WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathode ray tube digitizers

  1. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  2. Comparison of observer performance on soft-copy reading of digital chest radiographs: High resolution liquid-crystal display monitors versus cathode-ray tube monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare observer performance for detection of abnormalities on chest radiographs with 5-megapixel resolution liquid-crystal displays (LCD) and 5-megapixel resolution cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors under bright and subdued ambient light conditions. Six radiologists reviewed a total of 254 digital chest radiographs under four different conditions with a combination of two types of monitors (a 5-megapixel resolution LCD and a 5-megapixel resolution CRT monitor) and with two types of ambient light (460 and 50 lux). The abnormalities analyzed were nodules, pneumothorax and interstitial lung disease. For each reader, the detection performance using 5-megapixel LCD and 5-megapixel CRT monitors under bright and subdued ambient light conditions were compared using multi-case and multi-modality ROC analysis. For each type of ambient light, the average detection performance with the two types of monitors was also compared. For each reader, the observer performance of 5-megapixel LCD and 5-megapixel CRT monitors, under both bright and subdued ambient light conditions, showed no significant statistical differences for detecting nodules, pneumothorax and interstitial lung disease. In addition, there was no significant statistical difference in the average performance when the two monitor displays, under both bright and subdued ambient light conditions, were compared

  3. Single crystalline film screens for cathode-ray tubes: New life of television scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages of television scanning optical microscopy are discussed in comparison with cameral microscopy. Peculiarities of new types of cathode-ray tubes with single crystalline film screens, as a source of scanning beam, are described

  4. Field emission digital display tube with nano-graphite film cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicai Deng; Zhanling Lu; Binglin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The field emission digital display tube with a nano-crystalline graphite cold cathode is designed and fabricated. Under the control of the driving circuits, a dynamic digital display with uniform luminance distribution is realized. The luminance of the character segments is 190 cd/m2 at the operating voltage of 900 V. And the stable emission is attained with a fluctuation of about 3% at an average segment current of 75 μA. The results demonstrate that nano-crystalline graphite film is a promising material for cold cathode.

  5. X-ray Tube Using a Graphene Flower Cloth Field Emission Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yusuke; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Shougo; Jyouzuka, Atsuo; Nakamura, Tomonori; Onizuka, Yoshihiro; Mimura, Hidenori

    2013-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a filament-less X-ray tube using a graphene flower cloth (GFC) field emission cathode. The GFC has numerous nanoprotrusions formed by self-standing graphene structures. The field emission current and the field enhancement factor β were 500 µA and 5600, respectively. The stability of voltage defined as a variance coefficient (σ/mean) of voltage was calculated to be 0.04% while maintaining the X-ray tube current of 300 µA. We applied our X-ray tube with the GFC field emitter to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of stainless steel.

  6. Foaming of waste cathode ray tube panel glass via CaCO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic equipment has become a global environmental problem. However, with responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight of a...

  7. Calculating the spectral distribution of radiation from X-ray tubes with grounded cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In implementing current versions of X-ray fluorescence analysis (the method of functional parameters, the method of fundamental coefficients, etc.), it is necessary to have information about the spectral composition of primary X- ray radiation whose source is usually provided by X-ray tubes. The radiation of tubes with grounded anode is well understood. However, state-of-the-art X-ray spectral equipment normally incorporates X-ray tubes with grounded cathode. In this case a high positive potential returns backscattered electrons to the anode surface, which leads to an enhancement of both the braking and characteristic components of primary radiation. This process appears to play an important role because backscattered electrons account for tens of percent of the number of those incident on anode, and a maximum in their energy distribution with increasing atomic number of anode approaches the energy of primary electrons. We have obtained the expression for spectral intensity of primary radiation from X-ray tubes with grounded cathode which takes into account the return of backscattered electrons to the anode surface and their energy distribution. Calculations of spectral distributions were performed for different anode materials. Results were compared with those obtained at high voltage on the X- ray tube's cathode. As would be expected, the contribution of the effect under consideration increases with increasing atomic number of anode material, and for some spectral intensities at high Z it is as high as ten percent or more. Furthermore, the spectral distribution of braking radiation is markedly distorted when compared to the case of grounded anode, and characteristic lines increase in intensity. Further investigation involves assessing the influence of the detected distortions on the accuracy of X-ray fluorescence determination of element contents in materials of complex composition. (author)

  8. Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniaghe, Paschal O; Adie, Gilbert U

    2015-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes are image display units found in computer monitors and televisions. In recent years, cathode ray tubes have been generated as waste owing to the introduction of newer and advanced technologies in image displays, such as liquid crystal displays and high definition televisions, among others. Generation and subsequent disposal of end-of-life cathode ray tubes presents a challenge owing to increasing volumes and high lead content embedded in the funnel and neck sections of the glass. Disposal in landfills and open dumping are anti-environmental practices considering the large-scale contamination of environmental media by the potential of toxic metals leaching from glass. Mitigating such environmental contamination will require sound management strategies that are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. This review covers existing and emerging management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tubes. An in-depth analysis of available technologies (glass smelting, detoxification of cathode ray tube glass, lead extraction from cathode ray tube glass) revealed that most of the techniques are environmentally friendly, but are largely confined to either laboratory scale, or are often limited owing to high cost to mount, or generate secondary pollutants, while a closed-looped method is antiquated. However, recycling in cementitious systems (cement mortar and concrete) gives an added advantage in terms of quantity of recyclable cathode ray tube glass at a given time, with minimal environmental and economic implications. With significant quantity of waste cathode ray tube glass being generated globally, cementitious systems could be economically and environmentally acceptable as a sound management practice for cathode ray tube glass, where other technologies may not be applicable. PMID:26463115

  9. Thermogravimetric Investigation of the Lead Volatilization from Waste Cathode-Ray Tube Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Grause, Guido; Takahashi, Kenshi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lead-containing cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass is an important environmental issue. One approach is the removal of lead by chloride volatilization. In the present work, the reaction of CRT glass with PVC as the chlorinating agent and Ca(OH)2 as the chlorine absorber was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. Seven reaction steps occurring at different temperatures were identified as dehydrochlorination of PVC/HCl absorption, CO2 absorption, Ca(OH)2 dehydration...

  10. Calibration of medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tube displays for the purpose of board examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Evanoff, Michael G.; Roehrig, Hans; Giffords, Robert S.; Capp, M. Paul; Rovinelli, Richard J.; Hartmann, William H.; Merritt, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses calibration and set-up procedures for medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tubes (CRTs) taken in preparation of the oral portion of the board examination of the American Board of Radiology (ABR). The board examinations took place in more than 100 rooms of a hotel. There was one display-station (a computer and the associated CRT display) in each of the hotel rooms used for the examinations. The examinations covered the radiologic specialties cardiopulmonary, musculosk...

  11. New cathode-ray tube (CRT) gun interconnection assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David M.

    1992-07-01

    A novel interconnection assembly method was developed for the electron gun of airborne CRTs, which makes it possible for the connectors to be connected and disconnected repeatedly (as opposed to soldering as in the conventional method) to provide access to the tube and its interconnecting cable harness. Environmental tests were conducted on one series of CRTs, which included electrical and environmental conditions which would be experienced in a worst-case aircraft cabin environment, including the altitude, humidity, thermal shock, vibration, and mechanical shock.

  12. Calibration of medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tube displays for the purpose of board examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, M G; Roehrig, H; Giffords, R S; Capp, M P; Rovinelli, R J; Hartmann, W H; Merritt, C

    2001-06-01

    This report discusses calibration and set-up procedures for medium-resolution monochrome cathode ray tubes (CRTs) taken in preparation of the oral portion of the board examination of the American Board of Radiology (ABR). The board examinations took place in more than 100 rooms of a hotel. There was one display-station (a computer and the associated CRT display) in each of the hotel rooms used for the examinations. The examinations covered the radiologic specialties cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, vascular, pediatric, and genitourinary. The software used for set-up and calibration was the VeriLUM 4.0 package from Image Smiths in Germantown, MD. The set-up included setting minimum luminance and maximum luminance, as well as positioning of the CRT in each examination room with respect to reflections of roomlights. The calibration for the grey scale rendition was done meeting the Digital Imaging and communication in Medicine (DICOM) 14 Standard Display Function. We describe these procedures, and present the calibration data in. tables and graphs, listing initial values of minimum luminance, maximum luminance, and grey scale rendition (DICOM 14 standard display function). Changes of these parameters over the duration of the examination were observed and recorded on 11 monitors in a particular room. These changes strongly suggest that all calibrated CRTs be monitored over the duration of the examination. In addition, other CRT performance data affecting image quality such as spatial resolution should be included in set-up and image quality-control procedures. PMID:11442114

  13. Compact monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing a disk-cathode molybdenum tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbo molecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean molybdenum Kα lines are produced using a 20 μm-thick zirconium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current were 120 kV and 1.0 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 70 ns, and the generator produced instantaneous number of Kα photons was approximately 3x107 photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.5 m from the source of 3.0 mm in diameter

  14. The chemistry of artificial lighting devices lamps, phosphors and cathode ray tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    1993-01-01

    Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufactur

  15. Novel Low-Cost, Low-Power Miniature Thermionic Cathode Developed for Microwave/Millimeter Wave Tube and Cathode Ray Tube Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1999-01-01

    A low cost, small size and mass, low heater power, durable high-performance barium dispenser thermionic cathode has been developed that offers significant advancements in the design, manufacture, and performance of the electron sources used in vacuum electronic devices--such as microwave (and millimeter wave) traveling-wave tubes (TWT's)--and in display devices such as high-brightness, high-resolution cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The lower cathode heater power and the reduced size and mass of the new cathode are expected to be especially beneficial in TWT's for deep space communications, where future missions are requiring smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. Also expected to benefit are TWT's for commercial and government communication satellites, for both low and geosynchronous Earth orbit, with additional benefits offered by lower cost and potentially higher cathode current loading. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (MPM), which is a hybrid microwave (or millimeter wave) amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid state driver, a vacuum power booster (small TWT), and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package. The attributes of compactness and potentially high electrical efficiency make the MPM very attractive for many commercial and government (civilian and defense) applications in communication and radar systems. The MPM is already finding application in defense electronic systems and is under development by NASA for deep space communications. However, for the MPM to become competitive and commercially successful, a major reduction in cost must be achieved.

  16. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  17. Evaluation Of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) And Veiling Glare Characteristics For Cathode Ray Tube Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, J. R.

    1981-10-01

    Cathode-ray tube evaluation is becoming increasingly important in connection with the prediction of overall performance for systems incorporating an imaging display. Modulation transfer function has been measured by a method which takes account of the basic non-linearities of the crt and also offers improved accuracy by reducing the effects of phosphor screen noise. Two tests for crt internal veiling glare are discussed. Standard test conditions, which have been successfully used for a wide range of displays are described for both mtf and veiling glare. A contrast index is employed to indicate the extent of nonlinearity in the display transfer characteristic, and the paper also discusses briefly the use of generalised drive characteristics and limiting contrast curves as a supplement or alternative to modulation transfer function for definition of display performance.

  18. Evaluation of Cathode-Ray Tube protection for the electronic tabular display subsystem (ETABS) engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. R.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the safety evaluation of the 25-inch (diagonal) rectangular cathode-ray tube (CRT) that is used in the engineering model of the Electronic Tabular Display Subsystem (ETABS). An evaluation of ETABS will be performed at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center for possible application in FAA Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). The safety evaluation included standard industry pressure testing and special implosion testing on 12 CRT samples. Eleven of the twelve CRT samples satisfactorily met the safety requirements for both the pressure and implosion testing. One CRT cracked when subjected to 45 pounds per square inch (psi) of air pressure; however, the CRT did not implode. The 25-inch rectangular CRT will therefore provide a high degree of safety for use in each of the two tabular displays of the ETABS engineering model.

  19. 40 CFR 261.39 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Broken Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. 261.39 Section 261.39 Protection of... (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. Used, broken CRTs are not solid wastes if they meet... complete until any such claim is resolved in accordance with 40 CFR 260.2. (v) The export of CRTs...

  20. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet...

  1. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  2. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m3, 1504.3 μg/m3, 434.9 μg/m3, 576.3 μg/m3 and 2894.3 μg/m3 respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m3, 848.2 μg/m3, 698.4 μg/m3, 549.3 μg/m3 and 3437.9 μg/m3 for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels

  3. Water-soluble lead in cathode ray tube funnel glass melted in a reductive atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the reduction-melting process, lead can be recovered from cathode ray tube funnel glass (PbO=25wt%); however, resulting glass residues still contain approximately 1-2wt% of unrecovered lead. For environmental protection in the residue disposal or recycling, it is important to evaluate the quantities of water-soluble species among the unrecovered lead. This study examined water-soluble lead species generated in the reduction-melting process of the funnel glass and factors determining their generation. In the reduction-melting, metallic lead was generated by reducing lead oxides in the glass, and a part of the metallic lead remained in the glass residue. Such unrecovered metallic lead can dissolve in water depending on its pH level and was regarded as water-soluble lead. When 10g Na2CO3 was added to 20g funnel glass during reduction-melting, the resulting glass contained high concentrations of sodium. In a water leaching of the glass, the obtained leachate was alkalized by the sodium-rich glass (pH=12.7-13.0). The unrecovered metallic lead in the glass was extracted in the alkalized leachate. The quantity of the unrecovered metallic lead (water-soluble lead) in the glass decreased when the melting time, melting temperature, and carbon dosage were controlled during reduction-melting. PMID:27209518

  4. Visual Evoked Potential Using Head-Mounted Display Versus Cathode Ray Tube: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Seon; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present a new stimulation method based on the use of a head-mounted display (HMD) during pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP) testing and to compare variables of HMD to those of conventional cathode ray tube (CRT). Methods Twenty-three normal subjects without visual problems were recruited. PR-VEPs were generated using CRT or HMD stimuli. VEP outcome measures included latencies (N75, P100, and N145) and peak-to-peak amplitudes (N75–P100 and P100–N145). Subjective discomfort associated with HMD was determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Results PR-VEPs generated by HMD stimuli showed typical triphasic waveforms, the components of which were found to be correlated with those obtained using conventional CRT stimuli. Self-administered discomfort questionnaires revealed that HMD was more comfortable in some aspects. It allowed subjects to concentrate better than CRT. Conclusion The described HMD stimulation can be used as an alternative to the standard CRT stimulation for PR-VEPs. PR-VEP testing using HMD has potential applications in clinical practice and visual system research because HMD can be used on a wider range of subjects compared to CRT. PMID:27152285

  5. Comparison of liquid crystal versus cathode ray tube display for the detection of simulated chest lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the detection performance of a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor versus a liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for simulated subtle pulmonary lesions. Ten templates containing simulated lung lesions were superimposed on an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Posteroanterior radiographs were obtained using flat panel technology and were displayed on a CRT and an LCD monitor. Image processing and reading conditions were equivalent for both softcopy displays. Five observers assessed lesion detectability using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. A multivariate test (Pillai trace) was used to test the significance of differences (P<0.05). The multivariate test revealed significantly different detection rates for the lesion types, but no significant difference between the two display modes. Detection performance for both monitors was higher for nodules and micro-nodules and lower for lines and patchy opacities. Analysis of lesion subgroups according to their location in lucent/obscured lung areas was also not statistically significant. Under ideal reading conditions, CRT and LCD displays perform equivalently for the detection of simulated subtle pulmonary lesions. (orig.)

  6. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Carbonari; Luciane Gonçalves; Daniela Roth; Patrick Moreira; Ricardo Fernández; Maria da Graça Martino-Roth

    2005-01-01

    It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs) has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs ...

  7. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%. PMID:26022339

  8. Factors influencing leaching of PBDEs from waste cathode ray tube plastic housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, William A; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Samples of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) plastic housings were exposed to Milli-Q® water containing dissolved humic matter at concentrations of 0, 100 and 1000mgL(-1) as leaching fluid under laboratory conditions, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined in the resulting leachate. Despite the relatively hydrophobic physicochemical properties of PBDEs, concentrations of ƩPBDEs in the leachate from the leaching experiments in this study ranged from 14,000 to 200,000ngL(-1). PBDE leaching appears to be a second order process, whereby a period of initially intense dissolution of more labile PBDEs is followed by a slower stage corresponding to external diffusion of the soluble residue in the material. The bulk of transfer of PBDEs to the leaching fluid occurs within the first 6h of contact, during which time we suggest that the most labile PBDEs are "washed" off the surface of the CRT plastics. The predominant congeners in the chips were BDE-209 (2600mgkg(-1)) and BDE 183 (220mgkg(-1)). The impacts on PBDE leaching of leachate pH and temperature were also examined. Increasing the temperature of leaching fluids from 20 to 80°C, enhances the leachability of BDE-209 and BDE-99 from plastics. In all cases, the alkaline pH8.5 examined, resulted in the greatest PBDE concentrations in leachate. Agitation of the waste/leachate mixture enhances PBDE leaching from CRT plastics. Potential evidence for debromination of heavy congeners to the lower brominated and more bioavailable BDEs was observed. Specifically, BDEs-47, -85 and -100 were detected in the leachates, but were absent from the CRT plastics themselves. PMID:27436776

  9. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE. Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009. These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of toxic materials and, at the same time, they are an important source of recyclable materials, and especially valuable metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, Zn. Nowadays there are various approaches for the treatment and recycling of WEEE, involving pyro-, hydro- and bio-metallurgical processes (Cui and Zhang, 2008. Among WEEE, cathode ray tubes (CRT displays, used mainly in computer monitors and television sets, are regarded as the most polluting fraction of all WEEE (Nnorom et al., 2011. CRT recycling represents a challenge due to their high accumulation rate, proportional to the evolution of modern technologies (flat panel displays, their high content of toxic and noxious substances (heavy metals and organic compounds, improper storage, and the lack of a complete, pollution-free recycling solution. Previous studies have shown that some CRT metallic components (electron gun - EG, shadow mask contain important amounts of Ni (25 – 45% and Fe (50 – 70%, and small quantities of Mn, Co and Cr (Robotin et al., 2011. Ni and Ni alloys play an important role in modern technology, especially due to their magnetic and anticorrosion properties. Unfortunately, when exposed inappropriately, Ni can have negative environmental effects and can be harmful to human health (Denkhaus and Salnikow, 2002. In this context, Ni recycling from electronic waste is important for environmental and health reasons, and, at the same time, Ni recycling could be financially sustainable due to an

  10. Use of limestone powder during incorporation of Pb-containing cathode ray tube waste in self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua-iam, Gritsada; Makul, Natt

    2013-10-15

    For several decades, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) were the primary display component of televisions and computers. The CRT glass envelope contains sufficient levels of lead oxide (PbO) to be considered hazardous, and there is a need for effective methods of permanently encapsulating this material during waste disposal. We examined the effect of adding limestone powder (LS) on the fresh and cured properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures containing waste CRT glass. The SCC mixtures were prepared using Type 1 Portland cement at a constant cement content of 600 kg/m(3) and a water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.38. CRT glass waste cullet was blended with river sand in proportions of 20 or 40% by weight. To suppress potential viscosity effects limestone powder was added at levels of 5, 10, or 15% by weight. The slump flow time, slump flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, Marsh cone flow time, and setting time of the fresh concrete were tested, as well as the compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of the hardened concrete. Addition of limestone powder improved the fresh and hardened properties. Pb leaching levels from the cured concrete were within US EPA allowable limits. PMID:23892134

  11. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carbonari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs and 20 unexposed control subjects matched for age and sex. Genetic damage was assessed by examining the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities such as binucleated and broken egg cells. Although there were no differences regarding binucleated cells between exposed and control individuals our analysis revealed a significantly higher frequency of micronuclei (p < 0.001 and broken egg cells (p < 0.05 in individuals exposed to VDMs as compared to unexposed. We also found that the differences between individuals exposed to VDMs were significantly related to the sex of the individuals and that there was an increase in skin, central nervous system and ocular disease in the exposed individuals. These preliminary results indicate that microcomputer workers exposed to VDMs are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage and should periodically undergo biological monitoring.

  12. Characterization of lead, barium and strontium leachability from foam glasses elaborated using waste cathode ray-tube glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foam glass manufacture is a promising mode for re-using cathode ray tube (CRT) glasses. Nevertheless, because CRTs employ glasses containing heavy metals such as lead, barium and strontium, the leaching behaviour of foam glasses fabricated from CRTs must be understood. Using the AFNOR X 31-210 leaching assessment procedure, the degree of element inertization in foam glasses synthesized from waste CRT glasses (funnel and panel glasses, containing lead and barium/strontium respectively) were determined. The amount of leached lead from foam glasses prepared from funnel glass depends on the nature and concentration of the reducing agent. The effects of the reducing agents on the generation of cellular structure in the fabrication of foam glass were studied. The fraction of lead released from foam glass was less than those extracted from funnel glass and was lower than the statutory limit. Leached concentrations of barium and strontium were found to be approximately constant in various tests and were also below regulatory limits.

  13. Characterization of lead, barium and strontium leachability from foam glasses elaborated using waste cathode ray-tube glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yot, Pascal G; Méar, François O

    2011-01-15

    Foam glass manufacture is a promising mode for re-using cathode ray tube (CRT) glasses. Nevertheless, because CRTs employ glasses containing heavy metals such as lead, barium and strontium, the leaching behaviour of foam glasses fabricated from CRTs must be understood. Using the AFNOR X 31-210 leaching assessment procedure, the degree of element inertization in foam glasses synthesized from waste CRT glasses (funnel and panel glasses, containing lead and barium/strontium respectively) were determined. The amount of leached lead from foam glasses prepared from funnel glass depends on the nature and concentration of the reducing agent. The effects of the reducing agents on the generation of cellular structure in the fabrication of foam glass were studied. The fraction of lead released from foam glass was less than those extracted from funnel glass and was lower than the statutory limit. Leached concentrations of barium and strontium were found to be approximately constant in various tests and were also below regulatory limits. PMID:20940082

  14. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl2 volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH)2 as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg−1. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl2 was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH)2 as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH)2 before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2 reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl2 and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH)2 was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg−1. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses

  15. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a Circular X-ray tube: Its image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and the image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, W. S.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce an effective imaging system for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a circular X-ray tube, the so-called circular-DTS (CDTS) system, and its image reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method for low-dose, high-accuracy X-ray imaging. Here, the X-ray tube is equipped with a series of cathodes distributed around a rotating anode, and the detector remains stationary throughout the image acquisition. We considered a TV-based reconstruction algorithm that exploited the sparsity of the image with substantially high image accuracy. We implemented the algorithm for the CDTS geometry and successfully reconstructed images of high accuracy. The image characteristics were investigated quantitatively by using some figures of merit, including the universal-quality index (UQI) and the depth resolution. For selected tomographic angles of 20, 40, and 60°, the corresponding UQI values in the tomographic view were estimated to be about 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98, and the depth resolutions were about 4.6, 3.1, and 1.2 voxels in full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a next-generation dental or breast X-ray imaging system.

  16. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging

  17. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk, E-mail: radiosugar@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye-Seul, E-mail: radiohesugar@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywchoi@keri.re.kr [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, JaeGu, E-mail: jgchoi88@paran.com [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Yong-Chun, E-mail: ycrhee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging.

  18. Reduction-melting combined with a Na₂CO₃ flux recycling process for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    With large quantity of flux (Na2CO3), lead can be recovered from the funnel glass of waste cathode-ray tubes via reduction-melting at 1000°C. To reduce flux cost, a technique to recover added flux from the generated oxide phase is also important in order to recycle the flux recovered from the reduction-melting process. In this study, the phase separation of sodium and the crystallization of water-soluble sodium silicates were induced after the reduction-melting process to enhance the leachability of sodium in the oxide phase and to extract the sodium from the phase for the recovery of Na2CO3 as flux. A reductive atmosphere promoted the phase separation and crystallization, and the leachability of sodium from the oxide phase was enhanced. The optimum temperature and treatment time for increasing the leachability were 700°C and 2h, respectively. After treatment, more than 90% of the sodium in the oxide phase was extracted in water. NaHCO3 can be recovered by carbonization of the solution containing sodium ions using carbon dioxide gas, decomposed to Na2CO3 at 50°C and recycled for use in the reduction-melting process. PMID:24816522

  19. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  20. X-ray tubes study and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contain both theoretical and experimental works. Theoretical aspect includes X-Ray tubes case study and design principles, in the introduced design process, anode-cathode distance, vacuum needed, filament size, anode face angle and shape and size of focusing electrodes can be found. A method for specification of tungsten lager thickness on anode is also introduced. Using computer simulation, electron trajectory between cathode-anode is obtained, This work is presented in the first International Conference on Control and Modeling, Tehran, 1990. Experimental work contains manufacturing more than 10 tubes and test each of them. One of these tubes can with stand up to 50 KV. Filament can be heated by passing a 2.1 A current. In these conditions anode current is 1.2 m A. Using this tube, some radiographs have been taken

  1. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  2. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  3. Lighting sources with a cold cathode electron tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lighting sources with a cold cathode are widely used in electronics. The lamps with a cold cathode are used primarily as sources of white light in optical scanners, digital indicators, display panels and signalling devices. In the paper the advantages of carbonaceous materials as emitters of cold electrons and the possibilities of using them to create a cathode in an electron lamp are discussed. (authors)

  4. The emission carbonate crystallite and oxide cathode performance in electron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Don; Turnbull, John

    Emission from an oxide cathode is dependent upon the ratio of alkaline earth carbonates present at the cathodes surface. The method by which each carbonate is made plays a key role in its function in a cathode. Other factors effecting the performance of the oxide cathode are the type of constituents in the base metal. These constituents play key roles in barium diffusion and evaporation. It has been found that the crystalline structure of the alkaline earth carbonates affects the life of oxide cathode tubes. The rates of diffusion and evaporation of alkaline earth oxides, were studied with the use of the SEM-electron beam probe and energy dispersive X-ray Edax. Cathode surfaces to the depths of 1000 Å (approximately 200 atomic layers) were scanned. Many cathodes were studied after conversion from carbonates to oxides. It was found that barium oxide evaporated to 1/3 of the original formulation at oxide conversion. This diffusion and evaporation reaction took place throughout tube life. This work has shown that the crystal size, structure, and composition may be modified to lengthen the BaO half life and therefore lengthen the overall life of the electron tube.

  5. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Potting material. ► Doped alumina. ► Non-shrinkable. ► Dispenser cathode. ► Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  6. New doped tungsten cathodes. Applications to power grid tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermionic emission behavior of tungsten/tungsten carbide modified with rare earth (La, Ce, Y) oxides is examined on account of suitability to deliver important current densities in a thermo-emissive set up and for long lifetime. Work functions of potential cathodes have been determined from Richardson plots for La2O3 doped tungsten and for tungsten covered with variable compositions rare earth tungstates. The role of platinum layers covering the cathode was also examined. Given all cathodes containing mainly lanthanum oxides were good emitters, emphasis was put on service lifetime. Comparisons of lifetime in tungsten doped with rare earth oxides and with rare earth tungstates show that microstructure of the operating cathodes may play the major role in the research of very long lifetime cathodes. Based on these results, tests still running show lifetime compatible with power grid tubes applications. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of air kerma rate and impact of accelerating voltage on the quality of an ultra soft X-ray beam generated by a cold cathode tube in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasoft X-ray characteristic aluminum K alpha line (Al Kα with energy of 1.5 keV) is used in radiobiological experiments to study the effect of radiation on biological matter. A simple method to generate a continuous beam of those X-ray radiations is to bombarding an aluminum target with accelerated electrons using high voltage (HV). In this work, by varying the HV we study the characteristics of a photon beam generated by means of a cold cathode transmission X-ray tube. The anode is a thin (16 μm) aluminum foil supported by a copper grid. The spatial distribution of air kerma is measured using gafchromic films of HD-810 calibrated with a parallel plate free-air ionization chamber. We show that HV strongly modifies the energetic spectrum and air kerma rate as well as its uniformity and intensity in air. - Highlights: • We measured energy spectrum of X-ray beam. • We calibrate the Gafchromic films to measure air kerma of X-ray beam. • Spatial air kerma rate is determined and interpreted. • We define dimensions and position of future biological sample irradiation using Al Kα X-ray

  8. X-ray tube having an adjustable focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray tube with an adjustable focal spot is provided wherein the focal-spot position can be moved along the anode and the focal-spot width can be changed by applying a small voltage to the cathode-bias cup. The cathode includes means integral with the cathode for deflecting the flow of electrons to selectable focal-spot areas on the anode in response to an external drive circuit. The cathode includes a filament for emitting electrons to impinge on the anode, and a cathode cup having first and second parts electrically insulated from each other. The device includes biasing means for applying a voltage between the filament and the cathode to control the size and position of the region of impingement of the electron beam on the anode. The anode can be rotatable with respect to the cathode. (Auth.)

  9. A glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube based on carbon nanotube emitter for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seung Jun; Jeong, Jaeik; Ahn, Jeung Sun; Park, Hunkuk; Kwak, Junghwan; Noh, Eunkyong; Paik, Sanghyun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Ryu, Jehwang

    2016-04-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a carbon nanotube based a glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube without vacuum pump. The x-ray tube consists of four electrodes with anode, focuser, gate, and cathode electrode. The shape of cathode is rectangular for isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The obtained x-ray images show clearly micrometer scale.

  10. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles A.; Trowbridge, Frank R.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  11. X-ray tube arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  12. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kalyan S.; Ghosh, Sumana; Dandapat, Nandadulal [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Datta, Someswar, E-mail: sdatta@cgcri.res.in [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Raju, R.S. [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doped alumina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-shrinkable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispenser cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  13. Effect of Cathode Ray Tubes Glass Sand as Fine Aggregate on Properties of Mortar%废弃阴极射线管玻璃砂对砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 孙伟

    2012-01-01

    The discarded cathode ray tubes glass represents an environmental problem due to the high content of lead. In this paper, fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used as mineral admixtures, the fresh, mechanical properties, the drying shrinkage, alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion and lead leaching properties of mortar with ground cathode ray tube glass sand (MG) fine aggregate at replacement levels of 0, 30%, 60% and 100% were investigated. The results show that the initial slump flow diame- ter and wet density of fresh mortar increase with the MG glass replacement level from 0 to 100%, the compressive strength, the flex- ural strength and static modulus of elasticity and the drying shrinkage values of mortar increase at the initial stages and trend towards the gradual decrease. The mortar with MG glass sand of 60% had higher mechanical properties and larger drying shrinkage values. The ASR expansion and the leaching value of lead in mortar increased with MG replacement levels from 0% to 100%. However, the ASR expansion and the leaching value of lead were on the safety range. The mortar with MG glass by adding mineral admixture could be used as a recycled material for the construction material in dry environments.%废弃阴极射线管(cathoderaytubes,CRT)玻璃因其含有有害物质铅而导致严重环境问题,为此,使用粉煤灰、磨细矿渣作为矿物掺合料,研究了磨细阴极射线管玻璃(groundcathoderaytubeglass,MG)取代0、30%、60%、100%(质量分数,下同)河砂细骨料时砂浆新拌性能、力学性能、干缩性能、碱骨料反应(alkali-silicareaction,ASR)膨胀性能、金属铅浸出值。结果表明:随着MG取代比例从0变化到100%,砂浆初始流动度与容重不段增加,硬化砂浆抗压强度、抗折强度和静弹性模量、干缩性能先增加后逐渐减小;MG取代比例为60%时,砂浆具有较高力学性能和

  14. Fabrication and Simulation of Self-Focusing Field Emission X-ray Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A self-focusing field emission (FE X-ray tube with a large-area cathode design was simulated and fabricated. The designed X-ray tube had a cylindrically symmetric geometry; the diameter of the cathode and the anode was 15 mm, and the cathode-anode distance was 20 mm. Owing to the unique cup-shaped design of the cathode, the electron beam emitted from the large-area cathode was focused onto the anode without using magnetic lenses or extra biased electrodes. Carbon nanocoils, which were grown on the bottom of the circular cup-shaped cathode, were used as electron emitters because of their excellent FE properties. A simulation of the electron trajectories for various cup heights revealed that the optimal focal spot size (0.1 mm was obtained at a cup height of 5 mm when a voltage of 50 kV was applied. To verify this result, an X-ray tube was fabricated and tested. An X-ray photograph of the tested tooth and electric circuits showed good resolution and X-ray intensity. The large cathode area effectively reduces the current density and thereby improves the lifetime of the cathode.

  15. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-03-01

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10(-6) Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system. PMID:23376878

  16. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10−6 Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system. (paper)

  17. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-03-01

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10-6 Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system.

  18. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kVp) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kVp relative to 109 kVp, though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p. Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  19. Study of the three-step photoionization of uranium using a hollow cathode discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hollow cathode discharge (HCD) tube as a spectral light source has been developed. Because any element including refractory metals can be atomized by the cathode sputtering effect in HCD, a simple and reliable atomic vapor source produced by HCD has been widely used in laser spectroscopy. To the authors' knowledge, there is no previous work on the photoionization processes of metal atoms using an HCD tube. Here the authors report their study of the resonant three-step ionization of U in a homemade HCD tube

  20. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  1. Rotatable target for x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distorsion of the focal trace results in reduction of X-ray intensity, which may stop the desired use of the X-ray tube early. This distorsion can be avoided almost by use of molybdenum alloys for base body and substrate. Different alloys together with belonging measured values are described. (J.K.)

  2. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  3. Digital x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital radiography is progressively replacing conventional (film-based) radiographic techniques promising consistently high levels of image quality, more effective use of radiation and more efficient work practices. At the same time its introduction poses new challenges to those physical scientists who design radiological imaging systems and those who provide scientific/technical support to a clinical radiology service. In this review scientific aspects of those digital x-ray imaging systems which are proving most successful are described. Physical measurement techniques developed to evaluate the imaging performance and radiation dose efficiency of clinical digital radiography systems are outlined. Finally, directions in which digital x-ray imaging technology may evolve in the coming decade are discussed. (author)

  4. On the issue of reducing the effect of ionic bombardment of the cathode on the performance of microwave vacuum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of reducing the effect of ionic bombardment on the operation of cathodes in vacuum electron tubes has been considered. The improvement can be reached by modifying the geometry of the cathode - emitting surface. Results of experimental investigations of millimeter and submillimeter wave clinotrons with such cathodes are presented. Such clinotrons show improved performance characteristics

  5. Cathode Ray Research Leading to J.J. Thomson's Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    This paper reviews the research on the properties and nature of cathode rays that led to the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson in the years 1897 - 1899. During the period from about 1870 to 1897 important research on cathode rays was carried out by William Crookes and Arthur Schuster in England, by Eugen Goldstein, Heinrich Hertz, Philipp Lenard, Emil Wiechert and Walter Kaufman in Germany, and by Jean Perrin in France. This research was always tedious and often inexact because fast vacuum pumps and convenient vacuum gauges did not yet exist. Still a few of these earlier researchers narrowly missed beating J. J. Thomson to the discover of the electron.

  6. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  7. Development of an X-ray tube for irradiation experiments using a field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hidetoshi; O`Rourke, Brian E.; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Wang, Jiayu; Ooi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new X-ray tube using a ring-shaped emitter as a field emission electron source has been developed. By using a ring shaped cathode, X-rays can be extracted along the axial direction through the central hole. This cylindrically symmetrical design allows for the tube to be arranged in the axial direction with the high voltage target at one end and the X-ray beam at the other. The newly developed X-ray tube can operate at a tube voltage of more than 100 kV and at a tube current of more than 4 mA, and can be used for irradiation experiments with an irradiation dose range from mGy up to kGy. The X-ray tube can be used immediately after turning on (i.e. there is no stand-by time). In the experimental model, we demonstrated stable electron emission at a tube voltage of 100 kV and at a tube current of 4 mA during a 560 h continuous test.

  8. Construction and characterization of a hollow cathode tube for high sensibility laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new hollow cathode tube argon-iron design was developed to be used in laser atomic spectroscopy experiments, were high sensibility is required. This tube was employed in order to allow laser absorption and optogalvanic signal measurements. The tube also included fused-quartz Brewster angle windows aligned with the optical axis in each ending of the tube. Therefore, in this configuration a minimum laser intensity losses through the windows can be attained for the appropriate light polarization. The optogalvanic signal detection was accomplished using a tunable dye laser resonant with the Ar, 3p5 4p (3S1)--> 3p5 4d (3D10) transition, that corresponds to 591.2 nm in air. It was also possible to determine the gas temperature by measuring the Doppler line broadening and the results were compared to those obtained from a theoretical model for gas heat conduction. To measure the temperature of the cathode external surface a thermocouple was used inside the tube. The analysis of results showed that a high signal to noise ratio can be obtained with this tube configuration, that permits experimental investigation of electronic transitions presenting low light absorption cross sections. (author)

  9. High power X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tube is suitable for angiography. It has an X-ray beam generator in a casing that ends on the outlet side for the quasi-monochromatic X-radiation with a zone plate. The generator consists of an electron source and elctron-optical devices, which lead the electrons to a cone. The cone top is directed towards the electron beam away from the zone plate. The cone has a Mo and Ce coating that can be excited to emit fluorescent X-radiation even in deeper layers. (DG)

  10. The study of neutron burst shape of a neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishnyaev, Evgeny; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    A slim-shaped portable DD-neutron generator is developed at Budker institute of Nuclear Physics. The generator is a combination of Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier and a sealed gas-filled neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode. Neutron burst shape in pulsed mode of neutron tube operation is measured with stroboscopic time spectrometry, implemented on scintillation detector, and modeled with Comsol Script 1.3 and Comsol Multiphysics 3.5. Modeling appears to be in good agreement with experimental results. Measured pulse rise and fall times are 110 ns and 100 ns respectively.

  11. Design, construction and long life endurance testing of cathode assemblies for use in microwave high-power transmitting tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R.; Marino, D.

    1986-01-01

    The cathode life test program sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center at Watkins-Johnson Company has been in continuous operation since 1972. Its primary objective has been to evaluate the long life capability of barium dispenser cathodes to produce emission current densities of 2 A sq. cm. or more in an operational environment simulating that of a highpower microwave tube. The life test vehicles were equipped with convergent flow electron guns, drift space tubes with solenoid magnets for electron beam confinement and water-cooled depressed collectors. A variety of cathode types has been tested, including GE Tungstate, Litton Impregnated, Philips Type B and M, Semicon types S and M, and Spectra-Mat Type M. Recent emphasis has been on monitoring the performance of Philips Type M cathodes at 2 A sq. cm. and Sprectra-Mat and Semicon Type M cathodes at 4 A sq. cm. These cathodes have been operated at a constant current of 616 mA and a cathode anode voltage on the order of 10 kV. Cathode temperatures were maintained at 1010 C true as measured from black body holes in the backs of the cathodes. This report presents results of the cathode life test program from July l982 through April l986. The results include hours of operation and performance data in the form of normalized emission current density versus temperature curves (Miram plots).

  12. Reference factor F(CT)Q and X ray tube ionization yield R(TUBE)Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational facility procedures in diagnostic radiology standardization and calibration, through the relation between the X ray tube current and the ionization chamber current in a radiation quality Q, shown the reference factor F(CT)Q as the reality estimate to the X ray tube ionization yield, R(TUBE)Q . (author)

  13. The parallax calculation method and coordinate corrections for X-ray beams in the detectors based on straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we propose a model for solving X-structural analysis-like problems, connected with small angle scattering, which calculates the angle and specifies the coordinate of incoming thin X-ray beam while working with detectors based on straw drift tubes with cathode read-out of information

  14. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; 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Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; 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Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  15. Studies on the hyperfine structure of La I in a hollow-cathode discharge tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfine structures (HFS) of La I are reported using Doppler-free intermodulated fluorescence, Doppler-limited laser-induced fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy in a homemade hollow-cathode discharge tube. The A and B constants for the levels at 20197.34, 21447.86 cm-1 and A constants for the levels at 19379.40, 18156.97, 24910.38 and 24409.68 cm-1 are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time. A linewidth less than 40 MHz and the different resolutions of fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy are observed. (author)

  16. Noise electron tube with hollow cathode in injection and continuos excitation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noise characteristics of the opticoelectronic channel of the pulse atomic absorption spectrometer intended for operation with two electrothermal atomizers - spiral and graphite ones - are studied. The studies are carried out in the process of the glow discharge development in the tube with a hollow cathode (HCT) by the current pulse duration of 50 and 500 μm and porosity of 2-20. It is established that with the increase in the pulses duration of the HCT current the root-mean-square value of the opticoelectron channel noise decreases

  17. Development of a microfocus x-ray tube with multiple excitation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microfocus x-ray tube with multiple targets and an electron gun with a focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter has been developed. The electron gun contains a LaB6 cathode and an Einzel lens. The x-ray tube can be operated at 50 W (50 kV, 1 mA) and has three targets, namely, Cr, W, and Rh on the anode that can be selected completely by moving the anode position. A focal spot size of 10 μm in diameter can be achieved at 0.5 mA current. As demonstration of the usability of a multiexcitation x-ray tube, the fluorescence x-rays have been measured using a powder specimen mixed of TiO2, Co, and Zr of the same quantity. The differences of excitation efficiency have clearly appeared according to the change in excitation source. From the results discussed here, it can be expected that the presented x-ray tube will be a powerful tool in microx-ray fluorescence spectrometers and various x-ray instruments.

  18. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 x 2 detector binning

  19. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lian-Sheng; Yang, An-Min; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Xing-Guang; Li, Jin; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Zhang, Kai-Zhi; Shi, Jin-Shui; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Lin-Wen

    2010-11-01

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process.

  20. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process. (authors)

  1. Improvements in or relating to X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements to x-ray tubes for use, primarily, for computerized tomography are described. The tube incorporates an elongated x-ray emissive target/anode and a system for scanning the electron beam over this target/anode so that the radiation produced by the tube shifts its point of origin. By this means the electron beam deflection can be accurately monitored. (U.K.)

  2. High-resolution X-ray topographic images of dislocations in a silicon crystal recorded using an X-ray zooming tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Be-window-type X-ray zooming tube is an X-ray digital imaging system whose magnification factor of X-ray images can be easily varied from 10 to 200, and whose spatial resolution is less than 0.5 μm. This zooming tube was used as an imaging detector in double-crystal X-ray topography to obtain high-resolution images of dislocations in a silicon crystal. X-ray interference images of about 5 μm were observed even though optimal performance of the X-ray zooming tube could not be achieved. The results indicate that the X-ray zooming tube might make a good detector for X-ray topography with minor improvements in its stage structure

  3. Measurement of x-ray tube potential in the mammographic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mammography it is important to be able to measure x-ray tube potential with an accuracy of ±1 kV or better. Mammography x-ray sets generally use molybdenum for both target and filter. Consequently, a high proportion of the x-ray spectrum consists of characteristic radiation from the target. Devices for estimating tube potential such as penetrameters and digital kV meters, which depend on the relation between tube potential and the filtered x-ray spectrum, could be affected in their performance unless calibrated on similar x-ray sets. This paper reports tube potential measurements on a Mo/Mo x-ray set from 25 to 37 kV using the fluorescence technique, a manufacturer's potential divider, two penetrameters of different design and two digital meters of a single design. Agreement between all four techniques was good, being within the various combined experimental errors associated with each, from 37 down to 28 kV, below which the results diverged only slightly. (author)

  4. Correlation of cathode parameters of high power grid tubes with material characteristics of cathode-grid units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to increase the longevity of dispenser cathodes is based on reducing the Barium evaporation. This can be achieved by the decrease of the reaction 'activity' of the emitter impregnant with the porous tungsten (W) body, which supplies free Barium from the interior of the porous cathode to its surface

  5. Correlation of cathode parameters of high power grid tubes with material characteristics of cathode-grid units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Irina P.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.

    2005-09-01

    One way to increase the longevity of dispenser cathodes is based on reducing the Barium evaporation. This can be achieved by the decrease of the reaction "activity" of the emitter impregnant with the porous tungsten (W) body, which supplies free Barium from the interior of the porous cathode to its surface.

  6. In situ X-ray studies of film cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Synchrotron X-rays are used to study in operando the structural and chemical changes of LSM and LSCF film cathodes during half-cell operations. •A-site and B-site cations actively segregate or desegregate on the changes of temperature, pO2, and electrochemical potential. •Chemical lattice expansions show that oxygen-cathode interface is the primary source of rate-limiting processes. •The surface and subsurface of the LSM and LSCF films have different oxidation-states due to vacancy concentration changes. •Liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening processes of cathode materials into porous YSZ electrolyte backbone were monitored by USAXS. -- Abstract: Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques have been used to study in situ the structural and chemical changes of film cathodes during half-cell operations. The X-ray techniques used include X-ray reflectivity (XR), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), high-resolution diffraction (HRD), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The epitaxial thin film model cathodes for XR, TXRF, and HRD measurements are made by pulse laser deposition and porous film cathodes for USAX measurements are made by screen printing technique. The experimental results reviewed here include A-site and B-site segregations, lattice expansion, oxidation-state changes during cell operations and liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening of cathode to electrolyte backbone

  7. Electron beam focussing in X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this invention is to provide satisfactory focussing in conical x-ray tubes where the electron beam extends from gun to target over a distance typically of 1.5 metres. Such tubes are used in computerised tomographic apparatus. (U.K.)

  8. High speed electrostatic photomultiplier tube for the 1.06 micrometer wavelength. Cup and slat dynode chain combined with flat cathode and coax output produces 0.25 nsec rise time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Varian cup and slat dynode chain was modified to have a flat cathode. These modifications were incorporated in an all-electrostatic photomultiplier tube having a rise time of 0.25 n sec. The tube delivered under the contract had a flat S-20 opaque cathode with a useful diameter of 5 mm. The design of the tube is such that a III to V cathode support is mounted in place of the existing cathode substrate. This cathode support is designed to accept a transferred III to V cathode and maintain the cathode surface in the same position as the S-20 photocathode.

  9. A high efficiency irradiation device provided with an X-ray tube generator with a window anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns an irradiation device by high efficiency X rays, comprising an X ray generator tube provided with a high voltage cathode and a window anode and used, inter alia, for X ray spectrometry. The anode window tubes provide excellent transmission of X rays through the window towards the sample, whilst a significant background of the continuous spectrum remains since the backscattering of the electrons from the surface of the anode occurs freely. This invention enables this drawback to be offset by giving the possibility to most of the backscattered electrons to meet the anode and thus cause a secondary emission, not to say a tertiary emission of X rays. However a tube under the invention irradiates a plane surface on a sample with low efficiency at the X ray transmission level. In order to use the intrinsic advantages of the tube, under the invention, whilst reserving a good efficiency in the transmission of the X rays, it is essential to associate the tube, under the invention with an irradiation surface in the shape of an oblong dome, the dome shaped anode entering the dome shaped cavity of the sample

  10. X-ray detectors with digitized preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With direct digitization of detector pulses, software algorithms are used to calculate the energy of incident photons. Fast high resolution sampling adc's and digital signal processors replace shaping amplifiers and spectroscopy adc's. The difference between the classical analog approach for pulse processing and direct digitization can be summarized as follows. In analog systems, a preamplifier output is filtered by analog means and then digitized to be acquired in a multichannel analyzer, whereas the full digital system will digitize first and then filter by application of algorithms. According to the sampling theorem, both approaches are equivalent. However, using digital signal processing for filtering allows the use of filter functions that cannot be practically realized with analog means. Those digital filter functions promise resolution and throughput close to the theoretical limit. The first commercially available ADSP (Analog to Digital Signal Processor) uses a moving window deconvolution to deconvolve the preamplifier characteristic. All algorithms are calculated in real time, thus there is no dead time added through the computation of an event. A filter function with a trapezoidal impulse response calculates the energy in real time. An adaptive digital trigger allows excellent low energy detection. Another benefit for X-ray applications are very long shaping constants, resulting in 125 eV resolution at 5.9 keV with SiLi detectors. The ADSP consists of an analog linear amplification stage, a 20 MHz sampling adc, circuits for digital signal preprocessing, and four floating point DSPs, performing 240 MFLOP/s. It has been built into a 2-wide NIM module to replace virtually any adc/shaping amplifier combination. (orig.)

  11. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  12. Digital X-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying source voltage and filtering (predicting the required dynamic range for the detector); evaluating CsI:Tl, CdWO4 and scintillating glass as image converters; recommending image enhancement algorithms. The LLNL modeling results guided the design and experimental elements of the project. The Laboratory's unique array of sources and detectors was employed to resolve specific technical questions. Our image processing expertise was applied to the selection of enhancement tools for image display

  13. Chaos and Formation of Structures in an Electron Flow with a Virtual Cathode in the Bounded Drift Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Hramov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam with a virtual cathode (VC) in the drift tube is investigated with the help of a 1.5-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic code. The existence of complex modes, including chaotic modes,is demonstrated. The dynamic nature of chaos in the considered system is revealed. Physical processes in the flow are investigated, and it is found that the initiation of chaotic dynamics of the electron beam with VC isrelated to the nonlinear interaction of structures formed in the system.

  14. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, Ron; Jackson, Eric; Gomez, Joseph; Light, Doug; Follett, Peter; Simmons, Greg; Higbee, Brad

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the use of x-ray tube based irradiators as alternatives to gamma sources for laboratory scale irradiation. Irradiators were designed with sample placement in closest possible proximity to the source, allowing high dose rates for small samples. Designs using 1000 W x-ray tubes in single tube, double tube, and four tube configurations are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small samples, demonstrating feasibility for laboratory based irradiators for research purposes. Dose rates of 9.76, 5.45, and 1.7 Gy/min/tube were measured at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice at 100 keV, 70 keV, and 40 keV, respectively. Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container. For 2.54 cm diameter sample containers containing adult Navel Orangeworm, dose rates of 50-60 Gy/min were measured in the four tube system.

  15. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  16. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  17. Determination of tube voltage in X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next to filtration, tube voltage or tube potential difference is one of the most significant parameters for the quality of X-rays, especially with a view to its absolute value, its variation during exposure and its long-term constancy. Voltage control is major component pf quality assurance in diagnostic radiography. Various non-invasive methods are available for voltage measurements. The article reports the experience gained with the kV-indicating cassette, the X-ray analyses (NERO system) and the multi-channel analyser. (orig./HP)

  18. Impulse through-target x-ray tube spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitov, B. I.; Mukhachyov, Yu. S.

    2002-07-01

    At present x-ray compact tubes with pass-through anodes operating either in the pulse mode or in the direct voltage one are applied to the equipment for the shady microscopy, and the local XRF analysis. The report presents the calculated spectral intensity distributions of the bremsstrahlung versus the pass-through anode thickness. The spectral function of the bremsstrahlung Mo tube with the anode thickness over 100 microns is demosntrated to contract to the narrow energy interval lying near the characteristic anode radiation range. However under the same conditions the spectrum of the pulse Cu-anode tube tends to be dichromatic. The spectral distributions of the tube bremsstrahlung operating at the direct current and pulse voltage are compared.

  19. A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-05-01

    A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon nanotube field-emission electron source has been demonstrated. The diameter of the X-ray tube is 10 mm; the total length of the tube is 50 mm, and no external vacuum pump is required for the operation. The maximum tube voltage reaches up to 70 kV, and the X-ray tube generates intense X-rays with the air kerma strength of 108 Gy·cm2 min-1. In addition, X-rays produced from the miniature X-ray tube have a comparatively uniform spatial dose distribution.

  20. X- or gamma ray converter and manufacturing method for its cathode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray converter serves for application in medical diagnostics. For the cathode system of the converter a system based on low-pressure ionography is suited making use of the X-ray photoelectric emission. The electrodes of the cathode system consist of double-layer films with two external conduction layers and an insulator in between. As an auxiliary voltage can be applied between the individual layers the field gradient in the holes may be adjusted, thus increasing the quantum yield. (orig./HP)

  1. X- or gamma ray converter and manufacturing method for its cathode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray converter serves for application in medical diagnostics. For cathode system of the converter a system based on low-pressure ionography is suited making use of the X-ray photoelectric emission. The electrodes of the cathode system consist of double-layer films with two external conduction layers and an insulator in between. As an auxiliary voltage can be applied between the individual layers the field gradient in the holes may be adjusted, thus increasing the quantum yield. (DG)

  2. Adjustable off-focal aperture for x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an x-ray tube assembly for radiographic scanners. It comprises: an evacuated envelope; an anode rotatably mounted within the envelope; a housing surrounding the envelope to define a cooling fluid reservoir therebetween, the housing defining an aperture therein and having a collar surrounding the aperture; an x-ray permeable, fluid impermeable window mounted to the housing to seal the aperture; an x-ray beam defining means, an off-focal radiation attenuating means, a flexible cable means, and a first stop means

  3. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott [Iowa State University, Center for NDE, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  4. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  5. Correction of the X-ray tube spot movement as a tool for improvement of the micro-tomography quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays X-ray tubes in conjunction with digital pixelated imagers are standardly utilized for high resolution radiography with several micrometre or even sub-micrometre resolution. Achievement of the same resolution in X-ray computed tomography is a more demanding task due to the time-dependent tube electron beam drift as well as thermal deformations of the tube. In our work, the beam drift caused by the long-term stabilization of the tube electron optics was measured by observation of radiographs of 75 μm big tin ball rigidly mounted onto the tube head. The tube spot movement comprising both the beam drift and the movement caused by thermal deformations of the tube and its fixture was evaluated measuring the virtual movement of the inspected object. For this purpose, radiographs were recorded periodically at the same object position. Both the beam drift as well as spot movement were evaluated with subpixel resolution using digital image correlation tools. It was proven that the quality of a tomographic reconstruction can be significantly improved by the correction of the spot movement

  6. 21 CFR 892.5930 - Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly. 892.5930 Section 892.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... assembly. (a) Identification. A therapeutic x-ray tube housing assembly is an x-ray generating tube...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1760 - Diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly. 892.1760 Section 892.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... assembly. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube housing assembly is an x-ray generating tube...

  8. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a 252Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA

  9. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  10. Automated Quality Assurance of Medical Digital X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance of the x-ray equipment includes a set of various tests among which are installation and periodic exams performed by qualified engineers as well as daily routine tests carried out by the medical staff of the Radiology Department. As a rule, the decision concerning the applicability of the x-ray equipment for using in clinical studies is made on the basis of the routine tests results. The presented method is based on the detector's output signals, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Modulation Transfer Function evaluation in automated way using the simple test-object's digital image registered with given geometry and x-ray exposure parameters settings. Rectangular 20 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick well-finished steel edge (for general x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy systems) or 2 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick aluminum well-finished edge (for digital x-ray mammography systems) can be used as a test equipment. Relevant to the decision concerning the x-ray device operation status are the parameters: deviations from the reference levels of the tube voltage and mAs as well as internal detector's noise variance and detector's gain deviations. Everyday testing procedure includes the following steps. On the first step the roentgenographer places the test-object at the center of the detector's surface, makes an exposure with specified parameters setting and geometry and after this, test results are displayed on the work station monitor or console screen in automatic way. In order to provide an automated regime of the presenting algorithm, the software must be integrated with the program module intended for the x-ray device control. The use of the presented method in clinical practice provides the reliable daily monitoring of the x-ray equipment operation status prior to its utilizing for patient diagnostic process. As a rule, it will take not more than 3-5 minutes for the roentgenographer to complete the routine

  11. Improvements in or relating to X-ray generating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a novel X-ray generating tube for use in computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a rotating anode which can translate along the axis of rotation thereby producing a scan in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the anode. Rotation and translation of the anode are achieved by induction between a stator and a rotor. In a development of the anode, a ''helter-skelter'' form is used for the anode surface; rotation of this anode will cause the generated X-ray beam to scan in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation. (U.K.)

  12. YouTube and Academic Libraries: Building a Digital Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Although still a relatively new technology with less than 10 years of history, YouTube's extensive reach and integration in mainstream society as well as lifelong learning habits of online users cannot be understated. This article examines how the YouTube collection at the University of British Columbia Library's Irving K. Barber Learning Centre…

  13. Measurements and comparison of focal spot sizes of two types of x-ray tubes installed in simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of such that there is 15 deg angle between the anode-cathode axis and the long side of rectangle, while for Ximatron tube that angle is 45 deg. A comparison of both shape and dimension of the focal spot of the tube are made between these two simulators of similar working load. After considering the difference in the initial manufacturer's specification of the focal spot size, it is clear that there is a aging effect on the effective focal spot of the X-ray tubes. However, the relationship between the size of focal spot and the age of the X-ray tube is complex and non-linear. Limitations of a average Life-time of these two types of X-ray tubes are derived respectively according to the requirements on spatial resolution of X-ray diagnostic equipment set by the national standards

  14. X-ray flat panel detectors and X-ray tubes contributing to development of X-ray diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray flat panel detectors (FPDs) and X-ray tubes are key devices allowing X-ray diagnostic systems to support more sophisticated medical care. FPDs provide valuable information for the diagnosis of various diseases through the conversion of X-ray images of the human body into electronic signals, while X-ray tubes are used in a wide range of applications such as computed tomography (CT), angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and dental systems. Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices Co., Ltd. has developed and commercialized FPDs providing high-quality diagnostic X-ray images with low dose exposure through the development of cutting-edge technologies including a fine crystal formation technology for cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators, thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with photodiodes, and so on. In the field of X-ray tubes that can generate a high output of X-rays, we have developed a liquid metal hydrodynamic bearing (LM bearing) technology for various diagnostic systems including medical CT systems with a long lifetime and high rotation speed, and cardiovascular imaging systems with quiet operation. Furthermore, LM bearing technology reduces the burden on the environment by replacing insulating oil with water coolant for the cooling system and making the X-ray tubes more compact. (author)

  15. Mean glandular dose for different angles of the X-ray tube using different glandularity phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional radiographic technique that is beginning to be used as part of an imaging diagnostic program in some of Brazilian clinical practices. Studies are needed to evaluate the performance and to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this new procedure. The aim of this work is to present results of the mean glandular dose (DG) for different angles of the X-ray tube using a computed radiography (CR) mammography unit and different glandularity standard breast phantoms. DG values were derived from measurements of the incident air kerma (Ki) and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half-value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Irradiations were done in a 3000 Nova model Siemens MAMMOMAT mammography unit with the X-ray tube angle ranging from −30° to 30°. The protocol with 28 kV was used for Mo/Mo combination. The distance between focus and the 90×5–6 M model Radcal ionization chamber was 60.5 cm and the tube loading (PIt) used was 50 mA s. Exposures were done for DG determination using the semi-automatic exposure control mode and the 45 mm Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc phantoms which approximately simulate a standard breast with glandularities of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%. DG values ranged from 1.3±0.1 to 7.6±0.7 mGy. The results are in according to the reference level of 3 mGy established by the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS115) to breast with 45 mm of thickness, 50% of glandularity and for the X-ray tube positioned in 0°. The results showed that DG increases with the glandularity and with the rotation of the X-ray tube. This work contributes to begin in Brazil the dosimetry in DBT equipments using different protocols and target/filter combinations. - Highlights: ► Glandularity phantoms and a computed radiography mammography unit were used. ► Results were calculated from the incident air kerma and conversion coefficients. ► They are in

  16. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  17. Avoiding the Digital Abyss: Getting Started in the Classroom with YouTube, Digital Stories, and Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Rebecca; Wedwick, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a rural middle school teacher's use of YouTube, digital stories, and blogs in a language arts curriculum. The authors also share the voices of middle school students as they learn through this technology in the classroom. Although a wide variety of technology integration exists in this middle school language…

  18. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  19. Characteristics of Transmission-type Microfocus X-ray Tube based-on Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high resolution microfocus x-ray source is widely applied to noninvasive detection for industrial demands, material science and engineering, and to diagnostic study of microbiology and micro-tomography. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is regarded as an excellent electron emitter, which outperforms conventional electron sources in point of brightness. It has been suggested that CNT is used as an electron source of a high resolution x-ray tube according to their low threshold field with atomically sharp geometry, chemically robust structure, and electric conductivity. Several researchers have reported miniaturized x-ray tube based on diode structure and micro x-ray radiography and computed tomography systems using triode types with precise emission control and electrostatic focusing. Especially, a microfocus x-ray source of 30 μm resolution has been demonstrated recently using an elliptical CNT cathode and asymmetrical Eingel lens. However, to increase the spatial resolution of x-ray source, a smaller CNT emitter is desired. Electron focusing optics must be corrected to reduce aberrations. A thin wire tip end can provide a micro-area of CNT substrate, and a magnetic lens and transmission x-ray target are proper to reduce the lens aberration and a focal length. Until now, CNT based microfocus x-ray source with less than 10 um resolution has not been shown. Here we report a microfocus x-ray source with 4.7 μm x-ray focal spot consisted of a conical CNT tip, a single solenoid lens, and a transmission type x-ray target. A magnified x-ray image larger than 230 times was resolved with advantage of microfocused focal spot and transmission x-ray target

  20. A novel digital x-ray topography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray topography (XRT) is recognized as being a powerful tool for directly imaging defects in single crystals, semiconductor wafers and epitaxially grown layers. The timely identification of defects can lead to increased yields and significant cost savings in wafer processing. The primary limitation to its general usage within the semiconductor community has been the difficulty in system use and difficulty in integration into an in-line analytical tool. We have developed a novel, high-speed digital XRT method that can be implemented on a standard high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) system equipped with a wafer translation stage and a microfocus tube (or a small aperture in front of a standard point source). It is also appropriate for an in-line fab tool with robot loading and automated operation. In this paper, we discuss the theory and present examples from work undertaken on a variety of materials, including: silicon, compound semiconductors and ionic crystals. Reflection and transmission methods are illustrated. Data were collected on a HRXRD system with a microfocus source and a CCD detector, and an innovative software integration and processing algorithm. Algorithms for full automation of the alignment, exposure and data collection processes have been worked out. It is estimated that the dedicated XRT tool now in prototype form will be capable of scanning a full 300 mm wafer in reflection in under two hours at 50 μm resolution and one hour at 15 μm resolution

  1. Carbon Nanotube Bundle Array Cold Cathodes for THz Vacuum Tube Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish M.; Toda, Risaku; Lin, Robert H.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2009-12-01

    We present high performance cold cathodes composed of arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that routinely produce > 15 A/cm2 at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/µm without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10-6 to 10-4 Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. A new double-SOI process was developed to monolithically integrate a gate and additional beam tailoring electrodes. The ability to design the electrodes for specific requirements makes carbon nanotube field emission sources extremely flexible. The lifetime of these cathodes is found to be affected by two effects: a gradual decay of emission due to anode sputtering, and catastrophic failure because of dislodging of CNT bundles at high fields ( > 10 V/µm).

  2. Thermionic noise measurements for on-line dispenser cathode diagnostics for linear beam microwave tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C.; Brodie, I.

    1985-01-01

    A test stand has been set up to measure the current fluctuation noise properties of B- and M-type dispenser cathodes in a typical TWT gun structure. Noise techniques were used to determine the work function distribution on the cathode surfaces. Significant differences between the B and M types and significant changes in the work function distribution during activation and life are found. In turn, knowledge of the expected work function can be used to accurately determine the cathode-operating temperatures in a TWT structure. Noise measurements also demonstrate more sensitivity to space charge effects than the Miram method. Full automation of the measurements and computations is now required to speed up data acquisition and reduction. The complete set of equations for the space charge limited diode were programmed so that given four of the five measurable variables (J, J sub O, T, D, and V) the fifth could be computed. Using this program, we estimated that an rms fluctuation in the diode spacing d in the frequency range of 145 Hz about 20 kHz of only about 10 to the -5 power A would account for the observed noise in a space charge limited diode with 1 mm spacing.

  3. Digital image analysis of X-ray television with an image digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When video signals of X-ray fluoroscopy were transformed from analog-to-digital ones with an image digitizer, their digital characteristic curves, pre-sampling MTF's and digital Wiener spectral could be measured. This method was advant ageous in that it was able to carry out data sampling because the pixel values inputted could be verified on a CRT. The system of image analysis by this method is inexpensive and effective in evaluating the image quality of digital system. Also, it is expected that this method can be used as a tool for learning the measurement techniques and physical characteristics of digital image quality effectively. (author)

  4. Application of space technology to X-ray tube bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, P.J. [Advanced Methods and Materials Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Virshup, G.F. [Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes work done to transfer technology, developed during the SP100 Space Reactor program, to commercial applications. The SP100 program was intended to develop a high temperature nuclear reactor power source for space applications. The specific area described in this paper is the use of high temperature bearings and lubricants under vacuum conditions. At the instigation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a joint program was initiated between Varian Corporation and Advanced Methods and Materials Co. (AMM); with AMM providing the technical expertise in high temperature bearing technology, acquired during the Sp100 program, and Varian providing the testing and performance evaluation of the completed bearing assemblies. The Varian bearing application is X-ray tubes. The tungsten target is required to rotate within the vacuum tube with the bearings operating at temperatures in the region of 300 C. The high temperature vacuum conditions preclude the use of any organic lubricants. The desired improvements in bearing performance were in the areas of noise reduction and extended lifetime. The SP100 program had required low friction ball bearings for the Control Drive Assembly motors, clutches and brakes. These assemblies were required to operate at 540 C in hard vacuum. For the SP100 program silver coated tool steel bearings were tested along with molybdenum disulfide coated Stellite L605 races and balls with molybdenum disulfide coated Stellite L605 races with silicon nitride balls. The work described in this paper covers the results from the SP100 tests and describes the application of this technology to the Varian X-ray tubes using optimized MoS{sub 2} deposition parameters. The results of this work to date and the conclusions resulting from the endurance testing are described in detail.

  5. Digital radiography can reduce scoliosis x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital radiology is a new computerized system of acquiring x-rays in a digital (electronic) format. It possesses a greatly expanded dose response curve that allows a very broad range of x-ray dose to produce a diagnostic image. Potential advantages include significantly reduced radiation exposure without loss of image quality, acquisition of images of constant density irrespective of under or over exposure, and reduced repeat rates for unsatisfactory films. The authors prospectively studied 30 adolescents with scoliosis who had both conventional (full dose) and digital (full, one-half, or one-third dose) x-rays. They found digital made AP and lateral image with all anatomic areas clearly depicted at full and one-half dose. Digital laterals were better at full dose and equal to conventional at one-half dose. Cobb angles were easily measured on all one-third dose AP and on 8 of 10 one-third dose digital laterals. Digital clearly depicted the Risser sign at one-half and one-third dose and the repeat rate was nil in this study, indicating digital compensates well for exposure errors. The study indicates that digital does allow radiation dose to be reduced by at least one-half in scoliosis patients and that it does have improved image quality with good contrast over a wide range of x-ray exposure

  6. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. PMID:25889609

  7. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. (authors)

  8. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan; Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M A; Mittal, Vijay Kumar; Mittal, Raj

    2010-10-01

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found approximately (1-100)ppm for K and L excitations and approximately (200-700)ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken. PMID:20570160

  9. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India); Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M.A. [Laser Electronic Support Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore (India); Mittal, Vijay Kumar [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India); Mittal, Raj, E-mail: rmsingla@yahoo.co [Nuclear Science Laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found {approx}(1-100) ppm for K and L excitations and {approx}(200-700) ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken.

  10. Micro tube device for innovative digital water uptake measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Černý, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana; Zíma, Pavel

    Stuttgart : Fraunhofer IRB, Verlag, 2011 - (Krüger, M.), s. 126-130 ISBN 978-3-8167-8560-6. [Cultural heritage preservation EWCHP 2011. Berlin (DE), 26.09.2011-28.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08083 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) FP7 NMP STONECORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : water sorption * surface quality * Karsten tube Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. Radiation exposure in X-ray angiography and comparisons between digital and conventional methods of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more recent developments and techniques in the field of angiography are examined for associated radiation exposure risks for patients and investigators and then compared to the conventional methods of angiography. It could be shown that digital subtraction angiography is generally associated with a lesser risk of somatic exposure of the patient, provided that the equipment used offers an adjustable useful-beam range and focus. The fact that above-table X-ray tubes are now generally replaced with X-ray systems installed under the examination table permits the relatively high doses, to which investigators are exposed during angiography, to be reduced by a factor of 3. (DG)

  12. Research on the Relationship of X-ray Tube Structure and Focal Spot%X射线管结构与焦斑关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇志; 沙京田; 任翔; 徐卫平; 卓琳

    2013-01-01

    X射线管是X射线机的心脏,是产生X射线的源泉[1].其焦斑大小及分布对整机图像清晰度起着决定性的作用.通过对X射线管结构特点、焦斑产生机理、电极结构与焦斑相关性实验的测试数据及理论分析等多方面的论述,探讨了X射线管结构尺寸对焦斑的影响.通过系列实验及理论分析表明:X射线管阴极结构对焦斑有巨大的影响.借助计算机模拟仿真计算,合理设计阴极结构,能够获取大小适中、分布均匀的焦斑,从而达到改善X射线机图像清晰度的目的.%X-ray tube is the core part of the X-ray machine and the source[1]of X-ray. The focus size and distribution play a decisive role in the definition of the X-ray machine. In relation to the X-ray tube structure characteristics, focus formation mechanism, the test experimental data of the correlation of the electrode structure with focusing, theoretical analysis and so on, the effect caused by X-ray tube structure and size are discussed. A series of experiments and theoretical analysis shows that cathode structure of X-ray tube has significant effect upon focus. With the help of simulation calculation, the reasonable cathode structure is obtained to produce uniform and moderate size focus, thus to improve image-definition purpose of X-ray machine.

  13. Impulse electron gun with plasma cathode for realization of large diameter tube-shaped beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of investigations of a plasma electron source based on the gas discharge in a coaxial system of electrodes with longitudinal magnetic field. The examination is fulfilled from the viewpoint of applying the source as a plasma cathode for hybrid plasma-waveguide slow-wave structures on the basis of a disk-loaded coaxial. The source is optimized in order to get a powerful (up to 100 kW) nonrelativistic electron beam with the annular cross-section of a large diameter in the regime of relatively long current pulses (up to 0.2 ms) under the gas pressure ∼ 5 centre dot 10-4 mm Hg in the area of the discharge burning

  14. The flash tube discharge mechanism from a study of the digitization pulse output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digitization pulse obtained from the flash tube has been found to follow the characteristics of the discharge mechanism. Two types of digitization pulses have been observed corresponding to Townsend and streamer discharge mechanisms. The streamer breakdown fields have been found for three different gas compositions: (1) Ne: He (70:30): (2) Ne: He (98:2) and (3) Ne:He (70:30) plus 1% CH4. An attempt has been made to estimate the induced clearing field and its decay with time from a study of the streamer discharge probability with rate. The digitization pulse heights for both streamer and Townsend discharge mechanisms have been investigated as a function of the applied field and the rate of flashing. No significant difference has been found in operation of the tubes for positive and negative applied fields. (Auth.)

  15. Characterization of angle – dependent Focal spot in a miniature X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature x-ray tube can be used to obtain important images easily due to its small size and movability. Because the miniature x-ray tube discussed in this paper is a transmission type, it can emit x-rays in all directions, making it possible to take angle-dependent images. Focal spot is essential in an x-ray tube because it affects the quality of images taken by the x-ray tube. The size of the focal spot is equivalent to that of the x-ray generation region located at the x-ray tube target. If the size of focal spot is too large, images produced will be blurry. In other words, smaller focal spots produce clearer images. Currently common x-ray tubes have a relatively thick target, causing them to emit x-rays in one direction with uniform focal spot size. This type of x-ray produced is called reflection x-ray. However, unlike the conventional, miniature x-ray tubes, that this paper focuses on, have thin beryllium targets, allowing for both reflection x-ray and transmission x-ray to be generated at the targets. And since both types can affect the size of focal spots, these miniature x-ray tubes can emit x-rays, which is a crucial property when taking angle-dependent images. By measuring the physical characteristics of the focal spots, methods of improving the qualities of angle-dependent images can be determined. Thus, this experiment, which deals with measuring these physical characteristics will substantially help in the improvement of the qualities of angle-dependent images. The result was obtained by analyzing the image with procedure provided by EN-12543-5 Focal spots increase with increase in angle from 0 degree to 90 degrees

  16. Stem radiation of medical X-ray tubes with rotating anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring the fraction of extrafocal radiation in the X-ray output of X-ray tubes was developed and tested under clinical conditions. A fraction of 10% was found, that increases with tube voltage and field size, while tube current and focal spot size have no influence. As a measure for the influence of stem radiation on image quality the contrast transfer function was used. Stem radiation causes detectable geometric unsharpness. If screen film systems are used, the unsharpness is negligible compared with the screen unsharpness. Approaches for educing stem radiation from medical X-ray tubes are discussed. (author)

  17. Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft X-ray generator

    OpenAIRE

    Ounoughi, Nabil; Mavon, Christophe; Belafrites, Abdelfettah; Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel; Fromm, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the Ultra Soft X-ray (USX, 1.5 keV, Al Kα) photon beam of a customized lab bench cold cathode generator. Within this generator, the electron beam is slowed down in a thin aluminium foil (16 μm) supported by an easily exchangeable anode. It is shown that the thickness of the foil and the anode configuration determine the spatial distribution and the fluence rate of the photon beam, whereas accelerating voltage determines both fluence rate and energy spec...

  18. Studies on the flavour and aroma of peel oil from citrus unshu irradiated with cathode ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor of peel oil from citrus unshu irradiated with 150 krad cathode ray were investigated by gas chromatography. The sample irradiated and stored for 30 days showed browning and unfavorable odor although the degree of the browning was not same as the report of Ojima et al. The yield of essential oil showed only a slight difference in all samples. Some changes were found in the carbohydrate components immediately after irradiation, whereas some changes were detected in hydrocarbon components, especially d-linonen and pinene after storage of irradiated samples. Unfavorable odor might be caused by the changes of quantitative ratio of the components. (auth.)

  19. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  20. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  1. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892.1770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount....

  2. Using computational modeling to compare X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Practical Peak Voltage-PPV has been adopted to measure the voltage applied to an X-ray tube. The PPV was recommended by the IEC document and accepted and published in the TRS no. 457 code of practice. The PPV is defined and applied to all forms of waves and is related to the spectral distribution of X-rays and to the properties of the image. The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. An X-ray tube for Dental Radiology (operated from a single phase power supply) and an X-ray tube used as a reference (supplied from a constant potential power supply) were used in simulations across the energy range of interest of 40 kV to 100 kV. Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the tubes involved. - Highlights: • Computational Model was developed to X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology. • The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. • The energy range was 40–100 kV. • Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the Dental Radiology and reference X-ray tubes

  3. Using computational modeling to compare X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda Cassiano, Deisemar; Arruda Correa, Samanda Cristine; de Souza, Edmilson Monteiro; da Silva, Ademir Xaxier; Pereira Peixoto, José Guilherme; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The Practical Peak Voltage-PPV has been adopted to measure the voltage applied to an X-ray tube. The PPV was recommended by the IEC document and accepted and published in the TRS no. 457 code of practice. The PPV is defined and applied to all forms of waves and is related to the spectral distribution of X-rays and to the properties of the image. The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. An X-ray tube for Dental Radiology (operated from a single phase power supply) and an X-ray tube used as a reference (supplied from a constant potential power supply) were used in simulations across the energy range of interest of 40 kV to 100 kV. Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the tubes involved.

  4. Pulse profile digitization system for TACTIC γ-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TACTIC gamma-ray telescope deploys an array of 4 elements to detect TeV (1012 eV) gamma-ray emissions from celestial sources. These gamma-rays are detected in the presence of an overwhelmingly large background of cosmic-ray events. In order to exploit the subtle differences in the pulse profiles of the gamma-ray and cosmic-ray initiated atmospheric Cherenkov events for the purpose of event segregation, we have recently incorporated a 1GS/Sec pulse profile digitizer in the data acquisition system of one of the Vertex elements of the array. The details of the digitization system and preliminary results obtained are discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Digital x-ray analysis for monitoring fracture healing

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray based evaluation of different stages of fracture healing is a well established clinical standard. However, several studies have shown plain radiography alone to be an unreliable method to assess healing. The advent of digital X-ray systems provides the potential to perform quantitative analysis on X-ray images without disrupting normal clinical practice. Two aspects were explored in this study. The first was the measurement of mechanical fracture stiffness under four point b...

  6. Numerical simulation of X-ray image converter tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bilamellar image converter tube was introduced, which adopts plate poles and electric quadrupole lenses. Based on the bilamellar tube model, the structure, operation mode and imaging characteristics, etc. of the tube were analyzed. The results show that the bilamellar structure can effectively control the space-charge effect and thus increase the temporal/spatial resolution of imaging. (authors)

  7. Calibration of x-ray digital tomosynthesis system including the compensation for image distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Jun; Koh, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck; Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyung C.; Byun, Jong-Eun

    1998-10-01

    X-ray laminography and DT (digital tomosynthesis) are promising technologies to form a cross-section image of 3D objects and can be a good solution for inspection interior defects of industrial products. It has been known that digital tomosynthesis method has several advantages over laminography method in that it can overcome the problems such as blurring effect or artifact. The DT system consists of a scanning x-ray tube, an image intensifier as an x-ray image detector, and a CCD camera. To acquire an x-ray image of an arbitrary plane of objects, a set of images (8 images or more) should be synthesized by averaging or minimally calculating point by point. The images, however are distorted according to the configurations of the image intensifier and the x-ray source position. To get a clear and accurate synthesized image, the corresponding points in the distorted images should be accurately determined, and therefore, precise calibration of the DT system is needed to map the corresponding points correctly. In this work, a series of calibration methods for the DT system are presented including the correction of the center offset between the x-ray and the image intensifer, the x-ray steering calibration, and the correction of the distortion of the image. The calibration models are implemented to the DT system and the experiment results are presented and discussed in detail.

  8. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  9. The Influence of Tube Potential on Periodontal Bone Level Measurements and Subjective Image Quality Using a Digital Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhilde Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the measurement accuracy and subjective image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis when using two X-ray tube voltages with a digital photostimulable storage phosphor sensor.Material and Methods: A digital photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP sensor (Vistascan and a multipulse X-ray generator (Prostyle Intra with two tube voltages were used in this study. The front, premolar and molar region of two adult human cadaver skulls jaws were imaged using the X-ray tube at 63 kV and 70 kV, both at 8 mA and decreasing exposure times (160 ms, 120 ms and 80 ms. A standardized exposure protocol containing waxed occlusal keys and an aiming device ensured proper and reproducible beam alignment. Three observers assessed the digital radiographs for 31 selected periodontal bone loss sites. Radiographic measurements were compared to physical measurements (Standard. Subjective ratings of lamina dura, crater defect and furcation involvement visibility, contrast perception and bone quality were also performed.Results: Multiple regression equation of the variables kV and exposure time demonstrated no significant difference for the periodontal bone level measurements (P > 0.05. In 90.3% and 96.7% of the measurements for 70 kV and 63 kV respectively, deviation was within 1 mm. The subjective ratings produced similar findings in terms of image quality for both tube voltages and the three exposure times.Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that tube voltages of 63 kV and 70 kV provided similar accuracy and image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis.

  10. Some characteristics of the digitization pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of the digitization output pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes were studied under various operation conditions using square ultra-high voltage pulses. Properties reported by previous workers were compared. Two discharge mechanisms, the Townsend avalanche discharge and the streamer discharge, were observed to occur in sequence in some events. The output waveforms for both discharge mechanisms were studied in detail. The charge induced on a detecting probe was also estimated from the measured data. (Auth.)

  11. Digital Signal Processing for Optimal Resolution in Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this paper is based on the digital processing of samples obtained by digitizing the signal pulse as it appears at the output of a γ ray measuring set-up. Consequently, we will discuss the design as well as the implementation on a DSP board, of the various used digital pulse processing techniques in order to provide the main functions required in a generic ''Gamma'' digital spectroscopic set-up. The first part will be devoted to the design of the digital IIR filter used to compensate the charge preamplifier's slow pole. It will be followed by a practical estimation of the power spectral density characterizing the electrical noise components present in the experiment under consideration. Thereafter, a very detailed attention will be given to the design of the digital optimal filter to be used for the charge measurements. After, we present also another FIR filter. This one deals with the digital estimation of the measurement's reference line in a manner to achieve the role of the classical Base Line Restorer. Finally, we will present the hardware implementation of the whole designed filters using the board: ''TMS320C6713-DSK'', which is a DSP kit developed by ''DIGITAL Spectrum''. (author)

  12. Real-time digital X-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic anatomical X-ray apparatus comprising a converter and a television camera for converting an X-ray image of a subject into a series of television fields of video signals is described in detail. A digital memory system stores and integrates the video signals over a time interval corresponding to a plurality of successive television fields. The integrated video signals are recovered from storage and fed to a digital or analogue subtractor, the resulting output being displayed on a television monitor. Thus the display represents on-going changes in the anatomical X-ray image. In a modification, successive groups of fields are stored and integrated in three memories, cyclically, and subtractions are performed between successive pieces of integrated signals to provide a display of successive alterations in the X-ray image. For investigations of the heart, the integrating interval should be of the order of one cardiac cycle. (author)

  13. Deciphering the thermal behavior of lithium rich cathode material by in situ X-ray diffraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shoaib; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Yoon, Jeongbae; Jang, Donghyuk; Yoon, Jaegu; Park, Jin-Hwan; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2015-07-01

    Thermal stability is one of the critical requirements for commercial operation of high energy lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we use in situ X-ray diffraction technique to elucidate the thermal degradation mechanism of 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 lithium rich cathode material in the absence and presence of electrolyte to simulate the real life battery conditions and compare its thermal behavior with the commercial LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 cathode material. We show that the thermal induced phase transformations in delithiated lithium rich cathode material are much more intense compared to similar single phase layered cathode material in the presence of electrolyte. The structural changes in both cathode materials with the temperature rise follow different trends in the absence and presence of electrolyte between 25 and 600 °C. Phase transitions are comparatively simple in the absence of electrolyte, the fully charged lithium rich cathode material demonstrates better thermal stability by maintaining its phase till 379 °C, and afterwards spinel structure is formed. In the presence of electrolyte, however, the spinel structure appears at 207 °C, subsequently it transforms to rock salt type cubic phase at 425 °C with additional metallic, metal fluoride, and metal carbonate phases.

  14. Near monochromatic X-rays for digital slot-scan mammography: initial findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray spectra are composed of a broad bremsspectrum and anode-characteristic emission lines. In mammography typically molybdenum (Mo), rhodium (Rh) or tungsten (W) anodes are used in combination with Mo, Rh or aluminium filters. Only the photons with energies between 17 and 22 keV of the resulting spectrum are suitable for the soft tissue imaging needed for mammography. The aim of this article is to present first results obtained with a monochromator module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a conventional clinical mammography unit. The experimental setup consists of a Siemens Mammomat 300, an X-ray monochromator module and a linear array detector for image acquisition. The technique is similar to the slot-scan technique known from digital mammography. The experimental machine allows to obtain images both with polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays. Initial evaluation of the system was performed by examination of a contrast-detail phantom (CD-MAM-phantom, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Images done with the new monochromatic technique were compared to images of the phantom done with polychromatic spectra, with film-screen mammography as well as with digital mammography. The new technique with monochromatic slot-scan mammography resulted in correct identification of 93% of the phantom. Digital slot-scan mammography with polychromatic beam resulted in correct identification of 87%, digital full-field mammography in 83% and conventional film-screen mammography in 70% of the phantom. The results suggest that monochromatization has a potential for improving image quality or decreasing dose in X-ray mammography. (orig.)

  15. Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, a senior physicist from Berkeley having some experience in historical accounts, covers well the standard story of J J Thomson's discovery of the electron, one hundred years ago. Starting from the investigations of cathode rays in Germany, France and mainly England, the successful path of J J is covered in some detail using available information (letters, notebooks, diaries, publications), as well as his later work on positive rays and the atomic model. Lesser emphasis is given to the parallel developments connected with the Zeeman effect. However, a synopsis of the story of β-rays, the measurement of the elementary charge and the rise of the Rutherford - Bohr nuclear model of the atom is included. Dahl presents the physical contents from the standard literature in a clear and convincing way. He illustrates the narrative with (well-chosen and well-reproduced) portraits of the people involved and sketches of their original apparatus. Hence the book can be recommended highly to physicists, who will be reminded of one of the most important events in the earlier history of their field. A broader public, including other scientists, and perhaps attentive high school graduates, might also benefit from the book, not to mention professional science historians (who may appreciate the detailed, reliable description of subtle experiments and their tricky interpretation). The author succeeds far less well in providing the general background (in the history of physics and beyond) of the Thomson story. The electron as a fundamental concept existed and was applied long before J Pluecker's discovery of cathodes rays (for example, by A-M Ampere and his successors), and the importance of the work by W Weber, F Neumann and R Clausius (to mention just a few scientists in the 19th century) is mainly suppressed. Dahl's treatment of P Lenard's work around 1900, for which Lenard won the Nobel prize before Thomson, is quite unfair. Further, Chapter 14 on the French N-rays and

  16. Four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system is developed in authors' lab. Four radiography images at four time intervals of explosion and ballistic trajectory can be obtained using this system. The construction of the system, its specification, and its experimental results are presented

  17. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  18. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described:- the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive Multiwire proportional counter as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled to a digital microcomputer system. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multi-frame exposures. (author)

  19. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquais, J. M.; Poret, F.; le Doze, R.; Ricaud, J. L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-06-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK).

  20. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  1. Digital X-ray detector based on a CCD matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of charge-coupled devices (CCD) as position-sensitive detectors for X-ray radiation is discussed. The experimental scheme contains a videotransmission camera to detect pulsed X-ray radiation and Vektor analog-to-digital converters and computer interface. It is shown that the sensitivity range of a K1200TsM1 matrix to bremsstrahlung with an average energy of 75 keV is 2.7·10-8-0.8·10-6 J/cm2. The spatial resolution of the resultant X-ray image is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of producing visible difference images derived from an x-ray image of an anatomical subject is described. X-rays are directed through the subject, and the image is converted into television fields comprising trains of analog video signals. The analog signals are converted into digital signals, which are then integrated over a predetermined time corresponding to several television fields. Difference video signals are produced by performing a subtraction between the ongoing video signals and the corresponding integrated signals, and are converted into visible television difference images representing changes in the x-ray image

  3. Studies of X-ray tube aging by non-invasive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was the evaluation of an x ray tube aging with an anode made of tungsten, used in radio diagnostic. Workloads were applied, in accordance with Brazilian workload distribution, and periodic measurements of quantities related to the radiation quality of the beam were performed. For the purpose of this work, a single phase, full bridge clinical system was employed. For the long term x ray tube characteristics evaluation related to the applied workload, it was necessary to measure parameters that could quantitatively represent the tube aging, with special attention to the anode roughening. For the indirect measurement of tube aging, four parameters were chosen, some of them normally applied in x ray diagnostic quality control: first and second half value layers (HVL), focal spot dimensions, non invasive measurement of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) and x ray spectroscopy. These parameters were measured before any workload and after each workload intervals. To assure confidence of the results reproducibility conditions were stated to each evaluated parameter. The uncertainties involved in all measurement processes were calculated to evaluate the real contributions of x ray tube aging effects on non invasive parameters. Within all evaluated parameters, the most sensitive to long term workload were the mean energy obtained from spectroscopy and half value layers. A model related to these parameters was applied and estimates of x ray tube aging rate for different acceleration voltages and anodic currents were calculated. (author)

  4. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies. PMID:26545097

  5. A portable x-ray source with a nanostructured Pt-coated silicon field emission cathode for absorption imaging of low-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a portable x-ray generator for imaging of low-atomic number materials such as biological soft tissue. The system uses a self-aligned, gated, Pt-coated silicon field emitter cathode with two arrays of 62 500 nano-sharp tips arranged in a square grid with 10 μm emitter pitch, and a natural convection-cooled reflection anode composed of a Cu bar coated with a thin Mo film. Characterization of the field emitter array demonstrated continuous emission of 1 mA electron current (16 mA cm  −  2) with  >95% current transmission at a 150 V gate-emitter bias voltage for over 20 h with no degradation. The emission of the x-ray source was characterized across a range of anode bias voltages to maximize the fraction of photons from the characteristic K-shell peaks of the Mo film to produce a quasi-monochromatic photon beam, which enables capturing high-contrast images of low-atomic number materials. The x-ray source operating at the optimum anode bias voltage, i.e. 35 kV, was used to image ex vivo and nonorganic samples in x-ray fluoroscopic mode while varying the tube current; the images resolve feature sizes as small as ∼160 µm. (paper)

  6. A portable x-ray source with a nanostructured Pt-coated silicon field emission cathode for absorption imaging of low-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Swanwick, Michael E.; Fomani, Arash A.; Velásquez-García, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a portable x-ray generator for imaging of low-atomic number materials such as biological soft tissue. The system uses a self-aligned, gated, Pt-coated silicon field emitter cathode with two arrays of 62 500 nano-sharp tips arranged in a square grid with 10 μm emitter pitch, and a natural convection-cooled reflection anode composed of a Cu bar coated with a thin Mo film. Characterization of the field emitter array demonstrated continuous emission of 1 mA electron current (16 mA cm  -  2) with  >95% current transmission at a 150 V gate-emitter bias voltage for over 20 h with no degradation. The emission of the x-ray source was characterized across a range of anode bias voltages to maximize the fraction of photons from the characteristic K-shell peaks of the Mo film to produce a quasi-monochromatic photon beam, which enables capturing high-contrast images of low-atomic number materials. The x-ray source operating at the optimum anode bias voltage, i.e. 35 kV, was used to image ex vivo and nonorganic samples in x-ray fluoroscopic mode while varying the tube current; the images resolve feature sizes as small as ~160 µm.

  7. Digital design for structure of cathode/grid assemblies in electron curtain accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite element method (FEM) is introduced to design a structure of cathode groupware for an electron curtain accelerator. An optimum structure of groupware and parameters of its heat source W wire have been designed. A uniform temperature distribution of 1400-1430 degree C on the narrow planar LaB6 cathode has been predicted, which is enough to emit sufficient electron beam. In order to insure exact thermal physical parameters (such as heat emissivity and heat conductivity) of all the materials, an additional iterative algorithm is adopted. It takes only four iterations to get the convergent result. The method makes analysis process more efficient and compact. Experiment has proved the validity. (authors)

  8. A pipelined multiranging integrator and encoder ASIC for fast digitization of photomultiplier tube signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new full custom chip is being designed using the Orbit 2 micron ''BiCMOS'' process to provide a wide range fast digital readout of Photomultiplier Tubes. The goal is to obtain a digitized PMT signal with a 18--20 bit dynamic range and 8 bits of accuracy in a floating point number format every 16 ns. The chip is DC coupled to a PMT and uses a four-way gated integrator and encoder to form a 4 bit binary number which is the exponent of the floating point number. Simultaneous processing of the PMT signal on binary weighted scales provides a pipelined analog signal to a single FADC which generates the floating point number mantissa. The current state of development of this new chip and results from several test chips are presented in this paper. 3 refs

  9. Direct Measurement of Mammographic X-Ray Spectra with a Digital CdTe Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Raso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP system, for high-rate X-ray spectroscopy in mammography (1–30 keV. The DPP system performs a height and shape analysis of the detector pulses, sampled and digitized by a 14-bit, 100 MHz ADC. We show the results of the characterization of the detection system both at low and high photon counting rates by using monoenergetic X-ray sources and a nonclinical X-ray tube. The detection system exhibits excellent performance up to 830 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.5% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Direct measurements of clinical molybdenum X-ray spectra were carried out by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. A comparison with the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured and simulated spectra, from an ionization chamber and from a solid state dosimeter, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research, calibration of dosimeters and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  10. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy physics experiments running at high interaction rates frequently require long record lengths for determining a level 1 trigger. The easiest way to provide a long event record is by digital means. In applications requiring wide dynamic range, however, digitization of an analog signal to obtain the digital record has been impossible due to lack of high speed, wide range FADCs. One such application is the readout of thousands of photomultiplier tubes in fixed target and colliding beam experiment calorimeters. A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17--18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Tests of the circuit with a PMT input and a pulsed laser have provided respectable results with little off line correction. Performance of the circuit for demanding applications can be significantly enhanced with additional off line correction. Circuit design, packaging issues, and test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time

  11. Computer-aided detection of tubes and lines in portable chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-aided detection method for highlighting lines and tubes in a portable chest X-ray image is developed. The method determines a region of interest in the image, and processes the image to provide edge enhancement forming an edge-enhanced image. Edge segments in the edge-enhanced image are detected. Connected lines from the edge segments are formed to obtain a set of connected lines. A tube structure is identified by pairing, from the set of connected lines, one or more pairs of edges separated by a width dimension in a predetermined range. A tip is detected according to the convergence or divergence of paired connected lines. Tube and tip are outlined on the radiographic image. Preliminary results showed that computer-aided detection of tubes in portable chest X-ray images is promising. It is expected that computer-aided interpretation of portable chest X-ray images improve the overall workflow and efficiency. (orig.)

  12. Note: Development of target changeable palm-top pyroelectric x-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    A target changeable palm-top size x-ray tube was realized using pyroelectric crystal and detachable vacuum flanges. The target metals can be exchanged easily by attaching them on the brass stage with carbon tape. When silver and titanium palates (area: 10 mm{sup 2}) were used as targets, silver L{alpha} and titanium K lines were clearly observed by bombarding electrons on the targets for 90 s. The intensities were the same or higher than those of previously reported pyroelectric x-ray tubes. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc K lines in the x-ray tube (stainless steel and brass) disappeared by replacing the brass stage and the stainless steel vacuum flange with a carbon stage and a glass tube, respectively.

  13. A low power x-ray tube for use in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low power X-ray tube with thin molybdenum transmission target for use in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ENDXRF) element analysis has been indigenously built, along with its power supply. The X-ray tube has been in operation since August 1979, and it has been operated upto maximum target voltage of 35 KV and tube current upto 200 μA which is more than sufficient for trace element analysis. This X-ray tube has been used alongwith the indigenously built Si(Li) detector X-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 Kev MnKsub(α) X-ray peak for ENDXRF analysis. A simple procedure of calibration has been developed for thin samples based on the cellulose diluted, thin multielement standard pellets. Analytical sensitivities of the order of a few p.p.m. have been obtained with the experimental setup for elements with 20 < = Z < = 38 and 60 < = Z < = 90. A number of X-ray spectra for samples of environmental, biological, agricultural, industrial and metallurgical interest are presented to demonstrate the salient features of the experimental sep up. (auth.)

  14. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  15. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare

  16. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  17. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector's line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications

  18. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  19. Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounoughi, N.; Mavon, C.; Belafrites, A.; Groetz, J.-E.; Fromm, M.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the Ultra Soft X-ray (USX, 1.5 keV, Al Kα) photon beam of a customized lab bench cold cathode generator. Within this generator, the electron beam is slowed down in a thin aluminium foil (16 μm) supported by an easily exchangeable anode. It is shown that the thickness of the foil and the anode configuration determine the spatial distribution and the fluence rate of the photon beam, whereas accelerating voltage determines both fluence rate and energy spectrum feature. It is shown also that under specific operation parameters (i.e. accelerating voltage), a Gaussian energy distribution of the beam can be generated which is centred on the energy of the Al Kα line (1.5 keV). Dosimetric films of GAFCHROMIC® HD-810 were used to estimate the photon fluence rate distribution of the beam. Its variation, when the generator acts as a monoenergetic source, was characterized with the two different configurations of the anode assembly. Finally, it is verified that the anode assembly consisting in a flat washer, on which the aluminium foil is set, acts as a simple point-source.

  20. Behaviour of reconstructed attenuation values with X-ray tube voltage in an experimental third-generation industrial CT system using Xscan linear detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, U; Pendharkar, A S; Singh, G

    2002-01-01

    The present paper discusses the adaptation of a digital radiographic scintillator-based linear detector array (LDA) in a third-generation continuous-rotate X-ray industrial tomographic imaging system. The LDA has been used in a collinear configuration. Behaviour of the reconstructed parameter, i.e., approximate linear absorption coefficient at the 'effective energy' with varying anode voltage of the constant potential X-ray tube is studied. Experiments have been carried out with a solid cylindrical Perspex block (50 mm dia.) in 50-150 kV tube voltage range. The experimentally reconstructed attenuation values were used to predict the effective energy of the X-ray beam. The present study also includes a discussion on the statistical behaviour of the reconstructed linear attenuation values.

  1. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Choudhury, Soumyadip [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Gruber, Katharina [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Cruz, Valene B. [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Fuchsbichler, Bernd [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Jacob, Timo [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Koller, Stefan [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Ionov, Leonid [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one

  2. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a method of producing visible difference images derived from an X-ray image of an anatomical subject, comprising the steps of directing X-rays through the anatomical subject for producing an image, converting the image into television fields comprising trains of on-going video signals, digitally storing and integrating the on-going video signals over a time interval corresponding to several successive television fields and thereby producing stored and integrated video signals, recovering the video signals from storage and producing integrated video signals, producing video difference signals by performing a subtraction between the integrated video signals and the on-going video signals outside the time interval, and converting the difference signals into visible television difference images representing on-going changes in the X-ray image

  3. X-ray topography with scintillators coupled to image intensifiers or camera tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of imaging topographic figures in real time by using a thin scintillator coupled to either a high-gain image intensifier or a camera tube is investigated. The camera tube must have a high gain because of the low photon fluxes that are encountered in practice, and because of the relatively low quantum yield of thin phosphors. With conventional X-ray generators, the resolution is photon-noise limited. With more powerful generators like synchrotrons, real-time imaging appears possible, and the resolution is limited by the modulation transfer function of the image tube. Higher resolution can be reached by increasing the magnification between the screen and the image tube. When doing so, the input field is reduced and thinner phosphor screens must be used, resulting in a lower yield. Each time the magnification is doubled, the minimum required photon flux is multiplier by about 8, so that the advantages of increasing the magnification are rapidly limited, so far as real-time imaging is concerned. Because image tube resolution is mainly limited by the modulation transfer function of the phosphor for image intensifiers, and by that of the target for camera tubes, improvement of photocathode resolution can be obtained by magnifying electron optics. A zooming electron optic would permit the field and the resolution of the tube to be adapted to the observed subject. Unfortunately such tubes do not exist at present for this type of application, and in the required size

  4. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation of weld discontinuity in steel tubes by gamma ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weld discontinuity in steel tubes was investigated and dimensioned in a data analysis sequence. The correlation matrix, cosine distance and hierarchical cluster were applied as multivariate data processing in this analysis. Welded rings of 9236 mm3 were scanned in gamma ray CT in test tubes and compared with steel base and references. The discontinuity volume detected in the welded rings was assessed based on the pixel volume in data sampling. By modeling gamma ray trajectories and rotation angles in CT scanning, a discontinuity of 0.3 mm was determined and a limit detection of 23 mm3 was obtained

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of weld discontinuity in steel tubes by gamma ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. E.; Dantas, C. C.; Nery, M. S.; Barbosa, J. M.; Rolim, T. L.; Lima, E. A. O.; Melo, S. B.; Dos Santos, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Weld discontinuity in steel tubes was investigated and dimensioned in a data analysis sequence. The correlation matrix, cosine distance and hierarchical cluster were applied as multivariate data processing in this analysis. Welded rings of 9236 mm3 were scanned in gamma ray CT in test tubes and compared with steel base and references. The discontinuity volume detected in the welded rings was assessed based on the pixel volume in data sampling. By modeling gamma ray trajectories and rotation angles in CT scanning, a discontinuity of 0.3 mm was determined and a limit detection of 23 mm3 was obtained.

  7. A comparison of cathode ray tube (CRT) and computed radiography (CR) diagnosis in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Takahiro; Odagiri, Kunio; Andoh, Kazuo; Doiuchi, Tunehiro; Seno, Kengo; Ohtsuka, Toshihiro [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (Japan); Matsumoto, Toru

    1999-11-01

    Quantitative evaluation of CRT and CR observations in indentification of malignancy using phantom and clinical data. A breast phantom and a total of 40 patients were imaged by Fuji computed radiography (FCR). The images were interpreted twice by six radiologists both on CR film (2510 x 2000 pixels x 10 bits, 0.1 mm spatial resolution) and on a CRT monitor (1568 x 1152 pixels x 10 bits, 0.1 mm pixel size with double expansion) with image processing parameters of a toutine (RN 1.0, RE 0.2), for a calcification (RN 9.0, RE 4.0) and for a mass (RN 7.0, RE 2.0). The forty clinical cases included breast diseases with calcifications, masses, and normal breasts. Two-tailed t-test was performed to analyze interpretation of simulated microcalcifications and masses in the phantom. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate clinical cases. In all interpretation studies using both breast phantom and clinical cases, there was no significant difference between the two interpretation methods. However the CRT diagnosis was slightly less accurate than CR film diagnosis due to the lower luminance levels of the CRT monitor. Diagnosis via CRT monitor may be substituted for CR film diagnosing breast abnormalities, but the image processing parameters of CRT require improvement to compensate for low luminance. (author)

  8. The evaluation of display symbology - A chronometric study of visual search. [on cathode ray tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R.; Williams, D.

    1984-01-01

    Three single-target visual search tasks were used to evaluate a set of CRT symbols for a helicopter traffic display. The search tasks were representative of the kinds of information extraction required in practice, and reaction time was used to measure the efficiency with which symbols could be located and identified. The results show that familiar numeric symbols were responded to more quickly than graphic symbols. The addition of modifier symbols such as a nearby flashing dot or surrounding square had a greater disruptive effect on the graphic symbols than the alphanumeric characters. The results suggest that a symbol set is like a list that must be learned. Factors that affect the time to respond to items in a list, such as familiarity and visual discriminability, and the division of list items into categories, also affect the time to identify symbols.

  9. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    parameters on the characteristics of foamed glass. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. Activated carbon used as a foaming agent and MnO2 as an ‘oxidizing’ agent were mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Foaming effect was observed in the temperature range...... between 750 and 850°C. We investigated the influence of milling time, particle size, foaming and oxidizing agent concentrations, temperature and time on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. Only moderate foaming was observed in carbon containing samples, while the addition of...... the oxidizing agent greatly improved the foaming quality. The results showed that the amount of oxygen available from the glass is not sufficient to combust all of the added carbon, therefore, additional oxygen was supplied via manganese reduction. In general, a minimum in the foam glass density was...

  10. Hydrometallurgical Processing and Recovery of Nickel from Spent Cathode Ray Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Coman V.; Robotin B.; Ilea P.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and technological progress required for more and more advanced electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Therefore, EEE manufacturing became one of the most important world activities, generating at the same time huge amounts of waste. In the last decades the accumulation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem (Widmer et al., 2005; Babu et al., 2007; Robinson, 2009). These wastes are a threat for the environment due to their high content of...

  11. Optimization of x-ray spectra in digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, D M; Tomal, A; Poletti, M E

    2012-04-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo code was used to investigate the performance of different x-ray spectra in digital mammography, through a figure of merit (FOM), defined as FOM = CNR²/(¯)D(g), with CNR being the contrast-to-noise ratio in image and [Formula: see text] being the average glandular dose. The FOM was studied for breasts with different thicknesses t (2 cm ≤ t ≤ 8 cm) and glandular contents (25%, 50% and 75% glandularity). The anode/filter combinations evaluated were those traditionally employed in mammography (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), and a W anode combined with Al or K-edge filters (Zr, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn), for tube potentials between 22 and 34 kVp. Results show that the W anode combined with K-edge filters provides higher values of FOM for all breast thicknesses investigated. Nevertheless, the most suitable filter and tube potential depend on the breast thickness, and for t ≥ 6 cm, they also depend on breast glandularity. Particularly for thick and dense breasts, a W anode combined with K-edge filters can greatly improve the digital technique, with the values of FOM up to 200% greater than that obtained with the anode/filter combinations and tube potentials traditionally employed in mammography. For breasts with t < 4 cm, a general good performance was obtained with the W anode combined with 60 μm of the Mo filter at 24-25 kVp, while 60 μm of the Pd filter provided a general good performance at 24-26 kVp for t = 4 cm, and at 28-30 and 29-31 kVp for t = 6 and 8 cm, respectively. PMID:22421418

  12. Optimization of tube parameters in a tube excited X-ray fluorescence (TEXRF) system using secondary fluorescers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the optimization of excitation parameters in a tube excited X-ray fluorescence system (TEXRF) having Mo as the primary target has been carried out for biological matrix. Fe, Zn and Mo were used as the secondary fluorecers. For the present investigation a cellulose based synthetic standard containing K, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se and Y was excited with the TEXRF system. All experiments were carried out under the same experimental conditions except the tube potential. For each fluorescer the minimum detection limits (MDL) of excited elements were calculated for the corresponding tube voltage. The MDLs were found to be increasing with decreasing atomic number and it was also observed that the maximum sensitivity with Fe and Zn secondary fluorescers for elements analyzed occurred around 35 kV of the excitation potential. For Mo secondary fluorescer maximum sensitivity was found at higher excitation potential. In most cases MDLs were minimum at 40-45 kV of the excitation potential. 5 refs., 12 figs

  13. Anode thermal analysis of high power microfocus CNT x-ray tubes for in vivo small animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) micro-focus x-ray tubes have been demonstrated as a novel technology for in-vivo small animal imaging. It enables simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gated prospective CT imaging of free breathing animals with high temporal resolution. Operating the micro-focus CNT x-ray source at high power is required to achieve high temporal resolution. The thermal loading of the anode focal spot is a limiting factor in determining the maximum power of an x-ray tube. In this paper, we developed a reliable simulation model to quantitatively analyze the anode heat load of the CNT x-ray source operating in both DC and pulse modes. The anode temperature distribution is simulated using finite element analysis. The model is validated by comparing simulation results for the micro-focus x- ray tube with reported experimental results. We investigated the relationship between the maximum power and the effective focal spot size for CNT micro-CT system running in both DC and pulse modes. Our results show that when operating in pulse mode, the maximum power of the CNT x-ray source can be significantly higher than when operating in DC mode. In DC mode, we found that the maximum power scales non-linearly with the effective focal spot size as P(in W) = (0.25/ sin θ+1.6)f0.73 s (in μm), where 1/sin θ is the projection factor for a given anode angle θ. However, in pulse mode the maximum power linearly increases with the effective focal spot size asP(in W) = (0.20/ sin θ+0.35)fs(in μm), and is significantly higher than that in the DC mode. This implies that it is feasible to improve the micro-CT temporal resolution further without sacrificing the image quality. The simulation method developed here also enables us to analyze the thermal loading of the other CNT x-ray sources for other applications, such as the stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner and the CNT microbeam radiation therapy system.

  14. Reconstruction of the X-ray tube spectrum from a scattering measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inverse technique has been designed to unfold the x-ray tube spectrum from the measurement of the photons scattered by a target interposed in the path of the beam. A special strategy is necessary to circumvent the ill-conditioning of the forward transport algebraic problem. The proposed method is based on the calculation of both, the forward and adjoint analytical solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. After testing the method with numerical simulations, a simple prototype built at the Operational Unit of Health Physics of the University of Bologna was used to test the method experimentally. The reconstructed spectrum was validated by comparison with a straightforward measurement of the X-ray beam. The influence of the detector was corrected in both cases using standard unfolding techniques. The method is capable to accurately characterize the intensity distribution of an X-ray tube spectrum, even at low energies where other methods fail. - Highlights: ► A complete inverse technique of source unfolding is presented. ► The X-ray tube spectrum is recovered from a scattering measurement. ► The ill conditioning of the plain forward transport algebraic problem is avoided. ► Forward and adjoint solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation are used. ► The technique characterizes X-ray tube spectra even at low energies.

  15. Influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on uncertainty of calculated fluorescent radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative radiation intensity (Ri) defined as fluorescent radiation intensity of analyte in specimen to fluorescent radiation intensity of pure element or compound, e.g., oxide is used in calculation in both fundamental parameter methods and in theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Accuracy of calculated Ri is determined by uncertainties of atomic parameters, spectrometer geometry and also by X-ray tube spectral distribution. This paper presents the differences between Ri calculated using experimental and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al., Ebel, and Finkelshtein-Pavlova. The calculations are performed for the most common targets, i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. In this study, Ri is calculated for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Mo in steels as an example. The differences between Ri calculated using different X-ray tube spectrum algorithms are presented when pure element standard, multielement standard similar to the analyzed material and one pure element standard for all analytes is used in X-ray fluorescence analysis. The differences between Ri for intermediate-thickness samples (and also for thin films) and for X-ray tube, which ran for many hours, are also evaluated

  16. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation…

  17. X-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis for quasi-three-dimensional imaging: system, reconstruction algorithm, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ziran; Wu, Dufan

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are mainly three x-ray imaging modalities for dental clinical diagnosis: radiography, panorama and computed tomography (CT). We develop a new x-ray digital intra-oral tomosynthesis (IDT) system for quasi-three-dimensional dental imaging which can be seen as an intermediate modality between traditional radiography and CT. In addition to normal x-ray tube and digital sensor used in intra-oral radiography, IDT has a specially designed mechanical device to complete the tomosynthesis data acquisition. During the scanning, the measurement geometry is such that the sensor is stationary inside the patient's mouth and the x-ray tube moves along an arc trajectory with respect to the intra-oral sensor. Therefore, the projection geometry can be obtained without any other reference objects, which makes it be easily accepted in clinical applications. We also present a compressed sensing-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for this kind of intra-oral tomosynthesis. Finally, simulation and experiment were both carried out to evaluate this intra-oral imaging modality and algorithm. The results show that IDT has its potentiality to become a new tool for dental clinical diagnosis.

  18. Large dynamic range femtosecond soft X-ray streak image tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of inertial confinement fusion demands a streak image tube with femtosecond temporal resolution and large dynamic range. In order to obtain a setup in the practical application, a novel soft X-ray streak image tube was proposed and designed. A planar symmetric electrostatic cylindrical lens with five electrodes was introduced into the image tube model, which has a strong ability to focus the electron beam, and has no cross-over effects as in the axial-symmetrical system. The cylindrical lens can shorten the length of image tube, reduce the transit time dispersion, and restrain space charge effects, thus enlarging the dynamic range and improving the temporal resolution. The simulation results show that if the photoelectron's initial energy spread is 1.6 eV, and the slit area is 10 mm × 20 μm, the useful dynamic range of 100 is obtained with 500 fs temporal resolution. (authors)

  19. Rapid revolving x-ray tube housing assembly for magnification stereoscopic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular diagnosis, showing yearly increase in necessity, its techniques are continually fractionizing and apparatuses are specialized. As for X-ray tube assemblies, they have almost been serialized with 400-kHU Rotanode(DRX-4224HD-S) for cineangiography, and DRX-8336HD for magnification radiography. In addition, a tube assembly for magnification stereoscopic angiography has been developed. The tube assembly for magnification stereoscopic angiography, having a pair of microfocuses (0.2 mm) on a large-diameter target, and combined with a control unit incorporating an electron tube, is capable of performing radiography more than 100 times/s. Provided also with a large target (125 mm in diameter and 350 kJ in anode capacity) and a high-speed revolving mechanism (10,000 rpm), it has a capacity of 11 kW for 0.2 mm focus to obtain high-contrast photographs clinically effectual. (author)

  20. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  1. MTF Optimization in Digital Dental X-ray Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, E T; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Albuquerque, Jorge Andre Girao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the MTF optimisation relative to the detector aperture of four digital dental X-ray image systems: 1) Digora and Denoptix systems, based on PSPL detectors; 2) CDR and Sens-A-Ray 2000, based on CCD detectors. The MTF was evaluated by ERF method and linearized as a Gaussian process. The CCD based systems presented Gaussian characteristics. The PSPL based systems presented a composition of two Gaussian processes. We conclude that one process is due to the laser and stimulated light scattering inside the PSPL plate and the other is due to the laser beam focal aperture. Matching focal aperture to laser scattering allows the optimization of the PSPL systems resolution. An optimal pixel width found to be 62 um.

  2. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described: the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled, in the case of the Mark I to a Digital LSI 11-23 microcomputer system via CAMAC, and in the case of the Mark II to a Digital LSI 11-73 microcomputer system via custom-built data acquisition hardware mounted directly on the Q-bus of the microcomputer. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multiframe exposures. The dedicated digital memories have a resolution of 512x512 pixels of 16 bits, matching well to the spatial resolution of the xenon-filled MWPC (0.5 mm fwhm over an aperture of 200 mm x 200 mm). A 512x512x4 bit video graphics system displays the images in grey scales or colour. (orig.)

  3. The filter effects in X-ray tube XRF simulated by using the MCNP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the use of filter reduces the background interference effectively, and improves the analysis sensitivity. In this paper, the MCNP5 code is used to simulate the filter effects in X-ray tube XRF. The XRF spectra by 140 keV electron beams, with filters of different materials and thicknesses, are compared. Their attenuation rates, i.e. background reduction from the original XRF spectra, are analyzed. (authors)

  4. Interpretation of digital chest radiographs: Comparison of light emitting diode versus cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlit monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the diagnostic performance of light emitting diode (LED) backlight monitors and cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) monitors for the interpretation of digital chest radiographs. We selected 130 chest radiographs from health screening patients. The soft copy image data were randomly sorted and displayed on a 3.5 M LED (2560 x 1440 pixels) monitor and a 3 M CCFL (2048 x 1536 pixels) monitor. Eight radiologists rated their confidence in detecting nodules and abnormal interstitial lung markings (ILD). Low dose chest CT images were used as a reference standard. The performance of the monitor systems was assessed by analyzing 2080 observations and comparing them by multi-reader, multi-case receiver operating characteristic analysis. The observers reported visual fatigue and a sense of heat. Radiant heat and brightness of the monitors were measured. Measured brightness was 291 cd/m2 for the LED and 354 cd/m2 for the CCFL monitor. Area under curves for nodule detection were 0.721 ± 0.072 and 0.764 ± 0.098 for LED and CCFL (p = 0.173), whereas those for ILD were 0.871 ± 0.073 and 0.844 ± 0.068 (p = 0.145), respectively. There were no significant differences in interpretation time (p = 0.446) or fatigue score (p = 0.102) between the two monitors. Sense of heat was lower for the LED monitor (p = 0.024). The temperature elevation was 6.7 degree C for LED and 12.4 degree C for the CCFL monitor. Although the LED monitor had lower maximum brightness compared with the CCFL monitor, soft copy reading of the digital chest radiographs on LED and CCFL showed no difference in terms of diagnostic performance. In addition, LED emitted less heat.

  5. Determination of dislocation density in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For X-ray determination of the dislocation density in CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes, a program was developed, using the Fourier analysis of X-ray line profiles and calculation of dislocation density by values of the coherent block size and the lattice distortion. The coincidence of obtained values of c- and a-dislocations with those, determined by the X-ray method for the same tube in AECL, was assumed to be the main criterion of validity of the developed program. The final variant of the program allowed to attain a rather close coincidence of calculated dislocation densities with results of AECL. The dislocation density was determined in all the zirconium grains with different orientations based on the texture of the stree-relieved CANDU tube. The complete distribution of c-dislocation density in -Zr grains depecding on their crystallographic orientations was constructed. The distribution of a-dislocation density within the texture maximum at L-direction, containing prismatic axes of all grains, was constructed as well. The analysis of obtained distributions testifies that -Zr grains of the stree-relieved CANDU tube significantly differ in their dislocation densities. Plotted diagrams of correlation between the dislocation density and the pole density allow to estimate the actual connection between texture and dislocation distribution in the studied tube. The distributions of volume fractions of all the zirconium grains depending on their dislocation density were calculated both for c- and a-dislocations. The distributions characterizes quantitatively the inhomogeneity of substructure conditions in the stress-relieved CANDU tube. the optimal procedure for determination of Nb content in β-phases of CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes was also established

  6. Determination of dislocation density in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes by x-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Isaenkova, Perlovich; Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, S. S.; Yim, K. S.; Kwon, Sang Chul

    2000-11-01

    For X-ray determination of the dislocation density in CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes, a program was developed, using the Fourier analysis of X-ray line profiles and calculation of dislocation density by values of the coherent block size and the lattice distortion. The coincidence of obtained values of c- and a-dislocations with those, determined by the X-ray method for the same tube in AECL, was assumed to be the main criterion of validity of the developed program. The final variant of the program allowed to attain a rather close coincidence of calculated dislocation densities with results of AECL. The dislocation density was determined in all the zirconium grains with different orientations based on the texture of the stree-relieved CANDU tube. The complete distribution of c-dislocation density in -Zr grains depecding on their crystallographic orientations was constructed. The distribution of a-dislocation density within the texture maximum at L-direction, containing prismatic axes of all grains, was constructed as well. The analysis of obtained distributions testifies that -Zr grains of the stree-relieved CANDU tube significantly differ in their dislocation densities. Plotted diagrams of correlation between the dislocation density and the pole density allow to estimate the actual connection between texture and dislocation distribution in the studied tube. The distributions of volume fractions of all the zirconium grains depending on their dislocation density were calculated both for c- and a-dislocations. The distributions characterizes quantitatively the inhomogeneity of substructure conditions in the stress-relieved CANDU tube. the optimal procedure for determination of Nb content in {beta}-phases of CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes was also established.

  7. Tunable narrow-photon-energy X-ray generator utilizing a tungsten-target tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary experiment for producing narrow-photon-energy cone-beam X-rays using a silicon single crystal is described. In order to produce low-photon-energy X-rays, a 100-μm-focus X-ray generator in conjunction with a (1 1 1) plane silicon crystal is employed. The X-ray generator consists of a main controller and a unit with a high-voltage circuit and a microfocus X-ray tube. The maximum tube voltage and current were 35 kV and 0.50 mA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity of the microfocus generator was 48.3 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 30 kV and a current of 0.50 mA. The effective photon energy is determined by Bragg's angle, and the photon-energy width is regulated by the angle delta. Using this generator in conjunction with a computed radiography system, quasi-monochromatic radiography was performed using a cone beam with an effective energy of approximately 17 keV

  8. Dose reduction and increase of X-ray tube life in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to reduce radiation dose and increase X-ray tube life in computed tomography. Head, upper abdomen and chest scans were evaluated. We assessed the techniques employed and if these could be changed, suggested new protocols and compared the quality of the images, the radiation dose and the X-ray tube heating. A mAs reduction could be done without interfering with the diagnostic quality, allowing a decrease of up to 20% in the average dose for adults' head exams and up to 45% for 0 to 6 years old children; patients with less than 50 kg had a reduction of 37% on the upper abdomen radiation average dose; for chest routine scans the reduction was 54%. The decrease in the heating of the X-ray tube for head, upper abdomen and chest scan was approximately 13%, 23% and 41%, respectively. As a conclusion, a change on the described protocols will produce a significant reduction on the radiation dose and an increasing in X-ray tube life without loss of diagnostic quality. (author)

  9. Evaluated Plan Stress Of Weld In Pressure Tube Using X Ray Diffraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X ray diffraction is a fundamental technique measuring stress, this technique has determined crystal strain in materials, from that determined stress in materials. This paper presents study of evaluating plane stress of weld in pressure tube, using modern XRD apparatus: X Pert Pro. (author)

  10. Measurement of residual stress in fuel cladding tubes by x-ray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to predict the residual stress distribution in FBR or LWR fuel cladding tubes using computer code or mechanical methods. In order to measure these stresses by X-ray method, the characterization of X-ray diffraction and optimum condition for stress measurement are investigated. Following conclusions are obtained: (1) The (211) CrK sub(α) and (213-3) CuK sub(α) reflections are most suitable for the stress analysis of 316 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes, respectively. (2) Comparison between strain measured by X-ray and strain measured by strain gage shows good agreement in elastic region for both materials. (3) In order to obtain accurate results, it needs to remove surface more than 3 μm by electropolishing or acid etching. (4) There exists compressive residual stress in typical FBR fuel cladding tubes, and TIG welding of end plug induces additional compressive stress in welded portion or heat affected zone. (5) Residual stress distributions in Zircaloy-2 cladding tube deformed locally by the out-of-pile simulation tests, are obtained by the application of X-ray method. (author)

  11. X-ray images obtained from cold cathodes using carbon nanotubes coated with gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging data obtained from cold cathodes using gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO)-coated CNT emitters are presented. Multi-walled CNTs were directly grown on conical-type (250 μm-diameter) tungsten-tip substrates at 700 oC via inductively coupled plasma-chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD). GZO films were deposited on the grown CNTs at room temperature using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to monitor the variations in the morphology and microstructure of the CNTs before and after GZO coating. The formation of the GZO layers on the CNTs was confirmed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The CNT-emitter that was coated with a 10-nm-thick GZO film displayed an excellent performance, such as a maximum emission current of 258 μA (at an applied field of 4 V/μm) and a threshold field of 2.20 V/μm (at an emission current of 1.0 μA). The electric-field emission characteristics of the GZO-coated CNT emitter and of the pristine (i.e., non-coated) CNT emitter were compared, and the images from an X-ray system were obtained by using the GZO-coated CNT emitter as the cold cathode for X-ray generation.

  12. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. W.; Mackenzie, A.; Honey, I. D.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm-1 ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10-5 mm2 (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm-1, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm-1, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm-1 for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and gave an in

  13. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, N W [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 49 Herenstraat, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Medical Physics, Level B, St Luke' s Wing, The Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Honey, I D, E-mail: nicholas.marshall@uz.kuleuven.ac.be [Department of Medical Physics, Floor 3, Henriette Raphael House, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 {mu}Gy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 {mu}Gy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm{sup -1} {+-} 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 {mu}Gy {+-} 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2} (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm{sup -1}, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm{sup -1} for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found

  14. Miniature X-ray Source for Planetary Exploration Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop a design model for a CNT cold cathode, low power, passively cooled, and grounded-anode X-ray tube that is...

  15. Three dimensional digital X-ray microtomography with a microfocal X-ray generator and an MWPC area detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microscopy offers many potential applications in the life sciences and non-destructive testing for the study of small (micron-sized) structures. Digital capture of the X-ray images offers further possibilities for image processing and for tomography. We have combined a microfocal X-ray generator with a multi-step avalanche/multiwire proportional counter to produce a digital X-ray microscope. Spatial resolution down to around 10 microns has been observed. The digital data sets obtained from the system have been used to develop and explore 3-D tomographic images of an insect are presented, produced by a cone beam algorithm. (author)

  16. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  17. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: x-ray tube imaging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-04-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation. PMID:19472613

  18. Cone-beam differential phase-contrast laminography with x-ray tube source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J.; Biernath, T.; Willner, M.; Amberger, M.; Meiser, J.; Kunka, D.; Mohr, J.; Herzen, J.; Bech, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-06-01

    We report on an x-ray cone-beam differential phase-contrast computed laminography (DPC-CL) method for tomographic reconstruction of thin and lamellar objects. We describe the specific scan geometry of DPC-CL, which consists of a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer and a lab-based x-ray tube source, and derive a filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The experimental results of a flat sphere phantom and a piece of ham demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique. The existing DPC-CL methods are based on synchrotron sources and the parallel-beam geometry. In contrast, our approach adopts a more accessible x-ray tube source and a cone-beam geometry. Therefore it significantly widens the application range of phase-contrast laminography, particularly in practical laboratory settings, beyond applications at large-scale synchrotron facilities.

  19. Simple cathode design for Li–S batteries: cell performance and mechanistic insights by in operando X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisch, Jörn; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-09-21

    Rechargeable batteries have been receiving increasing attention over the past several years, particularly with regard to the accelerated development of electric vehicles, but also for their potential in grid storage applications. Among the broad range of cathode active materials, elemental sulfur has the highest theoretical specific capacity, thereby making it one of the most promising positive electrode materials these days. In the present work, we show that already a simple cathode design (cathodes with a non-optimized composite microstructure) provides good electrochemical performance both in coin and pouch cells with sulfur loadings of 2 mg cm−2. Our research data demonstrate that (1) specific capacities of 1000 mA h g−1 can be achieved over 60 cycles at room temperature while the cyclability at elevated temperatures (here, θ > 40 °C) is poor, (2) the discharge is the kinetically rate-limiting process, (3) the major fraction of active sulfur in the electrode is lost during the formation cycle at C/50 and (4) the Li–S cells suffer from drying-out due to continuous electrolyte decomposition on the lithium metal anode. In addition, in operando X-ray diffraction shows Li2S formation (grain size of <10 nm) on discharge and the appearance of single phase β-sulfur in the sub-100 nm size range – rather than the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic polymorph (α-sulfur) – by the end of the charge cycle. PMID:25077958

  20. X-ray spectrum optimization of full-field digital mammography: Simulation and phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to conventional analog screen-film mammography new flat detectors have a high dynamic range and a linear characteristic curve. Hence, the radiographic technique can be optimized independently of the receptor exposure. It can be exclusively focused on the improvement of the image quality and the reduction of the patient dose. In this paper we measure the image quality by a physical quantity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and the patient risk by the average glandular dose (AGD). Using these quantities, we compare the following different setups through simulations and phantom studies regarding the detection of microcalcifications and tumors for different breast thicknesses and breast compositions: Monochromatic radiation, three different anode/filter combinations: Molybdenum/molybdenum (Mo/Mo), molybdenum/rhodium (Mo/Rh), and tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), different filter thicknesses, use of anti-scatter grids, and different tube voltages. For a digital mammography system based on an amorphous selenium detector it turned out that, first, the W/Rh combination is the best choice for all detection tasks studied. Second, monochromatic radiation can further reduce the AGD by a factor of up to 2.3, maintaining the image quality in comparison with a real polychromatic spectrum of an x-ray tube. And, third, the use of an anti-scatter grid is only advantageous for breast thicknesses larger than approximately 5 cm

  1. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  2. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  3. Verification of a novel method for tube voltage constancy measurement of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chu; Belley, Matthew D. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yoshizumi, Terry, E-mail: yoshi003@mc.duke.edu [Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: For orthovoltage x-ray irradiators, the tube voltage is one of the most fundamental system parameters as this directly relates to the dosimetry in radiation biology studies; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercial portable quality assurance (QA) tool to directly test the constancy of the tube voltage greater than 160 kV. The purpose of this study is to establish the Beam Quality Index (BQI), a quantity strongly correlated to the tube voltage, as an alternative parameter for the verification of the tube voltage as part of the QA program of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators. Methods: A multipurpose QA meter and its associated data acquisition software were used to customize the measurement parameters to measure the BQI and collect its time-plot. BQI measurements were performed at 320 kV with four filtration levels on three orthovoltage x-ray irradiators of the same model, one of which had been recently energy-calibrated at the factory. Results: For each of the four filtration levels, the measured BQI values were in good agreement (<5%) between the three irradiators. BQI showed filtration-specificity, possibly due to the difference in beam quality. Conclusions: The BQI has been verified as a feasible alternative for monitoring the constancy of the tube voltage for orthovoltage irradiators. The time-plot of BQI offers information on the behavior of beam energy at different phases of the irradiation time line. In addition, this would provide power supply performance characteristics from initial ramp-up to plateau, and finally, the sharp drop-off at the end of the exposure.

  4. Verification of a novel method for tube voltage constancy measurement of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For orthovoltage x-ray irradiators, the tube voltage is one of the most fundamental system parameters as this directly relates to the dosimetry in radiation biology studies; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercial portable quality assurance (QA) tool to directly test the constancy of the tube voltage greater than 160 kV. The purpose of this study is to establish the Beam Quality Index (BQI), a quantity strongly correlated to the tube voltage, as an alternative parameter for the verification of the tube voltage as part of the QA program of orthovoltage x-ray irradiators. Methods: A multipurpose QA meter and its associated data acquisition software were used to customize the measurement parameters to measure the BQI and collect its time-plot. BQI measurements were performed at 320 kV with four filtration levels on three orthovoltage x-ray irradiators of the same model, one of which had been recently energy-calibrated at the factory. Results: For each of the four filtration levels, the measured BQI values were in good agreement (<5%) between the three irradiators. BQI showed filtration-specificity, possibly due to the difference in beam quality. Conclusions: The BQI has been verified as a feasible alternative for monitoring the constancy of the tube voltage for orthovoltage irradiators. The time-plot of BQI offers information on the behavior of beam energy at different phases of the irradiation time line. In addition, this would provide power supply performance characteristics from initial ramp-up to plateau, and finally, the sharp drop-off at the end of the exposure

  5. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  6. Portable pulsed X-ray digital radiographic system based on network transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network communication technology of TCP/IP protocol serves as application in pulse X-ray digital radiography system. The system radiographs synchronously with pulse X-ray and converts image signals to digital data, which are transmitted to computer for displaying and processing in network. The system composing structures are present and portable and other characteristics are introduced. (authors)

  7. Peak potential meter applied to X-ray tubes in mammal radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of a great importance to identify accurately the real peak potential (or simply, KVp) applied to a X-ray tube purposed to medical diagnosis, since it defines the beam energetic quality in terms of photons penetration power. Mainly in mammographic systems. it is of fundamental relevance the KVp accurate measurement because the soft tissues involved in this kind of examination provides different absorption - and, hence, clear contrast on mammographic film - just in a very restrict energetic range. Thus a device to measure KVp with adequate accuracy in mammographic units, using the basic principles of scintillation detection, was developed. This system is therefore composed of a NaI(Tl) crystal which is a X-ray sensor - replacing radiographic films which usually are a source of errors in these measurements - , a photo multiplier tube and changed into amplified electric pulses. Finally the electronic circuit, after adequate pulses treatment, shows instantaneously the actual KVp value in the test on displays. (author)

  8. Measurement of focal spot size in mammography X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different measurement techniques for estimating the size of focal spots in X-ray tubes are described. These are the pin-hole, the slit and the star pattern or resolution pattern, and all are well known. Results are reported for a number of modern mammography X-ray tubes employed in a screening programme, using all three techniques. The results are compared with each other and with makers' specifications, IEC tolerances and UK Department of Health guidelines. Agreement between slit and star pattern results is generally within a few per cent, while pin-hole results are usually appreciably smaller. Although the slit technique is the most reliable for estimating focal spot size, both the others have a useful role, especially in revealing focal spot condition. Compliance with makers' specifications is usually demonstrated, but compliance with Department of Health guidelines is only found on the width of broad foci. (author)

  9. Two-ply anode X-ray tube for computed tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, D.; Taubin, M.; Chesnokov, D.; Malyshev, V.; Yaskolko, A.

    2016-04-01

    This report presents a method of the formation of tungsten layer on the graphite surface. The described method can be used to create the anode of powerful x-ray tubes for medical purposes, in particular, a computer tomograph (CT). The thermal properties of the graphite base and the deposited tungsten coating, as well as the strength of the resulting coating were studied. Thermal fields in the CT-anode with a power of 100 kW were calculated.

  10. Design of X-ray target for a CNT based high brightness microfocus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target for a high-brightness microfocus x-ray tube, which is based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) as electron source, is designed. The x-ray tube has the following specifications: brightness of 1 x 1011 ph/s-mm2mrad2, spot size ∼ 5μm, and average x-ray energy of 20∼40 keV. In order to satisfy the specifications, the design parameters of the target, such as configuration, material, thickness of the target as well as the required beam current, were optimized using computer code MCNPX. The design parameters were determined from the calculation of both x-ray spectrum and intensity distribution. From the calculation, transmission type was chosen for the target configuration. The material of the target was selected as molybdenum (Mo) and the optimized thickness was 7.2μm . Since such a thin target should withstand vacuum pressure and localized thermal loading, structural stability and temperature distribution were also considered. According to the analytic calculation, the transmission Mo target itself could not withstand the vacuum pressure. An alternative is to use backing material of 150μm beryllium (Be) on the backside of the Mo target. In addition, the calculation shows that the maximum temperature of the transmission target can be reduced to a stable-operation regime by forced air-convection cooling

  11. Design of high voltage power supply of miniature X-ray tube based on resonant Royer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In recent years, X rays are widely used in various fields. With the rapid development of national economy, the demand of high quality, high reliability, and high stability miniature X-ray tube has grown rapidly. As an important core component of miniature X-ray tube, high voltage power supply has attracted wide attention. Purpose: To match miniature, the high voltage power supply should be small, lightweight, good quality, etc. Based on the basic performance requirements of existing micro-X-ray tube high voltage power supply, this paper designs an output from 0 to -30 kV adjustable miniature X-ray tube voltage DC power supply. Compared to half-bridge and full-bridge switching-mode power supply, its driving circuit is simple. With working on the linear condition, it has no switching noise. Methods: The main circuit makes use of DC power supply to provide the energy. The resonant Royer circuit supplies sine wave which drives to the high frequency transformer's primary winding with resultant sine-like high voltage appearing across the secondary winding. Then, the voltage doubling rectifying circuit would achieve further boost. In the regulator circuit, a feedback control resonant transistor base current is adopted. In order to insulate air, a silicone rubber is used for high pressure part packaging, and the output voltage is measured by the dividing voltage below -5 kV. Results: The stability of circuit is better than 0.2%/6 h and the percent of the output ripple voltage is less than 0.3%. Keeping the output voltage constant, the output current can reach 57 μA by changing the size of load resistor. This high voltage power supply based on resonant Royer can meet the requirement of miniature X-ray tube. Conclusions: The circuit can satisfy low noise, low ripple, low power and high voltage regulator power supply design. However, its efficiency is not high enough because of the linear condition. In the next design, to further reduce power consumption, we

  12. Microscope using an x-ray tube and a bubble compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using an unfiltered x-ray tube and a compound refractive lens composed of microbubbles embedded in epoxy inside a glass capillary. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using a synchrotron source and the same lens. We find that the field of view is larger than that obtained using the synchrotron source, whereas the contrast and resolution are reduced. Geometrical distortion around the edges of the field of view is also reduced. The experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the apparatus in a modest laboratory setting

  13. Performance of the CMS drift-tube chamber local trigger with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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    2010-01-01

    The performance of the Local Trigger based on the drift-tube system of the CMS experiment has been studied using muons from cosmic ray events collected during the commissioning of the detector in 2008. The properties of the system are extensively tested and compared with the simulation. The effect of the random arrival time of the cosmic rays on the trigger performance is reported, and the results are compared with the design expectations for proton-proton collisions and with previous measurements obtained with muon beams.

  14. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  15. kV x-ray dual digital tomosynthesis for image guided lung SBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Boyd, Douglas; Kim, Namho; Hernandez, Andrew; Daly, Megan; Boone, John

    2016-03-01

    Two simulated sets of digital tomosynthesis images of the lungs, each acquired at a 90 degree angle from the other, with 19 projection images used for each set and SART iterative reconstructed, gives dual tomosynthesis slice image quality approaching that of spiral CT, and with a data acquisition time that is 3% of that of cone beam CT. This fast kV acquisition, should allow near real time tracking of lung tumors in patients receiving SBRT, based on a novel TumoTrakTM multi-source X-ray tube design. Until this TumoTrakTM prototype is completed over the next year, its projected performance was simulated from the DRR images created from a spiral CT data set from a lung cancer patient. The resulting dual digital tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the lung tumor were exceptional and approached that of the gold standard Feldkamp CT reconstruction of breath hold, diagnostic, spiral, multirow, CT data. The relative dose at 46 mAs was less than 10% of what it would have been if the digital tomosynthesis had been done at the 472 mAs of the CT data set. This is for a 0.77 fps imaging rate sufficient to resolve respiratory motion in many free breathing patients during SBRT. Such image guidance could decrease the magnitudes of targeting error margins by as much as 20 mm or more in the craniocaudal direction for lower lobe lesions while markedly reducing dose to normal lung, heart and other critical structures. These initial results suggest a wide range of topics for future work.

  16. The effects of voltage of x-ray tube on fractal dimension and anisotropy of diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kV on fractal dimension of trabecular bone in digital radiographs. 16 bone cores were obtained from patients who had taken partial resection of tibia due to accidents. Each bone core along with an aluminum step wedge was radiographed with an occlusal film at 0.08 sec and with the constant film-focus distance (32 cm). All radiographs were acquired at 60, 75, and 90 kV. A rectangular ROI was drawn at medial part, distal part, and the bone defect area of each bone core image according to each kV. The directional fractal dimension was measured using Fourier Transform spectrum, and the anisotropy was obtained using directional fractal dimension. The values were compared by the repeated measures ANOVA. The fractal dimensions increased along with kV increase (p<0.05). The anisotropy measurements did not show statistically significant difference according to kV change. The fractal dimensions of the bone defect areas of the bone cores have low values contrast to the non-defect areas of the bone cores. The anisotropy measurements of the bone defect areas were lower than those of the non-defect areas of the bone cores, but not statistically significant. Fractal analysis can notice a difference of a change of voltage of x-ray tube and bone defect or not. And anisotropy of a trabecular bone is coherent even with change of the voltage of x-ray tube or defecting off a part of bone

  17. The effects of voltage of x-ray tube on fractal dimension and anisotropy of diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Jee Seon; Lee, Sam Sun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan Soo [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kV on fractal dimension of trabecular bone in digital radiographs. 16 bone cores were obtained from patients who had taken partial resection of tibia due to accidents. Each bone core along with an aluminum step wedge was radiographed with an occlusal film at 0.08 sec and with the constant film-focus distance (32 cm). All radiographs were acquired at 60, 75, and 90 kV. A rectangular ROI was drawn at medial part, distal part, and the bone defect area of each bone core image according to each kV. The directional fractal dimension was measured using Fourier Transform spectrum, and the anisotropy was obtained using directional fractal dimension. The values were compared by the repeated measures ANOVA. The fractal dimensions increased along with kV increase (p<0.05). The anisotropy measurements did not show statistically significant difference according to kV change. The fractal dimensions of the bone defect areas of the bone cores have low values contrast to the non-defect areas of the bone cores. The anisotropy measurements of the bone defect areas were lower than those of the non-defect areas of the bone cores, but not statistically significant. Fractal analysis can notice a difference of a change of voltage of x-ray tube and bone defect or not. And anisotropy of a trabecular bone is coherent even with change of the voltage of x-ray tube or defecting off a part of bone.

  18. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T. [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tsukuba Material Development Laboratory, 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan); Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S. [National Institute for Materials Science, Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  19. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode

  20. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S.

    2015-08-01

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  1. Hard X-ray Imaging Microscopy using X-ray Guide Tube as Beam Condenser for Field Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Terada, Yasuko; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Ohzawa, Sumito; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nii, Hajime; Handa, Katsumi

    2013-10-01

    An optical system for illumination of object in x-ray imaging microscopy is developed. The optical system is a beam condenser consisting of a single-bounce conical-shape mono-capillary (x-ray guide tube: XGT) made of Pyrex glass. The XGT condenser was tested at the beam line 47XU of SPring-8 using a Fresnel zone plate as an objective lens. Comparing with the microscope without beam condenser, the flux density is improved by a factor of 12-20 in the x-ray energy range of 6-8 keV. Test patterns with a 50 nm-structure are clearly resolved at 8 keV with an exposure time less than 1 s.

  2. Measurements of Residual Stresses in a Shape Welded Steel Tube by Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kockelmann, H.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Schreiber, J.; Taran, Yu. V.

    1999-01-01

    Shape welding of a ferritic steel layer on an austenitic steel tube is used to build compressive stresses on its outer surface, and as a result, suppress stress corrosion. Investigations of residual stresses in such bi-layer tubes are important for developing optimal welding techniques. The neutron and X-ray diffraction methods were used to analyze the stress behavior around the welded region on the tube. To this end, strain components in the radial, axial and tangential directions were measu...

  3. Practical consideration in the selection of X-ray fluorescence tube targets for analysis of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four X-ray fluorescence tubes with different targets (Cr, W, Mo and Rh) were compared for their suitability to analyze twelve of the most common major and trace elements in some geological samples. The major elements and Si, Al, Ca, K, Ti, and S. All elements having wavelengths higher than that of the iron K-absorption edge, gave significantly higher intensities of their characteristic fluorescence radiations when using a Cr-anode tube compared to W, Mo and Rh anode tubes. However, for the light elements (Si and Al) the Rh-anode tube of equal efficiency as the Cr-anode tube. The highest Ka-line intensity of Fe was obtained by the W-anode tube. The lowest detection limits (highest sensitivity) for the trace elements Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb are obtained using both the Mo and Rh tubes. (author)

  4. Comparison between x-ray tube-based and synchrotron radiation-based μCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Oliver; Brockdorf, Kathleen; Drews, Susanne; Müller, Bert; Donath, Tilman; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Nowadays, X-ray tube-based high-resolution CT systems are widely used in scientific research and industrial applications. But the potential, convenience and economy of these lab systems is often underestimated. The present paper shows the comparison of sophisticated conventional μCT with synchrotron radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The different aspects and characteristics of both approaches like spatial and density resolution, penetration depth, scanning time or sample size is described in detail. The tube-based μCT measurements were performed with a granite-based nanotom®-CT system (phoenix|x-ray, Wunstorf, Germany) equipped with a 180 kV - 15 W high-power nanofocus® tube with tungsten or molybdenum targets. The tube offers a wide range of applications from scanning low absorbing samples in nanofocus® mode with voxel sizes below 500 nm and highly absorbing objects in the high power mode with focal spot and voxel sizes of a few microns. The SRμCT measurements were carried out with the absorption contrast set-up at the beamlines W 2 and BW 2 at HASYLAB/DESY, operated by the GKSS Research Center. The range of samples examined covers materials of very different absorption levels and related photon energies for the CT scans. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons of CT scans using biomedical specimens with rather low X-ray absorption such as parts of the human spine as well as using composites from the field of materials science are shown.

  5. New monoenergetic X ray medical digital imaging system based in gamma sources and low radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    processing by means of geometric simulation that allows to correct the blurring of edges due to the finite size of the source. We simulated the image obtained with an extensive X ray monoenergetic source of a cylindrical phantom. We have rescued with great contrast the edges of the object, diminishing the distance source-plane detector and maximizing efficiency of photon flux. We have corroborated that the method still works with greater dimensions of the source to the size of the object. The method can be generalized to human body radiography simulation, with the aid of 3D vectorial geometric modelling techniques available. Combining this small and monoenergetic flux (or discreet in energies) of X photons with the digital detectors 2D of high quantum efficiency and acquisition in counting mode, it is possible to diminish the dose to the patient in comparison with the continuum spectrum of the X ray tube, optimize the energy for each radiographic technique and still select two energies for dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) techniques)

  6. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods: Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results: Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion: The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography.

  7. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  8. Novel direct digital modular x-ray device and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartiotis, Konstantinos E.; Orava, Risto; Schulman, Tom; Pyyhtia, Jouni; Sarakinos, Militiadis E.; Sanghera, Bal; Epenetos, Agamemnon; Sunni, Ilkka; Salonen, Jaakko; Gronberg, Leif; Majander, Paivi; Allison, David J.; Myers, Melvyn

    1998-07-01

    We present an update on a novel direct digital X-ray imaging device and system. The system comprises a mosaic of hybrid solid state semiconductor devices removably mount onto a master plane covering an imaging surface of any desirable shape and size. Each imaging device comprises a pixel semiconductor detector flip-chip joined to a CMOS ASIC. Monolithic CdZnTe and Si pixel detectors with dimensions 12.2 X 4.2 mm2 and 18.9 X 9.6 mm2 have been implemented with a pixel pitch of 35 micrometer. Each circuit on the ASIC, corresponding to a detector pixel, is capable of accumulating thousands of X-rays in the diagnostic energy spectrum with high efficiency (CdZnTe) and user accumulation times ranging from just a few ms to a few s. Individual, removable tiles are combined in a mosaic providing continuous large area imaging with no inactive regions. This tiling approach allows for cost efficient replacement of defective tiles. The packaging delivers a compact, lightweight, portable cassette whose thickness is around 2.0 cm. The basic hybrid detector design and tiling scheme are generic and may be used in mammography, conventional radiography and fluoroscopy. A special tiling scheme has been designed for use in intraoral imaging. We present our measured Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). Images taken with hard objects, phantoms and soft tissue further demonstrate system functionality and provide a comparison with radiographic film and CR plates. The first application of the new technology is intended for the field of dental imaging, mammographic biopsy and other small area medical applications (approximately 10 - 30 cm2 imaging area) as well as Small Area Non Destructive Testing.

  9. 9/7-in. metal x-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development has been made of a new X-ray intensifier tube (abbreviated to Metal X-I.I.) which produces images much better than ever in cardiac diagnosis. Unlike the conventional type of intensifier tube using a glass layer 3- to 4-mm thick as the input-window material, the new type employs a titanium layer only 250-μm thick for the window, with remarkable reduction in X-ray scattering and marked improvement of contrast, resolution and corpuscular quality obtained as the results. The development of the X-I.I. has been made on a number of technical improvements, such as regarding to binding titanium with other metals; the qualities of the pentode electron lens and the 25-mm-diameter output phosphor screen; the methods of manufacturing photocathodes and the input-and-output phosphor screen. The X-I.I. is especially noticeable in the improvement of the contrast and characteristics including intermediate tones; even in cases imaging is made under fairly high voltage or the object is very thick, it is possible for the X-I.I. to produce images with very good quality. It is expected that this image intensifier tube will contribute greatly to the diagnosis of heart diseases. (author)

  10. Assessment of a Picker Centrix combined X-ray tube and Bucky stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Centrix is a 'U' arm combined X-ray tube and Bucky stand, manufactured by Allmec S R L, Lissone, Italy. The X-ray tube is mounted on one arm and a tilting Bucky assembly is mounted on the other. The focus film distance (FFD) can be varied and the 'U' arm can be varied and the 'U' arm assembly rotated and moved vertically up and down the main column which is affixed to the floor and wall. Users at KCARE, King's College Hospital, found that, although the Centrix was capable of a wide range of examinations, the manipulation necessary to achieve a routine projection made the unit tedious and time consuming to use. To achieve versatility, it was necessary to use the patient trolley both along and perpendicular to the U arm axis of rotation. Sufficient space must therefore be allowed for this to be done. Difficulties were exacerbated by the brake for the rotational movement of the U arm being designed only for use as a lock, the coarseness of the rotational adjustment of the tube head and Bucky in the vicinity of the click stops, and difficulties in positioning the patient table with an average adult on it. (U.K.)

  11. Energy resolution of gamma-ray spectroscopy of JET plasmas with a LaBr3 scintillator detector and digital data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new high efficiency, high resolution, fast γ-ray spectrometer was recently installed at the JET tokamak. The spectrometer is based on a LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube. A digital data acquisition system is used to allow spectrometry with event rates in excess of 1 MHz expected in future JET DT plasmas. However, at the lower rates typical of present day experiments, digitization can degrade the energy resolution of the system, depending on the algorithms used for extracting pulse height information from the digitized pulses. In this paper, the digital and analog spectrometry methods were compared for different experimental conditions. An algorithm based on pulse shape fitting was developed, providing energy resolution equivalent to the traditional analog spectrometry method.

  12. Electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube based field emission x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shabana

    In this dissertation, electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source for medical imaging applications will be presented. However, for design optimization of x-ray tubes accurate electron beam optics simulation is essential. To facilitate design of CNT x-ray sources a commercial 3D finite element software has been chosen for extensive simulation. The results show that a simplified model of uniform electron field emission from the cathode surface is not sufficient when compared to experimental measurements. This necessitated the development of a refined model to describe a macroscopic field emission CNT cathode for electron beam optics simulations. The model emulates the random distribution of CNTs and the associated variation of local field enhancement factor. The main parameter of the model has been derived empirically from the experimentally measured I-V characteristics of the CNT cathode. Simulation results based on this model agree well with experiments which include measurements of the transmission rate and focus spot size. The model provides a consistent simulation platform for optimization of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray source design. A systematic study of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray tubes led to the development of a new generation of compact x-ray source with multiple pixels. A micro focus field emission x-ray source with a variable focal spot size has been fully characterized and evaluated. It has been built and successfully integrated into micro-CT scanners which are capable of dynamic cardiac imaging of free-breathing small animals with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition a spatially distributed high power multi-beam x-ray source has also been designed and integrated into a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) configuration. This system has the potential to reduce the total scan time to 4 seconds and yield superior image quality in breast imaging.

  13. The effect of magnification on the image quality and the radiation dose in X-ray digital mammography: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been many efforts to advance the technology of X-ray digital mammography in order to enhance the early detection of breast pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and the radiation dose after magnifying X-ray digital mammography using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). In this study, we simulated a Monte Carlo model of an X-ray digital mammographic system, and we present a technique for magnification and discuss how it affects the image quality. The simulated X-ray digital mammographic system with GATE consists of an X-ray source, a compression paddle, a supporting plate, and an imaging plate (IP) of computed radiography (CR). The degree of magnification ranged from 1.0 to 2.0. We designed a semi-cylindrical phantom with a thickness of 45-mm and a radius of 50-mm in order to evaluate the image quality after magnification. The phantom was made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and contained four spherical specks with diameters of 750, 500, 250, and 100-μm to simulate microcalcifications. The simulation studies were performed with an X-ray energy spectrum calculated using the spectrum processor SRS-78. A combination of a molybdenum anode and a molybdenum filter (Mo/Mo) was used for the mammographic X-ray tubes. The effects of the degree of magnification were investigated in terms of both the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (AGD). The results show that the CNR increased as the degree of magnification increased and decreased as breast glandularity increased. The AGD showed only a minor increase with magnification. Based on the results, magnification of mammographic images can be used to obtain high image quality with an increased CNR. Our X-ray digital mammographic system model with GATE may be used as a basis for future studies on X-ray imaging characteristics.

  14. Gaussian higher Order Derivative based Structural Enhancement of Digital Bone X-Ray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Kundu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for enhancement of digital X-ray images of bones is presented in this paper. It has come to observation that the proposed method based on the Gaussian higher order derivative shows an appreciable enhancement of edges in digital X-ray images of bones that can be used for detection of various bone deformities as well as for the better understanding of the bone structure. We have achieved a level of improvement in distinguishing the bone information from the other parts of the digital X-ray images.

  15. Multiple imaging mode X-ray computed tomography for distinguishing active and inactive phases in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komini Babu, Siddharth; Mohamed, Alexander I.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Litster, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the use of nanometer scale resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) in the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a Li-ion battery cathode, including the separate volumes of active material, binder plus conductive additive, and pore. The different high and low atomic number (Z) materials are distinguished by sequentially imaging the lithium cobalt oxide electrode in absorption and then Zernike phase contrast modes. Morphological parameters of the active material and the additives are extracted from the 3D reconstructions, including the distribution of contact areas between the additives and the active material. This method could provide a better understanding of the electric current distribution and structural integrity of battery electrodes, as well as provide detailed geometries for computational models.

  16. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  17. Influence of tube voltage and current on in-line phase contrast imaging using a microfocus x-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Yu Ai-Min; Li Cheng-Quan

    2007-01-01

    In-line x-ray phase contrast imaging has attracted much attention due to two major advantages:its effectiveness in imaging weakly absorbing materials,and the simplicity of its facilities.In this paper a comprehensive theory based on Wigner distribution developed by Wu and Liu [Med.Phys.31 2378-2384(2004)] is reviewed.The influence of x-ray source and detector on the image is discussed.Experiments using a microfocus x-ray source and a CCD detector are conducted,which show the role of two key factors on imaging:the tube voltage and tube current.High tube current and moderate tube voltage are suggested for imaging.

  18. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  19. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  20. First TDCR measurements at low energies using a miniature x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed for radionuclide standardization using liquid scintillation, the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method is applied using coincidence counting obtained with a specific three-photomultiplier system. For activity determination, a statistical model of light emission is classically used to establish a relation between the detection efficiency and the experimental TDCR value. At LNE-LNHB, a stochastic approach of the TDCR modeling was developed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The interest of this TDCR-Geant4 model is the possibility to simulate the propagation of optical photons from their creation in the scintillation vial to the production of photoelectrons in photomultipliers. As an alternative to the use of radionuclide sources, first TDCR measurements are presented using a miniature x-ray tube closely coupled to the scintillation vial. The objective of this new set-up was to enable low-energy depositions (lower than 20 keV) in liquid scintillator in order to study the influence of both time and geometrical dependence between PMTs already observed with radioactive sources. As for the statistical TDCR model, the non-linearity of light emission is implemented in the TDCR-Geant4 model using the Birks formula which depends on the kB factor and the scintillation yield. Measurements performed with the x-ray tube are extended to the assessment of these parameters and they are tested afterwards in the TDCR-Geant4 model for activity measurements of 3H. - Highlights: • TDCR measurements at low energies (E<20 keV). • LS counter coupled to a miniature x-ray tube. • TDCR modeling with the Geant4 code. • Measurement of the kB factor. • Standardization of 3H

  1. Validation of an optical flow algorithm to measure blood flow waveforms in arteries using dynamic digital x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Kawal; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hawkes, David J.; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a weighted optical flow algorithm for the extraction of instantaneous blood velocity from dynamic digital x-ray images of blood vessels. We have carried out in- vitro validation of this technique. A pulsatile physiological blood flow circuit was constructed using sections of silicone tubing to simulate blood vessels with whole blood as the fluid. Instantaneous recording of flow from an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) provided the gold standard measurement. Biplanar dynamic digital x-ray images of the blood vessel with injection of contrast medium were acquired at 25 fps using a PC frame capture card. Imaging of a Perspex calibration cube allowed 3D reconstruction of the vessel and determination of true dimensions. Blood flow waveforms were calculated off-line on a Sun workstation using the new algorithm. The correlation coefficient between instantaneous blood flow values obtained from the EMF and the x-ray method was r equals 0.871, n equals 1184, p less than 0.0001. The correlation coefficient for average blood flow was r equals 0.898, n equals 16, p less than 0.001. We have successfully demonstrated that our new algorithm can measure pulsatile blood flow in a vessel phantom. We aim to use this algorithm to measure blood flow clinically in patients undergoing vascular interventional procedures.

  2. Soft-tissue phase-contrast tomography with an x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first experimental soft-tissue phase-contrast tomography results using a conventional x-ray tube source, with a millimeter-sized focal spot. The setup is based on a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer operated at a mean energy of 28 keV. We present three-dimensional ex vivo images of a chicken heart sample, fixated in formalin. The results clearly demonstrate the advantageous contrast attainable through phase-contrast imaging over conventional attenuation-based approaches.

  3. Assessment of GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments was assessed in detail at the King's Centre for the Assessment of Radiological Equipment (KCARE). Particulars of the assessment and operational features of the equipment are described. The report indicates that the equipment is robustly and safely constructed and it has a versatility which enables it to be used for all the applications currently foreseen for such units. The use of the Apollo in conjunction with sectograph tomographic attachments can provide linear tomographs comparable in excellence with those produced on dedicated units. (U.K.)

  4. FFT Analysis of the X-ray Tube Voltage Waveforms of High-Frequency Generators for Radiographic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a novel method for analyzing the voltage waveform from high-frequency X-ray generators for radiographic systems. Material and Methods: The output signal of the actual voltage across the tube of a high-frequency generator was measured using the built-in voltage sense taps that are used for voltage regulation feedback in X-ray generators. The output signal was stored in an analyzing recorder, and the waveforms were analyzed using FFT analysis. The FFT analysis of high-frequency generators consisted of obtaining the power spectrum, comparing the major frequency components in the tube voltage waveforms, and examining the intensity of each frequency component. Results: FFT analysis enables an objective comparison of the complex tube voltage waveforms in high-frequency X-ray generators. FFT analysis detected the change in the X-ray tube voltage waveform that occurred when there were problems with the high-frequency generator. Conclusion: High-frequency X-ray generators are becoming the universal choice for radiographic systems. The X-ray tube voltage and its waveform are important features of an X-ray generator, and quality assurance (QA) is important, too. As a tool for engineers involved in the design and development of X-ray generators, we can see that our methods (FFT analysis) might have some value as a means of describing generator performance under varying conditions. Furthermore, since the X-ray tube voltage waveform of a high-frequency generator is complex, FFT analysis may be useful for QA of the waveform

  5. Evaluation of digital x-ray detectors for medical imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Digital x-ray detectors are now the detector of choice in many X-ray examinations. They have been accepted into clinical practice over the past decade but there are still ongoing developments in the technology. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) are a novel digital technology that offers advantages compared to some of the more established approaches (charge-coupled devices (CCD), thin film transistor arrays (TFT) and CMOS passive pixel sensors (PPS)). Th...

  6. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D., E-mail: Dan.Hodoroaba@bam.d [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division VI.4 Surface Technologies, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Radtke, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division I.3 Structure Analysis, Polymer Analysis, D-12200 Berlin (Germany); Vincze, L. [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division VI.4 Surface Technologies, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  7. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  8. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm2 at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes

  9. First TDCR measurements at low energies using a miniature x-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, E; Thiam, C; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Chambellan, D; Chauvenet, B; Hamel, M; Rocha, L; Trocmé, M; Woo, R

    2014-11-01

    Developed for radionuclide standardization using liquid scintillation, the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method is applied using coincidence counting obtained with a specific three-photomultiplier system. For activity determination, a statistical model of light emission is classically used to establish a relation between the detection efficiency and the experimental TDCR value. At LNE-LNHB, a stochastic approach of the TDCR modeling was developed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The interest of this TDCR-Geant4 model is the possibility to simulate the propagation of optical photons from their creation in the scintillation vial to the production of photoelectrons in photomultipliers. As an alternative to the use of radionuclide sources, first TDCR measurements are presented using a miniature x-ray tube closely coupled to the scintillation vial. The objective of this new set-up was to enable low-energy depositions (lower than 20 keV) in liquid scintillator in order to study the influence of both time and geometrical dependence between PMTs already observed with radioactive sources. As for the statistical TDCR model, the non-linearity of light emission is implemented in the TDCR-Geant4 model using the Birks formula which depends on the kB factor and the scintillation yield. Measurements performed with the x-ray tube are extended to the assessment of these parameters and they are tested afterwards in the TDCR-Geant4 model for activity measurements of (3)H. PMID:24685767

  10. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  11. Long-bone fracture detection in digital X-ray images based on digital-geometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Oishila; Biswas, Arindam; Bhattacharya, Bhargab B

    2016-01-01

    Automated fracture detection is an essential part of a computer-aided tele-medicine system. In this paper, we have proposed a unified technique for the detection and evaluation of orthopaedic fractures in long-bone digital X-ray image. We have also developed a software tool that can be conveniently used by paramedics or specialist doctors. The proposed tool first segments the bone region of an input digital X-ray image from its surrounding flesh region and then generates the bone-contour using an adaptive thresholding approach. Next, it performs unsupervised correction of bone-contour discontinuities that might have been generated because of segmentation errors, and finally detects the presence of fracture in the bone. Moreover, the method can also localize the line-of-break for easy visualization of the fracture, identify its orientation, and assess the extent of damage in the bone. Several concepts from digital geometry such as relaxed straightness and concavity index are utilized to correct contour imperfections, and to detect fracture locations and type. Experiments on a database of several long-bone digital X-ray images show satisfactory results. PMID:26477855

  12. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors’ assembly were also

  13. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also

  14. Experimental evaluation of the image quality and dose in digital mammography: Influence of x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, A.; Perez, A. M. M. M.; Silva, M. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied experimentally the influence of x-ray spectrum on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the average glandular dose (MDG) for two digital mammography systems: Senographe 2000D (GE Medical Systems) and Lorad Selenia (Hologic), with indirect and direct detector imaging technology, respectively. CNR and MGD were determined using PMMA phantoms simulating breasts with thicknesses of 4 cm and 6 cm. All available anode/filter combinations of the systems were evaluated for a wide range of tube voltages values. Results indicated that the Rh/Rh combination provides the highest image quality with the lower mean glandular dose for the Senographe 2000D system. For the Lorad Selenia system, the W/Ag combination at 30 kV showed the best performance, in terms of dose saving and image quality improvement in relation to all tube voltage range. The comparison between the optimal x-ray spectra and those selected by the AEC mode showed that this automatic selection mechanism could be readjusted to optimize the relationship between image quality and dose.

  15. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  16. Control system of digital x-ray systems by quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposed a control system of X-ray digital equipment on quality indicators. Two basic parameters were determined: image quality and patients' radiation load. A method for monitoring these indicators is proposed. The criterion of equipment suitability is to obtain control digital X-ray images of diagnostically acceptable quality at a fixed low entrance dose in the plane of the digital detector. It is shown that the control system of X-ray digital equipment based on indicators of quality is the most appropriate in situations of deficit of financial resources, since minimizing the costs for the purchase and running of control systems, does not require highly skilled technical personnel, and reduces the duration of the equipment inspection. (authors)

  17. Measurements of residual strains in a shape welded steel tube by neutron and x-ray diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape welding of a ferritic steel layer on an austenitic steel tube is used to build compressive stresses on its outer surface as a result, suppress stress corrosion. Investigations of residual stresses in such bi-layer tubes are important for developing of optimal welding techniques. The neutron and X-ray diffraction methods were used to analyze the stress behaviour around the welded region on the tube. To this end, strain components in the radial, axial and tangential directions were measured across the weld. The results are compared to the data obtained by the destructive turning out technique and theoretical predictions by the finite element method

  18. Patient dosimetry and image quality in digital radiology from online audit of the X-ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes an online patient dosimetry and an image quality system in digital radiology. For the patient dosimetry audit, current mean values of entrance surface dose (ESD) were compared with local and national reference values (RVs) for the specific examination type evaluated. Mean values exceeding the RV trigger an alarm signal and then an evaluation of the technical parameters, operational practice and image quality was begun, using data available in the DICOM header to derive any abnormal settings or performance to obtain the image. The X-ray tube output for different kV p values is measured periodically, to allow for the automatic calculation of ESD. The system allows also for image audit, linking the dose imparted, the image quality and the alarm condition, if produced. Results and the benefits derived from this online quality control are discussed here. (authors)

  19. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  20. Determination of tungsten target parameters for transmission X-ray tube: A simulation study using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, Mohammad M. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Transmission X-ray tubes based on carbon nanotube have attracted significant attention recently. In most of these tubes, tungsten is used as the target material. In this article, the well-known simulator Geant4 was used to obtain some of the tungsten target parameters. The optimal thickness for maximum production of usable X-rays when the target is exposed to electron beams of different energies was obtained. The linear variation of optimal thickness of the target for different electron energies was also obtained. The data obtained in this study can be used to design X-ray tubes. A beryllium window was considered for the X-ray tube. The X-ray energy spectra at the moment of production and after passing through the target and window for different electron energies in the 30-110 keV range were also obtained. The results obtained show that with a specific thickness, the target material itself can act as filter, which enables generation of X-rays with a limited energy.

  1. A flat-panel x-ray detector for digital radiography and fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Flat-Panel X-ray detector is widely used for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The outline of the detectors such as the structure, working principle, performance and clinical applications that are newly developed using this digital X-ray detector are described. An X-ray detector applying CdZnTe film which is expected to high detective efficiency is also reported. The characteristics of poly crystalline CdZnTe films, namely grain boundary affect the detector performance. To improve performance of the CdZnTe detector, control of the poly crystalline structure is required. (author)

  2. Fully Digital Arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPM) - a Scalable Alternative to Vacuum Photomultiplier Tubes (PMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemisch, York; Frach, Thomas; Degenhardt, Carsten; Thon, Andreas

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative to fast vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMT). A fully digital implementation of the Silicon Photomultiplier (dSiPM) has been developed in order to overcome the deficiencies and limitations of the so far only analog SiPMs (aSiPMs). Our sensor is based on arrays of single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) integrated in a standard CMOS process. Photons are detected directly by sensing the voltage at the SPAD anode using a dedicated cell electronics block next to each diode. This block also contains active quenching and recharge circuits as well as a one bit memory for the selective inhibit of detector cells. A balanced trigger network is used to propagate the trigger signal from all cells to the integrated time-to-digital converter. In consequence, photons are detected and counted as digital signals, thus making the sensor less susceptible to temperature variations and electronic noise. The integration with CMOS logic provides the added benefit of low power consumption and possible integration of data post-processing directly in the sensor. In this overview paper, we discuss the sensor architecture together with its characteristics with a focus on scalability and practicability aspects for applications in medical imaging, high energy- and astrophysics.

  3. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  4. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xufei; Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2012-09-01

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described. PMID:23020376

  5. Correction of differential nonlinearities in analog-to-digital converters used for digital γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experiments in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics demand for a spectroscopy setup with a high dynamic energy range while maintaining decent count rates. In such experiments conducted at the Cologne HORUS γ-ray spectrometer which is equipped with a fully digitized data acquisition system severe peak broadening and double peak structures in the energy spectra have been observed. These spectral distortions originate from the differential nonlinearity (DNL) of the Analog-to-digital converters used for digitizing the preamplifier signals. A correction method for this DNL using standard calibration sources and artificial pulser signals will be presented as well as an offline correction algorithm. The algorithm is capable of removing double peak structures and increasing the energy resolution for broadened peaks while achieving a better linearity in energy calibration compared to the uncorrected data.

  6. X-ray digital microlaminography for BGA and flip-chip inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassov, Alexander; Luypaert, Filip

    2000-05-01

    X-ray laminography allows getting local depth information from big flat objects like PCBs and electronic assemblies, which cannot be reconstructed by tomographical approach. According to the needs in high-resolution inspection for electronic and micromechanic industries an X-ray microlaminography system has been developed. This instrument based on a new approach for the x-ray geometry with a minimum of moving parts and a digital extraction of depth information about all layers during one object turn.

  7. X-ray digital microlaminography for BGA and flip-chip inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray laminography allows getting local depth information from big flat objects like PCBs and electronic assemblies, which cannot be reconstructed by tomographical approach. According to the needs in high-resolution inspection for electronic and micromechanic industries an X-ray microlaminography system has been developed. This instrument based on a new approach for the x-ray geometry with a minimum of moving parts and a digital extraction of depth information about all layers during one object turn

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of a scanning system based on a panoramic X-ray tube with a conical anode

    OpenAIRE

    Andrii Sofiienko; Chad Jarvis; Ådne Voll

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study photon production in a panoramic X-ray tube with a conical tungsten target to determine the optimal characteristics of the target shape and electron beam configuration. Several simulations were performed for accelerating potentials equal to 250 kV, 300 kV, and 500 kV with electron beams of various radii and anode sizes. The angular distribution of the photon intensity was analysed by numerical calculations for an assembly composed of an X-ray tube an...

  9. A high speed digitizing photomultiplier tube base for the KTeV CsI calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circuit has been designed to digitize PMT signals over an 18-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution. The crucial element of the circuit is the custom charge integrating and encoding (QIE) ASIC. This chip is designed to operate at rates up to 53 MHz, and, in conjunction with an 8-bit FADC, generates 12-bit floating point output. Bench tests of a 17-bit version of the digital base demonstrated excellent noise performance, linearity and pedestal and gain stability. Twenty-five channels of digitizing PMT bases have been built and used for readout of a CsI array in a test beam at CERN. Performance of these devices in a beam environment is discussed

  10. REEFER: a digital computer program for the simulation of high energy electron tubes. [Reefer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, J.E.

    1976-11-01

    A digital computer program for the simulation of very high-energy electron and ion beams is described. The program includes space-charge effects through the solution of Poisson's equation and magnetic effects (both induced and applied) through the relativistic trajectory equations. Relaxation techniques are employed while alternately computing electric fields and trajectories. Execution time is generally less than 15 minutes on a CDC 6600 digital computer. Either space-charge-limited or field-emission sources may be simulated. The input data is described in detail and an example data set is included.

  11. X-ray detection with a scintillating YAP-window hybrid photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Leutz, H; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E

    2000-01-01

    A YAP(YAlO/sub 3/:Ce)-scintillating window, coated on its inner surface with an S20-photocathode, seals a cross-focusing hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) equipped with a small p-i-n anode of 2-mm diameter. This new radiation detector separates X-ray lines down to about 2-keV peak energy from the HPMT noise. Its detection efficiency for high gamma energies depends on the YAP-window thickness and amounts to about 18% attenuation at 400-keV energy in the present version. Competitive radiation detectors like Si photodiodes and Si drift chambers are discussed and compared to our prototype, with particular attention given to their energy resolution and noise performance, which limits their active area considerably. (19 refs).

  12. Determination of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry following electroenrichment on a copper cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodepositons of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au from aqueous solution of pH = 1 on the cathode surface have been studied for X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). A special holder for a copper electrode has been constructed to perform the electrodeposition process on only one side of the electrode. After electrolysis, the copper electrode can be easily removed from the holder; after rinsing it with water and drying it can be analyzed by XRF. The proposed method of sample preparation and preconcentration of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb, Au provides suitable samples which are devoid of the negative and undesirable effects of XRF analysis, such as particle size and matrix effects. The influence of time on the deposition yield has been examined. The method of preconcentration is efficient. The inhomogeneity of the prepared specimens has been studied using internal standard method. The calibration is based on using synthetic standards, certified reference materials and standard addition method. The best results are achieved by the standard addition method. The agreement between results obtained with XRF analysis and certified values is satisfactory and indicates the usefulness of the proposed method for determination of Te, Bi, Ni, Sb and Au in anode slime

  13. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity for...

  14. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateral and orbital scanning movements can be carried out with the equipment. The assessment is carried out by a computer. Differences in sensitivity of the detectors can be compensated for by displacement of the electron beam of the X-ray tube compared to the anti-cathode or by bending of the electron beam by electromagnetic coils. (RW)

  15. The effects of image acquisition control of digital X-ray system on radiodensity quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Soocheol; Heo, Youngcheul; Song, Woo-Bin; Ahmad, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Aluminum step wedge (ASW) equivalent radiodensity (eRD) has been used to quantify restorative material's radiodensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of image acquisition control (IAC) of a digital X-ray system on the radiodensity quantification under different exposure time settings. Materials and Methods Three 1-mm thick restorative material samples with various opacities were prepared. Samples were radiographed alongside an ASW using one of three digital radio...

  16. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Moorti; A Raghuramaiah; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 1010 photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of ∼ 18 to ∼ 28 ns duration from a source of ∼ 300 m diameter, at ℎ = 4.51 keV ( emission of titanium), with a brightness of ∼ 1020 photons/cm2 /s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to ∼ 10 cm.

  17. A novel surface-sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopic detector to study the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takamasa; Okuda, Chikaaki; Oka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Makimura, Yoshinari; Kondo, Yasuhito; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Yoji

    2016-09-01

    A surface-sensitive conversion-electron-yield X-ray absorption fine structure (CEY-XAFS) detector that operates at elevated temperatures is developed to investigate the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The detector enables measurements with the sample temperature controlled from room temperature up to 450 °C. The detector is applied to the LiNi0.75Co0.15Al0.05Mg0.05O2 cathode material at 0% state of charge (SOC) and 50% SOC to examine the chemical changes that occur during heating in the absence of an electrolyte. The combination of surface-sensitive CEY-XAFS and bulk-sensitive transmission-mode XAFS shows that the reduction of Ni and Co ions begins at the surface of the cathode particles at around 150 °C, and propagates inside the particle upon further heating. These changes with heating are irreversible and are more obvious at 50% SOC than at 0% SOC. The fraction of reduced Ni ions is larger than that of reduced Co ions. These results demonstrate the capability of the developed detector to obtain important information for the safe employment of this cathode material in Li-ion batteries.

  18. Dynamic behavior of thermionic dispenser cathodes under ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortenraad, R.; van der Gon, A. W. Denier; Brongersma, H. H.; Gärtner, G.; Raasch, D.; Manenschijn, A.

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the surface coverage and electron emission of thermionic dispenser cathodes during 3 keV Ar+ ion bombardment, thereby simulating the bombardment of the cathodes by residual gases that takes place in cathode-ray tubes as used in television sets. During the ion bombardment at the operating temperature of 1030 °C, a dynamic equilibrium is established between the sputter removal and resupply mechanisms of the Ba and O atoms that form the dipole layer on the cathode substrate. We demonstrated that the performance of the cathodes under ion bombardment is governed by the O removal and resupply rates. It was found that the Ba resupply rate is almost an order of magnitude higher than the O resupply rate, but that the Ba can only be present on the surface bound to O atoms. Therefore, the Ba/O ratio is approximately equal to unity during the ion bombardment. Based on the investigations of the removal and resupply processes, we proposed a model that accurately describes the surface coverage and electron emission during the ion bombardment, including the dependence of the ion flux and cathode temperature.

  19. Digital Dental X-Ray Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of analysis of such images is important in order to improve quantify medical imaging systems. It is significant to analysis the dental x-ray images we need features of image. In this paper we present a method for segmentation and feature extraction of dental x-ray images. The proposed method has been implemented by using level-set method for segmentation after image enhancement and illustrate contour for teeth to complete the segmentation step. Furthermore, we extracted multiple features of dental x-ray images using texture statistics techniques by gray-level co-occurrence matrix. Extracted data can perform to obtain the teeth measurements for automatic dental systems such human identification or dental diagnosis systems. Preparatory experiments show the significance of the proposed method to extract teeth from an x-ray image.

  20. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...

  1. Adjustable lead glass shielding device for use with a over-the-table x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of scattered radiation exposure to personnel from a ceiling-mounted x-ray tube were examined at the side of cardiac catheterization patients. A fully adjustable mounting for a lead glass shield was designed to afford maximum radiation protection to the attending physician's head and neck area, while minimizing interference with the procedure

  2. Evaluation of central catheters and endotracheal tubes in the unit of intensive care with x-ray of portable thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out a revision of the parameters that define the connect location of the different types of central catheters and endotracheal tube in patients hospitalized at the intensive care unit; by means of the evaluation with portable X-ray of the thorax, describing the complications associated to this vital support

  3. Digital Dental X-Ray Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad; Mohd. Shafry Mohd. Rahim; Alireza Norouzi

    2013-01-01

    The process of analysis of such images is important in order to improve quantify medical imaging systems. It is significant to analysis the dental x-ray images we need features of image. In this paper we present a method for segmentation and feature extraction of dental x-ray images. The proposed method has been implemented by using level-set method for segmentation after image enhancement and illustrate contour for teeth to complete the segmentation step. Furthermore, we extracted multiple f...

  4. [Increasing the anode characteristics of sharp-focused Coolidge X-ray tubes by changing from a high to a low vacuum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikovskiĭ, V B

    2002-01-01

    The anode characteristics of up-to-date sharp-focused Coolidge X-ray tubes are analyzed. The reason for differences in the real anode characteristics from theoretical ones has been found to be a higher tube gas pressure than that accepted. There is evidence that there are new third-class X-tubes--electronic tubes with compensation for negative volumetric charge of electrons with positive gas ions. PMID:12512274

  5. Possible radiation dose reduction by using digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrates the importance of the introduction of the quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiology departments. The basic aim of quality assurance program is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable while still providing an adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this process, the conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patients exposure, cost reduction by reduction of the film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations show , that there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, two digital and two analogue. Our material consisted of 169 randomly selected patients, 115 of them were examined with digital equipment and 54 patients with the analogue equipment. The obtained results have confirmed the dose reduction and increase of diagnostic accuracy when using the digital equipment, with the added benefit of a good image quality. (authors)

  6. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  7. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  8. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  9. Time dependence of X-ray emission from pyroelectric crystal measured with a digital oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured time dependence of X-ray and electron emission by changing temperature of a pyroelectric crystal in vacuum with a Geiger counter connected to a digital oscilloscope. We found the X-ray emission stops when the glow discharge occurs, and the glow discharge decreases the integral X-ray intensity. In order to generate a stable X-ray emission, we need to keep the temperature gradient of the pyroelectric crystal deliberately low and avoid the ballistic electric discharge between the pyroelectric surface and the target. (author)

  10. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 ± 231.7 cGy*cm2 versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 ± 103.8 cGy*cm2). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  11. Quality assurance protocol for digital intra-oral X ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2008, a new Belgian legislation was published that concretizes the necessary tests to be performed to assure the physico-technical quality of dental systems. Tests had been copied from a recently released Belgian protocol for yearly tests on dental systems, as compiled in a working group of the Belgian Hospital Physicists Association (BHPA). The Belgian legislator has copied the basic aims of the BHPA text to ensure appropriate doses and assure image quality of routine dental exposures. In practice, the exposure for the maxillary molar tooth is defined as the 'clinical exposure' and is studied in detail. In the legislation, classical tests of tube output, voltage, filtration and exposure time are imposed. Every test of a digital intra oral x-ray system starts with the measurement of the detector dose for a standard molar setting. The load of tooth and cheek are simulated by a slab of 6mm aluminium. The dose limit is a 200μGy. When the dose exceeds this limit, the medical physics expert (MPE) has to investigate whether the procedures (exposure time, film type, ...) can be adjusted so that the dentist can work within the acceptability criteria. In this report we will focus on 3 less common image quality tests that are also described in the legislation: 1. Dynamic range: A stepwedge, made of 5 aluminium steps with different thickness ranging from 2.5mm to 9mm has to be imaged with the clinical exposure. On the image, the 5 steps should be clearly visible. 2. Homogeneity: An image of a homogeneous test slab is visually inspected. There should not be clinically disturbing artefacts. 3. Resolution: The resolution of clinical exposures is tested with a test object with line pairs on top of 2 cm PMMA. The resolution should not be lower than 5 lp/mm Material and methods: The protocol was successfully tested on 64 systems. This included 13 film systems, 33 systems with phosphorplates and 18 systems with a CCD detector. The systems are from the following vendors

  12. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  13. Experimental research on the feature of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer versus tube accelerating voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Hao; Margie, P. Olbinado; Atsushi, Momose; Hua-Jie, Han; Hu, Ren-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Li; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-06-01

    X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer has been used most widely to perform x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a conventional low-brilliance x-ray source, and it yields high-sensitivity phase and dark-field images of samples producing low absorption contrast, thus bearing tremendous potential for future clinical diagnosis. In this work, by changing the accelerating voltage of the x-ray tube from 35 kV to 45 kV, x-ray phase-contrast imaging of a test sample is performed at each integer value of the accelerating voltage to investigate the characteristic of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer (located in the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Japan) versus tube voltage. Experimental results and data analysis show that within a range this x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer is not sensitive to the accelerating voltage of the tube with a constant fringe visibility of ˜ 44%. This x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer research demonstrates the feasibility of a new dual energy phase-contrast x-ray imaging strategy and the possibility to collect a refraction spectrum. Project supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825800), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups, China (Grant No. 11321503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11179004, 10979055, 11205189, and 11205157), and the Japan-Asia Youth Exchange Program in Science (SAKURA Exchange Program in Science) Administered by the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  14. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17-18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time. (orig.)

  15. Simple cathode design for Li-S batteries : cell performance and mechanistic insights by in operando X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kulisch, Jörn; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries have been receiving increasing attention over the past several years, particularly with regard to the accelerated development of electric vehicles, but also for their potential in grid storage applications. Among the broad range of cathode active materials, elemental sulfur has the highest theoretical specific capacity, thereby making it one of the most promising positive electrode materials these days. In the present work, we show that already a simple cathode design (...

  16. Hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the developments and theoretical investigations of a fundamentally new class of microwave devices, namely, hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode, which combine the useful properties of virtual cathodes with the advantages of those traditional microwave oscillators that operate with subcritical-current beams and have a high efficiency in generating ultrarelativistic electron beams. Among such devices are the following: a hybrid diffractional microwave oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid gyro-device with a virtual cathode, a hybrid beam-plasma vircator, a hybrid gyrocon with a virtual cathode, a hybrid Cherenkov oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid microwave oscillator of the 'vircator + traveling-wave tube' type, an original two-beam tube with a virtual cathode, and a klystron-like vircator

  17. Quality assessment of the digitalization process of analog x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-assisted diagnosis enabled doctors for a second point-of-view on the test results. This improves the diseases' early detection and significantly reduces the chance of errors. These methods very nicely complemented the possibilities of digital medical imaging apparatus, but in analog images their applicability and results entirely depend on the quality of analog images digitalisation. Today many standards and remarks for good practices discuss the digital apparatus image quality but the digitalisation process of analog medical images is not a part of them. Medical imaging apparatus have become digital, but within an entirely digital medical environment is necessary for their ability to blend with the old analog medical imaging carriers. The life of patients doesn't start with the beginning of digital era and for the aim of tracking diseases it is necessary to use the new digital images as well as older analog ones. For the generation of 40-50 years a large archive of images is piled up, which should be accounted of in the diagnosis process. This article is the author's study of the digitalized image quality problem. It offers a new approach to the x-ray image digitalisation - getting the HDR-image by optical sensor. After the HDR-image generation method offers to be used a digital signal processing to improve the quality of the final 16 bit gray scale medical image. The new method for medical image enhancement is proposed - it improves the image contrast, it increases or preserves the dynamic range and it doesn't lead to the loss of small low contrast structures in the image. Key words: Quality of Digital X-Rays Images

  18. Detection sensibility study from a portable EDXRF system with a Si-PIN detector and an X ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique was used for the sensibility variation study of a Si-PIN detector. For sample excitation a portable mini x ray tube (Ag target, 4W), under different operational conditions was used with the objective of optimize the analytical sensibility for trace elements determinations in environmental samples. The sensibility curves were obtained by standard reference materials irradiation on thin films from MicroMatter Inc. With these curves the concentration of two certified reference materials SRM1832 and SRM1833 were determined for validation purpose. The measurement time was 200s. Were used in the detector Al and Pb collimators. On the end of the X ray tube was used Mo filter. The best results were verified for Al and Pb collimator operating at 25kV and 20μA. (author)

  19. Evaluation of elemental and compound semiconductors for X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivelli, W. (Ist. di Patologia Speciale Medica e Methodologia Clinica, Univ. Pisa (Italy) INFN, Pisa (Italy)); Bertolucci, E.; Messineo, A.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Pisa (Italy) INFN, Pisa (Italy)); Bottigli, U.; Randaccio, P. (Ist. di Fisica, Univ. Cagliari (Italy) INFN, Cagliari (Italy)); Del Guerra, A.; Russo, P. (Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Napoli (Italy) INFN, Napoli (Italy)); Nelson, W.R. (SLAC, Stanford, CA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the performance of elemental and compound solid state crystals of possible use in X-ray digital radiography. The general purpose EGS4 code was used to simulate photon-electron transport in the energy range 20 to 60 keV. The efficiency and the energy resolution, as a function of X-ray energy, are calculated and correlated to the different physical characteristics of the crystals considered. (orig.).

  20. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Asakura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  1. Studying the luminescence efficiency of Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor material for digital X-ray imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillator materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with available photoreceptors like radiographic film or photoreceptors suitable for digital imaging like a-Si, charge-coupled devises (CCD), complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and GaAs. In addition, scintillators can be utilized in non-medical imaging detectors such as industrial detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) and detectors used for security purposes (i.e. airport luggage control). Image quality and dose burden in the above applications is associated with the amount of optical photons escaping the scintillator as well as the amount of optical photons captured by the photoreceptor. The former is characterized by the scintillator efficiency and the latter by the spectral matching between the emission spectrum of the scintillator and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. Recently, a scintillator material, europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Eu), has shown improved scintillating properties. Lu2O3:Eu samples of compact nanocrystalline non-agglomerated powder were developed in our laboratory using homogeneous precipitation from a water-toluene solution in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. In order to test their light-emission properties, experimental measurements under the excitation of X-ray spectra with X-ray tube voltages between 50 kVp and 140 kVp were performed. This range of applied voltages is appropriate for X-ray radiology, NDT and security applications. Lu2O3:Eu was evaluated with respect to output yield and spectral compatibility of digital imaging photoreceptors (CCD-based, CMOS-based, amorphous silicon a:Si flat panels, ES20 and GaAs). High light yield and spectral compatibility increase the performance of the medical detector and reduce the dose burden to the personnel involved. In addition a theoretical model was used to determine the values for the Lu2O3:Eu optical photon light propagation parameters. The

  2. Comparison of pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube with pulsed fluoroscopy by primary control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IVR) procedures may involve high radiation doses that are potentially harmful to the patient. In IVR procedures, pulsed fluoroscopy can greatly decrease the radiation that the physician and patient receive. There are two types of pulsed fluoroscopy: direct control and primary (indirect) control. The purpose of this study was to compare pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control, using a grid-controlled x-ray tube, with pulsed fluoroscopy using primary control. For both types of pulsed fluoroscopy, we measured the waveforms (x-ray tube voltage, x-ray tube current, and x-ray output) and the relative radiation dose. In addition, we compared the decrease in radiation during pulsed fluoroscopy using a care filter. The studies were performed using a Siemens Bicor Plus x-ray System (direct control) and a Siemens Multistar Plus x-ray System (primary control). Using primary pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.5-1.0 msec, or longer with a lower x-ray tube current. Using direct pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.1 msec, and was independent of x-ray tube current. The rate of radiation reduction with primary pulse control using the care filter with a lower x-ray tube current had a slope exceeding 10%. Pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube permits an optimal radiation dose. To decrease the radiation in primary pulse control, a care filter must be used, particularly with a lower x-ray tube current. (author)

  3. 78 FR 56736 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Hills Media, LLC (``BHM''). 78 FR 29156-57. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the... COMMISSION Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems... digital media devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems, tablets...

  4. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  5. Automatic analysis of quality of images from X-ray digital flat detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since last decade, medical imaging has grown up with the development of new digital imaging techniques. In the field of X-ray radiography, new detectors replace progressively older techniques, based on film or x-ray intensifiers. These digital detectors offer a higher sensibility and reduced overall dimensions. This work has been prepared with Trixell, the world leading company in flat detectors for medical radiography. It deals with quality control on digital images stemming from these detectors. High quality standards of medical imaging impose a close analysis of the defects that can appear on the images. This work describes a complete process for quality analysis of such images. A particular focus is given on the detection task of the defects, thanks to methods well adapted to our context of spatially correlated defects in noise background. (author)

  6. Comarability of digital and analouge x-rays for migration measurements with EBRA

    CERN Document Server

    Brabec, E

    2001-01-01

    EBRA is a computer supported method for measuring the migration of total hip prostheses by using consecutive standard X-rays of the pelvis. PACS is a picture archiving and communication system used to handle digitally taken X-rays. After the installation of a PACS at the University Clinic of Innsbruck it was impossible to compare the digital pictures with the former analogue pictures with EBRA, as they have different scales. By introducing a calibrating step into the EBRA-program it was possible to do measurements on series of pictures containing digital pictures as well as analogue ones. For displaying the failure of EBRA caused by different radiological techniques we did measurements on a series of consecutive X-rays taken of a model made of acrylic glass and simulating the relevant anatomic structures by screws. The migration of the implant was simulated by shifting it in two directions. Whilst using analogue and digital radiological techniques for taking X-rays, the difference in measurement errors of bot...

  7. Preliminary clinical experience with digital X-ray television using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new digital X-ray television system developed in the G.D.R. was constructed and successfully tested. The examination of patients showed the advantages of the system with respect to the quality of diagnostic work and radiation protection. The essential technical parameters and the medical and technical prospects of the system are pointed out. (author)

  8. Digital radio detection of cosmic rays: achievements, status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, radio detection of cosmic rays has matured from small-scale prototype experiments to installations spanning several km$^2$ with more than a hundred antennas. The physics of the radio signal is well understood and simulations and measurements are in good agreement. We have learned how to extract important cosmic ray parameters such as the geometry of the air shower and the energy of the primary particle from the radio signal, and have developed very promising approaches to also determine the mass of the primary particles. At the same time, limitations have become increasingly clear. I review the progress made in the past decade and provide a personal view on further potential for future development.

  9. X-ray dynamic defectoscopy utilizing digital image correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandejsek, Ivan; Nachtrab, F.; Uhlmann, N.; Vavřík, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 185-186. ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on Radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 28.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Computed tomography * X-ray Defectoscopy * non-contact technique Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  10. Comparative contrast agent examinations with conventional X-ray film/foil-combinations and digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the clinical application of digital luminescence radiographs compared to conventional X-rays during examinations with contrast medium. We present selected examinations of the period October to December 1988. By a constant quality of hard copies the digital examinations are equal to conventional X-ray. Regions of little difference in density are better represented by digital luminescence radiographs. (orig.)

  11. Time estimate (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) of shutter of an X-ray equipment using a digital chronometer; Estimativa do tempo (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) do shutter de um equipamento de raios-X utilizando um cronometro digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Oliveira, P.H.T.M.; Gallo, V.F.M.; Jordao, B.O.; Carvalho, R.J., E-mail: dansq@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the measurement of time t{sub opening} + t{sub closing} opening and closing the shutter of Pantak HF160 X-ray equipment was performed. It is understood by the shutter device responsible for allowing or not the flow of X-rays that are produced by the X-ray tube through the orifice of a shield. To estimate the running time for a digital chronometer calibrated in the Time Service Division (DSHO) National Observatory (ON) was used. (author)

  12. Use of X-ray imaging for the evaluation of superconducting ceramics fabricated by the powder-in-tube method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-spatial-resolution microfocus-based X-ray imaging technology, both real-time and film, has been used to study the thickness variation that occurs in the oxide core of silver-sheathed BSCCO ribbons produced by the powder-in-tube method. This thickness variation (also called 'sausaging') occurs during incremental rolling and degrades the critical current densities of the ribbons. Using X-ray image data, we determined the onset acid severity of sausaging. Onset occurred at a ribbon thickness of 203 mu m, and the severity increased with subsequent rolling reductions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm the X-ray image data. X-ray imaging provides several advantages over more traditional methods of characterizing the superconductors, such as optical or scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray imaging provides nondestructive information about the entire width of the ribbon, with far greater speed, lower cost, and more flexibility than the traditional techniques. (author)

  13. Inspection of small multi-layered plastic tubing during extrusion, using low-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive industry uses nylon tubing with a thin ETFE (ethylene-tetrafluroethylene) inner layer to carry fuel from the tank to the engine. This fluorocarbon inner barrier layer is important to reduce the migration of hydrocarbons into the environment. Pilot Industries has developed a series of real-time inspection stations for dimensional measurements and flaw detection during the extrusion of this tubing. These stations are named LERATM (low-energy radioscopic analysis), use a low energy X-ray source, a special high-resolution image converter and intensifier (ICI) stage, image capture hardware, a personal computer, and software that was specially designed to meet this task. Each LERATM station operates up to 20 h a day, 6 days a week and nearly every week of the year. The tubing walls are 1-2 mm thick and the outer layer is nylon and the inner 0.2 mm thick layer is ethylene-tetrafluroethylene

  14. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, John A.; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A. [Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity ({approx_equal}1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session.

  15. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, John A; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-05-01

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity (approximately 1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session. PMID:19544789

  16. The impact of x-ray tube configuration on the eye lens and extremity doses received by cardiologists in electrophysiology room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domienik, J; Bissinger, A; Zmyślony, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the x-ray tube configuration on the radiation doses to eye lens and extremities of cardiologists performing pacemaker implantation procedures in electrophysiology laboratory. The measurements were performed on one, widely used, portable C-arm system, first with x-ray tube mounted above the patient table and image intensifier below it and then on a reinstalled (but essentially the same) system with under-table x-ray tube configuration. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, placed in various positions near the eye lens, on the hands and ankle, were used during every procedure. The comparison of doses received by cardiologists after changing the x-ray tube configuration from over- to under-table shows statistically significant dose reduction (p lens closest to the x-ray tube, left finger, left wrist, while for the ankle a dose increase is observed. The corresponding over- to under-table x-ray tube median dose ratios are 4.1 for the right eye, 4.8 for the left finger, 3.0 for left wrist and, finally, 0.13 for the right ankle. Systems with under-table x-ray tube are preferable from a radiation protection point of view. The observed significant increase in doses to the legs should be partially compensated by the use of a protective lead curtain. PMID:25325561

  17. The impact of x-ray tube configuration on the eye lens and extremity doses received by cardiologists in electrophysiology room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the x-ray tube configuration on the radiation doses to eye lens and extremities of cardiologists performing pacemaker implantation procedures in electrophysiology laboratory. The measurements were performed on one, widely used, portable C-arm system, first with x-ray tube mounted above the patient table and image intensifier below it and then on a reinstalled (but essentially the same) system with under-table x-ray tube configuration. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, placed in various positions near the eye lens, on the hands and ankle, were used during every procedure. The comparison of doses received by cardiologists after changing the x-ray tube configuration from over- to under-table shows statistically significant dose reduction (p < 0.009) for the eye lens closest to the x-ray tube, left finger, left wrist, while for the ankle a dose increase is observed. The corresponding over- to under-table x-ray tube median dose ratios are 4.1 for the right eye, 4.8 for the left finger, 3.0 for left wrist and, finally, 0.13 for the right ankle. Systems with under-table x-ray tube are preferable from a radiation protection point of view. The observed significant increase in doses to the legs should be partially compensated by the use of a protective lead curtain. (note)

  18. Defects correction for digital dental x-ray sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong D.; Kim, Seo-Gyoo; Kim, Jongwon

    2001-05-01

    As medical imaging is adapting to the digital technology, solid imaging sensors are replacing the classical films in dental application. CCD is one of the typical image senors in this are. In the oral imaging, however, the size of image sensors should be large because there is not enough space for optical path of lens inside the mouth. The unavoidable defects are usually occurred in the large format CCD sensor. Practically it is not possible to get the defect free sensor because its cost is rapidly increasing to reduce the defects. In this paper we will present an efficient strategy to handle these defects. As the lighting is highly controllable differently from the common cameras, the controlled illumination is used to create uniform images with various levels. The local statistics in each controlled image are investigated to find defected areas. All the defected regions of each image are accumulated forming image-like representation. The defected regions are concealed with their neighbors by linear interpolation.

  19. Application of the digital technology for the X-ray television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions of decreasing radiation loads in X-ray TV units due to application of degital means of storing X-ray TV images are considered. On the basis of the theoretical analysis of the spacial frequency, time and noise parameters of the X-ray image amplifiers the authors derived expressions retating the input ratio signal/noise of the USSR manufactured URI to the intensity of the X-ray radiation dose of the transformer input. It was established that under the pulse mode of the X-ray unit and storage in the digital memory of the TV unit signal to get the needed ratio signal/noise of the output videosignal (37 dB) it is quite enough to secure on the transformer input the value of the X-ray radiation dose of 15 μR. The functional scheme of the digital unit operating in pulse and pseudodynamic modes of X-ray diagnostic units is outlined

  20. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  1. Miniature Reservoir Cathode: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2002-01-01

    We report on recent work to produce a small low power, low cost reservoir cathode capable of long life (more than 100,000 hours) at high loading (> 5 A/sq cm). Our objective is a highly manufacturable, commercial device costing less than $30. Small highly loaded cathodes are needed, especially for millimeter wave tubes, where focusing becomes difficult when area convergence ratios are too high. We currently have 3 models ranging from .060-inch diameter to. 125-inch diameter. Reservoir type barium dispenser cathodes have a demonstrated capability for simultaneous high emission density and long life. Seven reservoir cathodes continue to operate on the cathode life test facility at NSWC, Crane, Indiana at 2 and 4 amps/sq cm. They have accumulated nearly 100,000 hours with practically no change in emission levels or knee temperature.

  2. Digital signal processing gamma-ray spectrometers in high count rate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gamma-ray spectrometry the digital signal processing devices conquer the market of digital electronics. Most digital devices have some advantages, especially concerning their capability of full software control via standard connections. In our laboratories we operate DSP based systems for some years. From this experience some further main advantages were observed as stability of the energy calibration and linearity of the energy calibration over a large range of energies. The suppliers often argue that DSP based systems also have advantages concerning higher throughputs and are therefore useful especially in high count rate applications. To examine this. the performance of a digital signal processing gamma-ray spectrometry system was compared with a high end analogous device in a field of high count rate applications. Both systems were exposed to high gamma-ray fluxes. The performance was evaluated by means of dead time, dead time correction, energy resolution, energy stability and throughput. The description of the measurements and the results are presented in the following. (orig.)

  3. Influence of tandem optics and TV-tube of modern digital fluoroscopy equipments on the image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the tandem optics and the TV-tube to the image quality of 1k- and 2k-radiographs of a modern fluoroscopy equipment should be assessed on the basis of objective parameters and clinical requirements. Radiographs of different phantoms with 1k- and 2k-image matrix, different illumination point corrections (IPC) and signal gray levels were taken, examined and evaluated, in order to determine the objective image parameters and the clinical relevancy of these parameters. On the one hand, the digital images data could be used directly for evaluation; on the other hand, the radiographs could be visually evaluated by experienced radiologists within the framework of a blind study. The IPC is controlled by the aperture of the iris diaphragm and the insertion of a neutral gray filter in the tandem optics. The larger the aperture of the iris diaphragm (at constant image receiver dose) the higher were gradation, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and image homogeneity. Furthermore, the larger the aperture, the lower was the square wave response function (SWRF). The insertion of a gray filter in the tandem optics decreases gradation, SNR and homogeneity, and improves the SWRF. (orig.)

  4. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  5. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  6. A comparative experiments for tube agglutination test of pullorum antiserum with gamma ray Co60 irradiated salmonella pullorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agglutinability between naturally infected positive chicken serum of pullorum disease and hyperimmunized rabbit antiserum was compared. And the following results were obtained and summarized. On the agglutinability, Salmonella pullorum antigen which irradiated gamma-ray was better than another both formalized and heated antigen. Time of judgemented as positive titer in the tube agglutination test to the naturally infected positive chicken serum was it most suitable for 12 hours at 37°C. Agglutination titer of positive immune chicken serum against gamma-ray irradiate Salmonella pullorum were as 320 approximately 640x. (author).

  7. Improvements of visual X-ray inspection with optimized digital detector technology. Faster and more reliable inspection with High Dynamic Radiology (HDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in speed and contrast resolution of Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) and significant higher power of X-Ray tubes in combination with a small focal spot open the door to an improved visual inspection of castings for automotive and aerospace applications. The result is a film-like image quality of castings in a live view. For the new image quality the x-ray parameter have to be optimized in energy and the subject contrast has to be increased to avoid that flaws are covered by the noise in the image. HDR - high dynamic radiology - expands the local contrast in the image and transfers the grey values to the range the human inspector can separate. Due to the movement in the image the inspector gets a glas-like impression of the object and the flaws allowing him to do a decision about the 3D position of a flaw in the object. (orig.)

  8. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers in the digital era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2016-03-01

    In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km2. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and estimators for their mass. In parallel to these successes, limitations inherent in the physics of the radio signals have also become increasingly clear. In this article, we review the progress of the past decade and the current state of the field, discuss the current paradigm of the radio emission physics and present the experimental evidence supporting it. Finally, we discuss the potential for future applications of the radio detection technique to advance the field of cosmic ray physics.

  9. Novel large-area MIS-type x-ray image sensor for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameshima, Toshio; Kaifu, Noriyuki; Takami, Eiichi; Morishita, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a brand new, large-area X-ray image sensor for Digital Radiography System (DRS). The sensor utilizes a thin film transistor (TFT)/metal insulator semiconductor (MIS)-type photoelectric converter array made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The sensor has 2688 X 2688 pixels at a pitch of 160 micrometer. The active area is 17 inch X 17 inch. The sensor utilizes scintillator coupled to the array. The light generated by X-rays is detected by the MIS-type photoelectric converters, and the resultant signals are scanned out by switching the TFTs. The a-Si TFT/MIS-type photoelectric converter array is characterized by high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and simple fabrication process. We will describe the principle and the performance of the sensor. In addition, we will present some X-ray images of a human subject obtained with this sensor. Dynamic range of the sensor covers most of the exposure range for radiography. SNR is limited almost only by the X-ray photon noise. MTF is sufficient for digital chest radiography. X-ray images have good contrast. The experimental results and obtained images show that the brand new sensor has great advantages for replacing X-ray film. The simple fabrication process of the sensor promises high productivity and low cost of DRS.

  10. A performance evaluation system for photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive performance evaluation system for Photomultiplier tubes has been built up. The system is able to review diverse cathode and anode properties for PMTs with different sizes and dimensions. Relative and direct methods were developed for the quantum efficiency measurement and the results are consistent with each other. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional scanning platforms were built to test both the cathode and anode uniformity for either the plane type or spherical type photocathode. A Flash Analog-to-Digital Convertor module is utilized to achieve high speed waveforms sampling. The entire system is highly automatic and flexible. Details of the system and some typical experimental results are presented in this paper

  11. Resolution enhancement in digital x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a restoration method for radiographs that enhances image sharpness and reveals bone microstructures that were initially hidden in the soft-tissue glare. The method is two fold: the image is first deconvolved using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and is then divided with a signal modelling the soft-tissue distribution to increase the overall contrast. Each step has its own merits but the power of the restoration method lies in their combination. The originality of the method is its reliance on a priori information at each step in the processing. We have measured and modelled analytically the point-spread function of a low-dose gas microstrip x-ray detector at several beam energies. We measured the relationship between the local image intensity and the noise variance for these images. The soft-tissue signal was also modelled using a minimum-curvature filtering technique. These results were then combined into an image deconvolution procedure that uses wavelet filtering to reduce restoration noise while keeping the enhanced small-scale features. The method was applied successfully to images of a human-torso phantom and improved the contrast of small details on the bones and in the soft tissues. We measured a mean 54% increase in signal to noise ratio and a mean 105% increase in contrast to noise ratio in the 70 and 140 kVp images we analysed. The method was designed to facilitate the analysis of radiographs by relying on two levels of visual inspection. The contrast of the full image is first enhanced by division with the signal modelling the soft-tissue distribution. Based on the result, a radiologist might decide to zoom in on a given image section. The full restoration method is then applied to that region of interest. Indeed, full image deconvolution is often unnecessary since enhanced small-scale details are not visible at large scale; only the section of interest is processed which is more efficient

  12. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  13. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (DG) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the DG, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (Ki) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for DG computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for DG determination in mammography. (Author)

  14. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Based Algorithm for Digital X-ray Mammogram Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mutihac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basics of Bayesian statistics in inverse problems using the maximum entropy principle are summarized in connection with the restoration of positive, additive images from various types of data like X-ray digital mammograms. An efficient iterative algorithm for image restoration from large data sets based on the conjugate gradient method and Lagrange multipliers in nonlinear optimization of a specific potential function was developed. The point spread function of the imaging system was determined by numerical simulations of inhomogeneous breast-like tissue with microcalcification inclusions of various opacities. The processed digital and digitized mammograms resulted superior in comparison with their raw counterparts in terms of contrast, resolution, noise, and visibility of details.

  15. Efficient hardware-software co-implementation of a digital dental x-ray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong D.; Kim, Seo-Gyoo; Kim, Jongwon

    2001-05-01

    In this paper the design considerations for a digital dental x-ray system is discussed where a commercial CCD sensor is adopted. Especially the system should be able to work with several x-ray machines even with them for the classical film. The hardware-software co-design methodology is employed to optimize the system. The full digital implementation is assumed for the reliability of the system. The considered functions cover the pre-processing such as the exposure detection, clamping and the dark level correction and the post-processing such as gray level compensation. It is analyzed with some other constraints in order to make the final partition. The entire system based on the partition will be described.

  16. An application specific integrated circuit and data acquisition system for digital X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition system for digital X-ray imaging. The chip consists of 16 parallel channels, each containing preamplifier, shaper, comparator and a 16 bit counter. We have demonstrated noiseless single-photon counting over a threshold of 7.2 keV using Silicon detectors and are presently capable of maximum counting rates of 2 MHz per channel. The ASIC is controlled by a personal computer through a commercial PCI card, which is also used for data acquisition. The content of the 16 bit counters are loaded into a shift register and transferred to the PC at any time at a rate of 20 MHz. The system is non-complicated, low cost and high performance and is optimised for digital X-ray imaging applications. (orig.)

  17. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  18. Development and evaluation of a four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Yi; Du Hong Lian; Li Yuan Jing; Tian Hui

    2003-01-01

    A four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed in our lab. The four flash X-ray heads and four detectors can be used to obtain four radiographic images at four time intervals of an explosion and ballistic trajectory. The cascaded imaging system mainly consists of three parts: (1) a phosphor screen to convert incident X-rays into visible photons; (2) a lens to efficiently collect visible photons emitted by the phosphor screen; and (3) a charge coupled device image sensor to obtain the visible light image. From the analysis of signal and noise propagation, the system is not X-ray quantum-limited, rather the system has secondary quantum sink at the light collecting stage. The construction of the system, theoretical and experimental analysis of performance are presented.

  19. Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation

  20. Development and evaluation of a four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed in our lab. The four flash X-ray heads and four detectors can be used to obtain four radiographic images at four time intervals of an explosion and ballistic trajectory. The cascaded imaging system mainly consists of three parts: (1) a phosphor screen to convert incident X-rays into visible photons; (2) a lens to efficiently collect visible photons emitted by the phosphor screen; and (3) a charge coupled device image sensor to obtain the visible light image. From the analysis of signal and noise propagation, the system is not X-ray quantum-limited, rather the system has secondary quantum sink at the light collecting stage. The construction of the system, theoretical and experimental analysis of performance are presented

  1. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were not...

  2. Virtual cathode microwave devices -- Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thode, L.E.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high- frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement. 58 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Virtual cathode microwave devices: Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, L. E.; Snell, C. M.

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency while in other designs the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode, a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high-frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement.

  4. Digital signal processing techniques for image reconstruction with x ray position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the acquisition and processing platform for an X ray imaging system based on position sensitive avalanche photo-diodes. The major application fields of the proposed imaging detector are nuclear and particle physics as well as medical imaging. The radiation detector consists of an HV biased Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) on a scintillation media (typically a rare gas with CF4 mixture) optically attached to a bi-dimensional position sensitive APD. The X ray radiation enters a gas tight beryllium window inducing an electron avalanche process in the vicinity of the GEM holes. The localized avalanches produce light in the visible region that is collected by the PS-APD. This device has 4 signal outputs which are fully digitized upon each trigger of an individual event through a 4 channel 8-bit, 200 MSample/s, PCI acquisition module. The position and energy of the event is then obtained from these signal through digital signal processing techniques. This digital processing approach allows for the near-optimal filtering design according to the effective noise sources in the system hence maximizing the SNR. Other advantages of a fully digital processing platform include rise time or pulse shape discrimination and real time image distortion correction. The imaging detector is currently being assembled along with configuration and software development of the 4-channel acquisition platform. (author)

  5. An analysis of factors that affect image quality deterioration in the potable x-ray examination on using digital wireless detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the development of portable digital wireless imaging system, which acquires digital radiation images by using wireless LAN telecommunications function in an easy and fast way, provides lots of convenience for people. Considering the characteristics of portable imaging tests on emergency and critical patients, this study aims to suggest guidelines for Digital wireless detector by evaluating the effect of de-centering of focus-grid and displacement of subject in detector on the quality of image. The equipments used for this study were Elmo-T6 Digital Mobile X-ray system (SIMAZU Corp.), el’Tor (14 x 17 “Wireless detector), Grid (10:1) and Chest and head phantom. After acquiring post-processing image according to dose increase and de-centering image of grid-focus and head phantom displacement image, this study compared, analyzed and evaluated these images by using a digital image analysis program by Image J. In the change of images based on dose increase, images were rough in the dose of 0.5 mAs, while there was no difference among images in the proper dose of 1∼2 mAs and, especially from 2.5 mAs, average value of pixels radically decreased, affecting contrast. Over 3 mAs, contrast dropped due to saturation phenomenon of lungs. As the result of analysis using Image J program, with the increase of displacement between focus-grid and head phantom, the frequency of low pixel value also increase, causing the outline of surface image to disappear, which in turn affects contrast. For better quality imaging, a radiographer must be aware before the time of test that the image quality can be changed based on the critical patient's posture, movement, respiration, displacement of X-ray tube and distance of imaging

  6. An analysis of factors that affect image quality deterioration in the potable x-ray examination on using digital wireless detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Young Eun; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Joo Young [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Junju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Recently the development of portable digital wireless imaging system, which acquires digital radiation images by using wireless LAN telecommunications function in an easy and fast way, provides lots of convenience for people. Considering the characteristics of portable imaging tests on emergency and critical patients, this study aims to suggest guidelines for Digital wireless detector by evaluating the effect of de-centering of focus-grid and displacement of subject in detector on the quality of image. The equipments used for this study were Elmo-T6 Digital Mobile X-ray system (SIMAZU Corp.), el’Tor (14 x 17 “Wireless detector), Grid (10:1) and Chest and head phantom. After acquiring post-processing image according to dose increase and de-centering image of grid-focus and head phantom displacement image, this study compared, analyzed and evaluated these images by using a digital image analysis program by Image J. In the change of images based on dose increase, images were rough in the dose of 0.5 mAs, while there was no difference among images in the proper dose of 1∼2 mAs and, especially from 2.5 mAs, average value of pixels radically decreased, affecting contrast. Over 3 mAs, contrast dropped due to saturation phenomenon of lungs. As the result of analysis using Image J program, with the increase of displacement between focus-grid and head phantom, the frequency of low pixel value also increase, causing the outline of surface image to disappear, which in turn affects contrast. For better quality imaging, a radiographer must be aware before the time of test that the image quality can be changed based on the critical patient's posture, movement, respiration, displacement of X-ray tube and distance of imaging.

  7. Digital X-ray microscopy of small biological samples using Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Jakůbek, J.; Sopko, V.; Žemlička, J.; Hanus, Robert

    Badajoz: Formatex, 2010 - (A. Méndez-Vilas, J.), s. 415-421. (Microscopy Book Series). ISBN 978-84-614-6189-9 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06007; GA AV ČR IAA600550614; GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : X-ray imaging * Digital radiography * Computed tomography (CT) * Photon and X-ray detectors Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. The digital penalized LMS deconvolution method for TPC X-ray polarimeter signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the Digital Penalized LMS (Least Mean Square) deconvolution method for processing the X-ray polarimeter readout electronics output signal. The deconvolution filter is used to recover the detector signal high frequency component, which is lost due to the limited bandwidth of the readout electronics. The DPLMS deconvolution method does not need to know the transfer function of the readout electronics system in advance and can restrain the deconvolution noise by using a noise constraint. In this paper, this method will be applied to process the simulation data generated by GEANT4 and the resulting photoelectron angular resolution of a X-ray polarimeter will be presented

  9. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on output characteristic of color CMOS digital image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effect of color CMOS digital image sensors was studied by accumulative radiation and single dose radiation at different γ-ray doses. The quality of the picture captured under natural lighting is very poor only at 1.2 kGy for accumulative radiation, but at 1.8 kGy for single dose radiation, showing that the radiation-induced degradation of the device performance for the sensor with accumulatively γ-ray doses is much more severe than those with single dose due to like power-on mode. (authors)

  10. Electrical analysis of a planar-type digital X-ray detector with inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-area digital X-ray image detectors are currently being investigated for medical diagnostic and non-destructive tests. In this paper, a new planar-type detector for diagnostic X-ray (using an inert gas) imaging is proposed, and its electrical characteristics are presented. Almost gas detectors are designed in the shape of a chamber, so we made a planar-type panel sample based on a plasma display panel (PDP) technique. The transparent electrodes and dielectric layer were formed on the front glass. Additionally, the bottom electrodes and dielectric layer were formed on the rear glass. Then, we injected an inert gas (xenon and helium) with various component ratios into the sample using by gas-filling equipment. We measured the dark current density and the X-ray sensitivity as functions of the electric field to investigate the electrical properties. From the results, a stabilized dark current density and a significant X-ray sensitivity were obtained. Also, the signal linearity was calculated, and a good linearity as a function of exposure dose could be realized over a wide diagnostic energy range. All linearity coefficient γ values were higher than 0.9. These results mean that the passive matrix-addressed flat panel gas detector can be used as a digital x-ray detector.

  11. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  12. Depth of quantization in signals of the digital X-ray television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological realization of image acquisition and processing in digital X-ray television in methodical dependence on the image-forming purpose places particular requirements in signal quantization. By evaluation of experimental results with simultaneous modification of a special calculation method an optimum quantization stage is ascertained with method-relevant quantization characteristic. In addition to consideration made so far in this field a self-contained solution is presented with inclusion of vision physiology and information gain. (author)

  13. Dark output characteristic of γ-ray irradiated CMOS digital imagesensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The quality of dark output images from the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) black and white (B&W) digital image sensors captured before and after γ-ray irradiation was studied. The characteristic parameters of the dark output images captured at different radiation dose, e.g. average brightness and its non-uniformity of dark output images, were analyzed by our test software. The primary explanation for the change of the parameters with the radiation dose was given.

  14. X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Characterization of Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of this report is: (1) The Xradia Micro XCT and LLNL CCAT x-ray systems are used to nondestructively characterize a variety of materials, assemblies, and reference standard components; (2) The digital radiograph (DR) and computed tomography (CT) image data may be used for metrology, quality control, and defect detection; and (3) The ability to detect and characterize imperfections leads to improvements in the manufacturing processes for assemblies

  15. The development of efficient X-ray conversion material for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an experimental method based on theory is used to develop photoconductor that can replace the a-Se currently used as X-ray conversion layer in digital mammography. This is necessary because a-Se produced by the commercial fabrication method, of physical vapor deposition, has exhibited several problems when applied to digital mammography: instability due to crystallization and defect expansion due to high operating voltages, which is called the aging effect. Therefore, our work focused on developing a method of fabricating X-ray conversion films that do not suffer from crystallization and X-ray damage and optimizing the factors affecting the properties of the candidate photoconductors in order to acquire sufficient electrical signals to detect minute calcifications. The photoconductors were initially selected after the requirements for X-ray conversion materials, such as high atomic absorption, density, band-gap energy, work function, and resistivity, were examined. We selected HgI2, PbI2, and PbO because of their basic properties. Next, we experimentally investigated the performance of film samples fabricated by sedimentation and screen printing instead of physical vapor deposition. The structure of the X-ray conversion films (e.g., the thickness, electrodes, and blocking layer) were optimized for the application of a relatively low voltage to the X-ray conversion layer. The performance of the films were morphologically and electrically evaluated under mammography X-ray exposure conditions, and compared with those of a-Se films produced by physical vapor deposition. PbO appeared to be the most suitable alternative material because its electrical properties, such as the dark current, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), did not reveal the X-ray damage problem, and thus were maintained after repeated exposure to X-rays. Although PbO showed low sensitivity to X-ray exposure, its SNR was superior to that of the other materials, which is expected

  16. Observation of X-ray intensity distribution from the anode of a fine-focus tube using Δω - Δ2θ scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A split intensity distribution from the anode of fine focus x-ray tubes probably due to tungsten deposited on the target is reported. Such a doubling of the target complicates the interpretation of Δ ω -Δ2θ intensity distributions and introduces systematic errors in the determination of lattice parameters. It is estimated that the increasing tungsten deposit affects, in time, the intensity of x-ray tubes. 4 refs., 4 figs

  17. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2016-01-01

    In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km$^{2}$. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and es...

  18. Application of the digital-mobile cardiac X-ray machine in primary PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of the digital-mobile cardiac X-ray machine in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: The analysis of 79 patients in the study group was done, who were suspected with AMI through primary PCI examination. These patients were immediately admitted into the catheter lab through the 'Green Passage'. Coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), intracoronary stent implanting (SI) and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) were performed under the digital-mobile cardiac X-ray machine (SIAS Cardiodigit 9, Italy) examination. Results: There were 79 patients who showed positive results in CAG. Primary PTCA were 79 cases, among whom underwent 74 SI. The TIMI 3 rate after the PCI was 100%. The success rate of PCI was 100%. One patient with unprotected left main disease received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). IVUS were performed on 6 patients to identify the plaque of coronary artery, choose interventional stents and evaluated effects of primary PCI. Conclusion: The small digital-mobile X-ray machine can basically meet the needs of primary PCI with complete functions being controlled more simply and quickly. Therefore, it is one of basic instruments for the 'Green Passage'. (authors)

  19. On the features of bursts of neutrons, hard x-rays and alpha-particles in the pulse vacuum discharge with a virtual cathode and self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Samoylov, I. S.; Ostashev, V. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we continue the discussion of the experimental results on the yield of DD neutrons and hard x-rays in the nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD) with a virtual cathode, which was started in the previous article of this issue, and previously (Kurilenkov Y K et al 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4375). We have considered here the regimes of very dense interelectrode aerosol ensembles, in which diffusion of even hard x-rays is found. The yield of DD neutrons in these regimes is conditioned not only by the head-on deuteron-deuteron collisions in the potential well of virtual cathode, but also by the channel of “deuteron-deuterium cluster” reaction, which exceeds overall yield of neutrons per a shot by more than an order of magnitude, bringing it up to ∼ 107/(4π). Very bright bursts of hard x-rays are also represented and discussed here. Presumably, their nature may be associated with the appearance in the NVD of some properties of random laser in the x-ray spectrum. Good preceding agreeing of the experiment on the DD fusion in the NVD with its particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provides a basis to begin consideration of nuclear burning “proton-boron” in the NVD, which will be accompanied by the release of alpha particles only. With this objective in view, there has been started the PIC-simulation of aneutronic burning of p-B11, and its preliminary results are presented.

  20. Pulse discrimination of background and gamma-ray source by digital pulse shape discrimination in a BF3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a representative method of non-destructive assay, accurate neutron measurement is difficult due to large background radiation such as γ-ray, secondary radiation, spurious pulse, etc. In a BF3 detector, the process of signal generation is different between neutron and other radiations. As the development of detection technique, all of signal data can be digitized by digital measurement method. In the previous study, Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University has developed digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method using digital oscilloscope. In this study, optimization of parameters for pulse discrimination is discussed and γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60Co source. The background signal of BF3 detector is discriminated by digital PSD system. Parameters for PSD are optimized through FOM calculation. And the γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60Co source. In the future, the performance of developed system will be tested in low and high intensity neutron field

  1. Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated

  2. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  3. A framework for optimising the radiographic technique in digital X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition to digital radiology has provided new opportunities for improved image quality, made possible by the superior detective quantum efficiency and post-processing capabilities of new imaging systems, and advanced imaging applications, made possible by rapid digital image acquisition. However, this transition has taken place largely without optimising the radiographic technique used to acquire the images. This paper proposes a framework for optimising the acquisition of digital X-ray images. The proposed approach is based on the signal and noise characteristics of the digital images and the applied exposure. Signal is defined, based on the clinical task involved in an imaging application, as the difference between the detector signal with and without a target present against a representative background. Noise is determined from the noise properties of uniformly acquired images of the background, taking into consideration the absorption properties of the detector. Incident exposure is estimated or otherwise measured free in air, and converted to dose. The main figure of merit (FOM) for optimisation is defined as the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SdNR) squared per unit exposure or (more preferably) dose. This paper highlights three specific technique optimisation studies that used this approach to optimise the radiographic technique for digital chest and breast applications. In the first study, which was focused on chest radiography with a CsI flat-panel detector, a range of kV p (50-150) and filtration (Z = 13-82) were examined in terms of their associated FOM as well as soft tissue to bone contrast, a factor of importance in digital chest radiography. The results indicated that additive Cu filtration can improve image quality. A second study in digital mammography using a selenium direct flat-panel detector indicated improved SdNR per unit exposure with the use of a tungsten target and a rhodium filter than conventional molybdenum target

  4. Development of small-diameter lead-glass-tube matrices for gamma-ray conversion in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma-ray converter for a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) positron emission tomograph is described. The converter is made of small-diameter (0.48 mm inner diameter, 0.06 mm wall thickness) lead-oxide-glass tubes fused to form a honeycomb matrix. The surfaces of the tubes are reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to provide the drift electric field for detection of the conversion electrons. The detection efficiency for a 10 mm thick converter is 6.65%, with a time resolution of 160 ns (FWHM). A scheme which will improve the spatial resolution of the tomograph by use of the self quenching streamer mode of chamber operation is described. Details of construction of the converters and the MWPC are presented, as well as the design performance of a high spatial resolution positron emission tomograph (HISPET). 40 refs., 22 figs

  5. Place of digital X-ray tomography in improving the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, lung cancer and mediastinal abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of current digital X-ray fluorography in the diagnosis of various diseases of the lung (primarily its tuberculosis and cancer, and abnormalities of the mediastinum). 2500 cases from different patient groups (those registered at dispensary or identified at screening, those with a previously verified pathology). In addition to a particularly diagnostic section organizational and methodological problems in the introduction of digital X-ray fluorography into practical public health of Russia are discussed

  6. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, U-barP, the average, U-bar, the effective, Ueff or the maximum peak, UP tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average U-bar or the average peak, U-barp voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak kPPV,kVp and the average kPPV,Uav conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated - according to the proposed method - PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from U-barp and U-bar measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  7. The function-transferring model construction for X-ray digital radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is aimed at presenting a renovated model-building method of transfer function for industrial X-ray digital radiography based on the amorphous silicon X-ray flat-panel detector. The system, known as point-spreading function (PSF), is composed of three parts: the system geometrical dispersion with a non-spot power source, the scintillating screen dispersion and the aperture sampling of the pixel detector. For the innovation purpose, we have first of all established a mathematical simulation of the PSF and the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the basis of analyzing the intensity distribution of X-ray penetration area in each part and by taking Gaussian functions as a mathematical equation for depicting the transfer behavior of each part of the system. And, then, we have worked out the approximately effective bandwidth of the system from its half-wave width. And, finally, by taking the digital radiography based on the flat-panel detector for sampling, the paper has provided a theoretical foundation for the industrial X-ray radiographic testing and measurement operation. In addition, the author has also estimated the validation of the model through experiments and proved that the method helps to make high resolutions of the diacritical tiniest details in the work-pieces, which has shown and will show its technical rationality, technical appropriateness and practical working value

  8. Modeling of life deterioration by ion bombardment of a dispenser cathode coated with an Ir/W film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Shigehiko; Kudo, Hiroshi; Murata, Hirotaka

    2002-11-01

    We have developed the calculation method for ion bombardment traces. When an M type dispenser cathode is operated in a cathode ray tube (CRT), the surface coating film is subjected to ion bombardment due to ionized residual gas. With long-time use, the coating film is dissipated and a change to an S type occurs. This occurrence of an S type causes a deterioration of emission and focus characteristics. A method for calculating the life time dependency of the shape of ion bombardment traces using the degree of vacuum in the tube, the grid voltage, and the cathode current was studied. The calculated results and measured results were in close agreement. As a result, it was confirmed that modeling is possible using (1) an electron and ion beam trajectory calculation program, and (2) formulas for calculating the ionization cross-section and sputtering yield.

  9. X-ray light valve (XLV): a novel detectors' technology for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovici, Sorin; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Oakham, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A novel method, based on X-ray Light Valve (XLV) technology, is proposed for making good image quality yet inexpensive flat panel detectors for digital mammography. The digital mammography markets, particularly in the developing countries, demand quality machines at substantially lower prices than the ones available today. Continuous pressure is applied on x-ray detectors' manufacturers to reduce the flat panel detectors' prices. XLV presents a unique opportunity to achieve the needed price - performance characteristics for direct conversion, x-ray detectors. The XLV based detectors combine the proven, superior, spatial resolution of a-Se with the simplicity and low cost of liquid crystals and optical scanning. The x-ray quanta absorbed by a 200 μm a-Se produce electron - hole pairs that move under an electric field to the top and bottom of a-Se layer. This 2D charge distribution creates at the interface with the liquid crystals a continuous (analog) charge image corresponding to the impinging radiation's information. Under the influence of local electrical charges next to them, the liquid crystals twist proportionally to the charges and vary their light reflectivity. A scanning light source illuminates the liquid crystals while an associated, pixilated photo-detector, having a 42 μm pixel size, captures the light reflected by the liquid crystals and converts it in16 bit words that are transmitted to the machine for image processing and display. The paper will describe a novel XLV, 25 cm x 30 cm, flat panel detector structure and its underlying physics as well as its preliminary performance measured on several engineering prototypes. In particular, the paper will present the results of measuring XLV detectors' DQE, MTF, dynamic range, low contrast resolution and dynamic behavior. Finally, the paper will introduce the new, low cost, XLV detector based, digital mammography machine under development at XLV Diagnostics Inc.

  10. X-ray acquisition and electronic digital readout by charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging adapted to laser-matter interaction experiments consists in recording plasma images from its X-ray emission; these phenomena have between 100 ps and some nanoseconds duration. Investigation of the laser-driven plasma may require the formation and the detection of two-dimensional images formed by X-ray microscopes or spectrometers in the soft X-ray range (from about 50 eV to some keV). To reach that purpose, we have developed and tested two opto-electronic chains. The first one is built around a small image converter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and P20 phosphor screen deposited on a fiber optic plate; the electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a C.C.D. working in the visible spectral range. The second one, designed to work below 100eV is realized with a very thin phosphor screen deposited on the fiber optic input of a visible microchannel image intensifier; the output image is then read by a C.C.D. in the same manner than previously

  11. Mitigated phase transition during first cycle of a Li-rich layered cathode studied by in operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bohang; Day, Sarah J; Sui, Tan; Lu, Li; Tang, Chiu C; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2016-02-14

    In operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) studies were conducted to investigate the phase transition of Li-rich Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13)O2 and Cr-doped Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.03Cr0.10)O2 cathodes during the first charge/discharge cycle. Crystallographic (lattice parameters) and mechanical (domain size and microstrain) information was collected from SXPD full pattern refinement. It was found that Cr substitution at Co-site benefits in suppressing the activation of Li2MnO3 domains upon 1st charge, and thus mitigates the phase transition. As a consequence, Cr-doped layered cathode holds a better reversibility in terms of a full recovery of both lattice parameters and nano-domain size after a whole charge/discharge cycle. The effects of different cycling rates on the structural change were also discussed. PMID:26799191

  12. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.)

  13. Organization of digital X-ray fluorography of the lung and its introduction into the health care services of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on two-years operation of digital low-dose X-ray apparatus, the most optimum ways are considered for organizing lung investigations using digital X-ray fluorography (DXF) and their introduction into the health service practice in Russia as well as further investigations on the details of their diagnostic efficiency. It is shown that the DXF of lungs is an essential supplement to available techniques for the diagnosis of lung pathology. Monitor method for imaging possesses an advantage over the film methods and printing. Conversion from film fluorography to more prospective digital one is recommended to be realized in the near future

  14. Advances in electrometer vacuum tube design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Single-ended, miniature-cathode tube with a relatively low grid current level is constructed. Adequate cathode temperature at relatively low heater power drain is provided by designing the supporting spacers to provide a square cathode hole. Method of assembling the mount and bonding the elements is discussed.

  15. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one

  16. X-ray film digitization using a personal computer and hand-held scanner: a simple technique for storing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a simple, low-cost technique for the digitization of X-ray films for personal use. A 66-MHz 486 PC with 8 MB of RAM, a Logitech ScanMan 256 hand-held scanner and a standard negatoscope with the power source converted to direct current. Although the system was originally designed for the digitization of mammographies, it has also been used with computed tomography, magnetic resonance, digital angiography and ultrasonographic images, as well as plain X-rays. After a minimal training period, the system digitized X-ray films easily and rapidly. Although the scanning values vary depending on the type of image to be digitized, an input spatial resolution of 200 dpi and a contrast resolution of 256 levels of gray are generally adequate. Of the storage formats tested, JPEG presented the best quality/image size ratio. A simple, low-cost technique has been developed for the digitization of X-ray films. This technique enables the storage of images in a digital format, thus facilitating their presentation and transmission. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Dependence of effective linear attenuation coefficient on X-ray tube voltage ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical importance of the effective linear coefficient of attenuation μ-bar is described and the basic mathematical relations derived. A calculation program was written for calculating μ-bar. Tabulated are analytical waveforms of voltage U(t) and current i(t) for the tube of the given types of generator. (E.S.). 1 tab., 1 ref

  18. Dose distribution around a needle-like anode X-ray tube: Dye-film vs. planar thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry around the X-ray tube with a needle-like anode (NAXT), developed at the Inst. of Nuclear Studies, for interstitial brachytherapy has been performed using (1) dye films (Gafchromic XR-T), (2) large-area thermoluminescent (TL) detectors - prepared either by gluing TL powder onto thin Al foil (so-called planar detectors with spatial resolution of 0.1 mm) and (3) miniature (2 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick) TL detectors. The measurements were performed in following geometries. (1) Needle inside a PMMA cylinder - the planar TL detector mounted on the surface of the cylinder. (2) Needle inside a thick block of PMMA and TL detector mounted vertically 7 mm from needle axis. TL detectors were read with the planar (2D) thermoluminescence reader, developed at IFJ, with a sensitive CCD (charge couple device) camera. Gafchromic films were evaluated with a system based on Agfa Arcus 1200 scanner and calibrated with X-rays (35 kV) filtered with 0.03 mm Mo and with Co-60 photons. The intensity distribution of TL light on the planar detector was calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, using 137Cs gamma-rays. TL planar detectors seem to be a promising tool for 2D dosimetry of miniature X-ray sources. Obtained results for TLDs and Gafchromic films seem to be comparable but differences have been found. Both methods are useful for measurements of dose distribution around the NAXT X-rays source. (authors)

  19. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  20. X-ray inspection using digital devices applied to space engines using carbon fiber case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full-text:' The VEGA European small launcher of new generation is made of four stages of which the first three are solid propellant engines of advanced technology. The long experience reached in the solid propellant Field through Ariane 3, 4 and 5 programme, identified AVIO how the manufacturer of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stage of the launcher. With the aim of minimizing launcher cost, a new technology using a low weight motor case made of carbon fiber has been developed. Other than process of fabrication also process of control are involved in the development of the new technology and, in considering the large size of the engines, the latter fall heavily on the manufacturing time and cost. In view of the reducing the recurrent cost of the launcher, AVIO is particularly interested in new technologies having the potentiality to reduce control costs. Among Non-Destructive Tests, the X-ray inspection is irreplaceable for its effectiveness, therefore improvements in X-ray imaging techniques aimed at decreasing control cost without any performance reduction, is a challenge that AVIO intends to pursue. From this point of view Digital Radiography offers good opportunity to which AVIO is looking to define the applicability to the case of interest. This paper shows the status of art and summarizes the results obtained through tests performed in collaboration with the main suppliers of digital devices working in industrial high energy X-ray NonDestructive Testing Field. (author)

  1. Screening of foods and related products for toxic elements with a portable X-ray tube analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capabilities of a portable X-ray tube-based analyzer were evaluated for screening foods, thin films, and ceramic glazes for toxic elements. A beverage spiked with Cr, Cu, and As and cocoa powder spiked with As and Pb could easily be distinguished from unadulterated products when analyzed through their original container walls. With calibration, results for thin films and ceramic glazes yielded accurate Pb results. Limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-15 and 15 μg cm-2, respectively, for Pb and Cd in thin films and about 2 μg cm-2 for Pb in glazes. With analysis times of 0.5-1 min, sensitivities and LODs were superior to those obtained with radioisotopic X-ray fluorescence analysis. (author)

  2. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in

  3. Residual stress of monoclinic zircon obtained by X-ray diffraction in ZY4 oxidized cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that in Zircaloy-4 (ZY4) oxidized samples (in steam at 400 C), at least two crystallographic structures of zircon can be found : monoclinic (stable) and tetragonal (metastable). The tetragonal structure is stabilized by the strong stress in the inner part of the oxide layer. The stress measurement of the monoclinic part in zircon oxide and the proportion of tetragonal part may contribute to understand corrosion kinetics of Zr alloys. Non-destructive measurements of residual stresses by X-ray diffraction in the external monoclinic zircon were performed directly on ZY4 oxidized cladding tube. The monoclinic zircon has a compressive stress that increase with oxidation duration up to about -600 MPa (for an oxidation time of 30 days) and then it becomes almost constant at about -400 MPa (for oxidation times greater than 100 days). This variation allows to confirm the kinetic transition in the oxide growth already described. Stress measurements in the metal underlying the oxide show a low level of tensile stress of about 50 MPa. There is no important changes of the stress with the oxidation time. An improved method to obtain the volume fraction of tetragonal zircon present in the oxide layers of textured tubes, is proposed. Indeed, monoclinic and tetragonal zircon are textured and classical methods, taking into account relative intensities of (111) m and (anti 111) m from monoclinic and (111)t from tetragonal structures, can not be applied directly. Pole figures have been performed and geometric corrections induced by tube interaction with X-ray radiation in classic goniometric configuration have been calculated. Preliminary quantitative results show a decrease of the proportion of tetragonal zircon in the kinetic transition zone. (orig.)

  4. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. A simple test phantom for checking X-ray tube voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and inexpensive test tool is described, for checking kV-consistency both in fluoroscopic and radiographic modes. It is designed primarily for routine checking to recognise changes in effective kV. A plexiglass body with boreholes in which copper discs of different thicknesses are inserted is depicted on a film or the TV screen via the image intensifier. Due to the very different absorption properties of copper and plexiglass the relative transparency of the copper discs changes markedly when the tube voltage is varied. The copper step-associated with a reference number-having transparency equal to the surrounding plastic can be used as a good index for tube kilovoltage. The accuracy of the visual assessment is about +-2 kV at 60 kV. (author)

  6. Performance analysis of gamma-ray-irradiated color complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance parameters of dark output images captured from color complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital image sensors before and after gamma-ray irradiation were studied. The changes of red, green and blue color parameters of dark output images with different gamma-ray doses and exposure times were analyzed with our computer software. The effect of irradiation on the response of blue color was significantly affected at a lower dose. The dark current density of the sensors increases by three orders at > 60 krad compared to that of unirradiated sensors. The maximum and minimum analog output voltages all increase with irradiation doses, and are almost the same at > 120 krad. The signal to noise ratio is 48 dB before irradiation and 35 dB after irradiation of 180 krad. The antiradiation threshold for these sensors is about 100 krad. The primary explanation for the changes and the degradation of device performance parameters is presented. (author)

  7. Digital Pulse Processor for ION Beam Microprobe and Micro X Ray Fluorescence 2-D and 3-D Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, the implementation of optimal pulse processing in nuclear spectrometry was only possible with analogue electronic components. Following the development of fast analogue to digital converters, field programmable gate arrays, and digital signal processors, it became feasible to digitize pulses after a preamplifier or phototube and process them in a real time. Therefore, digital electronics, which were limited to data storage and control of the acquisition process, became feasible for signal processing as well. This brought numerous benefits, such as better energy resolution with higher data throughput, reduced size, easier upgrading, the ability to automate adjustment and control of the complete data acquisition process, and self-diagnostic capability. In the same time, evaluation of the Electronic Design Automation tools and Intellectual Property industry enables a System-On-a-Chip paradigm on high density reprogrammable devices and allows new approach for system level design. Such a design provides opportunity for small laboratories to develop a compact 'all digital' customized instrumentation. In this work, we presented a design of FPGA IP core for high resolution, digital X ray, γ ray or particle spectrometry using high level FPGA design tool (Xilinx System Generator and Matlab - Simulink). The IP core has been used to build a simple low cost digital spectrometer (Spartan 3 FPGA based) and advance system for ion beam microprobe and X ray fluorescence 2-D and 3-D imaging. (Virtex 4 FPGA based). (author)

  8. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  9. Finite element calculation and direct x-ray diffraction measurement of residual stresses induced by an hydraulic expansion in steam generator tubes during the sleeving process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When installing an internal sleeve to repair a steam generator tube, it is usual to expand the sleeve locally by means of an internal pressure, in order to put it into contact with the tube before welding. This process induces residual stresses in the parent tube, near the end of the contact zone, even if the residual bulging is very small. This study is aimed at assessing the residual stresses as a function of that bulging and of the respective mechanical properties of the materials. An analytical approach based on finite element calculations and an experimental one by x-ray diffraction have been used to evaluate the residual stresses

  10. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  11. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yongjian [X-ray Products, Varian Medical Systems Inc., Liverpool, New York 13088 (United States); Wang, Jue [Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  12. Measuring device for fast determination of the tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of X-ray units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, T.; Eickelkamp, U.; Jakschik, J.

    1982-11-01

    A prototype of a measuring device is described, which reads the tube peak voltage and the switch-on time of X-ray units by means of two radiation detectors with different energy dependences due to detector materials. (Caesium iodine and silicon). With a storage oscilloscope the curves of the tube voltage and the relative absorbed dose rate of intensifying screens can be displayed. The measuring range of the tube peak voltage is 60 kV to 150 kV. It is possible to measure exposure times of radiography equipment above 2 ms with sufficiently low uncertainty. The tube peak voltage has been read with a relative uncertainty below 5% for almost all dose rates, which arise in practical application of medical X-ray units, and its calibration is made by means of X-ray apparatus with tube voltage reading, which has been compared to a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The stability of tube voltage reading of the measuring device is only effected by radiation damage of the detectors after a long time of utilization. The small diameter of the probe permits the accomodation of other probes, ionization chambers, phantoms, etc. in the radiation field at the same time.

  13. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. PMID:27239987

  14. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  15. X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun at UTNL

    CERN Document Server

    Fukasawa, Atsushi; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Kennichi; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakae, Hisaharu; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji

    2005-01-01

    The X-band (11.424 GHz) linac for compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source are under construction at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. This linac designed to accelerate up to 35 MeV, and this electron beam will be used to produce hard X-ray by colliding with laser. It consists of a thermionic cathode RF gun, an alpha magnet, and a traveling wave tube. The gun has 3.5 cells (unloaded Q is 8250) and will be operated at pi-mode. A dispenser cathode is introduced. Since the energy spread of the beam from the gun is predicted to be broad due to the continuous emission from the thermionic cathode, a slit is placed in the alpha magnet to eliminate low energy electrons. The simulation on the injector shows the beam energy 2.9 MeV, the charge 23 pC/bunch, and the emittance less than 10 mm.mrad. The experiment on the gun is planed in the beginning of 2005, and the details will be discussed on the spot.

  16. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering and Management

    2005-05-01

    For superheater tubes, the adherence of the inner steamside oxide is especially important as spallation of this oxide results in a) blockage of loops which cause insufficient steam flow through the superheaters and subsequently overheating and tube failure and b) spalled oxide can cause erosion of turbine blades. Oxide spallation is a serious problem for austenitic steels where the significant differences of the thermal expansion coefficients of steel and oxide cause relatively high thermal stresses. Usually, various oxides layered within the scale are suggested from microscopical observations of the morphology and/or topography of the oxide scale accompanied by the analysis of chemical elements present. Reports about the application of X-ray diffraction on the study of steamside oxide formation are very scarce in literature. If applied at all, XRD-studies are restricted to ideally flat samples oxidized under laboratory conditions, but relation to real operating conditions and the effect of the real sample geometry is missing. Within the frame of the project, steamside oxides on plant exposed components of ferritic/ martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 as well as fine- and coarse-grained austenitic TP347H were studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Depth dependent phase analysis on sample segments cut from the tubes was carried out by means of grazing incidence diffraction and, in order to obtain information from a larger depth, conventional XRD was combination with stepwise mechanical removal of the steamside oxides. After each removal step phase analysis was performed both on the segments and on the removed powders. Phase specific stress analysis was carried out on rings cut from the tube. Results show that steamside oxides on X20CrMoV12-1 consist of pure Hematite at the surface followed by a relatively thick layer of pure Magnetite. Both phases are under relatively high tensile stresses. While the phase composition of the Hematite layer appears to be the same for all

  17. Non-invasive high voltage digital meter for x-ray generators of medical use. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the assembly of a X-ray monitoring equipment. For detecting radiation a PIN photodiode is used, producing an analog signal which is converted into a digital format, compared and stored and finally presented along two decimal digits through an AVR microcontroller device from Atmel fabrication. This unit is prepared to operate with batteries of 9 V and is totally portable. (orig.)

  18. Dose distribution around a needle-like anode X-ray tube: dye-film vs. planar thermoluminescent detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; Marczewska, B; Czopyk, L; Slapa, M; Stras, W; Traczyk, M; Talejko, M

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetry around the X-ray tube with a needle-like anode (NAXT), developed at the Institute of Nuclear Studies, for interstitial brachytherapy has been performed using (1) dye films (Gafchromic XR-T), (2) large-area thermoluminescent (TL) detectors--prepared either by gluing TL powder onto thin Al foil (so-called planar detectors with spatial resolution of 0.1 mm) and (3) miniature (2 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick) TL detectors. The measurements were performed in following geometries. (1) Needle inside a PMMA cylinder--the planar TL detector mounted on the surface of the cylinder. (2) Needle inside a thick block of PMMA and TL detector mounted vertically 7 mm from needle axis. TL detectors were read with the planar (2D) thermoluminescence reader, developed at IFJ, with a sensitive CCD (charge couple device) camera. Gafchromic films were evaluated with a system based on Agfa Arcus 1200 scanner and calibrated with X rays (35 kV) filtered with 0.03 mm Mo and with Co-60 photons. The intensity distribution of TL light on the planar detector was calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, using (137)Cs gamma-rays. TL planar detectors seem to be a promising tool for 2D dosimetry of miniature X-ray sources. Obtained results for TLDs and Gafchromic films seem to be comparable but differences have been found. Both methods are useful for measurements of dose distribution around the NAXT X-rays source. PMID:16614087

  19. Gray-scale transform and evaluation for digital x-ray chest images on CRT monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Isao; Suzuki, Junji; Ono, Sadayasu; Kitamura, Masayuki; Ando, Yutaka

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an experimental evaluation of a super high definition (SHD) imaging system for digital x-ray chest images is presented. The SHD imaging system is proposed as a platform for integrating conventional image media. We are involved in the use of SHD images in the total digitizing of medical records that include chest x-rays and pathological microscopic images, both which demand the highest level of quality among the various types of medical images. SHD images use progressive scanning and have a spatial resolution of 2000 by 2000 pixels or more and a temporal resolution (frame rate) of 60 frames/sec or more. For displaying medical x-ray images on a CRT, we derived gray scale transform characteristics based on radiologists' comments during the experiment, and elucidated the relationship between that gray scale transform and the linearization transform for maintaining the linear relationship with the luminance of film on a light box (luminance linear transform). We then carried out viewing experiments based on a five-stage evaluation. Nine radiologists participated in our experiment, and the ten cases evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumonia. The experimental results indicated that conventional film images and those on super high definition CRT monitors have nearly the same quality. They also show that the gray scale transform for CRT images decided according to radiologists' comments agrees with the luminance linear transform in the high luminance region. And in the low luminance region, it was found that the gray scale transform had the characteristics of level expansion to increase the number of levels that can be expressed.

  20. Comparison of vessel contrast measured with a scanning-beam digital x-ray system and an image intensifier/television system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessel contrast was measured in the fluoroscopic images produced by a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system and an image intensifier/television (II/TV) based system. The SBDX system electronically scans a series of pencil x-ray beams across the patient, each of which is directed at a distant small-area detector array. The reduction in detected scatter achieved with this geometry was expected to provide an increase in image contrast. Vessel contrast was evaluated from images of a phantom containing iodinated tubes. The vessels were inserted into an acrylic stack to provide a patient-mimicking scattering medium. Vessel diameter ranged from 0.3 to 3.1 mm. Images were acquired at 100 kVp with the SBDX and II/TV systems and averaged to reduce x-ray noise. The II/TV system was operated in the 6-in. image intensifier mode with an anti-scatter grid. The increase in contrast in the SBDX images, expressed as a ratio of the measured SBDX and II/TV contrasts, ranged from 1.63 to 1.79 for individual vessels. This agreed well with a prediction of the contrast improvement ratio for this experiment, based on measurements of the scatter fraction, object-plane line spread functions, and consideration of the source spectrum and detector absorption properties. The predicted contrast improvement ratio for SBDX relative to II/TV images was 1.62 to 1.77

  1. Flash vacuum-ultraviolet generator having a mercury-anode tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Oizumi, Teiji; Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1995-09-01

    The fundamental studies on a flash vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) generator for producing water- window x rays are described. this generator consisted of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion-type high-voltage pulser having a 15 nF condenser, a thyristor pulser as a trigger device, a turbo molecular pump, and a VUV tube. The VUV tube employed a mercury anode, and the ferrite cathode was embedded in the anode. The pressure in the tube was primarily determined by the steam pressure of mercury as a function of temperature. The condenser in the pulser was charged from -10 to -30 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the radiation tube after closing a gap switch by the thyristor pulser. As the high electron flows from the cathode electrode evaporated the anode electrode, VUV rays were then produced. The maximum output voltage from the pulser was approximately -1 times the charging voltage, and both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations. The maximum values of the tube voltage and current were 14 kV and 2.0 kA, respectively. Since the effective accelerating voltage was substantially decreased by the ferrite cathode, soft x rays were easily generated. The pulse durations of the VUV rays including water-window x rays were nearly equivalent to those of the damped oscillations of the voltage and current, and their values were less than 15 microsecond(s) .

  2. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model using a common X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies that investigate the radiation of human tumour xenografts require an appropriate radiation source and highly standardized conditions during radiation. This work reports on the design of standardized irradiation device using a commercially available X-ray tube with a custom constructed lead collimator with two circular apertures and an animal bed plate, permitting synchronous irradiation of two animals. Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat model were investigated. Procedures and results described herein prove the feasibility of use of the device, which is applicable for any investigation involving irradiation of non-tumorous and tumorous lesions in small animals. (author)

  3. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model using a common X-ray tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Tokalov; W Enghardt; N Abolmaali

    2010-06-01

    Studies that investigate the radiation of human tumour xenografts require an appropriate radiation source and highly standardized conditions during radiation. This work reports on the design of a standardized irradiation device using a commercially available X-ray tube with a custom constructed lead collimator with two circular apertures and an animal bed plate, permitting synchronous irradiation of two animals. Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat model were investigated. Procedures and results described herein prove the feasibility of use of the device, which is applicable for any investigation involving irradiation of non-tumorous and tumorous lesions in small animals.

  4. A high-precision X-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS Muon Monitored Drift Tube Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, S; Banhidi, Z; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lampl, W; Marchesotti, M; Rangod, Stephane; Sbrissa, E; Smirnov, Y; Voss, Rüdiger; Woudstra, M; Zhuravlov, V

    2004-01-01

    A dedicated X-ray tomograph has been developed at CERN to control the required wire placement accuracy of better than 20mum of the 1200 Monitored Drift Tube Chambers which make up most of the precision chamber part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The tomograph allows the chamber wire positions to be measured with a 2mum statistical and 2mum systematic uncertainty over the full chamber cross-section of 2.2 multiplied by 0.6m**2. Consistent chamber production quality over the 4-year construction phase is ensured with a similar to 15% sampling rate. Measurements of about 70 of the 650 MDT chambers so far produced have been essential in assessing the validity and consistency of the various construction procedures.

  5. Transmission diffraction-tomography system using a high-energy X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, D J; Jenneson, P M; Crook, R; Vincent, S M

    2010-01-01

    A high-energy bench-top energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system for 3-dimensional mapping of the crystalline structure and phase transformations in steel is described, for which preliminary data and system development are presented here. The use of precision tungsten slit screens with up to 225 keV X-rays allows for diffraction through samples of 304 L austenitic stainless steel of thickness 3-10 mm, while sample positioning is carried out with a precision goniometer and translation stage system. PMID:19962905

  6. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.

    2014-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ˜6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  7. Fast generation of digitally reconstructed radiograph through an efficient preprocessing of ray attenuation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafurian, Soheil; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Tan, Virak; Li, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) are a simulation of radiographic images produced through a perspective projection of the three-dimensional (3D) image (volume) onto a two-dimensional (2D) image plane. The traditional method for the generation of DRRs, namely ray-casting, is a computationally intensive process and accounts for most of solution time in 3D/2D medical image registration frameworks, where a large number of DRRs is required. A few alternate methods for a faster DRR generation have been proposed, the most successful of which are based on the idea of pre-calculating the attenuation value of possible rays. Despite achieving good quality, these methods support a limited range of motion for the volume and entail long pre-calculation time. In this paper, we propose a new preprocessing procedure and data structure for the calculation of the ray attenuation values. This method supports all possible volume positions with practically small memory requirements in addition to reducing the complexity of the problem from O(n3) to O(n2). In our experiments, we generated DRRs of high quality in 63 milliseconds with a preprocessing time of 99.48 seconds and a memory size of 7.45 megabytes.

  8. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  9. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on...... collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  10. Liquid metal anode X-ray tubes and their potential for high continuous power operation

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, G; David, B

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of electron-impact X-ray source is described in which X-rays are produced in a turbulently flowing liquid metal that is separated from the vacuum region of the X-ray source by a thin membrane. Following a summary of the physics of electron and photon transport applicable to the liquid metal anode X-ray (LIMAX), the three diffusion processes responsible for thermal transport in (electron diffusion, heat conduction and turbulent mixing) are briefly discussed and their relative importance is quantitatively assessed. A simple Gaussian model is presented allowing the characteristic ranges of the three diffusion processes to be combined into a mean total diffusion range. The extent to which heat diffuses in the time taken for the liquid metal stream to pass the electron focus permits the loadability (electron beam power density per unit maximum anode temperature rise) of the turbulently flowing liquid metal target to be assessed. A description of an experimental LIMAX facility constructed in these labo...

  11. Cooling evaporating-condensation type system for X-ray tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gershuni A. N.; Nishchik A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of the X-ray emitter cooling system, based on dielectric heat pipes are shown. The cooling system combines the high efficiency of heat transfer and electrical insulating properties at voltages of 100 kV.

  12. Comparison of simulated and measured spectra from an X-ray tube for the energies between 20 and 35 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, M.; Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Ozben, C.S.; Yücel, E. Barlas, E-mail: barlase@itu.edu.tr

    2015-11-01

    Design and production of a simple and low cost X-ray imaging system that can be used for light industrial applications was targeted in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In this study, production, transmission and detection of X-rays were simulated for the proposed imaging device. OX/70-P dental tube was used and X-ray spectra simulated by Geant4 were validated by comparison with X-ray spectra measured between 20 and 35 keV. Relative detection efficiency of the detector was also determined to confirm the physics processes used in the simulations. Various time optimization tools were performed to reduce the simulation time.

  13. Cyberbullying of Teachers by Students on YouTube: Challenging the Image of Teacher Authority in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the cyberbullying of teachers in schools by their students. One aspect of this phenomenon is the posting of visual recordings of teachers and teacher-student interaction on easily accessible websites such as YouTube. Whilst research on the cyberbullying of students by other students has received a great deal of…

  14. Multifunction Digital Research Scanning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multifunction digital research scanning system is a modularly constructed organ visualization system. The design objective of this system is quantification of organ visualization data, i.e. μCi/g. It is a high-speed (500 cm/min), 14-crystal, digital rectilinear scanner built as a special-purpose hard-wired computer. The two synchronous detector heads, one beneath and one above the scantable, each consisting of a linear array of seven, 3-in. x 2-in. NaI(Tl) crystals, each crystal having its own focused collimator. Each 7-detector array can be independently moved in the vertical direction. The exact position of the detectors is known at all times by the use of an absolute 13-bit shaft angle encoder along the longitudinal axis of the scantable and a programmable SloSyn motor across the table. Anatomical landmarks may be programmed into the system and automatically recognized when the detector passes over these points. The scan field is 198 cm long by 62 cm wide with a position resolution of 0.14 cm. The primary scan motion is along the longitudinal axis of the table and the detectors are indexed across the table. The scan image is built up seven lines at a time, allowing the total scanfield to be visualized with each pass of the detectors. Each crystal has its own 8-bit or 12-bit counter with buffer storage. A single fast pulse-height analyser (200 nsec. random pulse-pair resolution) is used for all 14 crystals using a time-sharing 'cueing' technique. The major components of the system consist of the mechanical scanning frame and position encoders; radiation detectors, coincidence circuitry and nuclear instrumentation; counters and buffer storage; anatomical landmark recognition section; arithmetic section; program control logic; system control logic; output control logic and the output devices. At present, the output devices consist of digital cathode-ray tubes, a storage scope, an IBM l/O writer and a Kennedy incremental read-write magnetic tape recorder. This

  15. Spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray tubes using laplace inverse transform of the attenuation curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malezan, A.; Tomal, A.; Antoniassi, M.; Watanabe, P. C. A.; Albino, L. D.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a spectral reconstruction methodology for diagnostic X-ray, using Laplace inverse transform of the attenuation, was successfully applied to dental X-ray equipments. The attenuation curves of 8 commercially available dental X-ray equipment, from 3 different manufactures (Siemens, Gnatus and Dabi Atlante), were obtained by using an ionization chamber and high purity aluminium filters, while the kVp was obtained with a specific meter. A computational routine was implemented in order to adjust a model function, whose inverse Laplace transform is analytically known, to the attenuation curve. This methodology was validated by comparing the reconstructed and the measured (using semiconductor detector of cadmium telluride) spectra of a given dental X-ray unit. The spectral reconstruction showed the Dabi Atlante equipments generating similar shape spectra. This is a desirable feature from clinic standpoint because it produces similar levels of image quality and dose. We observed that equipments from Siemens and Gnatus generate significantly different spectra, suggesting that, for a given operating protocol, these units will present different levels of image quality and dose. This fact claims for the necessity of individualized operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose. The proposed methodology is suitable to perform a spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray equipments from the simple measurements of attenuation curve and kVp. The simplified experimental apparatus and the low level of technical difficulty make this methodology accessible to a broad range of users. The knowledge of the spectral distribution can help in the development of operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose.

  16. Ion bombardment investigations of impregnated cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; Gaertner, Georg

    2003-06-01

    Ion bombardment is one of the important factors limiting the performance of impregnated cathodes (=Ba dispenser cathodes) in high end television tubes or in colour monitor tubes. Hence, when designing a new gun with, e.g. higher electron beam current density, it is important also to model the influence of ion bombardment. Therefore, relations between basic parameters as a function of temperature need to be known quantitatively. In this paper, the emission slump of impregnated cathodes has been analyzed in a diode configuration in UHV with a differentially pumped Ar ion gun. The emission degeneration during and regeneration periods after ion bombardment have been investigated as function of cathode temperature, ion current and ion energy. One of the important results is, that the degeneration time coefficient is only weakly dependent on ion energy. The data matrix obtained can be used to improve the ion bombardment model applied in new electron gun design.

  17. Ion bombardment investigations of impregnated cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion bombardment is one of the important factors limiting the performance of impregnated cathodes (=Ba dispenser cathodes) in high end television tubes or in colour monitor tubes. Hence, when designing a new gun with, e.g. higher electron beam current density, it is important also to model the influence of ion bombardment. Therefore, relations between basic parameters as a function of temperature need to be known quantitatively. In this paper, the emission slump of impregnated cathodes has been analyzed in a diode configuration in UHV with a differentially pumped Ar ion gun. The emission degeneration during and regeneration periods after ion bombardment have been investigated as function of cathode temperature, ion current and ion energy. One of the important results is, that the degeneration time coefficient is only weakly dependent on ion energy. The data matrix obtained can be used to improve the ion bombardment model applied in new electron gun design

  18. X-ray imaging using a consumer-grade digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent advancements in consumer-grade digital camera technology and the introduction of high-resolution, high sensitivity CsBr:Eu2+ storage phosphor imaging plates make possible a new cost-effective technique for X-ray imaging. The imaging plate is bathed with red stimulating light by high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and the photostimulated image is captured with a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. A blue band-pass optical filter blocks the stimulating red light but transmits the blue photostimulated luminescence. Using a Canon D5 Mk II camera and an f1.4 wide-angle lens, the optical image of a 240x180 mm2 Konica CsBr:Eu2+ imaging plate from a position 230 mm in front of the camera lens can be focussed so as to laterally fill the 35x23.3 mm2 camera sensor, and recorded in 2808x1872 pixel elements, corresponding to an equivalent pixel size on the plate of 88 μm. The analogue-to-digital conversion from the camera electronics is 13 bits, but the dynamic range of the imaging system as a whole is limited in practice by noise to about 2.5 orders of magnitude. The modulation transfer function falls to 0.2 at a spatial frequency of 2.2 line pairs/mm. The limiting factor of the spatial resolution is light scattering in the plate rather than the camera optics. The limiting factors for signal-to-noise ratio are shot noise in the light, and dark noise in the CMOS sensor. Good quality images of high-contrast objects can be recorded with doses of approximately 1 mGy. The CsBr:Eu2+ plate has approximately three times the readout sensitivity of a similar BaFBr:Eu2+ plate.

  19. Digital-to-analog converters of the X-ray spectrometers of the Kosmos-1106 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of operation and peculiarities of the structure of digital-to-analog converterr used in spectrometers of the ''Kosmos-1106'' satellite for hard X-rays are considered. The converters are used as units for matching the information double code and analog telemetric system of the satellite. The error of output analog levels of the converters is of the value not larger than 1/2 of the lowest significant order. That allows to use a computer for the scientific information processing. The results of tests of type 1841E2 micro-circuits are given, the latter were used in the circuit of the converters and operated in the regime different from the nominal one

  20. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (pvalues and the new experimental sealer radiopacity showed the lowest values (p>0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  1. A portable versatile x-and γ-ray dosemeter with digital display for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multipurpose dosemeter based on analogue-to-digital (A-D) conversion has been developed using solid state devices, micropower integrated circuits and displays. The A-D converter combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer, a voltage-to-frequency converter, the automatic Townsend balance, LED(LCD) display for exposure, analogue output and has a voltage-measuring accuracy of +-O.1% FS+-1 digit. The dosemeter which is designed to measure a wide range of X- and γ-ray exposure rates (1 mRh-1 to 1000 R min-1) and exposures (1 mR to 1000 R) with a variety of air-equivalent ionisation chambers, is compact, rugged and battery or AC mains powered. It is designed to provide trouble-free performance, easy operation and maintenance and to be independent of climatic conditions. Combining the features of a survey meter, dosemeter and a radioisotope calibrator, it can be fabricated using the facilities locally available in hospitals or universities. (author)

  2. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (p0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  3. Barium-Dispenser Thermionic Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Green, M.; Feinleib, M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved reservoir cathode serves as intense source of electrons required for high-frequency and often high-output-power, linear-beam tubes, for which long operating lifetime important consideration. High emission-current densities obtained through use of emitting surface of relatively-low effective work function and narrow work-function distribution, consisting of coat of W/Os deposited by sputtering. Lower operating temperatures and enhanced electron emission consequently possible.

  4. User certification of hand-held x-ray tube based analytical fluorescent devices in a canadian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety education aims to reduce personal injury and improve well being. This health promotion principle is applied in the case of hand-held open beam x-ray tube based analytical x-ray devices. Such devices not only are light weight and portable, but also present high radiation exposure levels at the beam exit port and potentially can be used in a variety of industrial applications for determination of material composition. There is much potential for radiation risks to occur with resultant adverse effects if such devices are not used by trained individuals within controlled environments. A level of radiation safety knowledge and understanding of the device design, construction and performance characteristics appear warranted. To reduce radiation risks, user certification at a federal level was introduced in 2004 based on International Standards Organization 20807, since that standard comprises elements commensurate with risk reduction strategies. Within these contexts, a federally certified user is deemed to have acquired a level of safety knowledge and skills to facilitate safe use of the device. Certification, however, does not absolve the holder from obligations of compliance with applicable provincial, territorial or federal laws respecting device operation. The union of federal certification and applicable legislative mandated operational criteria reduces radiation risks overall. (author)

  5. Spectral sampling of a soft X-ray tube emission by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lamellar Multilayer Amplitude Grating (LMAG) etched in a multilayer mirror was designed for an efficient use in the 1 keV region, through a multistep process involving sputtering coating, electron lithography and reactive ion etching. The multilayer structure has 115 W/B4C bilayers of 3.1 nm thickness, and the grating of period 1.33 μm has a small line-to-period ratio Γ equal to about 0.10. The properties of a LMAG illuminated in standard and conical mountings by a polychromatic radiation are given, and the concept of a ''polychromator'' based on a LMAG is presented. Taking benefit from the specific properties of a LMAG, the emission of a soft X-ray tube equipped with a copper target is spectrally analyzed with our LMAG in the Cu-L (930 eV) region in standard and conical mountings. This experiment shows that a LMAG could be an interesting spectral analyzer for short-duration X-ray sources. (orig.)

  6. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  7. The use of multilayer monochromators and rotating-anode X-ray tubes in total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) has become a powerful analytical tool for ultra trace element analysis down to the ppt - level (parts per trillion). A further improvement of the method is achieved by monoenergetic excitation of the sample using synthetic multilayer structures as monochromators. These multilayers are better suited than crystal monochromators in TXRF due to their broader relative energy bandwidth. Advantages and disadvantages of using a W/C multilayer structure in TXRF are discussed. A new multifunctional vacuum chamber was constructed to compare monoenergetic and full spectrum excitation under optimized measuring geometries using rotating and standing anode x-ray tubes as primary radiation sources. Detection limits (extrapolated for a measuring time of 1000 s) of 170 femtogram (170 x 10-15 g) were obtained for the element Mn with full spectrum excitation (rotating Cu-anode). The quantitative analysis is substantially simplified applying monoenergetic excitation since fundamental parameters from tables can be used for elemental sensitivities. No more multielement standards are necessary for establishing calibration curves. Corrections for absorption of the fluorescence radiation in the sample can be neglected due to minute sample masses in TXRF (thin film approximation). The excitation energy is tuned by the multilayer using the bremsstrahlung and characteristic lines of different anode materials (W, Mo) to obtain selective excitation of certain elements in the sample. The multilayer monochromator is compared to total-reflection high energy cut-off filters as a device for modifying the primary spectrum

  8. High Energy X-Ray Detection OF G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered By Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven E; Craig, William W; Christensen, Finn E; Gotthelf, Eric V; Harrison, Fiona A; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E>10 keV) emission from the Galactic Center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ~50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic Center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index of ~2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is ~ 2.0e-12 erg/cm^2/s, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of ~2.6e34 erg/s assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ~100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ~30 pc or molecular clouds (MC...

  9. Characterization of electron bunches from field emitter array cathodes for use in next-generation x-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSI is interested in developing an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) as a companion radiation source to the existing Swiss Light Source. In order to achieve radiation wavelengths as low as 1 Α, the X-FEL requires excellent electron beam quality and high beam energy. The energy requirements and thus the size and cost of the project can be reduced considerably if an ultra-low emittance electron source is developed. Therefore PSI has started the Low Emittance Gun Project with the aim to design a novel type of electron source that will deliver an electron beam with unprecedented emittance at high peak currents to the linear accelerator of the proposed X-FEL. A source candidate for such a gun is field emission from cold cathodes. In order to gain first experience with field emission guns, investigate the dynamics of space charge dominated electron beams and to develop diagnostics capable of resolving ultra-low emittances, it was decided to build a 100 keV DC gun test stand. In the scope of this thesis, the test stand has been designed, assembled and commissioned. For the first time, transverse phase space measurements of bunches emitted by field emitter arrays in pulsed DC accelerating fields have been performed. (author)

  10. Dynamic study of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 cathodes by in-situ tender X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongniu; Wang, Huixin; Yang, Jinli; Zhou, Jigang; Hu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Qunfeng; Fang, Haitao; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2016-01-01

    Olivine-type phosphates (LiMPO4, M = Fe, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries that are generally accepted to follow first order equilibrium phase transformations. Herein, the phase transformation dynamics of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 particles with limited rate capability at a low current density of 0.14 C was investigated. An in-situ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) measurement was conducted at the Fe and P K-edge for the dynamic studies upon lithiation and delithiation. Fe K-edge XANES spectra demonstrate that not only lithium-rich intermediate phase LixFePO4 (x = 0.6-0.75), but also lithium-poor intermediate phase LiyFePO4 (y = 0.1-0.25) exist during the charge and discharge, respectively. Furthermore, during charge and discharge, a fluctuation of the FePO4 and LiFePO4 fractions obtained by liner combination fitting around the imaginary phase fractions followed Faraday's law and the equilibrium first-order two-phase transformation versus reaction time is present, respectively. The charging and discharging process has a reversible phase transformation dynamics with symmetric structural evolution routes. P K-edge XANES spectra reveal an enrichment of PF6-1 anions at the surface of the electrode during charging.

  11. Numerical evaluation of welded tube wall profiles from scanned X-ray line source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, V.; Podobedov, D.; Ewert, U.; Redmer, B.

    2001-04-01

    This investigation presents an iterative algorithm for inversion of X-ray line scanning data of a multi-angle inspection. The main focus is the development of a robust algorithm that may successfully evaluate the influence of local surface geometry in welding regions. An idea here is to repetitively solve the forward problem with iterated profile parameters until the solution agrees with measurement. For accurate parameterization of a particular inner crack, this procedure can be combined with an analysis of the residual image obtained by subtracting the projection image caused by reconstructed surface wall profiles, from the original data.

  12. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. S.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, S. I.; Je, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R&D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  13. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. S.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, S. I.; Je, U. K. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R and D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  14. Application of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of optimal deblurring filters for dental X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited-angle tomographic technique that provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT) but at reduced dose and cost. Thus, the potential for application of DTS to dental X-ray imaging seems promising. As a continuation of our dental radiography R and D, we developed an effective DTS reconstruction algorithm and implemented it in conjunction with a commercial dental CT system for potential use in dental implant placement. The reconstruction algorithm employed a backprojection filtering (BPF) method based upon optimal deblurring filters to suppress effectively both the blur artifacts originating from the out-focus planes and the high-frequency noise. To verify the usefulness of the reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation works and evaluated the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works in which DTS images of enhanced anatomical resolution were successfully obtained by using the algorithm and were promising to our ongoing applications to dental X-ray imaging. In this paper, our approach to the development of the DTS reconstruction algorithm and the results are described in detail.

  15. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays with organic scintillation detectors in an 8-bit sampling system using frequency gradient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using frequency gradient analysis (FGA), a digital method based on Fourier transform, to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the environment of an 8-bit sampling system has been investigated. The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in a scintillation detection system using the time-domain features of the photomultiplier tube anode signal will be lower or non-effective in this low resolution sampling system. However, the FGA method using the frequency-domain features of the anode signal exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the above sampling system. A detailed study of the quality of the FGA method in BC501A liquid scintillators is presented using a 5 G samples/s 8-bit oscilloscope and a 14.1 MeV neutron generator. A comparison of the discrimination results of the time-of-flight and conventional charge comparison (CC) methods proves the applicability of this technique. Moreover, FGA has the potential to be implemented in current embedded electronics systems to provide real-time discrimination in standalone instruments. (authors)

  16. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings with alternating Zr-O and Al-O layers having a bi-layer period of 6-7 nm and total coating thickness of 1.0-1.2 μm were deposited using a cathodic vacuum arc plasma process on rotating Si substrates. Plasmas generated from two cathodes, Zr and Al, were deposited simultaneously in a mixture of Ar and O2 background gases. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings, as well as bulk ZrO2 and Al2O3 reference samples, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra were analyzed on the surface and after sputtering with a 4 kV Ar+ ion gun. High resolution angle resolved spectra were obtained at three take-off angles: 15o, 45o and 75o relative to the sample surface. It was shown that preferential sputtering of oxygen took place during XPS of bulk reference ZrO2 samples, producing ZrO and free Zr along with ZrO2 in the XPS spectra. In contrast, no preferential sputtering was observed with Al2O3 reference samples. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings contained a large amount of free metals along with their oxides. Free Zr and Al were observed in the coating spectra both before and after sputtering, and thus cannot be due solely to preferential sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Zr-O/Al-O coatings had a nano-multilayered structure with well distinguished alternating layers. However, both of the alternating layers of the coating contained of a mixture of aluminum and zirconium oxides and free Al and Zr metals. The concentration of Zr and Al changed periodically with distance normal to the coating surface: the Zr maximum coincided with the Al minimum and vice versa. However the concentration of Zr in both alternating layers was significantly larger than that of Al. Despite the large free metal concentration, the Knoop hardness, 21.5 GPa, was relatively high, which might be attributed to super-lattice formation or formation of a metal-oxide nanocomposite within the layers.

  18. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  19. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Hinshaw, Waldo; Bennett, N. Robert; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail wit...

  20. A low-cost scalable solution for digitizing analog X-rays with applications to rural healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javvadi Appanacharya, Kalyan Tej; Tatinati, Anil Kumar; Kunderu, Hari Krishna; Syed, Khalid Mohammad; Channappayya, Sumohana S; Acharyya, Amit; Tripathi, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost scalable solution for digitizing analog X-ray images with the goal of improving diagnostics in rural and remote areas, in addition to having potential applications in disaster healthcare. Our solution attempts to capitalize on the rapid gains made in cellular communication and mobile technologies. The proposed mobile application lets the user digitally acquire the analog X-ray image and apply enhancement operations to it. A novel nonlinear technique for X-ray image enhancement has been proposed and implemented in the application. Additionally, several standard enhancement techniques have also been implemented. A proof-of-concept of the proposed solution is demonstrated with an Android application running on a smartphone. Results from real-world data collected at a semi-urban hospital in India are presented. The Android application has been made available online at the fifth authors' homepage. PMID:24111479

  1. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  2. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  3. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  4. Comparison of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional X-ray of the equine digit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anatomical study of the equine digit with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed. In addition, the observed pathologic findings were compared with their diagnosticity in associated radiographs. Twenty isolated forelimbs were radiographed and compared with the according CT-images. From 19 isolated forelimbs and one hindlimb MR-images were taken using spinecho and overview gradient-echo sequences. The appearance of bone and soft tissue is described in various sectional positions. CT images allow excellent evaluation of bone tissue in cases in which the X-ray examination suffers from the superimposition of adjacent structures. Thus, in several cases of navicular disease additional findings were made using CT. An insertional desmopathy of the interosseus, a cartilagineous fetlock chip, a separation of the hoof wall and osteophytes of the distal phalanx were found with CT but not in the associated radiographs. MRI allows the specific diagnosis of joint-, ligament- and tendon diseases also in the hoof region. The possibility to evaluate the navicular region, the distal interphalangeal joint and the hoof matrix is of great diagnostic value. In one case of navicular d sease a defect of the flexor cortex with pannus formation could be diagnosed. In a case with chronical laminitis the separation of the epidermal lamellae and the growth of the scar horn were depicted. A tendinitis of the interosseus, fibrocartilage in the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon, the interosseus and in the distal sesamoid ligaments are well documented. It is concluded that in some equine patients CT and MRI are indicated due to the substantial diagnostic information. (author)

  5. The DFP 9200 Digital Noise Reducer, A Real-Time High-Resolution Digital Video Processing System For X-Ray Fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Renville H.; Baron, Stanley; Kreinik, Stephen; Epperson, Don; Kruger, Robert A.

    1981-11-01

    A dedicated digital processor is described capable of digitizing a high resolution video signal from a fluoroscopic TV camera into an 810 x 600 matrix in real time. For less demanding applications, a 512 x 512 matrix can be substituted. The sampling clock frequency is 15 Megahertz giving a Nyquist bandwidth limit of 7.5 MHz. A 7 MHz phase equalized eliptical filter at the input prevents aliasing and the production of false artifacts in the picture. Eleven bit digital processing follows an 8 bit analog to digital converter. Noise reduction is accomplished by a one frame recursive filter in which the filter coefficients are adjusted by a patented motion detector on a pixel by pixel basis to reduce motion smear. The lower perceived noise permits X-ray dose reduction of 2 to 8 times while retaining high quality pictures. A noise reduced spot picture can be frozen by a foot controlled switch permitting a further reduction of dosage and eliminating the need for a troublesome disc recorder. This noise reduced picture can also be used as a subtraction mask in an optional version of the equipment. A minimum of front panel operator controls for best human interface is accomplished by the use of a programmed read only memories to control all functions including noise reduction and frame storage.

  6. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R2>0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types of

  8. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-s.; Park, S.-J.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Lee, D.; Choi, Y.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-03-01

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R2>0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types of x-ray

  9. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, M., E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Delogu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, s.p. per Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available.

  10. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available

  11. Studies of Mn/GaAs digital alloys using x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray diffraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Y. L.; Kioseoglou, G.; Kim, S.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Kao, Y. H.; Sasaki, Y.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2002-04-01

    Local structure and effective chemical valency of Mn atoms in Mn/GaAs digital alloys have been investigated using the x-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The samples were prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy with different thickness of GaAs layers separating the nominal Mn monolayers. Lattice constants of the digital alloys are found by x-ray diffraction to increase linearly in a very narrow range (about 0.3%) with the Mn/GaAs ratio in the samples. Our data show that Mn atoms in the nominal Mn monolayers actually combine with GaAs to form (Ga, Mn)As alloys with Mn atoms substituting for the Ga sites in GaAs. This result clearly rules out the possibility of dominant MnAs formation.

  12. Novel multi-beam X-ray source for vacuum electronics enabled medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neculaes, V. Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    For almost 100 of years, commercial medical X-ray applications have relied heavily on X-ray tube architectures based on the vacuum electronics design developed by William Coolidge at the beginning of the twentieth century. Typically, the Coolidge design employs one hot tungsten filament as the electron source; the output of the tube is one X-ray beam. This X-ray source architecture is the state of the art in today's commercial medical imaging applications, such as Computed Tomography. Recently, GE Global Research has demonstrated the most dramatic extension of the Coolidge vacuum tube design for Computed Tomography (CT) in almost a century: a multi-beam X-ray source containing thirty two cathodes emitting up to 1000 mA, in a cathode grounded - anode at potential architecture (anode up to 140 kV). This talk will present the challenges of the X-ray multi-beam vacuum source design - space charge electron gun design, beam focusing to compression ratios needed in CT medical imaging applications (image resolution is critically dependent on how well the electron beam is focused in vacuum X-ray tubes), electron emitter choice to fit the aggressive beam current requirements, novel electronics for beam control and focusing, high voltage and vacuum solutions, as well as vacuum chamber design to sustain the considerable G forces typically encountered on a CT gantry (an X-ray vacuum tube typically rotates on the CT gantry at less than 0.5 s per revolution). Consideration will be given to various electron emitter technologies available for this application - tungsten emitters, dispenser cathodes and carbon nano tubes (CNT) - and their tradeoffs. The medical benefits potentially enabled by this unique vacuum multi-beam X-ray source are: X-ray dose reduction, reduction of image artifacts and improved image resolution. This work was funded in part by NIH grant R01EB006837.

  13. Improvements of visual X-ray inspection with optimized digital detector technology. Faster and more reliable inspection with High Dynamic Radiology (HDR); Erweiterung der visuellen Roentgenpruefung durch effizientere digitale Technologien. Mit HDR schneller und sicherer zum Ziel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavendiek, Klaus [YXLON International GmbH, Hattingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Improvements in speed and contrast resolution of Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) and significant higher power of X-Ray tubes in combination with a small focal spot open the door to an improved visual inspection of castings for automotive and aerospace applications. The result is a film-like image quality of castings in a live view. For the new image quality the x-ray parameter have to be optimized in energy and the subject contrast has to be increased to avoid that flaws are covered by the noise in the image. HDR - high dynamic radiology - expands the local contrast in the image and transfers the grey values to the range the human inspector can separate. Due to the movement in t