRI allows the specific diagnosis of joint-, ligament- and tendon diseases also in the hoof region. The possibility to evaluate the navicular region, the distal interphalangeal joint and the hoof matrix is of great diagnostic value. In one case of navicular d sease a defect of the flexor cortex with pannus formation could be diagnosed. In a case with chronical laminitis the separation of the epidermal lamellae and the growth of the scar horn were depicted. A tendinitis of the interosseus, fibrocartilage in the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon, the interosseus and in the distal sesamoid ligaments are well documented. It is concluded that in some equine patients CT and MRI are indicated due to the substantial diagnostic information. (author)

  16. Development of a digital panoramic X-ray imaging system of adaptive image layers for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. I.; Park, Y. O.; Cho, H. S.; Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. M.; Hong, D. K.; Lee, M. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Je, U. K.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    As a continuation of our digital radiographic sensor R&D, we have developed a prototyped digital panoramic X-ray imaging system for dental applications. The imaging system consists of a slit-collimated X-ray generator with a 0.4 mm focal spot size and a 3.5 mm Al filtration, a linear-array typed CMOS imager with a 48×48 μm 2 pixel size and a 128 (in the scan direction)×3072 (in the vertical direction) pixel format, a series of microstep motors for the precise motion control of the imaging system, and the designed sequences for the motion control and pixel readout required to make a specific plane of interest (POI) to be focused. With the several test phantoms we designed, we obtained useful digital panoramic X-ray images by moving the X-ray generator and the CMOS imager along a continuously sliding rotational center. In this study, we demonstrated that the prototype system can be applicable to any shaped POI or multi-POIs simultaneously to be focused, provided that adequate sequences for motion control and pixel readout are designed. We expect that the imaging system will be useful for our ongoing applications of dental panoramic radiography and nondestructive testing.

  17. Development of a digital panoramic X-ray imaging system of adaptive image layers for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.I.; Park, Y.O. [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.S., E-mail: hscho1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Hong, D.K.; Lee, M.S.; Yang, Y.J.; Je, U.K.; Kim, D.S. [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.K. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    As a continuation of our digital radiographic sensor R and D, we have developed a prototyped digital panoramic X-ray imaging system for dental applications. The imaging system consists of a slit-collimated X-ray generator with a 0.4 mm focal spot size and a 3.5 mm Al filtration, a linear-array typed CMOS imager with a 48x48 {mu}m{sup 2} pixel size and a 128 (in the scan direction)x3072 (in the vertical direction) pixel format, a series of microstep motors for the precise motion control of the imaging system, and the designed sequences for the motion control and pixel readout required to make a specific plane of interest (POI) to be focused. With the several test phantoms we designed, we obtained useful digital panoramic X-ray images by moving the X-ray generator and the CMOS imager along a continuously sliding rotational center. In this study, we demonstrated that the prototype system can be applicable to any shaped POI or multi-POIs simultaneously to be focused, provided that adequate sequences for motion control and pixel readout are designed. We expect that the imaging system will be useful for our ongoing applications of dental panoramic radiography and nondestructive testing.

  18. Comparison of LCD and CRT displays based on efficacy for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert S; Samei, Ehsan; Baker, Jay; Delong, David; Soo, Mary Scott; Walsh, Ruth; Pisano, Etta; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Pavic, Dag

    2006-11-01

    To compare two display technologies, cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD), in terms of diagnostic accuracy for several common clinical tasks in digital mammography. Simulated masses and microcalcifications were inserted into normal digital mammograms to produce an image set of 400 images. Images were viewed on one CRT and one LCD medical-quality display device by five experienced breast-imaging radiologists who rated the images using a categorical rating paradigm. The observer data were analyzed to determine overall classification accuracy, overall lesion detection accuracy, and accuracy for four specific diagnostic tasks: detection of benign masses, malignant masses, and microcalcifications, and discrimination of benign and malignant masses. Radiologists had similar overall classification accuracy (LCD: 0.83 +/- 0.01, CRT: 0.82 +/- 0.01) and lesion detection accuracy (LCD: 0.87 +/- 0.01, CRT: 0.85 +/- 0.01) on both displays. The difference in accuracy between LCD and CRT for the detection of benign masses, malignant masses, and microcalcifications, and discrimination of benign and malignant masses was -0.019 +/- 0.009, 0.020 +/- 0.008, 0.012 +/- 0.013, and 0.0094 +/- 0.011, respectively. Overall, the two displays did not exhibit any statistically significant difference (P > .05). This study explored the suitability of two different soft-copy displays for the viewing of mammographic images. It found that LCD and CRT displays offer similar clinical utility for mammographic tasks.

  19. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Th.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  20. Erosion behavior of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Robert; Mendez Martin, Francisca; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Al x Cr 1−x composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N 2 , and O 2 atmospheres and their erosion behavior was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N 2 and O 2 atmospheres were nonuniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded center region of the cathodes

  1. Applying vertebral boundary semantics to CBIR of digitized spine x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Sameer K.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing research interest in reliable content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques specialized for biomedical image retrieval. Applicable feature representation and similarity algorithms have to balance conflicting goals of efficient and effective retrieval while allowing queries on important and often subtle biomedical features. In a collection of digitized X-rays of the spine, such as that from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) maintained by the National Library of Medicine, a typical user may be interested in only a small region of the vertebral boundary pertinent to the pathology: for this experiment, the Anterior Osteophyte (AO). A previous experiment in pathology-based retrieval using partial shape matching (PSM) on a subset from the above collection; about 89% normal vertebrae were correctly retrieved. In contrast only 45% of moderate and severe cases were correctly retrieved, and on the average only 46% of the pathology classes were correctly determined. Further analysis revealed that mere shape matching is insufficient for semantically correct retrieval of pathological cases. This paper describes an automatic 9 point localization algorithm that incorporates reasoning about boundary semantics equivalent to that applied by the content-expert as a step in our enhancements to PSM, and results from initial experiments.

  2. Psoriasis and the Digital Landscape: YouTube as an Information Source for Patients and Medical Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenczowski, Emily; Dahiya, Madhu

    2018-03-01

    Background: YouTube is the second most commonly accessed website worldwide, but little is known about the accuracy of its medical content. We performed a review to analyze the type and quality of content in a YouTube search with respect to the treatment of psoriasis. Methods: The first 10 result pages of YouTube were searched using the term psoriasis treatment with applied filters. One-hundred and eighty-two videos were reviewed and characterized by the source of content. Results: Of the identified videos, 7.1 percent had medical institutions or verified physicians as authors; 12.1 percent had a media-affiliated author; 1.6 percent were posted by a pharmaceutical company; 11.5 percent contained "miracle-type" product advertisements with included links to product purchase websites; and 69.2 percent were holistic in nature, describing "natural" supplements and diets necessary for adequate psoriasis treatment and cure. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for an increase in the online presence of medical institutions to augment the dissemination of correct health information.

  3. Determination of dislocation density and composition of β-Zr in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes using X-ray and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Im, Kyung Soo

    2003-01-01

    The dislocation density and the composition of the β-Zr phase were determined using an X-ray diffractometer and TEM in an off-cut of the Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube irradiated in Wolsong Unit 1. Through Fourier analysis of diffraction line profiles of {1 1 2-bar 0}, {1 0 1-bar 0} and {0 0 0 1} planes, an X-ray method determined the coherent block size and the lattice strain energy, from which the a- and c-type dislocation densities were evaluated assuming that the screw dislocation only contributes to the lattice strain energy. This X-ray method was demonstrated to reliably determine the a- and c-type dislocation densities in the Zr-2.5Nb tube which agreed well with the independently measured values for the same Zr-2.5Nb tube using the AECL's own method. For the first time, we developed a procedure to determine distributions of a- and c-type dislocation densities from distributions of the line broadening of the basal planes and the prism planes. Through this procedure, the volume-averaged c- and a-type dislocation densities in the Zr-2.5Nb were determined to be 2.69x10 14 m -2 and 0.97x10 14 m -2 , respectively, which agree very well with those analyzed by TEM. The Nb content of the β-Zr phase was determined using an X-ray from a change in the lattice distance of the {1 0 0} planes, which agrees well with that by the electron diffraction spectroscopy analysis on the extracted β-Zr particles

  4. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s....... However, in one of the tube colours labelled “Jaune de Cadmium Citron” (cadmium lemon yellow) an extremely rare cadmium chromate pigment was found. The pigment was analysed and characterised by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated...... chromate, and the resulting yellow crystals proved identical to the pigment found in the tube colour “Jaune de Cadmium Citron”. The structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified the pigment as 2CdCrO4·KOH·H2O or more accurately as KCd2(CrO4)2(H3O2) illustrating the μ-H3O2– species...

  5. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Endotracheal Tube Position and X-ray Image Classification: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhani, Paras

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) in differentiating subtle, intermediate, and more obvious image differences in radiography. Three different datasets were created, which included presence/absence of the endotracheal (ET) tube (n?=?300), low/normal position of the ET tube (n?=?300), and chest/abdominal radiographs (n?=?120). The datasets were split into training, validation, and test. Both untrained and pre-trained deep neural net...

  6. X-Ray, Digital Imaging with Volumetric Density Measurement and Profiling, Applied to the Characterization of Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Gupta, N.; Halliwell, S.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission's Joint Research Centre Ispra Site (JRC-Ispra) has initiated a decommissioning and waste management program that will span about two decades. The program includes a requirement to characterize the contents of about 6,500 radioactive, 220 litre waste drums whose documented history is incomplete. To render the characterization process more efficient, the drums will be initially divided into homogeneous groups, an activity that will be based on existing documentation and non-destructive examination (NDE) by X-ray digital imaging. This paper describes the X-ray imaging techniques chosen, and the planned performance validation of the equipment. (authors)

  7. Image-quality performance of an a-Si H-based X-ray imaging system for digital mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Darambara, D G; Speller, R D

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the potential of large area active matrix flat-panel a-Si : H imaging arrays for full-field digital X-ray mammography. To optimise the overall performance of such an imaging system under mammographic conditions, four different Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb phosphor screens (i.e. Lanex Fast-Back, Regular, Fine and MinR-2000) were employed and our full-field detector was integrated with the Feinfocus DIMA (Direct Magnification) PLUS MII mammographic unit. The spatial resolution and the image noise of the digital detector were measured and the X-ray imaging performance of the whole system was also evaluated with two mammographic phantoms. It was deduced from the results of this study that Regular screen offers the best compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution and exhibits better overall image-quality performance than that of a conventional mammography system.

  8. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  9. Digitized detection of gamma-ray signals concentrated in narrow time windows for transient positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinomura, A; Suzuki, R; Oshima, N; O'Rourke, B E; Nishijima, T; Ogawa, H

    2014-12-01

    A pulsed slow-positron beam generated by an electron linear accelerator was directly used for positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy without any positron storage devices. A waveform digitizer was introduced to simultaneously capture multiple gamma-ray signals originating from positron annihilation events during a single accelerator pulse. The positron pulse was chopped and bunched with the chopper signals also sent to the waveform digitizer. Time differences between the annihilation gamma-ray and chopper peaks were calculated and accumulated as lifetime spectra in a computer. The developed technique indicated that positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy can be performed in a 20 μs time window at a pulse repetition rate synchronous with the linear accelerator. Lifetime spectra of a Kapton sheet and a thermally grown SiO2 layer on Si were successfully measured. Synchronization of positron lifetime measurements with pulsed ion irradiation was demonstrated by this technique.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of low and high tube voltage coronary CT angiography using an X-ray tube potential-tailored contrast medium injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Moritz H; Nance, John W; Schoepf, U Joseph; Jacobs, Brian E; Bayer, Richard R; Litwin, Sheldon E; Reynolds, Michael A; Otani, Katharina; Mangold, Stefanie; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Santis, Domenico; Eid, Marwen; Apfaltrer, Georg; Tesche, Christian; Goeller, Markus; Vogl, Thomas J; De Cecco, Carlo N

    2018-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy between low-kilovolt peak (kVp) (≤ 100) and high-kVp (> 100) third-generation dual-source coronary CT angiography (CCTA) using a kVp-tailored contrast media injection protocol. One hundred twenty patients (mean age = 62.6 years, BMI = 29.0 kg/m 2 ) who underwent catheter angiography and CCTA with automated kVp selection were separated into two cohorts (each n = 60, mean kVp = 84 and 117). Contrast media dose was tailored to the kVp level: 70 = 40 ml, 80 = 50 ml, 90 = 60 ml, 100 = 70 ml, 110 = 80 ml, and 120 = 90 ml. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured. Two observers evaluated image quality and the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50% luminal narrowing). Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) with ≤ 100 vs. > 100 kVp CCTA was comparable: per patient = 93.9/92.6% vs. 90.9/92.6%, per vessel = 91.5/97.8% vs. 94.0/96.8%, and per segment = 90.0/96.7% vs. 90.7/95.2% (all P > 0.64). CNR was similar (P > 0.18) in the low-kVp vs. high-kVp group (12.0 vs. 11.1), as ws subjective image quality (P = 0.38). Contrast media requirements were reduced by 38.1% in the low- vs. high-kVp cohort (53.6 vs. 86.6 ml, P tube voltage selection with a tailored contrast media injection protocol allows CCTA to be performed at ≤ 100 kVp with substantial dose reductions and equivalent diagnostic accuracy for coronary stenosis detection compared to acquisitions at > 100 kVp. • Low-kVp coronary CT angiography (CCTA) enables reduced contrast and radiation dose. • Diagnostic accuracy is comparab