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Sample records for catheterized rhesus macaque

  1. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

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    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  2. Vicarious Reinforcement in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this...

  3. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that t...

  4. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G;

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedi...

  5. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  6. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  7. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making. PMID:21516263

  8. A radiation hybrid mapping panel for the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, W J; Page, J E; Smith, C; Desrosiers, R C; O'Brien, S J

    2001-01-01

    The genomes of nonhuman primates have recently become highly visible candidates for full genome analysis, as they provide powerful models of human disease and a better understanding of the evolution of the human genome. We describe the creation of a 5000 rad radiation hybrid (RH) mapping panel for the rhesus macaque. Duplicate genotypes of 84 microsatellite and coding gene sequence tagged sites from six macaque chromosomes produced an estimated whole genome retention frequency of 0.33. To test the mapping ability of the panel, we constructed RH maps for macaque chromosomes 7 and 9 and compared them to orthologous locus orders in existing human and baboon maps derived from different methodologies. Concordant marker order between all three species maps suggests that the current panel represents a powerful mapping resource for generating high-density comparative maps of the rhesus macaque and other species genomes. PMID:11948222

  9. Effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-BinHuang; Cheng-LiangXiong; Cheng-GaoYu; Jie-LingZhou; Ji-YunShen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of male rhesus macaque. Methods:Twenty Macaca mulatta were divided into the sildenafil treated and the control groups of l0 animals each. The penile size, the corpus cavernosal electromyogram (EMG) and the intra-corpus cavernosal pressure (ICP) were determined. Results: The diameter of penis and the ICP were significantly increased and the corpus cavernosal EMG significantly reduced in the sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate increases the penile size and ICP and reduces the corpus cavernosal EMG in male rhesus macaque. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 233-235)

  10. Variation in CCL3L1 copy number in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Taormina, Patrick L; Satkoski Trask, Jessica A; Smith, David G; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2012-06-01

    We used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology to examine copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L1 gene among pure Indian-origin, pure Chinese-origin, and hybrid Indian-Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). CNV among purebred macaques fell within expected ranges, with Indian macaques having lower copy numbers than those of Chinese macaques. Compared with the purebred macaques, Indian-Chinese hybrid rhesus macaques showed much greater variance in copy number and an intermediate average copy number. Copy numbers of CCL3L1 in rhesus macaque trios (sire, dam, and offspring) were consistent with Mendelian inheritance. PMID:22776055

  11. Demographic histories and patterns of linkage disequilibrium in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Ryan D; Hubisz, Melissa J; Wheeler, David A;

    2007-01-01

    To understand the demographic history of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and document the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genome, we partially resequenced five Encyclopedia of DNA Elements regions in 9 Chinese and 38 captive-born Indian rhesus macaques. Population genetic analyses o...

  12. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

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    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  13. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

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    Donald K. Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  14. Disease Progression Patterns of SHIV-KB9 in Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin in Comparison with Indian Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG LIU; GUI-BO YANG; HUI ZHAO; QIANG WEI; HUI XING; CHUAN QIN; YI-MING SHAO

    2008-01-01

    To develop a model of SHIV-KB9/Chinese origin rhesus (Ch Rh) macaques for vaccine research and to compare the pathogenesis of SHIV-KB9 in Ch Rh macaques with that reported in Indian rhesus (had Rh) macaques. Methods Seven mamu-A*01 negative Ch Rh macaques were inoculated intravenously with 1-10000 MID of SHIV-KB9. The monkeys were monitored for viral load, CD4, CD8, SHIV-specific antibody and virus genetic variation. The results were compared with those previously observed in Ind Rh macaques. Results As compared to that observed in Ind Rh macaques, SHIV-KB9 in Ch Rh macaques displayed three identical disease progression patterns. However, the primary pattern was not identical between the two subspecies. The level of plasma viremia differed in SHIV-KB9-infected Ch Rh macaques which exhibited different outcomes from those in Ind Rh macaques. Generally, the values of viral load and the maintenance of CD4 T cells were associated with humoral responses. Otherwise, the viral genetic distances (divergence, diversity) were larger in animals (M419, M425) with their CD4T cells profoundly depleted. Conclusion The model of SHIV-KB9/Ch Rh macaques displays a relatively slow progression to AIDS compared with Ind Rh macaques, which may more accurately reflect the potential ofcandidate vaccines in humans.

  15. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

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    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  16. Spectral characteristics of the newborn rhesus macaque EEG reflect functional cortical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ross E. Vanderwert; Ferrari, Pier F.; Paukner, Annika; Bower, Seth B.; Fox, Nathan A.; SUOMI, STEPHEN J

    2012-01-01

    Brain electrical activity is one means of assessing neural development in awake, reactive infants. The development of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the first week of infant rhesus macaque life is poorly understood though recent work has demonstrated the utility of using this measure to assess neural responses to biologically meaningful stimuli. Here we report on the emergence of EEG rhythms in one-week-old infant rhesus macaques under both light and dark conditions. Our data show that the...

  17. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong;

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  18. Crossmodal integration of conspecific vocalizations in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Payne

    Full Text Available Crossmodal integration of audio/visual information is vital for recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to social signals. Here we examined how rhesus macaques process bimodal species-specific vocalizations by eye tracking, using an unconstrained preferential looking paradigm. Six adult rhesus monkeys (3M, 3F were presented two side-by-side videos of unknown male conspecifics emitting different vocalizations, accompanied by the audio signal corresponding to one of the videos. The percentage of time animals looked to each video was used to assess crossmodal integration ability and the percentages of time spent looking at each of the six a priori ROIs (eyes, mouth, and rest of each video were used to characterize scanning patterns. Animals looked more to the congruent video, confirming reports that rhesus monkeys spontaneously integrate conspecific vocalizations. Scanning patterns showed that monkeys preferentially attended to the eyes and mouth of the stimuli, with subtle differences between males and females such that females showed a tendency to differentiate the eye and mouth regions more than males. These results were similar to studies in humans indicating that when asked to assess emotion-related aspects of visual speech, people preferentially attend to the eyes. Thus, the tendency for female monkeys to show a greater differentiation between the eye and mouth regions than males may indicate that female monkeys were slightly more sensitive to the socio-emotional content of complex signals than male monkeys. The current results emphasize the importance of considering both the sex of the observer and individual variability in passive viewing behavior in nonhuman primate research.

  19. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

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    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other. PMID:25348896

  20. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species.

  1. Turnover rates of B cells, T cells, and NK cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Mohri, H.; Ho, D.D.; Perelson, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We determined average cellular turnover rates by fitting mathematical models to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine measurements in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. The daily turnover rates of CD4(+) T cells, CD4(-) T cells, CD20(+) B cells, and CD16(+) NK cells in normal uninfected rhesus macaques

  2. Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Bethell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work on non-human primates indicates that the allocation of social attention is mediated by characteristics of the attending animal, such as social status and genotype, as well as by the value of the target to which attention is directed. Studies of humans indicate that an individual's emotion state also plays a crucial role in mediating their social attention; for example, individuals look for longer towards aggressive faces when they are feeling more anxious, and this bias leads to increased negative arousal and distraction from other ongoing tasks. To our knowledge, no studies have tested for an effect of emotion state on allocation of social attention in any non-human species. METHODOLOGY: We presented captive adult male rhesus macaques with pairs of adult male conspecific face images - one with an aggressive expression, one with a neutral expression - and recorded gaze towards these images. Each animal was tested twice, once during a putatively stressful condition (i.e. following a veterinary health check, and once during a neutral (or potentially positive condition (i.e. a period of environmental enrichment. Initial analyses revealed that behavioural indicators of anxiety and stress were significantly higher after the health check than during enrichment, indicating that the former caused a negative shift in emotional state. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The macaques showed initial vigilance for aggressive faces across both conditions, but subsequent responses differed between conditions. Following the health check, initial vigilance was followed by rapid and sustained avoidance of aggressive faces. By contrast, during the period of enrichment, the macaques showed sustained attention towards the same aggressive faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that shifts in emotion state mediate social attention towards and away from facial cues of emotion in a non-human animal. This work

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization guided by ultrasound technology for islet transplantation in rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengGao; Shao-DongAi; ShengLiu; Wen-BinZeng; WeiWang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation has the potential to overcome the shortage of donated human islets for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes. Testing in non-human primate models is necessary before clinical application in humans. Intraportal islet transplantation in monkeys is usually performed by surgical infusion during laparotomy or laparoscopy. In this paper, we describe a new method of percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization (PTPC) as an alternative to current methods of islet transplantation in rhesus monkeys. METHODS: We performed ultrasound-guided PTPC in five adult rhesus monkeys weighing 7-8 kg, with portal vein catheterization confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. We monitored for complications in the thoracic and abdominal cavity. To evaluate the safety of ultrasound-guided PTPC, we recorded the changes in portal pressure throughout the microbead transplantation procedure. RESULTS:  Ultrasound-guided PTPC and infusion of 16 000 microbeads/kg body weight into the portal vein was successful in all five monkeys. Differences in the hepatobiliary anatomy of rhesus monkeys compared to humans led to a higher initial complication rate. The first monkey died of abdominal hemorrhage 10 hours post-transplantation. The second suffered from a mild pneumothorax but recovered fully after taking only conservative measures. After gaining experience with the first two monkeys, we decreased both the hepatic puncture time and the number of puncture attempts required, with the remaining three monkeys experiencing no complications. Portal pressures initially increased proportional to the number of transplanted microbeads but returned to pre-infusion levels at 30 minutes post-transplantation. The changes in portal pressures occurring during the procedure were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided PTPC is an effective, convenient, and minimally invasive method suitable for use in non-human primate models of

  4. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  5. Pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Rosenke, Rebecca; Okumura, Atsushi; Brining, Douglas; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Ebihara, Hideki; Scott, Dana P.; Hjelle, Brian; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) remains unclear because of a lack of surrogate disease models with which to perform pathogenesis studies. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are considered the gold standard model for studying the underlying immune activation/suppression associated with immunopathogenic viruses such as hantaviruses; however, to date an NHP model for HPS has not been described. Here we show that rhesus macaques infected with Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the primary etiological agent of HPS in North America, propagated in deer mice develop HPS, which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and rapid onset of respiratory distress caused by severe interstitial pneumonia. Despite establishing a systemic infection, SNV differentially activated host responses exclusively in the pulmonary endothelium, potentially the mechanism leading to acute severe respiratory distress. This study presents a unique chronological characterization of SNV infection and provides mechanistic data into the pathophysiology of HPS in a closely related surrogate animal model. We anticipate this model will advance our understanding of HPS pathogenesis and will greatly facilitate research toward the development of effective therapeutics and vaccines against hantaviral diseases. PMID:24778254

  6. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; SUOMI, STEPHEN J

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the 1st month of life. The results show that infants who imitate facial gestures display more developed skills in goal-directed movements (reaching–gras...

  7. Examining the species-specificity of rhesus macaque cytomegalovirus (RhCMV in cynomolgus macaques.

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    Angie K Marsh

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a highly species-specific virus that has co-evolved with its host over millions of years and thus restricting cross-species infection. To examine the extent to which host restriction may prevent cross-species research between closely related non-human primates, we evaluated experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant rhesus macaque-derived CMV (RhCMV-eGFP. Twelve cynomolgus macaques were randomly allocated to three groups: one experimental group (RhCMV-eGFP and two control groups (UV-inactivated RhCMV-eGFP or media alone. The animals were given two subcutaneous inoculations at week 0 and week 8, and a subset of animals received an intravenous inoculation at week 23. No overt clinical or haematological changes were observed and PBMCs isolated from RhCMV-eGFP inoculated animals had comparable eGFP- and IE-1-specific cellular responses to the control animals. Following inoculation with RhCMV-eGFP, we were unable to detect evidence of infection in any blood or tissue samples up to 4 years post-inoculation, using sensitive viral co-culture, qPCR, and Western blot assays. Co-culture of urine and saliva samples demonstrated the presence of endogenous cynomolgus CMV (CyCMV cytopathic effect, however no concomitant eGFP expression was observed. The absence of detectable RhCMV-eGFP suggests that the CyCMV-seropositive cynomolgus macaques were not productively infected with RhCMV-eGFP under these inoculation conditions. In a continued effort to develop CMV as a viral vector for an HIV/SIV vaccine, these studies demonstrate that CMV is highly restricted to its host species and can be highly affected by laboratory cell culture. Consideration of the differences between lab-adapted and primary viruses with respect to species range and cell tropism should be a priority in evaluating CMV as vaccine vector for HIV or other pathogens at the preclinical development stage.

  8. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  9. Forest seasonality shapes diet of limestone-living rhesus macaques at Nonggang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuangbin; Huang, Libin; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Lu, Changhu; Zhou, Qihai

    2016-01-01

    Limestone forests are an unusual habitat for primates, but little information is available for the genus Macaca in such habitats, making a comparative understanding of extant limestone primates' behavioral adaptation incomplete. We collected data on the diet of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in a limestone habitat at Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China, and examined the effects of forest seasonality on their diet. Our results indicated that a total of 114 species of plants are consumed by macaques. Young leaves are a preferred food, accounting for 48.9 and 56.9% of the overall diets. One group significantly increased young leaf consumption in response to availability. Fruits contributed to only 27.3 and 28.7% of overall diet. The macaque diet varied according to season. They fed on more fruits in the rainy season. Consumption of mature leaves increased when the availability of young leaves and fruits declined in the dry season, indicating that mature leaves are a fallback food for macaques in a limestone habitat. Similar to sympatric Assamese macaques, Bonia saxatilis, a shrubby, karst-endemic bamboo was consumed by rhesus macaques throughout the year, and was the top food species through most of the year, suggesting that bamboo consumption represents a key factor in the macaque's dietary adaptation to limestone habitat.

  10. Forest seasonality shapes diet of limestone-living rhesus macaques at Nonggang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuangbin; Huang, Libin; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Lu, Changhu; Zhou, Qihai

    2016-01-01

    Limestone forests are an unusual habitat for primates, but little information is available for the genus Macaca in such habitats, making a comparative understanding of extant limestone primates' behavioral adaptation incomplete. We collected data on the diet of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in a limestone habitat at Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China, and examined the effects of forest seasonality on their diet. Our results indicated that a total of 114 species of plants are consumed by macaques. Young leaves are a preferred food, accounting for 48.9 and 56.9% of the overall diets. One group significantly increased young leaf consumption in response to availability. Fruits contributed to only 27.3 and 28.7% of overall diet. The macaque diet varied according to season. They fed on more fruits in the rainy season. Consumption of mature leaves increased when the availability of young leaves and fruits declined in the dry season, indicating that mature leaves are a fallback food for macaques in a limestone habitat. Similar to sympatric Assamese macaques, Bonia saxatilis, a shrubby, karst-endemic bamboo was consumed by rhesus macaques throughout the year, and was the top food species through most of the year, suggesting that bamboo consumption represents a key factor in the macaque's dietary adaptation to limestone habitat. PMID:26530218

  11. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultras...

  12. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco;

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  13. Protection of rhesus macaques from SIV infection by immunization with different experimental SIV vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); J. Boes (Jolande); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); R. Dubbes (Rob); W. Koornstra (Willem); P. ten Haaft (Peter); L. Akerblom; S. Eriksson (Sigrid); B. Morein (Bror); S. Norley (Steve); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated whole SIVmac (32H) preparation adjuvanted with muramyl dipeptide (SIV-MDP) and a gp120-enriched SIVmac (32H) ISCOM preparation (SIV-ISCOM), were compared by immunizing four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) four times with SIV-MDP and four

  14. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K Watson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin signaling influences social behavior in both human and nonhuman primates. In humans, variation upstream of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has recently been shown to influence both behavioral measures of social anxiety and amygdala response to social threats. Here we show that length polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR predict social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, a species in which 5-HTTLPR variation is analogous to that of humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to monkeys with two copies of the long allele (L/L, monkeys with one copy of the short allele of this gene (S/L spent less time gazing at face than non-face images, less time looking in the eye region of faces, and had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of a high versus low status male macaques. Moreover, in a novel primed gambling task, presentation of photos of high status male macaques promoted risk-aversion in S/L monkeys but promoted risk-seeking in L/L monkeys. Finally, as measured by a "pay-per-view" task, S/L monkeys required juice payment to view photos of high status males, whereas L/L monkeys sacrificed fluid to see the same photos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that genetic variation in serotonin function contributes to social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in humans and rhesus macaques alike.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  16. Comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Zhou, Xingyu; Xu, Qing; Tan, Ning; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Mount Long-hu and Gui-yang in China. Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in China. To evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba species in wild Tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in Mount E-mei of Si-chuan Province in China. PCR analysis detected E. nuttalli, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba polecki ST2 in 17%, 42%, and 66% of the samples, respectively, whereas Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were undetected. This study is the first to report on the detection of E. nuttalli from Tibetan macaques. Six E. nuttalli isolates were obtained, 18S rRNA gene and six tRNA-linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the isolates were sequenced. The Mantel test results gave an r value of 0.97 of relationships between geographical distance and genetic diversity of Chinese E. nuttalli populations, indicating a significant isolation-by-distance effect in Chinese E. nuttalli according to the tRNA-STR loci sequences. Structural analysis of E. nuttalli isolates based on tRNA-linked STR loci demonstrated three Chinese E. nuttalli populations with their respective features, but the Gui-yang population was located in the middle. In the distance-based NJ tree, E. nuttalli isolates were divided into five different branches, and E-mei isolates were attributed to an independent branch to distinguish them from Gui-yang and Long-hu isolates. Genetic analysis in this study provided clues of the genetic differences between E. nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China. PMID:26723919

  17. Comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Zhou, Xingyu; Xu, Qing; Tan, Ning; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Mount Long-hu and Gui-yang in China. Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in China. To evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba species in wild Tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in Mount E-mei of Si-chuan Province in China. PCR analysis detected E. nuttalli, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba polecki ST2 in 17%, 42%, and 66% of the samples, respectively, whereas Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were undetected. This study is the first to report on the detection of E. nuttalli from Tibetan macaques. Six E. nuttalli isolates were obtained, 18S rRNA gene and six tRNA-linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the isolates were sequenced. The Mantel test results gave an r value of 0.97 of relationships between geographical distance and genetic diversity of Chinese E. nuttalli populations, indicating a significant isolation-by-distance effect in Chinese E. nuttalli according to the tRNA-STR loci sequences. Structural analysis of E. nuttalli isolates based on tRNA-linked STR loci demonstrated three Chinese E. nuttalli populations with their respective features, but the Gui-yang population was located in the middle. In the distance-based NJ tree, E. nuttalli isolates were divided into five different branches, and E-mei isolates were attributed to an independent branch to distinguish them from Gui-yang and Long-hu isolates. Genetic analysis in this study provided clues of the genetic differences between E. nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

  18. Characterization of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genetics and comprehensive genotyping by pyrosequencing in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs play a critical role in governing the immune response to neoplastic and infectious disease. Rhesus macaques serve as important animal models for many human diseases in which KIRs are implicated; however, the study of KIR activity in this model is hindered by incomplete characterization of KIR genetics. Results Here we present a characterization of KIR genetics in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We conducted a survey of KIRs in this species, identifying 47 novel full-length KIR sequences. Using this expanded sequence library to build upon previous work, we present evidence supporting the existence of 22 Mamu-KIR genes, providing a framework within which to describe macaque KIRs. We also developed a novel pyrosequencing-based technique for KIR genotyping. This method provides both comprehensive KIR genotype and frequency estimates of transcript level, with implications for the study of KIRs in all species. Conclusions The results of this study significantly improve our understanding of macaque KIR genetic organization and diversity, with implications for the study of many human diseases that use macaques as a model. The ability to obtain comprehensive KIR genotypes is of basic importance for the study of KIRs, and can easily be adapted to other species. Together these findings both advance the field of macaque KIRs and facilitate future research into the role of KIRs in human disease.

  19. Early social experience affects behavioral and physiological responsiveness to stressful conditions in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Rommeck, Ina; Capitanio, John P.; Strand, Sarah C.; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Studies on early development have demonstrated the profound effects of early social experience on the behavioral development and physiology of young rhesus macaques. Given these relationships, we hypothesized that rhesus macaques exposed to different nursery-rearing conditions may develop unique biobehavioral profiles. If this is true, the assessment of temperament may allow us to pinpoint successful rearing environments, thus improving the overall health of non human primates that are raised...

  20. Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Merritt, Christopher K; Borda, Juan; Saylor, Elizabeth; Schwamberger, Shelle R; Cogswell, Frank; Didier, Elizabeth S; Didier, Peter J; Plauche, Gail; Bohm, Rudolf P; Aye, Pyone P; Alexa, Pavel; Ward, Richard L; Lackner, Andrew A

    2003-07-01

    Chronic enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity in colonies of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). This study's aim was to identify the common enteric pathogens frequently associated with chronic enterocolitis in normal, immunocompetent rhesus monkeys and to elucidate the influence of this clinical syndrome on the host immune system. We analyzed the fecal specimens from 100 rhesus macaques with or without clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhea. Retrospective analysis revealed an increased incidence of Campylobacter spp. (Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni), Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica, adenovirus, and Strongyloides fulleborni in samples collected from animals with chronic diarrhea (P coli, carrying the eaeA intimin or Stx2c Shiga toxin virulence genes, Balantidium coli, Giardia lamblia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Trichuris trichiura was found in all animals regardless of whether diarrhea was present. In addition, the upregulation of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-3, and tumor necrosis factor alpha cytokine genes, accompanied by an increased presence of activated (CD4(+) CD69(+)) T lymphocytes was found in gut-associated lymphoid tissues collected from animals with chronic enterocolitis and diarrhea in comparison with clinically healthy controls (P < 0.05). These data indicate that chronic enterocolitis and diarrhea are associated, in part, with a variety of enteric pathogens and highlight the importance of defining the microbiological status of nonhuman primates used for infectious disease studies. The data also suggest that chronic colitis in rhesus macaques may have potential as a model of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. PMID:12819098

  1. High-density rhesus macaque oligonucleotide microarray design using early-stage rhesus genome sequence information and human genome annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magness Charles L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, few genomic reagents specific for non-human primate research have been available. To address this need, we have constructed a macaque-specific high-density oligonucleotide microarray by using highly fragmented low-pass sequence contigs from the rhesus genome project together with the detailed sequence and exon structure of the human genome. Using this method, we designed oligonucleotide probes to over 17,000 distinct rhesus/human gene orthologs and increased by four-fold the number of available genes relative to our first-generation expressed sequence tag (EST-derived array. Results We constructed a database containing 248,000 exon sequences from 23,000 human RefSeq genes and compared each human exon with its best matching sequence in the January 2005 version of the rhesus genome project list of 486,000 DNA contigs. Best matching rhesus exon sequences for each of the 23,000 human genes were then concatenated in the proper order and orientation to produce a rhesus "virtual transcriptome." Microarray probes were designed, one per gene, to the region closest to the 3' untranslated region (UTR of each rhesus virtual transcript. Each probe was compared to a composite rhesus/human transcript database to test for cross-hybridization potential yielding a final probe set representing 18,296 rhesus/human gene orthologs, including transcript variants, and over 17,000 distinct genes. We hybridized mRNA from rhesus brain and spleen to both the EST- and genome-derived microarrays. Besides four-fold greater gene coverage, the genome-derived array also showed greater mean signal intensities for genes present on both arrays. Genome-derived probes showed 99.4% identity when compared to 4,767 rhesus GenBank sequence tag site (STS sequences indicating that early stage low-pass versions of complex genomes are of sufficient quality to yield valuable functional genomic information when combined with finished genome information from

  2. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  3. Cortisol responses to immobilization with Telazol or ketamine in baboons (Papio cynocephalus/anubis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Bentson, K L; Capitanio, J P; Mendoza, S P

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of Telazol on cortisol or of anesthetic agents on immunological measures, and reports of ketamine's effect on cortisol are inconsistent. We measured effects of Telazol, ketamine and blood sampling on cortisol in male rhesus macaques and male savannah baboons. We also obtained leukocyte counts in the macaques. In macaques, Telazol reduced cortisol in the morning but not in the afternoon; ketamine had no effect on cortisol in these animals. In baboons, cortis...

  4. Protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a Bacillus anthracis capsule conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Donald J; Ribot, Wilson J; Joyce, Joseph; Cook, James; Hepler, Robert; Nahas, Debbie; Chua, Jennifer; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2016-07-25

    The efficacy of currently licensed anthrax vaccines is largely attributable to a single Bacillus anthracis immunogen, protective antigen. To broaden protection against possible strains resistant to protective antigen-based vaccines, we previously developed a vaccine in which the anthrax polyglutamic acid capsule was covalently conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B and demonstrated that two doses of 2.5μg of this vaccine conferred partial protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax . Here, we demonstrate complete protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a higher 50μg dose of the same capsule conjugate vaccine. These results indicate that B. anthracis capsule is a highly effective vaccine component that should be considered for incorporation in future generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:27329184

  5. Physiological, Behavioral, and Scientific Impact of Different Fluid Control Protocols in the Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Henri; Mindus, Claire; Flecknell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhesus macaques are an important model in behavioral neuroscience due to their advanced cognitive abilities. To motivate animals to engage in complex tasks, fluid rewards, in conjunction with fluid control protocols, are often used. The impact of these protocols on animal welfare is controversial. We compared two fluid control protocols against a protocol providing free access to water and evaluated the impacts on physiological states of hydration, behavioral measures of welfare, and scientific output. Blood physiology did not significantly differ between any of the protocols, and urine measures were indicative of well functioning, healthy kidneys. Changes in behaviors were limited, the main one being an increase in motivation to drink on the stricter fluid control protocol, and improved task performance early in the week. Overall, fluid control protocols had little measurable impact on the welfare of rhesus macaques while ensuring that scientific data of high quality could be obtained. PMID:27679812

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus Infection in an Irradiated Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven T; Tatarov, Ivan I; DeTolla, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The nonhuman primate described was part of a research project that involved whole-body gamma irradiation and subsequently developed acute generalized dermatitis with skin dryness, peeling, and erythema around the eyes. After initial evaluation, which included microbiologic culture and 6 d of medical treatment, the animal was euthanized due to concern regarding a possible outbr...

  7. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, F. Blake; Phyllis C Lee; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; Frans B M de Waal; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved beha...

  8. Can Gender Differences Be Evaluated in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Stephanie J.; Kirsch, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Wenri; Grafe, Marjorie R; West, G Alex; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Traystman, Richard J.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences, sex steroid effects, and sex-specific candidate therapeutics in ischemic stroke have been studied in rodents but not in nonhuman primates. In this feasibility study (n = 3 per group), we developed a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in adult male and female rhesus macaques that consistently includes white matter injury. The animals also were used to determine whether gender-linked differences in histopathologic outcomes could be evaluated in this model in future, ...

  9. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  10. The Impact of Early Amygdala Damage on Juvenile Rhesus Macaque Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The present experiments continue a longitudinal study of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. Juvenile animals (approximately 1.5- 2.5 years of age) were tested in four different social contexts—alone, while interacting with one familiar peer, while interacting with one unfamiliar peer, and in their permanent social groups. During infancy, the amygdala-lesioned animals displayed more interest in c...

  11. An Outbreak of Tularemia in a Colony of Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrecchia, Christie E.; Colgin, Lois MA; Andrews, Kirk R; Lewis, Anne D

    2012-01-01

    Since an epizootic and detection of clinical cases of tularemia (Francisella tularensis) in 1996 at the Oregon National Primate Research Center, only 8 cases were identified in the succeeding 13 y. However, within a period of 7 mo, primarily during Winter 2010, 6 rhesus macaques were confirmed positive for Francisella tularensis type B by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by culture and fluorescent antibody testing. All cases had similar gross pathologic findings, which included ...

  12. Characterization of Virus-Responsive Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Eugene; Amrute, Sheela B.; Abel, Kristina; Gupta, Gunjan; Wang, Yichuan; Miller, Christopher J.; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are potent producers of alpha interferon (IFN-α) in response to enveloped viruses and provide a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Although the loss of peripheral blood PDC function and numbers has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progression in humans, a suitable animal model is needed to study the effects of immunodeficiency virus infection on PDC function. The rhesus macaque SIV model closely mimics human HIV ...

  13. Laparoscopic diagnosis of gross reproductive abnormalities in free-ranging female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted between July 2010 to June 2011 in the Monkey Sterilization Centre, Gopalpur, Himachal Pradesh, India to assess the prevalence of reproductive disorders by laparoscopic examination of the genitalia of female rhesus macaques. The animals were captured from different locations in the state using a cage trapping method. A total of 720 female rhesus macaques underwent laparoscopic examination of their reproductive tracts. A total of 63 cases were found to have reproductive abnormalities. Out of these 63 cases, the most common abnormalities reported were ovarian cyst 3.05% (n=22, ovarian tumor 1.66% (n=12, uterine tumor 1.25% (n=9, uterine edema 0.97% (n=7, uterine rupture 0.83% (n=6, ectopic pregnancy 0.69% (n=5, unicornis or acornis 0.28% (n=2. The highest number of cases of uterine abnormalities was recorded in the 12-16 year old age group (33.33%, followed by 8-12 year olds (25.39%, 16-20 year olds (22.22%, then 4-8 year olds (15.87% and 0-4 year olds (3.17%. Of the 63 animals that showed genital abnormalities, only 52 were found to be pregnant during the breeding season from November to March in the 5-20 year old age group, while 11 animals were not pregnant; a pregnancy rate of 82.53% (52 of 63 of the female rhesus macaques with reproductive abnormalities.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration. PMID:25488714

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rhesus macaque CD8αα homodimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CD8α exodomain protein, a crucial immune-system factor in rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), one of the best animal models for vaccine design, was assembled and crystallized. The full structure data will contribute to future studies of immune responses in rhesus macaques. As a T-cell co-receptor, CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules and plays a pivotal role in the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To date, structures of CD8 have been solved for two different mammals: human and mouse. The infection of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is the best animal model for studying HIV. In this study, the rhesus macaque CD8 (rCD8) αα homodimer was obtained and rCD8α exodomain protein crystals were successfully obtained for further structural analysis. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.52, b = 56.28, c = 82.40 Å. These data will facilitate further studies on the structural differences between these CD8 structures and the cellular immune responses of rhesus macaque

  17. The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, C.; Southwood, S.; Hoof, Ilka;

    2010-01-01

    Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus...... macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS outcomes than the Indian rhesus macaque, the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques have not been well-characterized for their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) composition and function, reducing their greater utilization. In this study, we...... sequences identified were novel. From all MHC alleles detected, we prioritized Mamu-A1*02201 for functional characterization based on its higher frequency of expression. Upon the development of MHC/peptide binding assays and definition of its associated motif, we revealed that this allele shares peptide...

  18. Training rhesus macaques for venipuncture using positive reinforcement techniques: a comparison with chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine; Pranger, Lindsay; Maier, Adriane; Lambeth, Susan P; Perlman, Jaine E; Thiele, Erica; Schapiro, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    As more emphasis is placed on enhancing the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, many research facilities have started using positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques to train primates to voluntarily participate in husbandry and research procedures. PRT increases the animal's control over its environment and desensitizes the animal to stressful stimuli. Blood draw is a common husbandry and research procedure that can be particularly stressful for nonhuman primate subjects. Although studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees can be trained for in-cage venipuncture using PRT only, fewer studies have demonstrated success using similar techniques to train macaques. It is often assumed that macaques cannot be trained in the same manner as apes. In this study, we compare PRT data from singly housed adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) with data from group-housed adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 4). All subjects were trained to place an arm in a 'blood sleeve' and remain stationary for venipuncture. Both facilities used similar PRT techniques. We were able to obtain repeated blood samples from 75% of the macaques and all of the chimpanzees. The training time did not differ significantly between the 2 species. These data demonstrate that macaques can be trained for venipuncture in a manner similar to that used for chimpanzees.

  19. The impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on the gastric microbiota of the rhesus macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E Martin

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonization is highly prevalent among humans and causes significant gastric disease in a subset of those infected. When present, this bacterium dominates the gastric microbiota of humans and induces antimicrobial responses in the host. Since the microbial context of H. pylori colonization influences the disease outcome in a mouse model, we sought to assess the impact of H. pylori challenge upon the pre-existing gastric microbial community members in the rhesus macaque model. Deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene identified a community profile of 221 phylotypes that was distinct from that of the rhesus macaque distal gut and mouth, although there were taxa in common. High proportions of both H. pylori and H. suis were observed in the post-challenge libraries, but at a given time, only one Helicobacter species was dominant. However, the relative abundance of non-Helicobacter taxa was not significantly different before and after challenge with H. pylori. These results suggest that while different gastric species may show competitive exclusion in the gastric niche, the rhesus gastric microbial community is largely stable despite immune and physiological changes due to H. pylori infection.

  20. Intentional gestural communication and discrimination of human attentional states in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Bovet, Dalila; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested intentionality of a learned begging gesture and attention-reading abilities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Subjects were trained to produce a begging gesture towards a hidden food reward that could be delivered by a human experimenter. More specifically, we investigated which attentional cues--body, face and/or eyes orientation of a human partner--were taken into account by the macaques in order to communicate with her. Our results provide strong evidence of intentional communication: the monkeys adjusted their behaviour to that of the partner. The latter's attentional state influenced the monkeys' likelihood of performing begging gestures and showing gaze alternation between the partner and the hidden food. By contrast, we found no evidence of attention-getting behaviours, persistence or elaboration of new communicative behaviours. Our results also showed that rhesus macaques discriminated gross cues including the presence, body and face orientation of the human experimenter but not her eyes. However, the monkeys emitted more gaze alternation and monitored the human's attentional state more closely when she also displayed gaze alternation, suggesting an important role of joint attention in gestural communication. PMID:25749401

  1. Evaluation of a Multivalent Vaccine against Lymphatic Filariasis in Rhesus macaque Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide and another 1.2 billion people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemotherapy with mass drug administration is substantially reducing the incidence of the infection. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is needed to prevent the infection and eradicate the disease. Previously we reported that a multivalent fusion protein vaccine (rBmHAT) composed of small heat shock proteins 12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and large extracellular domain of tetraspanin (TSP LEL) could confer >95% protection against the challenge infection with Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in mouse and gerbil models. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of rBmHAT fusion protein vaccine in a rhesus macaque model. Our results show that rBmHAT is highly immunogenic in rhesus macaques. All the vaccinated monkeys developed significant titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies against each of the component antigens (16,000 for rBmHSP12.6), (24,000 for rBmALT-2) and (16,000 for rBmTSP-LEL). An in vitro antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay performed using the sera samples from vaccinated monkeys showed that the anti-rBmHAT antibodies are functional with 35% killing of B. malayi L3s. Vaccinated monkeys also had antigen responding cells in the peripheral blood. Vaccine-induced protection was determined after challenging the monkeys with 500 B. malayi L3. Following challenge infection, 3 out of 5 vaccinated macaques failed to develop the infection. These three protected macaques had high titers of IgG1 antibodies and their PBMC secreted significantly high levels of IFN-γ in response to the vaccine antigens. The two vaccinated macaques that picked the infection had slightly low titers of antibodies and their PBMC secreted high levels of IL-10. Based on these findings we conclude that the rBmHAT vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and can confer significant protection against

  2. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  3. Interleukin-8 and interleukin-10, brain volume and microstructure, and the influence of calorie restriction in old rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Willette, A.A.; Coe, C. L.; Birdsill, A. C.; Bendlin, B. B.; Colman, R.J.; Alexander, A.L.; Allison, D B; Weindruch, R.H.; Johnson, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher systemic levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) were found to be associated with lower gray matter volume and tissue density in old rhesus macaques. This association between IL-6, and these brain indices were attenuated by long-term 30 % calorie restriction (CR). To extend these findings, the current analysis determined if a CR diet in 27 aged rhesus monkeys compared to 17 normally fed controls reduced circulating levels of another proinflammatory cytokine, interle...

  4. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  5. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.

  6. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J Rachel; Canfield, Don R; Lane, Jennifer F; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Ardeshir, Amir; Allen, A Mark; Tarara, Ross P

    2016-04-01

    Necropsy records and associated clinical histories from the rhesus macaque colony at the California National Primate Research Center were reviewed to identify mortality related to cardiac abnormalities involving left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Over a 21-y period, 162 cases (female, 90; male, 72) of idiopathic LVH were identified. Macaques presented to necropsy with prominent concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle associated with striking reduction of the ventricular lumen. Among all LVH cases, 74 macaques (female, 39; male, 35), mostly young adults, presented for spontaneous (sudden) death; more than 50% of these 74 cases were associated with a recent history of sedation or intraspecific aggression. The risk of sudden death in the 6- to 9-y-old age group was significantly higher in male macaques. Subtle histologic cardiac lesions included karyomegaly and increased cardiac myocyte diameter. Pedigree analyses based on rhesus macaque LVH probands suggested a strong genetic predisposition for the condition. In humans, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with diverse clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic disease to sudden death. Although the overall risk of disease complications such as sudden death, end-stage heart failure, and stroke is low (1% to 2%) in patients with HCM, the absolute risk can vary dramatically. Prima facie comparison of HCM and LVH suggest that further study may allow the development of spontaneously occurring LVH in rhesus macaques as a useful model of HCM, to better understand the pathogenesis of this remarkably heterogeneous disease.

  7. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center (1992–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J Rachel; Canfield, Don R; Lane, Jennifer F; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Ardeshir, Amir; Allen, A Mark; Tarara, Ross P

    2016-01-01

    Necropsy records and associated clinical histories from the rhesus macaque colony at the California National Primate Research Center were reviewed to identify mortality related to cardiac abnormalities involving left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Over a 21-y period, 162 cases (female, 90; male, 72) of idiopathic LVH were identified. Macaques presented to necropsy with prominent concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle associated with striking reduction of the ventricular lumen. Among all LVH cases, 74 macaques (female, 39; male, 35), mostly young adults, presented for spontaneous (sudden) death; more than 50% of these 74 cases were associated with a recent history of sedation or intraspecific aggression. The risk of sudden death in the 6- to 9-y-old age group was significantly higher in male macaques. Subtle histologic cardiac lesions included karyomegaly and increased cardiac myocyte diameter. Pedigree analyses based on rhesus macaque LVH probands suggested a strong genetic predisposition for the condition. In humans, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with diverse clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic disease to sudden death. Although the overall risk of disease complications such as sudden death, end-stage heart failure, and stroke is low (1% to 2%) in patients with HCM, the absolute risk can vary dramatically. Prima facie comparison of HCM and LVH suggest that further study may allow the development of spontaneously occurring LVH in rhesus macaques as a useful model of HCM, to better understand the pathogenesis of this remarkably heterogeneous disease. PMID:27053572

  8. Cell-Autonomous Heterogeneity of Nutrient Uptake in White Adipose Tissue of Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Varlamov, Oleg; Chu, Michael; Cornea, Anda; Sampath, Harini; Roberts, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity may play an adaptive role by providing graded biological responses to fluctuations in environmental stimuli. We used single-cell imaging of the metabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-C12 and fluorescent 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) to explore cellular heterogeneity in nutrient uptake in white adipose tissue (WAT) explants of rhesus macaques. Surprisingly, WAT displayed a...

  9. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H; Embers, Monica E; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Doyle, Lara A; Hasenkampf, Nicole R; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  10. Diverse Host Responses and Outcomes following Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 Infection in Sooty Mangabeys and Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amitinder; Grant, Robert M.; Means, Robert E.; McClure, Harold; Feinberg, Mark; Johnson, R. Paul

    1998-01-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 105 to 107 RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated longitudinally for 1 year. SIVmac239 infection of sooty mangabeys resulted in 2- to 4-log-lower viral loads than in macaques and did not reproduce the high viral loads observed in natural SIVsmm infection. During acute SIV infection, polyclonal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity coincident with decline in peak plasma viremia was observed in both macaques and mangabeys; 8 to 20 weeks later, CTL activity declined in the macaques but was sustained and broadly directed in the mangabeys. Neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac239 were detected in the macaques but not the mangabeys. Differences in expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes or in the percentage of naive phenotype T cells expressing CD45RA and CD62L-selection did not correlate with development of AIDS in rhesus macaques. In macaques, the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 declined during SIV infection, while in mangabeys, CD25-expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes increased. Longitudinal evaluation of cytokine secretion by flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated lymphocytes revealed elevation of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in a macaque and only interleukin-10 in a concurrently infected mangabey during acute SIV infection. Differences in host responses following experimental SIVmac239 infection may be associated with the divergent outcome in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. PMID:9811693

  11. Transepithelial transport and enzymatic detoxification of gluten in gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Bethune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a previous report, we characterized a condition of gluten sensitivity in juvenile rhesus macaques that is similar in many respects to the human condition of gluten sensitivity, celiac disease. This animal model of gluten sensitivity may therefore be useful toward studying both the pathogenesis and the treatment of celiac disease. Here, we perform two pilot experiments to demonstrate the potential utility of this model for studying intestinal permeability toward an immunotoxic gluten peptide and pharmacological detoxification of gluten in vivo by an oral enzyme drug candidate. METHODS: Intestinal permeability was investigated in age-matched gluten-sensitive and control macaques by using mass spectrometry to detect and quantify an orally dosed, isotope labeled 33-mer gluten peptide delivered across the intestinal epithelium to the plasma. The protective effect of a therapeutically promising oral protease, EP-B2, was evaluated in a gluten-sensitive macaque by administering a daily gluten challenge with or without EP-B2 supplementation. ELISA-based antibody assays and blinded clinical evaluations of this macaque and of an age-matched control were conducted to assess responses to gluten. RESULTS: Labeled 33-mer peptide was detected in the plasma of a gluten-sensitive macaque, both in remission and during active disease, but not in the plasma of healthy controls. Administration of EP-B2, but not vehicle, prevented clinical relapse in response to a dietary gluten challenge. Unexpectedly, a marked increase in anti-gliadin (IgG and IgA and anti-transglutaminase (IgG antibodies was observed during the EP-B2 treatment phase. CONCLUSIONS: Gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques may be an attractive resource for investigating important aspects of celiac disease, including enhanced intestinal permeability and pharmacology of oral enzyme drug candidates. Orally dosed EP-B2 exerts a protective effect against ingested gluten. Limited data

  12. Impact of irradiation and immunosuppressive agents on immune system homeostasis in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Walker, J; Dewane, J; Engelmann, F; Laub, W; Pillai, S; Thomas, Charles R; Messaoudi, I

    2015-09-01

    In this study we examined the effects of non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapy on immune homeostasis in rhesus macaques. Our results show that the administration of cyclosporin A or tacrolimus without radiotherapy did not result in lymphopenia. The addition of TBI to the regimen resulted in lymphopenia as well as alterations in the memory/naive ratio following reconstitution of lymphocyte populations. Dendritic cell (DC) numbers in whole blood were largely unaffected, while the monocyte population was altered by immunosuppressive treatment. Irradiation also resulted in increased levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines that correlated with T cell proliferative bursts and with the shift towards memory T cells. We also report that anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment and CD3 immunotoxin administration resulted in a selective and rapid depletion of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells and increased frequency of memory T cells. We also examined the impact of these treatments on reactivation of latent simian varicella virus (SVV) infection as a model of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans. None of the treatments resulted in overt SVV reactivation; however, select animals had transient increases in SVV-specific T cell responses following immunosuppression, suggestive of subclinical reactivation. Overall, we provide detailed observations into immune modulation by TBI and chemotherapeutic agents in rhesus macaques, an important research model of human disease. PMID:25902927

  13. Identification of a Novel Enterovirus Species in Rhesus Macaque in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Yuan-Yun; Yu, Jie-Mei; Zhang, Cui-Yuan; Xin, Yun-Yun; Li, Li-Li; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of Enterovirus (EV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs), which could act as a source of future emerging human viral diseases, have boosted interest in the search for novel EVs. Here, a highly divergent strain of EV, tentatively named SEV-gx, was identified by viral metagenomic analysis from stool samples of rhesus macaques in China. In total, 27 of 280 (9.6%) faecal samples from rhesus macaques were positive for SEV-gx. Its complete genomic sequence is 7,367 nucleotide (nt). Genomic analyses showed that it has a standard genomic organisation for EVs, being more closely related to EV-J strains (approximately 54.0%, 43.0-44.1%, 52.3-55.2%, 61.1-62.7% and 64.0% amino acids identity in polyprotein, P1, P2 and P3 and combined 2C/3CD regions, respectively). It was also shown to have genome characteristics typical of EVs. Phylogenetic analysis of P1, 2C and 3CD aa indicated that SEV-gx can be classified as a distinct cluster in the EVs. All of this evidence demonstrates SEV-gx is a novel species (tentatively named EV-K) in the EV genus, which contributes to our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of EVs. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential pathogenicity of SEV-gx in NHPs and humans. PMID:27329349

  14. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected infant and adult rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, K G; Lin, K C; Newman, J; Schauer, D; MacKey, J; Lackner, A A; Carville, A

    2001-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with AIDS. Retrospective analysis revealed that 27 of 96 (28.1%) animals with AIDS had features of EPEC infection, and EPEC was the most frequent pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract identified morphologically. In 7.3% of animals dying with AIDS, EPEC represented the sole opportunistic agent of the gastrointestinal tract at death. In 20.8% of cases, it was seen in combination with one or more gastrointestinal pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Mycobacterium avium, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Strongyloides stercoralis, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus. Clinically, infection was associated with persistent diarrhea and wasting and was more frequent in animals that died at under 1 year of age (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). The organism was associated with the characteristic attaching and effacing lesion in colonic tissue sections and produced a focal adherence pattern on a HEp-2 assay but was negative for Shiga toxin production as assessed by PCR and a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. A 2.6-kb fragment encompassing the intimin gene was amplified and sequenced and revealed 99.2% identity to sequences obtained from human isolates (GenBank AF116899) corresponding to the epsilon intimin subtype. Further investigations with rhesus macaques may offer opportunities to study the impact of EPEC on AIDS pathogenesis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:11230413

  15. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  16. A rhesus macaque model of Asian-lineage Zika virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dawn M.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Mohr, Emma L.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Mohns, Mariel S.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Rasheed, Mustafa N.; Newman, Christina M.; Gellerup, Dane D.; Moncla, Louise H.; Post, Jennifer; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schotzko, Michele L.; Hayes, Jennifer M.; Eudailey, Josh A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Permar, Sallie R.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Simmons, Heather A.; Capuano, Saverio; Golos, Thaddeus G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Asian-lineage Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with Guillain–Barré syndrome and fetal abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Animal models of infection are thus urgently needed. Here we show that rhesus macaques are susceptible to infection by an Asian-lineage ZIKV closely related to strains currently circulating in the Americas. Following subcutaneous inoculation, ZIKV RNA is detected in plasma 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) in all animals (N=8, including 2 pregnant animals), and is also present in saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Non-pregnant and pregnant animals remain viremic for 21 days and for up to at least 57 days, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies are detected by 21 d.p.i. Rechallenge 10 weeks after the initial challenge results in no detectable virus replication, indicating protective immunity against homologous strains. Therefore, Asian-lineage ZIKV infection of rhesus macaques provides a relevant animal model for studying pathogenesis and evaluating potential interventions against human infection, including during pregnancy. PMID:27352279

  17. A rhesus macaque model of Asian-lineage Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dawn M; Aliota, Matthew T; Mohr, Emma L; Weiler, Andrea M; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Weisgrau, Kim L; Mohns, Mariel S; Breitbach, Meghan E; Rasheed, Mustafa N; Newman, Christina M; Gellerup, Dane D; Moncla, Louise H; Post, Jennifer; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schotzko, Michele L; Hayes, Jennifer M; Eudailey, Josh A; Moody, M Anthony; Permar, Sallie R; O'Connor, Shelby L; Rakasz, Eva G; Simmons, Heather A; Capuano, Saverio; Golos, Thaddeus G; Osorio, Jorge E; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Asian-lineage Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Animal models of infection are thus urgently needed. Here we show that rhesus macaques are susceptible to infection by an Asian-lineage ZIKV closely related to strains currently circulating in the Americas. Following subcutaneous inoculation, ZIKV RNA is detected in plasma 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) in all animals (N=8, including 2 pregnant animals), and is also present in saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Non-pregnant and pregnant animals remain viremic for 21 days and for up to at least 57 days, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies are detected by 21 d.p.i. Rechallenge 10 weeks after the initial challenge results in no detectable virus replication, indicating protective immunity against homologous strains. Therefore, Asian-lineage ZIKV infection of rhesus macaques provides a relevant animal model for studying pathogenesis and evaluating potential interventions against human infection, including during pregnancy. PMID:27352279

  18. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  19. Socioendocrine and morphological correlates of paternity in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitch, F B; Nürnberg, P

    1996-05-01

    When females mate with several males, problems arise in identifying sire and in determining factors contributing to differential male reproductive success. Three potential primary correlates of differential reproduction in males include fighting ability, sperm competition, and body condition. We collected a variety of socioendocrine and morphological measurements from sexually mature rhesus macaques to determine corollaries of paternity. We studied a troop of about 150 rhesus macaques living in a 0.3 ha corral and identified the sires of 70% of infants using multilocus DNA fingerprints. Eight of 21 males sired offspring, and dominant males were more successful than subordinate males. Neither canine size nor age influenced the probability of siring offspring. Male reproductive success was primarily an outcome of the number of females mated with, which was associated with an ensemble of traits including high dominance rank, large body size, relatively voluminous testicles and good body condition. Testes size was significantly larger in sires than in non-sires, but among sires the number of progeny produced was not correlated with testicle size. Sires began the mating season with more body fat than non-sires, but the energetic costs of mating resulted in a 50% reduction in abdominal skinfold thickness during the mating season. We conclude that social status exerts a major impact on paternity by affecting the number of females mated with, that male quality is a critical factor modulating paternity, and that male feeding strategies have a direct influence on variation in male reproductive success. PMID:8699435

  20. Prevalence of Entamoeba nuttalli infection in wild rhesus macaques in Nepal and characterization of the parasite isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Lama, Chamala; Pandey, Kishor; Feng, Meng; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sherchand, Jeevan B

    2013-04-01

    We have recently resurrected the name Entamoeba nuttalli Castellani, 1908 for a potentially virulent ameba isolate, P19-061405, obtained from a rhesus macaque in Kathmandu, Nepal. The ameba was morphologically indistinguishable from Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii, but located phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. To evaluate the prevalence of E. nuttalli infection in wild rhesus macaques, 112 fecal samples were collected in four locations of the Kathmandu Valley. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from the feces showed positive rates of E. nuttalli, E. dispar, E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii of 51%, 12%, 0% and 0%, respectively. A total of 14 E. nuttalli isolates were obtained from four locations, of which 6 were established as axenic cultures. The sequences of the serine-rich protein gene of E. nuttalli isolates differed among four locations although no differences were found in the composition of sequence motifs. Isoenzyme pattern was analyzed in 8 isolates obtained from three locations. In hexokinase, the mobility of the slower migrating band was located between E. histolytica and E. dispar regardless of the culture conditions. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is highly prevalent in wild rhesus macaques in Nepal. Rhesus macaques appear to be one of the natural hosts and heterogeneity of the serine-rich protein gene might be useful for geographical typing of isolates.

  1. A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how primates understand the behavior of others. One open question concerns whether nonhuman primates think about others' behavior in psychological terms, that is, whether they have a theory of mind. Over the last ten years, experiments conducted on the free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living on Cayo Santiago have provided important insights into this question. In this review, we highlight what we think are some of the most exciting results of this body of work. Specifically we describe experiments suggesting that rhesus monkeys may understand some psychological states, such as what others see, hear, and know, but that they fail to demonstrate an understanding of others' beliefs. Thus, while some aspects of theory of mind may be shared between humans and other primates, others capacities are likely to be uniquely human. We also discuss some of the broader debates surrounding comparative theory of mind research, as well as what we think may be productive lines for future research with the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago. PMID:25556543

  2. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus

  3. Using Porches to Decrease Feces Painting in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; O'Connor, Jillann Rawlins; Coleman, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a porch in decreasing feces painting in captive rhesus macaques. The porch is a small extension that is hung on the outside of a monkey's primary home cage. Porches provide many potential benefits to indoor-housed macaques, including opportunities to perch above the ground, additional space, and increased field of view. Rates of feces painting, an abnormal behavior in which the animal smears or rubs feces on a surface, were compared in 3 situations: with porch enrichment, with ‘smear board’ enrichment (a foraging device commonly used to decrease feces painting), and without either enrichment item. Feces painting was evaluated daily by using a 5-point scale that ranged from 0, no feces present, to 4, multiple large areas of feces. We found that subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores when given porch enrichment or smear board enrichment compared with baseline. Furthermore, subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores with porch enrichment than smear board enrichment. These results demonstrate that the porch is an effective tool to decrease feces painting in captive macaques. PMID:25650971

  4. Effect of Uveal Melanocytes on Choroidal Morphology in Rhesus Macaques and Humans on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Vuong, Vivian S.; Oltjen, Sharon; Cunefare, David; Farsiu, Sina; Garzel, Laura; Roberts, Jeffrey; Thomasy, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare cross-sectional choroidal morphology in rhesus macaque and human eyes using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and histologic analysis. Methods Enhanced-depth imaging–OCT images from 25 rhesus macaque and 30 human eyes were evaluated for choriocapillaris and choroidal–scleral junction (CSJ) visibility in the central macula based on OCT reflectivity profiles, and compared with age-matched histologic sections. Semiautomated segmentation of the choriocapillaris and CSJ was used to measure choriocapillary and choroidal thickness, respectively. Multivariate regression was performed to determine the association of age, refractive error, and race with choriocapillaris and CSJ visibility. Results Rhesus macaques exhibit a distinct hyporeflective choriocapillaris layer on EDI-OCT, while the CSJ cannot be visualized. In contrast, humans show variable reflectivities of the choriocapillaris, with a distinct CSJ seen in many subjects. Histologic sections demonstrate large, darkly pigmented melanocytes that are densely distributed in the macaque choroid, while melanocytes in humans are smaller, less pigmented, and variably distributed. Optical coherence tomography reflectivity patterns of the choroid appear to correspond to the density, size, and pigmentation of choroidal melanocytes. Mean choriocapillary thickness was similar between the two species (19.3 ± 3.4 vs. 19.8 ± 3.4 μm, P = 0.615), but choroidal thickness may be lower in macaques than in humans (191.2 ± 43.0 vs. 266.8 ± 78.0 μm, P morphology on EDI-OCT in rhesus macaque and human eyes. Racial differences in pigmentation may affect choriocapillaris and CSJ visibility, and may influence the accuracy of choroidal thickness measurements. PMID:27792810

  5. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Lei [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Yan-Dong [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Biotechnology Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjw@hvri.ac.cn [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhua_uc@126.com [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biovaccine Company, Harbin 150069 (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  6. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition

  7. Host response dynamics following lethal infection of rhesus macaques with Zaire ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Rockx, Barry; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Brining, Douglas; LaCasse, Rachel A; Gardner, Don; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    To gain further insight into the interdependent pathogenic processes in Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), we have examined the dynamics of host responses in individual rhesus macaques infected with Zaire ebolavirus over the entire disease course. Examination of coagulation parameters revealed that decreased coagulation inhibitor activity triggered severe coagulopathy as indicated by prolonged coagulation times and decreased fibrinogen levels. This has been proposed as one of the significant mechanisms underlying disseminated intravascular coagulation in EHF patients. Furthermore, monitoring of expression levels for cytokines/chemokines suggested a mixed anti-inflammatory response syndrome (MARS), which indicates that a catastrophic uncontrolled immunological status contributes to the development of fatal hemorrhagic fever. These results highlight the pathological analogies between EHF and severe sepsis and not only contribute to our understanding of the pathogenic process, but will also help to establish novel postexposure treatment modalities.

  8. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies with Specificity for Rhesus Macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa N Byrareddy

    Full Text Available Lectin-like molecules and their receptors are cell surface molecules that have been shown to play a role in either facilitating infection or serving as transporters of HIV/SIV in vivo. The role of these lectin-like molecules in the pathogenesis of HIV/SIV infection continues to be defined. In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. The characterization of the cell lineages from the blood and various tissues of rhesus macaques that express these lectin-like molecules are described herein. Among the mononuclear cells, the cells of the myeloid lineage of rhesus macaques are the predominant cell lineages that express readily detectable levels of CD200, CD200R and Mincle that is similar to the expression of Siglec-1 and Siglec-3 reported by our laboratory earlier. Subset analysis revealed that a higher frequency of the CD14+/CD16- subset from normal rhesus macaques express CD200, CD200R and Mincle. Differences in the frequencies and density of expression of these molecules by the gated population of CD14+ cells from various tissues are noted with PBMC and bone marrow expressing the highest and the mononuclear cells isolated from the colon and ileum expressing the lowest levels. While a significant frequency of pDCs and mDCs express Siglec-1/Siglec-3, a much lower frequency expresses CD200, CD200R and Mincle in PBMCs from rhesus macaques. The mAb against CD200 and CD200R but not Mincle appear to inhibit the infection of macrophage tropic SIV/SHIV in vitro. We conclude that these mAbs may have potential to be used as adjunctive therapeutic agents to control/inhibit SIV/HIV infection.

  9. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies with Specificity for Rhesus Macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Little, Dawn; Mayne, Ann E; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2015-01-01

    Lectin-like molecules and their receptors are cell surface molecules that have been shown to play a role in either facilitating infection or serving as transporters of HIV/SIV in vivo. The role of these lectin-like molecules in the pathogenesis of HIV/SIV infection continues to be defined. In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. The characterization of the cell lineages from the blood and various tissues of rhesus macaques that express these lectin-like molecules are described herein. Among the mononuclear cells, the cells of the myeloid lineage of rhesus macaques are the predominant cell lineages that express readily detectable levels of CD200, CD200R and Mincle that is similar to the expression of Siglec-1 and Siglec-3 reported by our laboratory earlier. Subset analysis revealed that a higher frequency of the CD14+/CD16- subset from normal rhesus macaques express CD200, CD200R and Mincle. Differences in the frequencies and density of expression of these molecules by the gated population of CD14+ cells from various tissues are noted with PBMC and bone marrow expressing the highest and the mononuclear cells isolated from the colon and ileum expressing the lowest levels. While a significant frequency of pDCs and mDCs express Siglec-1/Siglec-3, a much lower frequency expresses CD200, CD200R and Mincle in PBMCs from rhesus macaques. The mAb against CD200 and CD200R but not Mincle appear to inhibit the infection of macrophage tropic SIV/SHIV in vitro. We conclude that these mAbs may have potential to be used as adjunctive therapeutic agents to control/inhibit SIV/HIV infection. PMID:26468886

  10. Crosstalk of dynamic functional modules in lung development of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuexin; Feng, Lin; Han, Zujing; Wu, Bo; Wang, Shuyuan; Xiao, Yun; Li, Feng; Zhang, Lianfeng; Cao, Bangrong; Di, Xuebing; Lu, Dan; Li, Xia; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Kaitai; Cheng, Shujun

    2016-04-01

    Lung development follows a complex series of dynamic histogenic events that depend on the fluctuation of gene expression, and the disruption of gene regulation could lead to devastating consequences, such as diseases in adulthood. In order to investigate the mechanism of lung development, we performed RNA sequencing by Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 to measure mRNA expression in lung tissues of nine rhesus macaques spanning from foetuses at gestation of 45 days to postnatal at 7 days. This development period was divided into three developmental stages, including the early stage (45-100 gestational days), the middle stage (137-163 gestational days) and the late stage (after birth at 4-7 days). Firstly, we identified stage-specific genes, based on which we found that the principle biological processes of the early stage were mainly associated with internal growth signalling, while the middle and late stage-specific genes controlled the external stress signalling. Then, we constructed a stage-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetwork, extracted dynamic modules, and identified crosstalk between modules. Moreover, we found four active pathways that could mediate the crosstalk, including the Notch signalling pathway, cell cycle, NOD-like receptor signalling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signalling pathway. These pathways not only played crucial roles in lung development, but also were implicated in lung diseases. Finally, some important bridgers, such as PSEN2, HSP90AA1 and CASP8, were discovered to explain the potential mechanism of crosstalk. Therefore, our study presents the landscape of gene expression of lung development of rhesus macaques, and provides an extended insight into the lung development mechanism. PMID:26923754

  11. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  12. Network stability is a balancing act of personality, power, and conflict dynamics in rhesus macaque societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda McCowan

    Full Text Available Stability in biological systems requires evolved mechanisms that promote robustness. Cohesive primate social groups represent one example of a stable biological system, which persist in spite of frequent conflict. Multiple sources of stability likely exist for any biological system and such robustness, or lack thereof, should be reflected and thus detectable in the group's network structure, and likely at multiple levels. Here we show how network structure and group stability are linked to the fundamental characteristics of the individual agents in groups and to the environmental and social contexts in which these individuals interact. Both internal factors (e.g., personality, sex and external factors (e.g., rank dynamics, sex ratio were considered from the level of the individual to that of the group to examine the effects of network structure on group stability in a nonhuman primate species. The results yielded three main findings. First, successful third-party intervention behavior is a mechanism of group stability in rhesus macaques in that successful interventions resulted in less wounding in social groups. Second, personality is the primary factor that determines which individuals perform the role of key intervener, via its effect on social power and dominance discrepancy. Finally, individuals with high social power are not only key interveners but also key players in grooming networks and receive reconciliations from a higher diversity of individuals. The results from this study provide sound evidence that individual and group characteristics such as personality and sex ratio influence network structures such as patterns of reconciliation, grooming and conflict intervention that are indicators of network robustness and consequent health and well-being in rhesus macaque societies. Utilizing this network approach has provided greater insight into how behavioral and social processes influence social stability in nonhuman primate groups.

  13. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O3) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O3) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  14. Crosstalk of dynamic functional modules in lung development of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuexin; Feng, Lin; Han, Zujing; Wu, Bo; Wang, Shuyuan; Xiao, Yun; Li, Feng; Zhang, Lianfeng; Cao, Bangrong; Di, Xuebing; Lu, Dan; Li, Xia; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Kaitai; Cheng, Shujun

    2016-04-01

    Lung development follows a complex series of dynamic histogenic events that depend on the fluctuation of gene expression, and the disruption of gene regulation could lead to devastating consequences, such as diseases in adulthood. In order to investigate the mechanism of lung development, we performed RNA sequencing by Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 to measure mRNA expression in lung tissues of nine rhesus macaques spanning from foetuses at gestation of 45 days to postnatal at 7 days. This development period was divided into three developmental stages, including the early stage (45-100 gestational days), the middle stage (137-163 gestational days) and the late stage (after birth at 4-7 days). Firstly, we identified stage-specific genes, based on which we found that the principle biological processes of the early stage were mainly associated with internal growth signalling, while the middle and late stage-specific genes controlled the external stress signalling. Then, we constructed a stage-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetwork, extracted dynamic modules, and identified crosstalk between modules. Moreover, we found four active pathways that could mediate the crosstalk, including the Notch signalling pathway, cell cycle, NOD-like receptor signalling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signalling pathway. These pathways not only played crucial roles in lung development, but also were implicated in lung diseases. Finally, some important bridgers, such as PSEN2, HSP90AA1 and CASP8, were discovered to explain the potential mechanism of crosstalk. Therefore, our study presents the landscape of gene expression of lung development of rhesus macaques, and provides an extended insight into the lung development mechanism.

  15. Effect of parity on bone mineral density in female rhesus macaques from Cayo Santiago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, Antonietta M; Tomlinson, George A; Turnquist, Jean E; Grynpas, Marc D

    2003-07-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between parity, bone mineral density, and spontaneous osteopenia/osteoporosis in a large skeletal population of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from the free-ranging colony of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 119 mature female monkeys aged 4.0-22.2 years at time of death. The data consist of measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the last lumbar vertebra. After controlling for age, there is a significant increase in BMD of the spine with increasing parity (P = 0.0006), up to a parity of 7 offspring. Thus, high parity initially has a positive effect on BMD in female rhesus monkeys, but this positive effect disappears with parities that are greater than 7 offspring. After controlling for parity, however, age has a negative (P = 0.015) effect on BMD, beginning several years after the attainment of peak BMD (age 9.5 years). Thus, it appears that parity initially mitigates the effects of aging, but the positive effect of parity on BMD is eventually overwhelmed by the aging process. Mean BMC and BMD values are higher in parous females compared to nulliparous females in the same age range. Similarly, females with low parity have significantly lower mean BMD values than do age-matched high-parity controls, and the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis is greater in low-parity females. Forty-three percent (43%) of the osteopenic/osteoporotic females in the sample are members of the low-parity group, even though it composes only 13% (16/119) of the entire sample. This study demonstrates that the free-ranging female rhesus monkeys from Cayo Santiago are a good nonhuman primate model for the study of bone mineral density, parity, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. PMID:12772213

  16. Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, S J; Perlman, J E; Boudreau, B A

    2001-11-01

    Social housing, whether continuous, intermittent, or partial contact, typically provides many captive primates with opportunities to express affiliative behaviors, important components of the species-typical behavioral repertoire. Positive reinforcement training techniques have been successfully employed to shape many behaviors important for achieving primate husbandry goals. The present study was conducted to determine whether positive reinforcement training techniques could also be employed to alter levels of affiliative interactions among group-housed rhesus macaques. Twenty-eight female rhesus were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 14) affiliators based on a median split of the amount of time they spent affiliating during the baseline phase of the study. During the subsequent training phase, half of the low affiliators (n = 7) were trained to increase their time spent affiliating, and half of the high affiliators (n = 7) were trained to decrease their time spent affiliating. Trained subjects were observed both during and outside of training sessions. Low affiliators significantly increased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during nontraining sessions. High affiliators on the other hand, significantly decreased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during training sessions. These data suggest that positive reinforcement techniques can be used to alter the affiliative behavior patterns of group-housed, female rhesus monkeys, although the two subgroups of subjects responded differently to the training process. Low affiliators changed their overall behavioral repertoire, while high affiliators responded to the reinforcement contingencies of training, altering their proximity patterns but not their overall behavior patterns. Thus, positive reinforcement training can be used not only as a means to promote species-typical or beneficial behavior patterns, but also as an important experimental manipulation to facilitate systematic

  17. Administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines to infant rhesus macaques does not result in autism-like behavior or neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadad, Bharathi S; Li, Wenhao; Yazdani, Umar; Grady, Stephen; Johnson, Trevor; Hammond, Jacob; Gunn, Howard; Curtis, Britni; English, Chris; Yutuc, Vernon; Ferrier, Clayton; Sackett, Gene P; Marti, C Nathan; Young, Keith; Hewitson, Laura; German, Dwight C

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Some anecdotal reports suggest that ASD is related to exposure to ethyl mercury, in the form of the vaccine preservative, thimerosal, and/or receiving the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Using infant rhesus macaques receiving thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) following the recommended pediatric vaccine schedules from the 1990s and 2008, we examined behavior, and neuropathology in three brain regions found to exhibit neuropathology in postmortem ASD brains. No neuronal cellular or protein changes in the cerebellum, hippocampus, or amygdala were observed in animals following the 1990s or 2008 vaccine schedules. Analysis of social behavior in juvenile animals indicated that there were no significant differences in negative behaviors between animals in the control and experimental groups. These data indicate that administration of TCVs and/or the MMR vaccine to rhesus macaques does not result in neuropathological abnormalities, or aberrant behaviors, like those observed in ASD.

  18. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  19. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Increases Immune Activation and Alters T Cell Homeostasis in SHIVB'WHU Chronically Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Hong Zhang; Run-Dong Wu; Hong-Yi Zheng; Xiao-Liang Zhang; Ming-Xu Zhang; Ren-Rong Tian; Guang-Ming Liu; Wei Pang; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation plays a significant role in the disease progression of HIV. Microbial products, especially bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to immune activation. Increasing evidence indicates that T lymphocyte homeostasis disruptions are associated with immune activation. However, the mechanism by which LPS affects disruption of immune response is still not fully understood. Chronically SHIVB’WHU-infected Chinese rhesus macaques received 50 μg/kg body weight LPS in this study....

  1. Critical Analysis of Treatment Trials of Rhesus Macaques Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Reveals Important Flaws in Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wormser, Gary P.; Baker, Phillip J.; O'Connell, Susan; Pachner, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Ira; Shapiro, Eugene D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical analysis of two treatment trials of Chinese rhesus macaques infected with Borrelia burgdorferi indicates that insufficient attention was placed on documenting the blood levels, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic parameters of the antibiotics used in this host. Consequently, it is impossible to conclude that the findings have validity in judging the efficacy of doxycycline or ceftriaxone for the treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi in this animal model.

  2. Mucosal transmissibility, disease induction and coreceptor switching of R5 SHIVSF162P3N molecular clones in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Wuze; Mumbauer Alexandra; Zhuang Ke; Harbison Carole; Knight Heather; Westmoreland Susan; Gettie Agegnehu; Blanchard James; Cheng-Mayer Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mucosally transmissible and pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) molecular clones are useful reagents to identity neutralization escape in HIV-1 vaccine experiments and to study the envelope evolutionary process and mechanistic basis for coreceptor switch during the course of natural infection. Results We observed progression to AIDS in rhesus macaques infected intrarectally with molecular clones of the pathogenic R5 SHIVSF162P3N isolate. ...

  3. Antibody Responses to a Spore Carbohydrate Antigen as a Marker of Nonfatal Inhalation Anthrax in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Saile, Elke; Boons, Geert-Jan; Buskas, Therese; Carlson, Russell W.; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Barr, John R.; Boyer, Anne E.; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Quinn, Conrad P.

    2011-01-01

    The Bacillus anthracis exosporium protein BclA contains an O-linked antigenic tetrasaccharide whose terminal sugar is known as anthrose (J. M. Daubenspeck et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279:30945–30953, 2004). We hypothesized that serologic responses to anthrose may have diagnostic value in confirming exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. We evaluated the serologic responses to a synthetic anthrose-containing trisaccharide (ATS) in a group of five rhesus macaques that survived inhalation anthrax foll...

  4. Sequencing of rhesus macaque Y chromosome clarifies origins and evolution of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) genes

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Y chromosome evolution often emphasize gene loss, but this loss has been counterbalanced by addition of new genes. The DAZ genes, which are critical to human spermatogenesis, were acquired by the Y chromosome in the ancestor of Old World monkeys and apes. We and our colleagues recently sequenced the rhesus macaque Y chromosome, and comparison of this sequence to human and chimpanzee enables us to reconstruct much of the evolutionary history of DAZ. We report that DAZ arrived on the...

  5. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, David X.; Doyle, Lara A.; Bouljihad, Mostafa T.; Didier, Peter J.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional ...

  6. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  7. SHIV-162P3 infection of rhesus macaques given maraviroc gel vaginally does not involve resistant viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athe M N Tsibris

    Full Text Available Maraviroc (MVC gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0 but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two infected macaques that received a placebo gel served as controls. The infecting SHIV-162P3 stock had an overall mean genetic distance of 0.294±0.027%; limited entropy changes were noted across the envelope (gp160. No envelope mutations were observed consistently in viruses isolated from infected macaques at days 14-21, the time of first detectable viremia, nor selected at later time points, days 42-70. No statistically significant differences in MVC susceptibilities were observed between the SHIV inoculum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50] 1.87 nM and virus isolated from the three MVC-treated macaques (MVC IC(50 1.18 nM, 1.69 nM, and 1.53 nM, respectively. Highlighter plot analyses suggested that infection was established in each MVC-treated animal by one founder virus genotype. The expected Poisson distribution of pairwise Hamming Distance frequency counts was observed and a phylogenetic analysis did not identify infections with distinct lineages from the challenge stock. These data suggest that breakthrough infections most likely result from incomplete viral inhibition and not the selection of MVC-resistant variants.

  8. Personality dimensions in adult male rhesus macaques: prediction of behaviors across time and situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, J P

    1999-01-01

    The idea that consistencies in behavior exist over time and across situations underlies human personality research. Although several studies have examined personality in nonhuman primates, there are very few data showing the predictive power of personality factors. The goal of the present study was to determine whether personality dimensions, identified in adult male rhesus monkeys living in half-acre cages, predicted behavior in situations different from the one from which the dimensions were originally derived and at time points of up to 4.5 years after the original assessments. Four personality dimensions (Sociability, Confidence, Excitability, and Equability) were identified using psychometric procedures and were correlated with behaviors recorded in several situations: the animals' natal groups, during tests of behavioral responsiveness while in individual cages, in small stable and unstable social groups, while viewing stimulus videotapes, and during stable social dyads. Results indicated substantial predictability. Sociability reflected a greater tendency to engage in affiliative interactions. Confidence correlated with more aggressive behaviors and with behaviors that suggest less attractiveness. Animals high in Excitability were somewhat inconsistent in their social behavior, perhaps reflecting hyper-responsiveness to novel circumstances and thwarted opportunities for escape. Equability appeared to be related to a less aggressive, more passive, style of interaction. Excitability and Equability appear to reflect more stylistic components of social behavior, whereas Sociability and Confidence may be more content-based dimensions. Sociability was strongly related to size of kin network in the animals' natal groups, suggesting an important role for ontogeny in this dimension. These data suggest that a limited number of personality dimensions exist in adult male rhesus macaques, and that these dimensions have predictive power that is both long-term and cross

  9. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  10. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  11. In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Spear

    Full Text Available Vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques (RM with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV has been used to study the biology of HIV transmission. Although the results of vaginal SIV transmission experiments could be affected by vaginal inflammation, studies to date have been conducted without regard to levels of pre-existing genital inflammation present in RM. We collected cevicovaginal secretions (CVS from 33-36 RM during the mid menstrual cycle (day 10-20 at 2 time points approximately 8 months apart and characterized the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes. There was extreme variability in the levels of inflammatory mediators (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF, IL-1b, IP-10, MIG, IL-12 and IL-17. In most animals, the mRNA levels of the inflammatory mediators were similar in the 2 CVS samples collected 8 months apart, suggesting that genital inflammation is stable in a subset of captive female RM. At both time points the cervicovaginal microbiota had low levels of Lactobacillus and was relatively diverse with an average of 13 genera in the samples from the first time point (median 13, range 7-21 and an average of 11.5 genera in the samples from the second time point (median 11, range 5-20. Many of the macaques had similar microbiota in the samples collected 8 months apart. However, we found no correlation between specific bacterial genera and the mRNA or protein levels of the inflammatory mediators in the genital tract of RM in this study. It seems likely that results of published vaginal SIV transmission experiments in RM have been influenced by pre-existing inflammation in the animals used for the experiments.

  12. Osmotic stress stimulates phosphorylation and cellular expression of heat shock proteins in rhesus macaque sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Julie A; Meyers, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The cryosurvival of sperm requires cell signaling mechanisms to adapt to anisotonic conditions during the freezing and thawing process. Chaperone proteins heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP 90; recently renamed HSPA and HSPC, respectively) facilitate some of these cell signaling events in somatic cells. Sperm were evaluated for their cellular expression and levels of phosphorylation of both HSP 70 and HSP 90 under anisotonic conditions as a potential model for cell signaling during the cryopreservation of macaque spermatozoa. In order to monitor the level of stress, the motility and viability parameters were evaluated at various time points. Cells were then either prepared for phosphoprotein enrichment or indirect immunocytochemistry. As controls, the phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine levels were measured under capacitation and cryopreservation conditions and were compared with the phosphoprotein levels expressed under osmotic conditions. As expected, there was an increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation under capacitation and cryopreservation conditions. There was also a significant increase in the level of all phosphoproteins under hyperosmotic conditions. There was no change in the level of expression of HSP 70 or 90 under osmotic stress conditions as measured by Western blot. The enrichment of phosphoproteins followed by Western immunoblotting revealed an increase in the phosphorylation of HSP 70 but not HSP 90 under osmotic stress conditions. Indirect immunofluorescence localized HSP 70 to the postacrosomal region of sperm, and the level of membrane expression of HSP 70 was significantly affected by anisotonic conditions, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results suggest a differential role for HSP 70 and HSP 90 during osmotic stress conditions in rhesus macaque sperm. PMID:21088232

  13. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. PMID:24395649

  14. Association of TLR7 variants with AIDS-like disease and AIDS vaccine efficacy in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A Siddiqui

    Full Text Available In HIV infection, TLR7-triggered IFN-α production exerts a direct antiviral effect through the inhibition of viral replication, but may also be involved in immune pathogenesis leading to AIDS. TLR7 could also be an important mediator of vaccine efficacy. In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in the X-linked TLR7 gene in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. Upon resequencing of the TLR7 gene in 36 rhesus macaques of Indian origin, 12 polymorphic sites were detected. Next, we identified three tightly linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP as being associated with survival time. Genotyping of 119 untreated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected male rhesus macaques, including an 'MHC adjusted' subset, revealed that the three TLR7 SNPs are also significantly associated with set-point viral load. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed in 72 immunized SIV-infected male monkeys. We hypothesize (i that SNP c.13G>A in the leader peptide is causative for the observed genotype-phenotype association and that (ii the underlying mechanism is related to RNA secondary structure formation. Therefore, we investigated a fourth SNP (c.-17C>T, located 17 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon, that is also potentially capable of influencing RNA structure. In c.13A carriers, neither set-point viral load nor survival time were related to the c.-17C>T genotype. In c.13G carriers, by contrast, the c.-17C allele was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Again, no such association was detected among immunized SIV-infected macaques. Our results highlight the dual role of TLR7 in immunodeficiency virus infection and vaccination and imply that it may be important to control human AIDS vaccine trials, not only for MHC genotype, but also for TLR7 genotype.

  15. Depressive-like behavioural profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

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    Sandrine MJ Camus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD, the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored.Methods: Behavioural data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances and locations in the cage were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys.Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g. inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles.Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a spontaneous model of depressive disorders.

  16. Immunoglobulin VH gene diversity and somatic hypermutation during SIV infection of rhesus macaques.

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    Guo, Kejun; Halemano, Kalani; Schmitt, Kimberly; Katuwal, Miki; Wang, Yaqiong; Harper, Michael S; Heilman, Karl J; Kuwata, Takeo; Stephens, Edward B; Santiago, Mario L

    2015-07-01

    B cell functional defects are associated with delayed neutralizing antibody development in pathogenic lentivirus infections. However, the timeframe for alterations in the antibody repertoire and somatic hypermutation (SHM) remains unclear. Here, we utilized the SIV/rhesus macaque (RM) model to investigate the dynamics of immunoglobulin V(H) gene diversity and SHM following infection. Three RMs were infected with SIVmac239, and V(H)1, V(H)3, and V(H)4 genes were amplified from peripheral blood at 0, 2, 6, 24, and 36 weeks postinfection for next-generation sequencing. Analysis of over 3.8 million sequences against currently available RM germline V(H) genes revealed a highly biased V(H) gene repertoire in outbred RMs. SIV infection did not significantly perturb the predominant IgG1 response, but overall immunoglobulin SHM declined during the course of SIV infection. Moreover, SHM at the AID deamination hotspot, WRC, rapidly decreased and was suppressed throughout SIV infection. In contrast, a transient increase in mutations at the APOBEC3G deamination hotspot, CCC, coincided with a spike in APOBEC3G expression during acute SIV infection. The results outline a timetable for altered V(H) gene repertoire and IgG SHM in the SIV/RM model and suggest a burst of APOBEC3G-mediated antibody SHM during acute SIV infection.

  17. Lineage-tracking of stem cell differentiation: a neutral model of hematopoiesis in rhesus macaque

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    Chou, Tom

    How a potentially diverse population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiates and proliferates to supply more than 1011 mature blood cells every day in humans remains a key biological question. We investigated this process by quantitatively analyzing the clonal structure of peripheral blood that is generated by a population of transplanted lentivirus-marked HSCs in myeloablated rhesus macaques. Each transplanted HSC generates a clonal lineage of cells in the peripheral blood that is then detected and quantified through deep sequencing of the viral vector integration sites (VIS) common within each lineage. This approach allowed us to observe, over a period of 4-12 years, hundreds of distinct clonal lineages. Surprisingly, while the distinct clone sizes varied by three orders of magnitude, we found that collectively, they form a steady-state clone size-distribution with a distinctive shape. Our concise model shows that slow HSC differentiation followed by fast progenitor growth is responsible for the observed broad clone size-distribution. Although all cells are assumed to be statistically identical, analogous to a neutral theory for the different clone lineages, our mathematical approach captures the intrinsic variability in the times to HSC differentiation after transplantation. Steady-state solutions of our model show that the predicted clone size-distribution is sensitive to only two combinations of parameters. By fitting the measured clone size-distributions to our mechanistic model, we estimate both the effective HSC differentiation rate and the number of active HSCs. NSF and NIH.

  18. Personality Traits in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Are Heritable but Do Not Predict Reproductive Output.

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    Brent, Lauren J N; Semple, Stuart; Maclarnon, Ann; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or "personalities," in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components. We collected observational data for 108 adult females living in three social groups in a free-ranging population via focal animal sampling. We applied principal component analysis to nine spontaneously occurring behaviors and identified six putative personality components, which we named Meek, Bold, Aggressive, Passive, Loner, and Nervous. All components were repeatable and heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.14 to 0.35. We found no evidence of an association with reproductive output, measured either by infant survival or by interbirth interval, for any of the personality components. This finding suggests either that personality does not have fitness-related consequences in this population or that selection has acted to reduce fitness-associated variation in personality.

  19. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

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    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  20. Efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Ghirardo, Stephanie; Minier, Darren E; Sharpe, Nicole; Tatum, Lindsay; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-11-01

    Primate facilities provide environmental enrichment to improve animal wellbeing, increase opportunities for expression of species-typical behaviors, and decrease the occurrence of stereotypic behaviors. The current study assessed the efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment: puzzle balls, supertubes, and shakers. We assigned 48 rhesus macaques to 3 experimental groups, each of which received (after a 3-wk baseline observation period) 1 of the 3 enrichment devices intermittently for 3 wk. Observations were collected during 10-min sessions by using 1-0 sampling with 15-s intervals (480 h total). Observations were collected at the same 10 specified time points each week during the baseline period and after enrichment. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling under the assumption that the underlying response followed a Poisson distribution. Foraging behavior increased significantly in all 3 groups and remained increased in some groups when enrichment was removed after 43 h. The 3 enrichment devices had different effects on individual expression of stereotypy: supertubes decreased it, shakers increased it, and puzzle balls led to a decrease followed by an increase. We present potential reasons for the changes in stereotypy and postulate a likely balance between the beneficial and negative effects of enrichment in any given environment. PMID:22330782

  1. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Evan C; Pratt, William D; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E; Goff, Arthur J

    2016-03-30

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule-a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis.

  2. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

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    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  3. Early Loss of Splenic Tfh Cells in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

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    Félicien Moukambi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Follicular T helper cells (Tfh, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, provide crucial help to B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Although several studies have analyzed the dynamics of Tfh cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs during Aids, none has yet addressed the impact of SIV infection on the dynamics of Tfh cells in the spleen, the primary organ of B cell activation. We show here a significant decrease in splenic Tfh cells in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques (RMs during the acute phase of infection, which persists thereafter. This profound loss is associated with lack of sustained expression of the Tfh-defining transcription factors, Bcl-6 and c-Maf but with higher expression of the repressors KLF2 and Foxo1. In this context of Tfh abortive differentiation and loss, we found decreased percentages of memory B cell subsets and lower titers of SIV-specific IgG. We further demonstrate a drastic remodeling of the lymphoid architecture of the spleen and LNs, which disrupts the crucial cell-cell interactions necessary to maintain memory B cells and Tfh cells. Finally, our data demonstrated the early infection of Tfh cells. Paradoxically, the frequencies of SIV DNA were higher in splenic Tfh cells of RMs progressing more slowly suggesting sanctuaries for SIV in the spleen. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of HIV/SIV infection on Tfh cells, and provide new clues for future vaccine strategies.

  4. Visual phenotype matching: cues to paternity are present in rhesus macaque faces.

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    Anahita J N Kazem

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and recent studies suggest similar abilities may be present in other species. However it is unclear to what extent familial resemblances remain detectable against the background levels of relatedness typically found within demes in the wild - a necessary condition if facial cues are to function in kin recognition under natural conditions. Here, we experimentally investigate whether parent-offspring relationships are discernible in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta faces drawn from a large free-ranging population more representative of the latter scenario, and in which genetic relatedness has been well quantified from pedigrees determined via molecular markers. We used the human visual system as a means of integrating multiple types of facial cue simultaneously, and demonstrate that paternal, as well as maternal, resemblance to both sons and daughters can be detected even by human observers. Experts performed better than participants who lacked previous experience working with nonhuman primates. However the finding that even naïve individuals succeeded at the task underlines the strength of the phenotypic cues present in faces.

  5. Successful transgene expression with serial doses of aerosolized rAAV2 vectors in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anne C; Beck, Suzanne E; Smith, Carolina I; Laube, Beth L; Askin, Frederic B; Guggino, Sandra E; Adams, Robert J; Flotte, Terence R; Guggino, William B

    2003-12-01

    Bronchoscopic microspraying of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors targets high doses of vector directly to pulmonary epithelium. Single-dose endobronchial gene therapy trials have been accomplished in cystic fibrosis patients; however, repeated dosing strategies are likely essential for lifetime correction. These studies address whether serial redosing with rAAV2 vectors results in an antiserotypic response and, furthermore, whether it triggers an inflammatory response prohibitive to transgene expression. Serial redosing of 9 x 10(11) infectious units of aerosolized rAAV2 vectors to rhesus macaques resulted in successful gene transfer by quantitative PCR (1.43 x 10(9) copies/g tissue) and transgene expression. Additionally, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated in situ expression localized to the pulmonary epithelium. Although serial redosing did induce a heightened anti-neutralizing antibody response in sera, gene transfer prevailed with resultant expression. This study is the first to demonstrate successful gene transfer subsequent to repeated aerosolized doses of rAAV2 in immunocompetent nonhuman primates without associated inflammatory responses prohibitive to transgene expression. PMID:14664794

  6. Elderly Female Rhesus Macaques Preserve Lung Alveoli With Estrogen/Progesterone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Matt J; Avdalovic, Mark V; Lasley, Bill; Putney, Lei F; Hyde, Dallas M

    2016-07-01

    The aging lung is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where females have been reported to be more susceptible than males. The changes in reproductive hormones due to aging may directly or indirectly affect lung structure and function and little is known on the mechanism of these changes. Twenty female rhesus macaques were divided into four groups. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed on eight animals with three receiving estrogen/progesterone therapy (HRT) and five animals given implants containing vehicle. The remaining 12 animals represented control groups of ages 10-14 years (n = 6) and ages 20-24 (n = 6). A design-based stereological method was employed to estimate the number of alveoli in the right middle lung lobe along with hormone analysis for possible correlation. A significant decrease was found in the number of alveoli in the vehicle OVX animals compared to intact younger adult females (P animals and those on HRT was also found (P animals and animals on HRT. The loss of ovaries and hormones had a significant effect on alveolar lung morphology. This result mimics what is seen in the aging process and could contribute to gender differences reported in the elderly. Hormone replacement, as reported here, could possibly slow the loss of alveoli due to the aging process or aid in alveolar regeneration through direct or indirect mechanisms. Anat Rec, 299:973-978, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27084043

  7. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

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    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  8. Positive reinforcement training in rhesus macaques-training progress as a result of training frequency.

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    Fernström, A-L; Fredlund, H; Spångberg, M; Westlund, K

    2009-05-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) efficiency was examined as a function of training frequency in 33 pair- or triple-housed female rhesus macaques. The animals were trained three times a week, once a day or twice a day, using PRT and a clicker as a secondary reinforcer. All animals were trained on 30 sessions, with an average of 5 min per training session per animal. The behaviors, trained in succession, were Targeting (reliably touching and following a Target); Collaborating (dominant animals allowing subordinates to train while stationing); Box-training (accepting being enclosed in a small compartment while responding to Target training) and initial Injection training.Fulfilled criteria for Targeting were obtained in 32/33 animals in a median of nine training sessions. Collaboration was obtained in 27/33 animals in a median of 15 training sessions. However, only four animals completed Box-training during the 30 training sessions and started Injection training. When comparing training success in terms of number of training sessions, training twice a day was less efficient than the other two treatments. In terms of daily progress, our results suggest that from a management perspective, daily training is more conducive to quick training success than thrice weekly training. In addition, in this study no further advantages could be gained from training twice a day.

  9. The use of positive reinforcement training to reduce stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques.

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    Coleman, Kristine; Maier, Adriane

    2010-05-01

    Stereotypic behavior is a pervasive problem for captive monkeys and other animals. Once this behavior pattern has started, it can be difficult to alleviate. We tested whether or not using positive reinforcement training (PRT) can reduce this undesired behavior. Subjects for this study were 11 adult, female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a history of locomotor stereotypy (e.g., pacing, bouncing, and somersaulting). We assessed baseline levels of stereotypic behavior and then utilized PRT to train six animals to touch a target and accept venipuncture. The other five monkeys served as controls. We assessed stereotypic behavior 1 week a month for 4 months, on days in which the monkey was not trained. Trained animals showed a significant reduction in stereotypic behavior after 1 month of training, compared to control monkeys (Mann Whitney U=28.00, P=0.02). These group differences did not persist after the first month (Month 2: Mann Whitney U=19.50, P=0.40, Month 3: Mann Whitney U=17.0, P=0.71, Month 4: Mann Whitney U=17.00, P=0.72). Still, the majority of the trained monkeys (n=4) engaged in less stereotypic behavior at the end of the study compared to baseline. Thus, training may be an effective way to reduce stereotypic behavior, at least for some individuals.

  10. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

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    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  11. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations.

  12. Monkeypox virus infection of rhesus macaques induces massive expansion of natural killer cells but suppresses natural killer cell functions.

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    Haifeng Song

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play critical roles in innate immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infection. However, the response of NK cells to monkeypox virus (MPXV infection is not well characterized. In this intravenous challenge study of MPXV infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, we analyzed blood and lymph node NK cell changes in absolute cell numbers, cell proliferation, chemokine receptor expression, and cellular functions. Our results showed that the absolute number of total NK cells in the blood increased in response to MPXV infection at a magnitude of 23-fold, manifested by increases in CD56+, CD16+, CD16-CD56- double negative, and CD16+CD56+ double positive NK cell subsets. Similarly, the frequency and NK cell numbers in the lymph nodes also largely increased with the total NK cell number increasing 46.1-fold. NK cells both in the blood and lymph nodes massively proliferated in response to MPXV infection as measured by Ki67 expression. Chemokine receptor analysis revealed reduced expression of CXCR3, CCR7, and CCR6 on NK cells at early time points (days 2 and 4 after virus inoculation, followed by an increased expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 at later time points (days 7-8 of infection. In addition, MPXV infection impaired NK cell degranulation and ablated secretion of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Our data suggest a dynamic model by which NK cells respond to MPXV infection of rhesus macaques. Upon virus infection, NK cells proliferated robustly, resulting in massive increases in NK cell numbers. However, the migrating capacity of NK cells to tissues at early time points might be reduced, and the functions of cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were largely compromised. Collectively, the data may explain, at least partially, the pathogenesis of MPXV infection in rhesus macaques.

  13. Pathological findings and diagnostic implications of a rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model of aerosol exposure to Burkholderia mallei (glanders).

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    Yingst, Samuel L; Facemire, Paul; Chuvala, Lara; Norwood, David; Wolcott, Mark; Huzella, Louis

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes a pneumonic disease known as glanders in equids and humans, and a lymphatic infection known as farcy, primarily in equids. With the potential to infect humans by the respiratory route, aerosol exposure can result in severe, occasionally fatal, pneumonia. Today, glanders infections in humans are rare, likely due to less frequent contact with infected equids than in the past. Acutely ill humans often have non-specific clinical signs and in order to diagnose cases, especially in scenarios of multiple cases in an unexpected setting, rapid diagnostics for B. mallei may be critical. The pathogenesis of acute glanders in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was studied as an initial effort to improve diagnostic methods. In the study described here, the diagnostic techniques of PCR, culture and histopathology were compared. The results indicated that PCR may provide rapid, non-invasive diagnosis of glanders in some cases. As expected, PCR results were positive in lung tissue in 11/12 acutely infected rhesus macaques, but more importantly in terms of diagnostic algorithm development, PCR results were frequently positive in non-invasive samples such as broncho-alveolar lavage or nasal swabs (7/12) and occasionally in blood (3/12). However, conventional bacterial culture failed to recover bacteria in many of these samples. The study showed that the clinical presentation of aerosol-exposed rhesus macaques is similar to descriptions of human glanders and that PCR has potential for rapid diagnosis of outbreaks, if not individual cases.

  14. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

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    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  15. Comparison of the effects of ketamine and fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine for sedation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Henri G. M. J.; Ellen, Yvette C.; O’Keefe, Stevie; Flecknell, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the effects of sedation using a combination of fentanyl, midazolam and medetomidine in comparison to ketamine. Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), (n = 16, 5 males and 3 females randomly allocated to each treatment group) received either ketamine (KET) (10 mg.kg−1) or fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine (FMM) (10 μg/kg−1; 0.5 mg.kg−1; 20 μg.kg−1) both IM. Oxygen (100 %) was provided by mask and heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, EtCO2 and depth of sedation ...

  16. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  17. Bone mineral density, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, A M; Tomlinson, G A; Turnquist, J E; Grynpas, M D

    2000-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates metabolic bone disease and the relationship between age and bone mineral density (BMD) in males and females of a large, well-documented skeletal population of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), from the Caribbean Primate Research Center Museum collection from Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 254 individuals aged 1.0-20+ years. The data consist of measurements of bone mineral content and bone mineral density, obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), of the last lumbar vertebra from each monkey. The pattern of BMD differs between male and female rhesus macaques. Females exhibit an initial increase in BMD with age, with peak bone density occurring around age 9.5 years, and remaining constant until 17.2 years, after which there is a steady decline in BMD. Males acquire bone mass at a faster rate, and attain a higher peak BMD at an earlier age than do females, at around 7 years of age, and BMD remains relatively constant between ages 7-18.5 years. After age 7 there is no apparent effect of age on BMD in the males of this sample; males older than 18.5 years were excluded due to the presence of vertebral osteophytosis, which interferes with DEXA. The combined frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population is 12.4%. BMD values of monkeys with vertebral wedge fractures are generally higher than those of virtually all of the nonfractured osteopenic/osteoporotic individuals, thus supporting the view that BMD as measured by DEXA is a useful but imperfect predictor of fracture risk, and that low BMD may not always precede fractures in vertebral bones. Other factors such as bone quality (i.e., trabecular connectivity) should also be considered. The skeletal integrity of a vertebra may be compromised by the loss of key trabeculae, resulting in structural failure, but the spine may still show a BMD value within normal limits, or within the range of osteopenia. PMID:11042540

  18. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection

  19. Lymphoid and Myeloid Recovery in Rhesus Macaques Following Total Body X-Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, Ann M; Hankey, Kim G; Cohen, Melanie Veirs; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Recovery from severe immunosuppression requires hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution and effective thymopoiesis to restore a functional immune cell repertoire. Herein, a model of immune cell reconstitution consequent to potentially lethal doses of irradiation is described, which may be valuable in evaluating potential medical countermeasures. Male rhesus macaques were total body irradiated by exposure to 6.00 Gy 250 kVp x-radiation (midline tissue dose, 0.13 Gy min), resulting in an approximate LD10/60 (n = 5/59). Animals received medical management, and hematopoietic and immune cell recovery was assessed (n ≤ 14) through 370 d post exposure. A subset of animals (n ≤ 8) was examined through 700 d. Myeloid recovery was assessed by neutrophil and platelet-related parameters. Lymphoid recovery was assessed by the absolute lymphocyte count and FACS-based phenotyping of B- and T-cell subsets. Recent thymic emigrants were identified by T cell receptor excision circle quantification. Severe neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia resolved within 30 d. Total CD3+ cells μL required 60 d to reach values 60% of normal, followed by subsequent slow recovery to approximately normal by 180 d post irradiation. Recovery of CD3+4+ and CD3+8+ cell memory and naïve subsets were markedly different. Memory populations were ≥ 100% of normal by day 60, whereas naïve populations were only 57% normal at 180 d and never fully recovered to baseline post irradiation. Total (CD20+) B cells μL were within normal levels by 77 d post exposure. This animal model elucidates the variable T- and B-cell subset recovery kinetics after a potentially lethal dose of total-body irradiation that are dependent on marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell recovery, peripheral homeostatic expansion, and thymopoiesis.

  20. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  1. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: tigarash@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harasima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko, E-mail: msugita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  2. Effect of IL-7 Therapy on Naive and Memory T Cell Homeostasis in Aged Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Afam A; Rohankhedkar, Mukta; Konfe, Audrie L; Abana, Chike O; Reyes, Matthew D; Clock, Joseph A; Duell, Derick M; Sylwester, Andrew W; Sammader, Partha; Legasse, Alfred W; Park, Byung S; Axthelm, Michael K; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Picker, Louis J

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with gradual deterioration of adaptive immune function, a hallmark of which is the profound loss of naive T cells (TN) associated with decline in thymic output and export of new cells into the peripheral T cell pool. Because the lymphotropic cytokine IL-7 plays crucial roles in both development of TN in the thymus and TN homeostasis in the periphery, we sought to determine the extent to which therapeutic administration of IL-7 could reverse TN deficiency in aging rhesus macaques (RM), either by enhancement of the demonstrably reduced thymopoiesis or by peripheral TN expansion. Our results indicate that treatment of both adult (8-15 y) and old (>20 y) RM with recombinant simian IL-7 (rsIL-7) results in only transient increases in peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) TN numbers with no long-term benefit, even with repeated therapy. This transient effect was due to peripheral TN expansion and not enhanced thymic function, and appeared to be limited by induction of IL-7 nonresponsiveness. However, rsIL-7 therapy had a more promising effect on the central memory T cell (TCM) population (both CD4(+) and CD8(+)) in adult and old RM, doubling the numbers of these cells in circulation and maintaining this larger population long term. IL-7 therapy did not reduce TCR diversity of the memory T cell compartment, suggesting that rsIL-7-induced expansion was symmetrical. Thus, although rsIL-7 failed to counter age-associated TN loss, the ability of this therapy to expand clonotypically diverse CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM populations might potentially improve adaptive immune responsiveness in the elderly. PMID:26416281

  3. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Disruption of Innate Immunity in Chronic Heavy Ethanol Consuming Female Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshchandra, Suhas; Rais, Maham; Stull, Cara; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that heavy ethanol consumption interferes with the immune system and inflammatory processes, resulting in increased risk for infectious and chronic diseases. However, these processes have yet to be systematically studied in a dose and sex-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the impact of chronic heavy ethanol consumption on gene expression using RNA-seq in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from female rhesus macaques with daily consumption of 4% ethanol available 22hr/day for 12 months resulting in average ethanol consumption of 4.3 g/kg/day (considered heavy drinking). Differential gene expression analysis was performed using edgeR and gene enrichment analysis using MetaCore™. We identified 1106 differentially expressed genes, meeting the criterion of ≥ two-fold change and p-value ≤ 0.05 in expression (445 up- and 661 down-regulated). Pathway analysis of the 879 genes with characterized identifiers showed that the most enriched gene ontology processes were “response to wounding”, “blood coagulation”, “immune system process”, and “regulation of signaling”. Changes in gene expression were seen despite the lack of differences in the frequency of any major immune cell subtype between ethanol and controls, suggesting that heavy ethanol consumption modulates gene expression at the cellular level rather than altering the distribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Collectively, these observations provide mechanisms to explain the higher incidence of infection, delay in wound healing, and increase in cardiovascular disease seen in subjects with Alcohol use disorder. PMID:27427759

  4. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  5. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  6. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, K; Liukkonen, J; Kubisch, H M

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether sperm derived from the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 yr with an average age of 8.5 yr. No sperm was obtained from three animals that were younger than 4 yr. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8+/-88.7x10(6) and an average motility of 72.8+/-4.4%. After 24h of culture in TALP medium at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST (TES-Tris buffer)-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm, reducing the immediate postthaw motility to 42.4% in nontreated samples. Treatment with dibutyryl-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4h in fresh sperm (72.8% vs. 50.4%) but increased motility in sperm that had been frozen (14.0% vs. 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm, with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall, the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from postmortem males, although subsequent studies will be needed to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  7. Mapping of a macular drusen susceptibility locus in rhesus macaques to the homologue of human chromosome 6q14-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K; Ristau, Steven; Dawson, William W; Krawczak, Michael; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2005-10-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a natural model for retinal drusen formation. The present study aimed at clarifying whether chromosomal regions homologous to candidate genes for drusen formation and progression in humans are also associated with a drusen phenotype in rhesus macaques. Some 42 genetic markers from seven chromosomal regions implicated in macular degeneration syndromes in humans were tested for whether they identified homologous, polymorphic sequences in rhesus DNA. This was found to be the case for seven markers, all of which were subsequently screened for the presence of potentially disease-predisposing alleles in 52 randomly chosen adult animals from the Cayo Santiago population of rhesus macaques (Caribbean Primate Research Center, PR, USA). The high drusen prevalence expected in the Cayo Santiago colony was confirmed in our sample in that 38 animals were found to have drusen (73%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that some alleles of the rhesus homologue of anonymous human marker D6S1036 were consistently over-represented among affected animals. Of two candidate genes located in the respective region, allelic variation in one (IMPG1) showed strong association with drusen formation. We conclude that one or more genes located at the rhesus homologue of human 6q14-15 are likely to play a role in retinal drusen formation, a finding that represents a first step towards the identification of genetic factors implicated in macular drusen formation in rhesus macaques. This is an important tool for the separation of genetic and environmental factors which must occur before satisfactory management methods can be developed.

  8. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  9. Brief communication: MaqFACS: A muscle-based facial movement coding system for the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, L A; Waller, B M; Burrows, A M; Gothard, K M; Vick, S J

    2010-12-01

    Over 125 years ago, Charles Darwin (1872) suggested that the only way to fully understand the form and function of human facial expression was to make comparisons with other species. Nevertheless, it has been only recently that facial expressions in humans and related primate species have been compared using systematic, anatomically based techniques. Through this approach, large-scale evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses of facial expressions, including their homology, can now be addressed. Here, the development of a muscular-based system for measuring facial movement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is described based on the well-known FACS (Facial Action Coding System) and ChimpFACS. These systems describe facial movement according to the action of the underlying facial musculature, which is highly conserved across primates. The coding systems are standardized; thus, their use is comparable across laboratories and study populations. In the development of MaqFACS, several species differences in the facial movement repertoire of rhesus macaques were observed in comparison with chimpanzees and humans, particularly with regard to brow movements, puckering of the lips, and ear movements. These differences do not seem to be the result of constraints imposed by morphological differences in the facial structure of these three species. It is more likely that they reflect unique specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species.

  10. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

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    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  11. Mucosal transmissibility, disease induction and coreceptor switching of R5 SHIVSF162P3N molecular clones in rhesus macaques

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    Ren Wuze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosally transmissible and pathogenic CCR5 (R5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV molecular clones are useful reagents to identity neutralization escape in HIV-1 vaccine experiments and to study the envelope evolutionary process and mechanistic basis for coreceptor switch during the course of natural infection. Results We observed progression to AIDS in rhesus macaques infected intrarectally with molecular clones of the pathogenic R5 SHIVSF162P3N isolate. Expansion to CXCR4 usage was documented in one diseased macaque that mounted a neutralizing antibody response and in another that failed to do so, with the latter displaying a rapid progressor phenotype. V3 loop envelop glycoprotein gp120 sequence changes that are predictive of a CXCR4 (X4-using phenotype in HIV-1 subtype B primary isolates, specifically basic amino acid substations at positions 11 (S11R, 24 (G24R and 25 (D25K of the loop were detected in the two infected macaques. Functional assays showed that envelopes with V3 S11R or D25K mutation were dual-tropic, infecting CD4+ target cells that expressed either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor. And, consistent with findings of coreceptor switching in macaques infected with the pathogenic isolate, CXCR4-using variant was first detected in the lymph node of the chronically infected rhesus monkey several weeks prior to its presence in peripheral blood. Moreover, X4 emergence in this macaque coincided with persistent peripheral CD4+ T cell loss and a decline in neutralizing antibody titer that are suggestive of immune deterioration, with macrophages as the major virus-producing cells at the end-stage of disease. Conclusions The data showed that molecular clones derived from the R5 SHIVSF162P3N isolate are mucosally transmissible and induced disease in a manner similar to that observed in HIV-1 infected individuals, providing a relevant and useful animal infection model for in-depth analyses of host selection

  12. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  13. Limited impact of passive non-neutralizing antibody immunization in acute SIV infection on viremia control in rhesus macaques.

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    Taku Nakane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiviral antibodies, especially those with neutralizing activity against the incoming strain, are potentially important immunological effectors to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. While neutralizing activity appears to be central in sterile protection against HIV infection, the entity of inhibitory mechanisms via HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-specific antibodies remains elusive. The recent HIV vaccine trial RV144 and studies in nonhuman primate models have indicated controversial protective efficacy of HIV/SIV-specific non-neutralizing binding antibodies (non-NAbs. While reports on HIV-specific non-NAbs have demonstrated virus inhibitory activity in vitro, whether non-NAbs could also alter the pathogenic course of established SIV replication in vivo, likewise via neutralizing antibody (NAb administration, has been unclear. Here, we performed post-infection passive immunization of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with polyclonal SIV-specific, antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI-competent non-NAbs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ten lots of polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG were prepared from plasma of ten chronically SIVmac239-infected, NAb-negative rhesus macaques, respectively. Their binding capacity to whole SIVmac239 virions showed a propensity similar to ADCVI activity. A cocktail of three non-NAb lots showing high virion-binding capacity and ADCVI activity was administered to rhesus macaques at day 7 post-SIVmac239 challenge. This resulted in an infection course comparable with control animals, with no significant difference in set point plasma viral loads or immune parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Despite virus-specific suppressive activity of the non-NAbs having been observed in vitro, their passive immunization post-infection did not result in SIV control in vivo. Virion binding and ADCVI activity with lack of virus neutralizing activity were indicated to be insufficient for antibody

  14. Enhanced Th1/Th17 Functions of CD161+ CD8+ T Cells in Mucosal Tissues of Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Rout

    Full Text Available Expression of the C-type lectin-like receptor CD161 by human T cells is associated with type-17 responses, which play critical regulatory roles in immunity and inflammation at mucosal sites. However, the functions of CD161-expressing T cells in macaques, the pre-clinical model of several human diseases, remain unknown. This study examined the phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD161+ T cells in peripheral blood, mucosal tissues and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques. Majority of CD161-expressing T cells in peripheral blood and lung/intestinal mucosal tissues of rhesus macaques were found to be CD8+CD4- in phenotype. There was a significant enrichment of CD161+CD8+ T cells in the lungs and colonic mucosa (16.1%±6.6 and 16.8%±5.7 in comparison to peripheral blood (4.2%±1.2 and mesenteric lymph nodes (1.3%±0.8. Regardless of the tissue compartment, CD161+CD8+ T cells mainly comprised of γδ T cells and TCR Vα7.2+ MAIT cells (up to 80%, and displayed Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses to mitogen stimulation. Mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells were characterized by very high expression of CD69, a recent activation marker that is preferentially expressed on tissue resident cells. Furthermore, lung and colonic mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells showed enhanced IFN-γ, IL-17, and Perforin production in comparison to those in blood. Thus, macaque CD161+CD8+ T cells represent mucosal tissue-homing innate-like CD8+ T-cell populations with Th1/Th17 type cytokine and cytotoxic effector functions that can potentially enhance the recruitment of adaptive immune cells and control initial pathogen burden/dissemination in tissues. Analysis of their role in early immune responses to mucosal pathogens will be valuable in the design of vaccines and therapeutics.

  15. Exogenous IFN-alpha administration reduces influenza A virus replication in the lower respiratory tract of rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R Matzinger

    Full Text Available To determine the role of innate immune responses in controlling influenza A virus replication, rhesus macaques (RM were administered pegylated IFN-alpha prior to virus challenge. Systemic and mucosal pegylated IFN-alpha administration induced expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG MxA and OAS in the airways. RM treated with IFN-alpha 24 hours prior to influenza virus challenge had significantly lower peak vRNA levels in the trachea compared to untreated animals. In addition to blunting viral replication, IFN-alpha treatment minimized the weight loss and spike in body temperature after influenza infection of RM. These results confirm the importance of IFN-alpha induced innate immune responses in the rapid control of influenza A virus replication in primates.

  16. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  17. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  18. Immune targeting of PD-1{sup hi} expressing cells during and after antiretroviral therapy in SIV-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xiao, Peng; Hogg, Alison E.; Demberg, Thorsten; McKinnon, Katherine [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Venzon, David [Biostatistics and Data Management Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; DiPasquale, Janet [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lee, Eun M.; Hudacik, Lauren; Pal, Ranajit [Advanced Bioscience Laboratories Inc., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Sui, Yongjun; Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Liu, Linda; Langermann, Solomon [Amplimmune Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Robert-Guroff, Marjorie, E-mail: guroffm@mail.nih.gov [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    High-level T cell expression of PD-1 during SIV infection is correlated with impaired proliferation and function. We evaluated the phenotype and distribution of T cells and Tregs during antiretroviral therapy plus PD-1 modulation (using a B7-DC-Ig fusion protein) and post-ART. Chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques received: 11 weeks of ART (Group A); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig (Group B); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig, then 12 weeks of B7-DC-Ig alone (Group C). Continuous B7-DC-Ig treatment (Group C) decreased rebound viremia post-ART compared to pre-ART levels, associated with decreased PD-1{sup hi} expressing T cells and Tregs in PBMCs, and PD-1{sup hi} Tregs in lymph nodes. It transiently decreased expression of Ki67 and α{sub 4}β{sub 7} in PBMC CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} Tregs for up to 8 weeks post-ART and maintained Ag-specific T-cell responses at low levels. Continued immune modulation targeting PD-1{sup hi} cells during and post-ART helps maintain lower viremia, keeps a favorable T cell/Treg repertoire and modulates antigen-specific responses. - Highlights: • B7-DC-Ig modulates PD-1{sup hi} cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques during and post-ART. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains PD-1{sup hi} cells at low levels. • Continued PD-1 modulation post-ART maintains a favorable T cell and Treg repertoire.

  19. Cloning and characterization of equine CD89 and identification of the CD89 gene in chimpanzees and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, H Craig; Pleass, Richard J; Storset, Anne K; Brandtzaeg, Per; Woof, Jenny M

    2005-05-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the major antibody class present in external secretions of mammals. At the vulnerable mucosal surfaces, IgA provides a crucial first-line defence by neutralizing pathogens. Primates also have a substantial level of IgA in serum and although not well understood, the biological role of this IgA depends, at least partly, on its ability to interact with specific receptors (FcalphaRs) on the surface of leucocytes. The human FcalphaR, CD89, was the first IgA Fc receptor to be identified and binding of IgA-coated particles to CD89 triggers numerous cellular effector functions, including phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and release of inflammatory mediators, all of which may play an important role in both systemic and mucosal immunity. For many years humans were the only species known to express CD89, however, it has recently been cloned from cows and rats. Here, we describe the identification of the CD89 gene in three additional species: horses, chimpanzees, and Rhesus macaques. Equine CD89 was identified at the cDNA level, whereas the chimpanzee and Rhesus macaque genes were identified from the available draft genomic sequence. Interestingly, when compared with humans and other primates, horses, cows and rats have a relatively low concentration of serum IgA, so the role of CD89 in these species is of particular interest. The identification and characterization of CD89 in different species will contribute to a greater understanding of the biological role of IgA and CD89 in mucosal and systemic immunity throughout evolution. PMID:15819699

  20. Effects of reproductive condition and dominance rank on cortisol responsiveness to stress in free-ranging female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Ayala, James E; Mas-Rivera, Adaris; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulates individuals' physiological responses to social stress, which is an inevitable aspect of the daily lives of group-living animals. Previous nonhuman primate studies have reported that sex, age, rank, and reproductive condition influence cortisol levels under stressful conditions. In this study we investigated cortisol responses to stress among 70 multiparous, free-ranging female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, PR. Plasma cortisol samples were collected in two consecutive years under similar conditions. Twenty-two females were sampled both years, and most of those females were lactating in only one of the years. Individual differences in cortisol levels were stable across years, even though reproductive condition changed for most individuals. No relationship was found between age or social rank and cortisol levels. Of the females that changed reproductive conditions, cortisol levels were higher when they were lactating than when they were cycling, and the amount of change in cortisol from cycling to lactating was greatest for low-ranking individuals. Heightened reactivity to stress during lactation may be the result of concerns about infant safety, and such concerns may be higher among low-ranking mothers than among higher ranking mothers. Psychosocial stress and hyperactivation of the HPA axis during lactation can suppress immune function and increase vulnerability to infectious diseases, thus explaining why adult females in the free-ranging rhesus macaque population on Cayo Santiago have a higher probability of mortality during the birth season than during the mating season. PMID:20039328

  1. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka;

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese rhe...

  2. Accelerated structural decrements in the aging female rhesus macaque lung compared with males

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Matt J.; Avdalovic, Mark V.; Quesenberry, Cheryl L.; Putney, Lei F.; Tyler, Nancy K.; Ventimiglia, Frank F.; St. George, Judith A.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphometric changes in the lung that lead to decreased lung function. The nonhuman primate lung has been shown to have similar architectural, morphological, and developmental patterns to that of humans. We hypothesized that the lungs of rhesus monkeys age in a pattern similar to human lungs. Thirty-four rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were euthanized, necropsied, and the whole lungs sampled. Stereological analysis was performed to ...

  3. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  4. Stress-associated H3K4 methylation accumulates during postnatal development and aging of rhesus macaque brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yixing; Han, Dali; Yan, Zheng; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome D; Green, Christopher D; Khaitovich, Philipp; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2012-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications are critical determinants of cellular and developmental states. Epigenetic changes, such as decreased H3K27me3 histone methylation on insulin/IGF1 genes, have been previously shown to modulate lifespan through gene expression regulation. However, global epigenetic changes during aging and their biological functions, if any, remain elusive. Here, we examined the histone modification H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) in the prefrontal cortex of individual rhesus macaques at different ages by chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) at the whole genome level. Through integrative analysis of the ChIP-seq profiles with gene expression data, we found that H3K4me2 increased at promoters and enhancers globally during postnatal development and aging, and those that correspond to gene expression changes in cis are enriched for stress responses, such as the DNA damage response. This suggests that metabolic and environmental stresses experienced by an organism are associated with the progressive opening of chromatin. In support of this, we also observed increased expression of two H3K4 methyltransferases, SETD7 and DPY30, in aged macaque brain. PMID:22978322

  5. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV smE660 or SIVmac251 recapitulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keele, Brandon [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Li, Hui [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Learn, Gerald [UNIV OF ALABAMA

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a novel strategy to identify transmitted HIV-1 genomes in acutely infected humans using single-genome amplification and a model of random virus evolution. Here, we used this approach to determine the molecular features of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in 18 experimentally infected Indian rhesus macaques. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (i.r.) or intravenously (i.v.) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV-1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA 1--5 wk after infection. i.r. inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or a few viruses (median 1; range 1--5) that diversified randomly with near starlike phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or a few nucleotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder viruses. i.v. infection was >2,000-fold more efficient than i.r. infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV-1, and thus validate the SIV-macaque mucosal infection model for HIV-1 vaccine and microbicide research.

  6. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  7. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne; Vandeleest, Jessica; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri) among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct) contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability.

  8. Effect of CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion on Virus Containment after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge of Live Attenuated SIVmac239Δ3-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jörn E.; Johnson, R. Paul; McClure, Harold M.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Wyand, Michael S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Khunkhun, Rajinder S.; McEvers, Kimberly J.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Grosschupff, Gudrun; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2005-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced protection, we depleted rhesus macaques vaccinated with the live attenuated virus SIVmac239Δ3 of CD8+ lymphocytes and then challenged them with SIV...

  9. Construction of Soluble Mamu-B*1703, a Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex of Chinese Rhesus Macaques, Monomer and Tetramer Loaded with a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyun Ouyang; Xiaoying Wang; Xianhui He; Lihui Xu; Huanjing Shi; Qi Gao; He Guo

    2009-01-01

    Chinese-descent rhesus macaques have become more prevalent for HIV infection and vaccine investigation than Indian-origin macaques. Most of the currently available data and reagents such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers, however, were derived from Indian-origin macaques due to the dominant use of these animals in history. Although there are significant differences in the immunogenetic background between the two macaque populations, they share a few of common MHC class I alleles. We reported in this study the procedure for preparation of a soluble Mamu-B*1703 (a MHC class I molecule of Chinese macaques) monomer and tetramer loaded with a dominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope IW9 (IRYPKTFGW) that was identified to be Mamu-B*1701-restricted in Indian macaques. The DNA fragment encoding the Mamu-B*1703 extracellular domain fused with a BirA substrate peptide (BSP) was amplified from a previously cloned cDNA and inserted into a prokaratic expression vector. In the presence of the antigenic peptide IW9 and light chain ?2-microglobulin, the expressed heavy chain was refolded into a soluble monomer. After biotinylation, four monomers were polymerized as a tetramer by phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin. The tetramer, having been confirmed to have the right conformation, was a potential tool for investigation of antigen-specific CD8+ T-lymphocytes in SIV vaccine models of Chinese macaques. And our results also suggested that some antigenic peptides reported in Indian-origin macaques could be directly recruited as ligands for construction of Chinese macaque MHC tetramers. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  10. Direct Lymph Node Vaccination of Lentivector/Prostate-Specific Antigen is Safe and Generates Tissue-Specific Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Au

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer immunotherapy is emerging from a nadir and demonstrating tangible benefits to patients. A variety of approaches are now employed. We are invoking antigen (Ag-specific responses through direct injections of recombinant lentivectors (LVs that encode sequences for tumor-associated antigens into multiple lymph nodes to optimize immune presentation/stimulation. Here we first demonstrate the effectiveness and antigen-specificity of this approach in mice challenged with prostate-specific antigen (PSA-expressing tumor cells. Next we tested the safety and efficacy of this approach in two cohorts of rhesus macaques as a prelude to a clinical trial application. Our vector encodes the cDNA for rhesus macaque PSA and a rhesus macaque cell surface marker to facilitate vector titering and tracking. We utilized two independent injection schemas demarcated by the timing of LV administration. In both cohorts we observed marked tissue-specific responses as measured by clinical evaluations and magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland. Tissue-specific responses were sustained for up to six months—the end-point of the study. Control animals immunized against an irrelevant Ag were unaffected. We did not observe vector spread in test or control animals or perturbations of systemic immune parameters. This approach thus offers an “off-the-shelf” anti-cancer vaccine that could be made at large scale and injected into patients—even on an out-patient basis.

  11. Constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshir, Amir; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  12. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  13. Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, P K; Kumar, A; Singh, B

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as major animal pathogen with significant zoonotic concerns, worldwide. MAP infection is endemic in domestic and wild ruminant population in India. However, information on MAP infection in free ranging animal species and non human primates is limited. Present study aimed to estimate the status of MAP infection in free living Rhesus macaques suffering with multiple clinical conditions (coughing and loose stool). A total of 25 stool samples were collected from six colonies of Rhesus macaques from Mathura region (North India) and screened for the presence of MAP, using microscopic examination and IS900 PCR, directly from stool samples. PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Of the 25 stool samples, 10 (40.0%) and 2 (8.0%) were positive for MAP using microscopic examination and direct IS900 PCR, respectively. IS900 PCR positive DNA samples were genotyped as 'Indian Bison type', which is a major MAP genotype infecting domestic and wild ruminant species and human beings in India. Prevalence of MAP in Rhesus macaques (Indian monkeys) was moderately high and confirmed interspecies sharing of MAP between domestic livestock and non-human primates. Presence of MAP in non-human primates, support the etiological role of MAP in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Indian monkeys may serve as model for understanding the role of non-human primates in sustenance, transmission and pathogenesis of MAP infection.

  14. Chronic Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration Reduces IgE(+)B Cells but Unlikely Enhances Pathogenic SIVmac251 Infection in Male Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Liu, Li; Cong, Zhe; Wu, Xiaoxian; Wang, Hui; Qin, Chuan; Molina, Patricia; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. Δ(9)-THC has been used in the active ingredient of Marinol as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients. Its impact on progression of HIV-1 infection, however, remains debatable. Previous studies indicated that Δ(9)-THC administration enhanced HIV-1 infection in huPBL-SCID mice but seemingly decreased early mortality in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected male Indian-derived rhesus macaques. Here, we determine the chronic effect of Δ(9)-THC administration using 0.32 mg/kg or placebo (PBO), i.m., twice daily for 428 days on SIVmac251 infected male Chinese-derived rhesus macaques. Sixteen animals were divided into four study groups: Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+), Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(-), PBO/SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(-) (n = 4/group). One-month after daily Δ(9)-THC or PBO administrations, macaques in groups one and three were challenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS, which was isolated from the brain of a Chinese macaque with end-staged neuroAIDS. No significant differences in peak and steady state plasma viral loads were seen between Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(+) macaques. Regardless of Δ(9)-THC, all infected macaques displayed significant drop of CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, loss of CD4(+) T cells and higher persistent levels of Ki67(+)CD8(+) T cells compared with uninfected animals. Moreover, long-term Δ(9)-THC treatment reduced significantly the frequency of circulating IgE(+)B cells. Only one Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) macaque died of simian AIDS with paralyzed limbs compared with two deaths in the PBO/SIV(+) group during the study period. These findings indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC administration resulted in reduction of IgE(+)B cells, yet it unlikely enhanced pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS infection in male Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. PMID:27109234

  15. Simian virus 40 inhibits differentiation and maturation of rhesus macaque DC-SIGN+-dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are the initiators and modulators of the immune responses. Some species of pathogenic microorganisms have developed immune evasion strategies by controlling antigen presentation function of DC. Simian virus 40 (SV40 is a DNA tumor virus of rhesus monkey origin. It can induce cell transformation and tumorigenesis in many vertebrate species, but often causes no visible effects and persists as a latent infection in rhesus monkeys under natural conditions. To investigate the interaction between SV40 and rhesus monkey DC, rhesus monkey peripheral blood monocyte-derived DC were induced using recombinant human Interleukin-4 (rhIL-4 and infective SV40, the phenotype and function of DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN+ DC were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR. Results showed that SV40 can down-regulate the expression of CD83 and CD86 on DC and impair DC-induced activation of T cell proliferation. These findings suggest that SV40 might also cause immune suppression by influencing differentiation and maturation of DC.

  16. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques Is Most Consistent with Oral-Oral Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Fong, Julie; Hansen, Lori M.; Chang, Kikuko; Canfield, Don R; Parsonnet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Socially housed rhesus monkeys rapidly acquired Helicobacter pylori infection, although the organism was rarely cultivated from saliva, feces, or the environment. Since the concentrations of H. pylori in vomit were compatible with what is known about the infectious dose, our results are most consistent with an oral-oral means of transmission.

  17. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  18. Full genome sequence analysis of a novel adenovirus of rhesus macaque origin indicates a new simian adenovirus type and species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Malouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple novel simian adenoviruses have been isolated over the past years and their potential to cross the species barrier and infect the human population is an ever present threat. Here we describe the isolation and full genome sequencing of a novel simian adenovirus (SAdV isolated from the urine of two independent, never co-housed, late stage simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The viral genome sequences revealed a novel type with a unique genome length, GC content, E3 region and DNA polymerase amino acid sequence that is sufficiently distinct from all currently known human- or simian adenovirus species to warrant classifying these isolates as a novel species of simian adenovirus. This new species, termed Simian mastadenovirus D (SAdV-D, displays the standard genome organization for the genus Mastadenovirus containing only one copy of the fiber gene which sets it apart from the old world monkey adenovirus species HAdV-G, SAdV-B and SAdV-C.

  19. Evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor-selective tracer [{sup 11}C]GR103545 in awake rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoultz, Bent W. [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Hjornevik, Trine; Willoch, Frode [University of Oslo, Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Akershus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Loerenskog (Norway); Marton, Janos [ABX Advanced Biochemical Compounds GmbH, Radeberg (Germany); Noda, Akihiro; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Basic Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Aarstad, Erik [University College of London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Matsunari, Ichiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Clinical Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Henriksen, Gjermund [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The recent development in radiosynthesis of the {sup 11}C-carbamate function increases the potential of [{sup 11}C]GR103545, which for the last decade has been regarded as promising for imaging the kappa-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) with PET. In the present study, [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was evaluated in awake rhesus macaques. Separate investigations were performed to clarify the OR subtype selectivity of this compound. Regional brain uptake kinetics of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was studied 0-120 min after injection. The binding affinity and opioid subtype selectivity of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was determined in cells transfected with cloned human opioid receptors. In vitro binding assays demonstrated a high affinity of GR103545 for {kappa}-OR (K{sub i} = 0.02 {+-}0.01 nM) with excellent selectivity over {mu}-OR (6 x 10{sup 2}-fold) and {delta}-OR (2 x 10{sup 4}-fold). PET imaging revealed a volume of distribution (V{sub T}) pattern consistent with the known distribution of {kappa}-OR, with striatum = temporal cortex > cingulate cortex > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > thalamus > cerebellum. [{sup 11}C]GR103545 is selective for {kappa}-OR and holds promise for use to selectively depict and quantify this receptor in humans by means of PET. (orig.)

  20. Crystal structure of the Trim5α Bbox2 domain from rhesus macaques describes a plastic oligomerisation interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Jeremy Russell; Goldstone, David Charles

    2016-09-01

    Retroviral pathogens have been an evolutionary pressure for many primate species, driving the development of an intrinsic cellular response to retroviruses and antiretroviral proteins. One such antiretroviral protein is the restriction factor Trim5α, that blocks HIV-1 infection in rhesus macaques at an early post-entry stage in the retroviral lifecycle. Trim5α self-assembles into a large hexagonal array, complimentary to the retroviral capsid. Assembly is mediated by the conserved N-terminal architecture comprising a RING domain, a Bbox domain, and a coiled coil. Recently we have shown that the Bbox domain and elements of the coiled coil form a trimer in solution, and that the Bbox domain drives assembly. During crystallisation experiments using the trimer forming construct, we determined the structure of a dimeric Bbox domain to a resolution of 1.8Å. Interface analysis reveals that residues previously shown to be required for assembly and restriction, Glu120 and Arg121, are central to the interface. Comparison to a mutant Trim5α dimer interface shows a translation of the Bbox dimerisation interface removing interactions important in the wildtype protein. PMID:27402535

  1. Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of free-ranging and captive rhesus macaques from Cayo Santiago: paternity assignment and comparison of heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, P; Berard, J D; Bercovitch, F; Epplen, J T; Schmidtke, J; Krawczak, M

    1993-01-01

    Multilocus DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (GTG)5, (GATA)4, and (CA)8 was applied in order to determine paternity in one birth cohort (15 infants) of social group (S) from the free-ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. While sires could be identified in 11 cases, all males tested (N = 19) could be excluded from paternity for the remaining four infants. Data revealed marked discrepancies between actual paternity and paternity as inferred from the observation of copulation behavior. Thus, a dominant social rank does not appear to be strongly associated with reproductive success. Furthermore, alternative reproductive strategies were found to yield comparable net benefits in reproduction. A second group of animals (M) was translocated from Cayo Santiago to the Sabana Seca Field Station in 1984. They have continuously resided together in a large outdoor enclosure since then. Here paternity assessment was seriously impeded by a reduced number of discriminating bands, i.e. offspring bands which were unequivocally derived from the sires. This was initially held to be indicative of a smaller degree of heterozygosity in Group M, and was attributed to inbreeding due to a lack of male immigration or extra-group fertilizations. However, a comparison of the DNA fingerprint patterns obtained in Group S and Group M lends only partial support to this idea. PMID:8400713

  2. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  3. Social and nonsocial content differentially modulates visual attention and autonomic arousal in Rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Machado

    Full Text Available The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal. These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information

  4. Live Attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯SIV Enhances Acquisition of Heterologous SIVsmE660 in Acutely Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Byrareddy, Siddappa N.; Ayash-Rashkovsky, Mila; Kramer, Victor G; Lee, Sandra J.; Correll, Mick; Novembre, Francis J; Villinger, Francois; Johnson, Welkin E.; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Felber, Barbara K.; Ruth M Ruprecht

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with live-attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯ simian immunodeficiency virus (Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV) as adults or neonates controlled viremia to undetectable levels and showed no signs of immunodeficiency over 6-8 years of follow-up. We tested the capacity of this live-attenuated virus to protect RMs against pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of four RM were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV and compared. G...

  5. Live Attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯SIV Enhances Acquisition of Heterologous SIVsmE660 in Acutely Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Byrareddy, Siddappa N.; Ayash-Rashkovsky, Mila; Kramer, Victor G; Lee, Sandra J.; Correll, Mick; Novembre, Francis J; Villinger, Francois; Johnson, Welkin E.; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Felber, Barbara K.; Ruth M Ruprecht

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with live-attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯ simian immunodeficiency virus (Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV) as adults or neonates controlled viremia to undetectable levels and showed no signs of immunodeficiency over 6-8 years of follow-up. We tested the capacity of this live-attenuated virus to protect RMs against pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of four RM were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV and compared. ...

  6. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  7. Molecular Analysis of a Novel Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Type in Rhesus Macaques and Evidence for Double Infections with the Classical SV40 Type▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrouch, Zahra; Karremans, Kevin; Deuzing, Ilona; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bogers, Willy; Verschoor, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) and in uninfected animals was determined using PCR. Rates varied from 5% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of uninfected monkeys to 19.6% in SHIV-infected macaques. Much higher detection rates, up to 75%, were found in lymph nodes and spleen samples of SHIV-infected animals. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that they form two genetic clusters, one containing the majority of known SV40 strains and the other formed by variants with 7% genetic difference. Based on this difference, we propose two SV40 types: “type 1” or “classical type” for the majority of SV40 strains and “type 2” for the novel SV40 variants. The genome of one variant, SV40-Ri257, was completely sequenced and analyzed. The agnogene of SV40-Ri257 extends into the VP2 open reading frame and encodes a typical agnoprotein fused to a C-terminal hydrophobic region. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of SV40-Ri257 is the least conserved region compared to type 1 viruses. Particularly, the 3′ end of the TCR, containing the early promoter and enhancer region, exhibits considerable variation. Further analysis of SHIV-infected macaques with type-specific PCRs revealed that the TCR of type 1 was completely conserved, whereas this region in type 2 varied considerably within the early enhancer region. We provide evidence here for the existence of a novel SV40 type in rhesus macaques and show that double infections with both types frequently occur. PMID:21307214

  8. Molecular analysis of a novel simian virus 40 (SV40) type in rhesus macaques and evidence for double infections with the classical SV40 type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrouch, Zahra; Karremans, Kevin; Deuzing, Ilona; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bogers, Willy; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) and in uninfected animals was determined using PCR. Rates varied from 5% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of uninfected monkeys to 19.6% in SHIV-infected macaques. Much higher detection rates, up to 75%, were found in lymph nodes and spleen samples of SHIV-infected animals. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that they form two genetic clusters, one containing the majority of known SV40 strains and the other formed by variants with 7% genetic difference. Based on this difference, we propose two SV40 types: "type 1" or "classical type" for the majority of SV40 strains and "type 2" for the novel SV40 variants. The genome of one variant, SV40-Ri257, was completely sequenced and analyzed. The agnogene of SV40-Ri257 extends into the VP2 open reading frame and encodes a typical agnoprotein fused to a C-terminal hydrophobic region. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of SV40-Ri257 is the least conserved region compared to type 1 viruses. Particularly, the 3' end of the TCR, containing the early promoter and enhancer region, exhibits considerable variation. Further analysis of SHIV-infected macaques with type-specific PCRs revealed that the TCR of type 1 was completely conserved, whereas this region in type 2 varied considerably within the early enhancer region. We provide evidence here for the existence of a novel SV40 type in rhesus macaques and show that double infections with both types frequently occur.

  9. Late Effects of Total-Body Gamma Irradiation on Cardiac Structure and Function in Male Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBo, Ryne J; Lees, Cynthia J; Dugan, Greg O; Caudell, David L; Michalson, Kris T; Hanbury, David B; Kavanagh, Kylie; Cline, J Mark; Register, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease is an increasingly recognized, serious late effect of radiation exposure, most notably among breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease survivors, as well as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late effects of total-body irradiation (TBI) on cardiac morphology, function and selected circulating biomarkers in a well-established nonhuman primate model. For this study we used male rhesus macaques that were exposed to a single total-body dose of ionizing gamma radiation (6.5-8.4 Gy) 5.6-9.7 years earlier at ages ranging from ∼3-10 years old and a cohort of nonirradiated controls. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed annually for 3 years on 20 irradiated and 11 control animals. Myocardium was examined grossly and histologically, and myocardial fibrosis/collagen was assessed microscopically and by morphometric analysis of Masson's trichrome-stained sections. Serum/plasma from 27 irradiated and 13 control animals was evaluated for circulating biomarkers of cardiac damage [N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic protein (nt-proBNP) and troponin-I], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM) and microbial translocation [LPS-binding protein (LBP) and sCD14]. A higher prevalence of histological myocardial fibrosis was observed in the hearts obtained from the irradiated animals (9/14) relative to controls (0/3) (P = 0.04, χ(2)). Echocardiographically determined left ventricular end diastolic and systolic diameters were significantly smaller in irradiated animals (repeated measures ANOVA, P effects including a high incidence of myocardial fibrosis, reduced left ventricular diameter and elevated systemic inflammation. Additional prospective studies are required to define the time course and mechanisms underlying radiation-induced heart disease in this model. PMID:27333082

  10. Persistence of virus reservoirs in ART-treated SHIV-infected rhesus macaques after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mavigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in AIDS research, a cure for HIV infection remains elusive. Here, we performed autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in three Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART-treated rhesus macaques (RMs using HSCs collected prior to infection and compared them to three SHIV-infected, ART-treated, untransplanted control animals to assess the effect of conditioning and autologous HSCT on viral persistence. As expected, ART drastically reduced virus replication, below 100 SHIV-RNA copies per ml of plasma in all animals. After several weeks on ART, experimental RMs received myeloablative total body irradiation (1080 cGy, which resulted in the depletion of 94-99% of circulating CD4+ T-cells, and low to undetectable SHIV-DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Following HSC infusion and successful engraftment, ART was interrupted (40-75 days post-transplant. Despite the observed dramatic reduction of the peripheral blood viral reservoir, rapid rebound of plasma viremia was observed in two out of three transplanted RMs. In the third transplanted animal, plasma SHIV-RNA and SHIV DNA in bulk PBMCs remained undetectable at week two post-ART interruption. No further time-points could be assessed as this animal was euthanized for clinical reasons; however, SHIV-DNA could be detected in this animal at necropsy in sorted circulating CD4+ T-cells, spleen and lymph nodes but not in the gastro-intestinal tract or tonsils. Furthermore, SIV DNA levels post-ART interruption were equivalent in several tissues in transplanted and control animals. While persistence of virus reservoir was observed despite myeloablation and HSCT in the setting of short term ART, this experiment demonstrates that autologous HSCT can be successfully performed in SIV-infected ART-treated RMs offering a new experimental in vivo platform to test innovative interventions aimed at curing HIV infection in humans.

  11. Antibody responses to a spore carbohydrate antigen as a marker of nonfatal inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saile, Elke; Boons, Geert-Jan; Buskas, Therese; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Barr, John R; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Quinn, Conrad P

    2011-05-01

    The Bacillus anthracis exosporium protein BclA contains an O-linked antigenic tetrasaccharide whose terminal sugar is known as anthrose (J. M. Daubenspeck et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279:30945-30953, 2004). We hypothesized that serologic responses to anthrose may have diagnostic value in confirming exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. We evaluated the serologic responses to a synthetic anthrose-containing trisaccharide (ATS) in a group of five rhesus macaques that survived inhalation anthrax following exposure to B. anthracis Ames spores. Two of five animals (RM2 and RM3) were treated with ciprofloxacin starting at 48 hours postexposure and two (RM4 and RM5) at 72 h postexposure; one animal (RM1) was untreated. Infection was confirmed by blood culture and detection of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) in plasma. Anti-ATS IgG responses were determined at 14, 21, 28, and 35 days postexposure, with preexposure serum as a control. All animals, irrespective of ciprofloxacin treatment, mounted a specific, measurable anti-ATS IgG response. The earliest detectable responses were on days 14 (RM1, RM2, and RM5), 21 (RM4), and 28 (RM3). Specificity of the anti-ATS responses was demonstrated by competitive-inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA), in which a 2-fold (wt/wt) excess of carbohydrate in a bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate of the oligosaccharide (ATS-BSA) effected >94% inhibition, whereas a structural analog lacking the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyryl moiety at the C-4" of the anthrosyl residue had no inhibition activity. These data suggest that anti-ATS antibody responses may be used to identify aerosol exposure to B. anthracis spores. The anti-ATS antibody responses were detectable during administration of ciprofloxacin. PMID:21389148

  12. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Death of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the death of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, would lead to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her death, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch’s death, following her death, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the death of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  13. Social learning as a way to overcome choice-induced preferences? Insights from humans and rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETTA eMONFARDINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Much theoretical attention is currently devoted to social learning. Yet, empirical studies formally comparing its effectiveness relative to individual learning are rare. Here, we focus on free choice, which is at the heart of individual reward-based learning, but absent in social learning. Choosing among two equally valued options is known to create a preference for the selected option in both humans and monkeys. We thus surmised that social learning should be more helpful when choice-induced preferences retard individual learning than when they optimize it. To test this prediction, the same task requiring to find which among two items concealed a reward was applied to rhesus macaques and humans. The initial trial was individual or social, rewarded or unrewarded. Learning was assessed on the second trial. Choice-induced preference strongly affected individual learning. Monkeys and humans performed much more poorly after an initial negative choice than after an initial positive choice. Comparison with social learning verified our prediction. For negative outcome, social learning surpassed or at least equaled individual learning in all subjects. For positive outcome, the predicted superiority of individual learning did occur in a majority of subjects (5/6 monkeys and 6/12 humans. A minority kept learning better socially though, perhaps due to a more dominant/aggressive attitude toward peers. Poor learning from errors due to over-valuation of personal choices is among the decision-making biases shared by humans and animals. The present study suggests that choice-immune social learning may help curbing this potentially harmful tendency. Learning from successes is an easier path. The present data suggest that whether one tends to walk it alone or with a peer's help might depend on the social dynamics within the actor/observer dyad.

  14. Chronic recording of hand prosthesis control signals via a regenerative peripheral nerve interface in a rhesus macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Z. T.; Schroeder, K. E.; Vu, P. P.; Tat, D. M.; Bullard, A. J.; Woo, S. L.; Sando, I. C.; Urbanchek, M. G.; Cederna, P. S.; Chestek, C. A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Loss of even part of the upper limb is a devastating injury. In order to fully restore natural function when lacking sufficient residual musculature, it is necessary to record directly from peripheral nerves. However, current approaches must make trade-offs between signal quality and longevity which limit their clinical potential. To address this issue, we have developed the regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) and tested its use in non-human primates. Approach. The RPNI consists of a small, autologous partial muscle graft reinnervated by a transected peripheral nerve branch. After reinnervation, the graft acts as a bioamplifier for descending motor commands in the nerve, enabling long-term recording of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), functionally-specific electromyographic (EMG) signals. We implanted nine RPNIs on separate branches of the median and radial nerves in two rhesus macaques who were trained to perform cued finger movements. Main results. No adverse events were noted in either monkey, and we recorded normal EMG with high SNR (>8) from the RPNIs for up to 20 months post-implantation. Using RPNI signals recorded during the behavioral task, we were able to classify each monkey’s finger movements as flexion, extension, or rest with >96% accuracy. RPNI signals also enabled functional prosthetic control, allowing the monkeys to perform the same behavioral task equally well with either physical finger movements or RPNI-based movement classifications. Significance. The RPNI signal strength, stability, and longevity demonstrated here represents a promising method for controlling advanced prosthetic limbs and fully restoring natural movement.

  15. Transfer of a serial representation between two distinct tasks by rhesus macaques.

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    Greg Jensen

    Full Text Available Do animals form task-specific representations, or do those representations take a general form that can be applied to qualitatively different tasks? Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta learned the ordering of stimulus lists using two different serial tasks, in order to test whether prior experience in each task could be transfered to the other, enhancing performance. The simultaneous chaining paradigm delivered rewards only after subjects responded in the correct order to all stimuli displayed on a touch sensitive video monitor. The transitive inference paradigm presented pairs of items and delivered rewards when subjects selected the item with the lower ordinal rank. After learning a list in one paradigm, subjects' knowledge of that list was tested using the other paradigm. Performance was enhanced from the very start of transfer training. Transitive inference performance was characterized by 'symbolic distance effects,' whereby the ordinal distance between stimuli in the implied list ordering was strongly predictive of the probability of a correct response. The patterns of error displayed by subjects in both tasks were best explained by a spatially coded representation of list items, regardless of which task was used to learn the list. Our analysis permits properties of this representation to be investigated without the confound of verbal reasoning.

  16. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  17. CD4+ T Cells Modified by the Endoribonuclease MazF Are Safe and Can Persist in SHIV-infected Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoki; Chono, Hideto; Shibata, Hiroaki; Ageyama, Naohide; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    MazF, an endoribonuclease encoded by Escherichia coli, specifically cleaves the ACA (adenine–cytosine–adenine) sequence of single-stranded RNAs. Conditional expression of MazF under the control of the HIV-1 LTR promoter rendered CD4+ T cells resistant to HIV-1 replication without affecting cell growth. To investigate the safety, persistence and efficacy of MazF-modified CD4+ T cells in a nonhuman primate model in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and transplanted with autologous MazF-modified CD4+ T cells. MazF-modified CD4+ T cells were clearly detected throughout the experimental period of more than 6 months. The CD4+ T cell count values increased in all four rhesus macaques. Moreover, the transplantation of the MazF-modified CD4+ T cells was not immunogenic, and did not elicit cellular or humoral immune responses. These data suggest that the autologous transplantation of MazF-modified CD4+ T cells in the presence of SHIV is effective, safe and not immunogenic, indicating that this is an attractive strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:24914931

  18. CD4(+) T Cells Modified by the Endoribonuclease MazF Are Safe and Can Persist in SHIV-infected Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoki; Chono, Hideto; Shibata, Hiroaki; Ageyama, Naohide; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-06-10

    MazF, an endoribonuclease encoded by Escherichia coli, specifically cleaves the ACA (adenine-cytosine-adenine) sequence of single-stranded RNAs. Conditional expression of MazF under the control of the HIV-1 LTR promoter rendered CD4(+) T cells resistant to HIV-1 replication without affecting cell growth. To investigate the safety, persistence and efficacy of MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells in a nonhuman primate model in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and transplanted with autologous MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells. MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells were clearly detected throughout the experimental period of more than 6 months. The CD4(+) T cell count values increased in all four rhesus macaques. Moreover, the transplantation of the MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells was not immunogenic, and did not elicit cellular or humoral immune responses. These data suggest that the autologous transplantation of MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells in the presence of SHIV is effective, safe and not immunogenic, indicating that this is an attractive strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy.

  19. Correlation between genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates and the geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Cheng, Xunjia; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several polymorphic markers, including serine-rich protein genes, have been used for the genotyping of isolates from the morphologically indistinguishable protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba nuttalli. Genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic, but the correlation with geographical distribution is unknown. We have recently isolated 15 E. nuttalli strains from wild rhesus macaques in four locations in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The sequences of the serine-rich protein genes of the E. nuttalli strains differed among the four locations. In this study, we analyzed tRNA-linked STRs in six loci of the 15 strains. Two genotypes were found in loci N-K2, R-R, and S(TGA)-D, three in locus S-Q, and five in locus D-A. In locus A-L, one major genotype and ten minor genotypes were found, resulting in mixtures of two to six genotypes in eight strains. By combination of the main genotypes in the six loci, the 15 strains were divided into nine genotypes. The genotypes observed in E. nuttalli strains were quite different from those in E. histolytica and E. dispar. A phylogenetic tree constructed from tRNA-linked STRs in the six loci reflected the different places of isolation. These results suggest that sequence diversity of tRNA-linked STRs in E. nuttalli occurs with relatively high frequency and might be a marker of geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques, even in limited areas.

  20. Effects of Simian Betaretrovirus Serotype 1 (SRV1) Infection on the Differentiation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (CD34+) Derived from Bone Marrow of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Nestor A; Todd, Patricia A; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these hematologic abnormalities are not well understood. The current study investigated the in vitro tropism of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) for both hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) and stromal cells obtained from rhesus macaque bone marrow and assessed the effects of infection on hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. After in vitro exposure, SRV proviral DNA could be demonstrated by real-time PCR in cells and the reverse transcriptase assay in supernatants from SRV-exposed progenitor-associated stroma, but not in differentiated colonies derived from SRV-exposed progenitors. Furthermore, in vitro exposure involving cell–cell contact of uninfected CD34+ progenitor cells with SRV-infected stromal cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction in granulocyte–macrophage colony formation in absence of detectable SRV-infection of progenitor cells. Reduction in colony formation occurred in a ‘dose-dependent’ fashion with increasing contact time. No effects on erythroid lineages and RBC differentiation were noted. Our results suggest that hematologic abnormalities observed during SRV disease (natural or experimental) of rhesus macaques may not result from direct effects of viral infection of progenitor cell populations, but rather be (at least in part) a consequence of SRV infection of supportive bone marrow stroma with secondary effects on differentiation of associated progenitor cells. PMID:22330653

  1. The HMW1 and HMW2 Adhesins Enhance the Ability of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae To Colonize the Upper Respiratory Tract of Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Katherine A; Porsch, Eric A; Wilson, Jolaine M; St Geme, Joseph W

    2016-10-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract and is a common cause of localized respiratory tract disease. Previous work has established that the NTHi HMW1 and HMW2 proteins are potent adhesins that mediate efficient in vitro adherence to cultured human respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we used a rhesus macaque model to assess the contributions of HMW1 and HMW2 to in vivo colonization. In experiments involving inoculation of individual isogenic derivatives of NTHi strain 12, the parent strain expressing both HMW1 and HMW2 and the mutant strains expressing either HMW1 or HMW2 were able to colonize more frequently than the double mutant strain lacking HMW1 and HMW2. In competition experiments, the parent strain efficiently outcompeted the double mutant lacking HMW1 and HMW2. Colonization with strains expressing HMW2 resulted in development of antibody against HMW2 in a number of the animals, demonstrating that colonization can stimulate an antibody response. In conclusion, we have established that the HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins play a major role in facilitating colonization of the upper respiratory tract of rhesus macaques, in some cases associated with stimulation of an immune response.

  2. Development of a Rotavirus-Shedding Model in Rhesus Macaques, Using a Homologous Wild-Type Rotavirus of a New P Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Monica M.; Sestak, Karol; Choi, Anthony H.-C.; Basu, Mitali; Cole, Michael J.; Aye, Pyone P.; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Ward, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Although there are several reports on rotavirus inoculation of nonhuman primates, no reliable model exists. Therefore, this study was designed to develop a rhesus macaque model for rotavirus studies. The goals were to obtain a wild-type macaque rotavirus and evaluate it as a challenge virus for model studies. Once rotavirus was shown to be endemic within the macaque colony at the Tulane National Primate Research Center, stool specimens were collected from juvenile animals (2.6 to 5.9 months of age) without evidence of previous rotavirus infection and examined for rotavirus antigen. Six of 10 animals shed rotavirus during the 10-week collection period, and the electropherotypes of all isolates were identical to each other but distinct from those of prototype simian rotaviruses. These viruses were characterized as serotype G3 and subgroup 1, properties typical of many animal rotaviruses, including simian strains. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP4 gene was performed with a culture-grown isolate from the stool of one animal, designated the TUCH strain. Based on both genotypic and phylogenetic comparisons between TUCH VP4 and cognate proteins of representatives of the reported 22 P genotypes, the TUCH virus belongs to a new genotype, P[23]. A pool of wild-type TUCH was prepared and intragastrically administered to eight cesarean section-derived, specific-pathogen-free macaques 14 to 42 days of age. All animals were kept in a biocontainment level 2 facility. Although no diarrhea was observed and the animals remained clinically normal, all animals shed large quantities of rotavirus antigen in their feces after inoculation, which resolved by the end of the 14-day observation period. Therefore, TUCH infection of macaques provides a useful nonhuman primate model for studies on rotavirus protection. PMID:15613323

  3. Context cue-dependent saccadic adaptation in rhesus macaques cannot be elicited using color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, Aaron L; Smalianchuk, Ivan; Khanna, Sanjeev B; Smith, Matthew A; Gandhi, Neeraj J

    2015-07-01

    When the head does not move, rapid movements of the eyes called saccades are used to redirect the line of sight. Saccades are defined by a series of metrical and kinematic (evolution of a movement as a function of time) relationships. For example, the amplitude of a saccade made from one visual target to another is roughly 90% of the distance between the initial fixation point (T0) and the peripheral target (T1). However, this stereotypical relationship between saccade amplitude and initial retinal error (T1-T0) may be altered, either increased or decreased, by surreptitiously displacing a visual target during an ongoing saccade. This form of motor learning (called saccadic adaptation) has been described in both humans and monkeys. Recent experiments in humans and monkeys have suggested that internal (proprioceptive) and external (target shape, color, and/or motion) cues may be used to produce context-dependent adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that an external contextual cue (target color) could be used to evoke differential gain (actual saccade/initial retinal error) states in rhesus monkeys. We did not observe differential gain states correlated with target color regardless of whether targets were displaced along the same vector as the primary saccade or perpendicular to it. Furthermore, this observation held true regardless of whether adaptation trials using various colors and intrasaccade target displacements were randomly intermixed or presented in short or long blocks of trials. These results are consistent with hypotheses that state that color cannot be used as a contextual cue and are interpreted in light of previous studies of saccadic adaptation in both humans and monkeys. PMID:25995353

  4. Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol impairs reversal learning but not extra-dimensional shifts in rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M. Jerry; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Parsons, Loren H.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of medical marijuana use in the US and the recently successful decriminalization of recreational marijuana in two States elevates interest in the specific cognitive effects of Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9THC), the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Controlled laboratory studies in nonhuman primates provide mixed evidence for specific effects of Δ9THC in learning and memory tasks, with a suggestion that frontal-mediated tasks may be most sensitive. In this study, adult male rhesus monkeys were trained on tasks which assess reversal learning, extradimensional attentional shift learning and spatial delayed-response. Subjects were challenged with 0.1–0.5 mg/kg Δ9THC, i.m., in randomized order and evaluated on the behavioral measures. Peak plasma levels of Δ9THC were observed 30 min after 0.2 mg/kg (69 ±29 ng/ml) and 60 min after 0.5 mg/kg (121 ±23 ng/ml) was administered and behavioral effects on a bimanual motor task persisted for up to 2 hrs after injection. An increase in errors-to-criterion (ETC) associated with reversal learning was further increased by Δ9THC in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in ETC associated with extradimensional shifts was not affected by Δ9-THC. Spatial delayed-response performance was impaired by Δ9THC in a retention-interval dependent manner. Overall the pattern of results suggest a more profound effect of Δ9THC on tasks mediated by orbitofrontal (reversal learning) versus dorsolateral (extradimensional shifts) prefrontal mechanisms. PMID:23333671

  5. Ecological genetics of Chinese rhesus macaque in response to mountain building: all things are not equal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jin Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pliocene uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and Quaternary glaciation may have impacted the Asian biota more than any other events. Little is documented with respect to how the geological and climatological events influenced speciation as well as spatial and genetic structuring, especially in vertebrate endotherms. Macaca mulatta is the most widely distributed non-human primate. It may be the most suitable model to test hypotheses regarding the genetic consequences of orogenesis on an endotherm. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a large dataset of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA gene sequences and nuclear microsatellite DNA data, we discovered two maternal super-haplogroups exist, one in western China and the other in eastern China. M. mulatta formed around 2.31 Ma (1.51-3.15, 95%, and divergence of the two major matrilines was estimated at 1.15 Ma (0.78-1.55, 95%. The western super-haplogroup exhibits significant geographic structure. In contrast, the eastern super-haplogroup has far greater haplotypic variability with little structure based on analyses of six variable microsatellite loci using Structure and Geneland. Analysis using Migrate detected greater gene flow from WEST to EAST than vice versa. We did not detect signals of bottlenecking in most populations. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of the nuclear and mitochondrial datasets obtained large differences in genetic patterns for M. mulatta. The difference likely reflects inheritance mechanisms of the maternally inherited mtDNA genome versus nuclear biparentally inherited STRs and male-mediated gene flow. Dramatic environmental changes may be responsible for shaping the matrilineal history of macaques. The timing of events, the formation of M. mulatta, and the divergence of the super-haplogroups, corresponds to both the uplifting of the QTP and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Orogenesis likely drove divergence of western populations in China, and Pleistocene

  6. Myocarditis in CD8-depleted SIV-infected rhesus macaques after short-term dual therapy with nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

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    Lakshmanan Annamalai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, a number of antiretroviral toxicities have been described, including myocardial toxicity resulting from the use of nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of HAART regimens containing two NRTIs for initial therapy of HIV-1 positive individuals; however, potential cardiotoxicity resulting from treatment with multiple NRTIs has not been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined myocardial tissue from twelve CD8 lymphocyte-depleted adult rhesus macaques, including eight animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, four of which received combined antiretroviral therapy (CART consisting of two NRTIs [(9-R-2-Phosphonomethoxypropyl Adenine (PMPA and (+/--beta-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (RCV] for 28 days. Multifocal infiltrates of mononuclear inflammatory cells were present in the myocardium of all macaques that received CART, but not untreated SIV-positive animals or SIV-negative controls. Macrophages were the predominant inflammatory cells within lesions, as shown by immunoreactivity for the macrophage markers Iba1 and CD68. Heart specimens from monkeys that received CART had significantly lower virus burdens than untreated animals (p<0.05, but significantly greater quantities of TNF-α mRNA than either SIV-positive untreated animals or uninfected controls (p<0.05. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-1β and CXCL11 mRNA were upregulated in heart tissue from SIV-positive monkeys, independent of antiretroviral treatment, but CXCL9 mRNA was only upregulated in heart tissue from macaques that received CART. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that short-term treatment with multiple NRTIs may be associated with myocarditis, and demonstrate that the CD8-depleted SIV-positive rhesus monkey is a useful

  7. Altered immune responses in rhesus macaques co-infected with SIV and Plasmodium cynomolgi: an animal model for coincident AIDS and relapsing malaria.

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    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dual epidemics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium and HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia present a significant risk for co-infection in these overlapping endemic regions. Recent studies of HIV/Plasmodium falciparum co-infection have reported significant interactions of these pathogens, including more rapid CD4+ T cell loss, increased viral load, increased immunosuppression, and increased episodes of clinical malaria. Here, we describe a novel rhesus macaque model for co-infection that supports and expands upon findings in human co-infection studies and can be used to identify interactions between these two pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five rhesus macaques were infected with P. cynomolgi and, following three parasite relapses, with SIV. Compared to macaques infected with SIV alone, co-infected animals had, as a group, decreased survival time and more rapid declines in markers for SIV progression, including peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios. The naïve CD4+ T cell pool of the co-infected animals was depleted more rapidly than animals infected with SIV alone. The co-infected animals also failed to generate proliferative responses to parasitemia by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as B cells while also having a less robust anti-parasite and altered anti-SIV antibody response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that infection with both SIV and Plasmodium enhances SIV-induced disease progression and impairs the anti-Plasmodium immune response. These data support findings in HIV/Plasmodium co-infection studies. This animal model can be used to further define impacts of lentivirus and Plasmodium co-infection and guide public health and therapeutic interventions.

  8. Peptide-binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John;

    2013-01-01

    deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010......:01, as well as the previously characterized allele Mamu-B*003:01 (and Indian rhesus Mamu-B*003:01), was found to be analogous to that of alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family. Specific alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family, including HLA-B*27:05, have been associated with long-term nonprogression to...... AIDS in humans. All six alleles characterized in the present study were found to have specificities analogous to HLA supertype alleles. These data contribute to the concept that Chinese rhesus macaque MHC immunogenetics is more similar to HLA than their Indian rhesus macaque counterparts and thereby...

  9. Memory B cells and CD8⁺ lymphocytes do not control seasonal influenza A virus replication after homologous re-challenge of rhesus macaques.

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    Timothy D Carroll

    Full Text Available This study sought to define the role of memory lymphocytes in the protection from homologous influenza A virus re-challenge in rhesus macaques. Depleting monoclonal antibodies (mAb were administered to the animals prior to their second experimental inoculation with a human seasonal influenza A virus strain. Treatment with either anti-CD8α or anti-CD20 mAbs prior to re-challenge had minimal effect on influenza A virus replication. Thus, in non-human primates with pre-existing anti-influenza A antibodies, memory B cells and CD8α⁺ T cells do not contribute to the control of virus replication after re-challenge with a homologous strain of influenza A virus.

  10. Structural basis of diverse peptide accommodation by the rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule Mamu-B*17: insights into immune protection from simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Gao, George F

    2011-12-15

    The MHC class I molecule Mamu-B*17 has been associated with elite control of SIV infection in rhesus macaques, akin to the protective effects described for HLA-B*57 in HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of Mamu-B*17 in complex with eight different peptides corresponding to immunodominant SIV(mac)239-derived CD8(+) T cell epitopes: HW8 (HLEVQGYW), GW10 (GSHLEVQGYW), MW9 (MHPAQTSQW), QW9 (QTSQWDDPW), FW9 (FQWMGYELW), MF8 (MRHVLEPF), IW9 (IRYPKTFGW), and IW11 (IRYPKTFGWLW). The structures reveal that not only P2, but also P1 and P3, can be used as N-terminal anchor residues by Mamu-B*17-restricted peptides. Moreover, the N-terminal anchor residues exhibit a broad chemical specificity, encompassing basic (H and R), bulky polar aliphatic (Q), and small (T) residues. In contrast, Mamu-B*17 exhibits a very narrow preference for aromatic residues (W and F) at the C terminus, similar to that displayed by HLA-B*57. Flexibility within the whole peptide-binding groove contributes to the accommodation of these diverse peptides, which adopt distinct conformations. Furthermore, the unusually large pocket D enables compensation from other peptide residues if P3 is occupied by an amino acid with a small side chain. In addition, residues located at likely TCR contact regions present highly flexible conformations, which may impact TCR repertoire profiles. These findings provide novel insights into the structural basis of diverse peptide accommodation by Mamu-B*17 and highlight unique atomic features that might contribute to the protective effect of this MHC I molecule in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:22084443

  11. Allo-reactivity of mesenchymal stem cells in rhesus macaques is dose and haplotype dependent and limits durable cell engraftment in vivo.

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    Iryna A Isakova

    Full Text Available The emerging paradigm that MSCs are immune privileged has fostered the use of "off-the-shelf" allogeneic MSC-based therapies in human clinical trials. However, this approach ignores studies in experimental animals wherein transplantation of MSCs across MHC boundaries elicits measurable allo-immune responses. To determine if MSCs are hypo-immunogeneic, we characterized the immune response in rhesus macaques following intracranial administration of allogeneic vs. autologous MSCs. This analysis revealed unambiguous evidence of productive allo-recognition based on expansion of NK, B and T cell subsets in peripheral blood and detection of allo-specific antibodies in animals administered allogeneic but not autologous MSCs. Moreover, the degree of MHC class I and II mismatch between the MSC donor and recipient significantly influenced the magnitude and nature of the allo-immune response. Consistent with these findings, real-time PCR analysis of brain tissue from female recipients administered varying doses of male, allogeneic MSCs revealed a significant inverse correlation between MSC engraftment levels and cell dose. Changes in post-transplant neutrophil and lymphocyte counts also correlated with dose and were predictive of overall MSC engraftment levels. However, secondary antigen challenge failed to elicit a measurable immune response in allogeneic recipients. Finally, extensive behavior testing of animals revealed no main effect of cell dose on motor skills, social development, or temperament. Collectively, these data indicate that allogeneic MSCs are weakly immunogenic when transplanted across MHC boundaries in rhesus macaques and this negatively impacts durable engraftment levels. Therefore the use of unrelated donor MSCs should be carefully evaluated in human patients.

  12. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

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    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  13. A Practical Approach for Designing Breeding Groups to Maximize Genetic Diversity in a Large Colony of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Raboin, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Limited guidance is available on practical approaches for maintaining genetic diversity in large NHP colonies that support biomedical research, despite the fact that reduced diversity in these colonies is likely to compromise the application of findings in NHP to human disease. In particular, constraints related to simultaneously housing, breeding, and providing ongoing veterinary care for thousands of animals with a highly complex social structure creates unique challenges for genetic management in these colonies. Because the composition of new breeding groups is a critical component of genetic management, here we outline a 3-stage protocol for forming new breeding groups of NHP that is aimed at maximizing genetic diversity in the face of frequent restrictions on age, sex, and numbers of animals per breeding group. As an example application of this protocol, we describe optimal combinations of rhesus macaques from an analysis of candidate animals available for breeding in July 2013, selected from among the approximately 4000 macaques maintained at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. In addition, a simulation study to explore the genetic diversity in breeding groups formed by using this protocol, indicated an approximate 10-fold higher genome uniqueness, 50% lower mean kinship, and an 84-fold lower mean inbreeding coefficient among potential offspring within groups, when compared with a suboptimal group design. We conclude that this protocol provides a practical and effective approach to breeding group design for colony managers who want to prevent the loss of genetic diversity in large, semiisolated NHP colonies.

  14. Prime-Boost Vaccination Using Chemokine-Fused gp120 DNA and HIV Envelope Peptides Activates Both Immediate and Long-Term Memory Cellular Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV vaccine candidates with improved immunogenicity and induction of mucosal T-cell immunity are needed. A prime-boost strategy using a novel HIV glycoprotein 120 DNA vaccine was employed to immunize rhesus macaques. The DNA vaccine encoded a chimeric gp120 protein in fusion with monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, which was hypothesized to improve the ability of antigen-presenting cells to capture viral antigen through chemokine receptor-mediated endocytosis. DNA vaccination induced virus-reactive T cells in peripheral blood, detectable by T cell proliferation, INFγ ELISPOT and sustained IL-6 production, without humoral responses. With a peptide-cocktail vaccine containing a set of conserved polypeptides of HIV-1 envelope protein, given by nasogastric administration, primed T-cell immunity was significantly boosted. Surprisingly, long-term and peptide-specific mucosal memory T-cell immunity was detected in both vaccinated macaques after one year. Therefore, data from this investigation offer proof-of-principle for potential effectiveness of the prime-boost strategy with a chemokine-fused gp120 DNA and warrant further testing in the nonhuman primate models for developing as a potential HIV vaccine candidate in humans.

  15. Repertoire comparison of the B-cell receptor-encoding loci in humans and rhesus macaques by next-generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Oliver, Brian G; Carbonetti, Sara; Dambrauskas, Nicholas; Lange, Miles D; Yacoob, Christina; Leahy, Will; Callahan, Jonathan; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (RMs) are a widely used model system for the study of vaccines, infectious diseases and microbial pathogenesis. Their value as a model lies in their close evolutionary relationship to humans, which, in theory, allows them to serve as a close approximation of the human immune system. However, despite their prominence as a human surrogate model system, many aspects of the RM immune system remain ill characterized. In particular, B cell-mediated immunity in macaques has not been sufficiently characterized, and the B-cell receptor-encoding loci have not been thoroughly annotated. To address these gaps, we analyzed the circulating heavy- and light-chain repertoires in humans and RMs by next-generation sequencing. By comparing V gene segment usage, J-segment usage and CDR3 lengths between the two species, we identified several important similarities and differences. These differences were especially notable in the IgM+ B-cell repertoire. However, the class-switched, antigen-educated B-cell populations converged on a set of similar characteristics, implying similarities in how each species responds to antigen. Our study provides the first comprehensive overview of the circulating repertoires of the heavy- and light-chain sequences in RMs, and provides insight into how they may perform as a model system for B cell-mediated immunity in humans. PMID:27525066

  16. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

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    Karol Sestak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-8 (IL-8 by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments.

  17. Induction of Broad and Potent Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques by Priming with a DNA Vaccine and Boosting with Protein-Adsorbed Polylactide Coglycolide Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Gillis; Schaefer, Mary; Greer, Catherine; Calderon-Cacia, Maria; Coit, Doris; Kazzaz, Jina; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Selby, Mark; Singh, Manmohan; Ugozzoli, Mildred; zur Megede, Jan; Barnett, Susan W.; O'Hagan, Derek; Donnelly, John; Ulmer, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Several vaccine technologies were evaluated for their abilities to induce anti-human immunodeficiency virus Gag immune responses in rhesus macaques. While no vaccine alone was able to induce broad and strong immune responses, these were achieved by priming with Gag DNA and boosting with Gag protein adsorbed to polylactide coglycolide microparticles. This regimen elicited strong antibodies, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and thus holds promise as an effective vaccination scheme.

  18. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques.

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    Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1 is a leading blood stage vaccine candidate. Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 (PkAMA1 was produced and purified using similar methodology as for clinical grade PfAMA1 yielding a pure, conformational intact protein. Combined with the adjuvant CoVaccine HT™, PkAMA1 was found to be highly immunogenic in rabbits and the efficacy of the PkAMA1 was subsequently tested in a rhesus macaque blood-stage challenge model. Six rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with PkAMA1 and a control group of 6 were vaccinated with PfAMA1. A total of 50 µg AMA1 was administered intramuscularly three times at 4 week intervals. One of six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 was able to control parasitaemia, upon blood stage challenge with P. knowlesi H-strain. Four out of the remaining five showed a delay in parasite onset that correlated with functional antibody titres. In the PfAMA1 vaccinated control group, five out of six animals had to be treated with antimalarials 8 days after challenge; one animal did not become patent during the challenge period. Following a rest period, animals were boosted and challenged again. Four of the six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 were able to control the parasitaemia, one had a delayed onset of parasitaemia and one animal was not protected, while all control animals required treatment. To confirm that the control of parasitaemia was AMA1-related, animals were allowed to recover, boosted and re-challenged with P. knowlesi Nuri strain. All control animals had to be treated with antimalarials by day 8, while five out of six PkAMA1 vaccinated animals were able to control parasitaemia. This study shows that: i Yeast-expressed PkAMA1 can protect against blood stage challenge; ii Functional antibody levels as measured by GIA correlated inversely with the day of onset and iii GIA IC(50 values correlated with estimated in vivo growth rates.

  19. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Muzamil; Remarque, Edmond J; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M; van der Werff, Nicole; Walraven, Vanessa; Faber, Bart W; Kocken, Clemens H M; Thomas, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a leading blood stage vaccine candidate. Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 (PkAMA1) was produced and purified using similar methodology as for clinical grade PfAMA1 yielding a pure, conformational intact protein. Combined with the adjuvant CoVaccine HT™, PkAMA1 was found to be highly immunogenic in rabbits and the efficacy of the PkAMA1 was subsequently tested in a rhesus macaque blood-stage challenge model. Six rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with PkAMA1 and a control group of 6 were vaccinated with PfAMA1. A total of 50 µg AMA1 was administered intramuscularly three times at 4 week intervals. One of six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 was able to control parasitaemia, upon blood stage challenge with P. knowlesi H-strain. Four out of the remaining five showed a delay in parasite onset that correlated with functional antibody titres. In the PfAMA1 vaccinated control group, five out of six animals had to be treated with antimalarials 8 days after challenge; one animal did not become patent during the challenge period. Following a rest period, animals were boosted and challenged again. Four of the six rhesus monkeys vaccinated with PkAMA1 were able to control the parasitaemia, one had a delayed onset of parasitaemia and one animal was not protected, while all control animals required treatment. To confirm that the control of parasitaemia was AMA1-related, animals were allowed to recover, boosted and re-challenged with P. knowlesi Nuri strain. All control animals had to be treated with antimalarials by day 8, while five out of six PkAMA1 vaccinated animals were able to control parasitaemia. This study shows that: i) Yeast-expressed PkAMA1 can protect against blood stage challenge; ii) Functional antibody levels as measured by GIA correlated inversely with the day of onset and iii) GIA IC(50) values correlated with estimated in vivo growth rates. PMID:21655233

  20. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

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    Iskra Tuero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC

  1. 桂林七星公园猕猴的食物组成及季节性变化%Diet and seasonal changes in Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata) at Seven-star Park, Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岐海; 唐华兴; 韦春强; 黄乘明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 觅食是动物最重、最常见的行为,动物通过觅食获取其生长发育、繁殖和运动所需要的营养与能量.%Data on diet were collected from one group of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto,) between November 2005 and October 2006 at Seven-star Park, Cuilin, Guangxi Province, using the instantaneous scan sampling method. Our results indicated that 60 plant species were used as food by the macaques. The types of foods including 40 species of trees, 12 species of shrubs, 4 species of vines, and 4 species of herbs. They showed food preference, and 69. 4% of the diet came only from 10 species. Leaves constituted 41. 0% of the diet, comprising 16. 7% young leaves and 24. 3% mature leaves. Petiole and bark accounted for 27. 3% and 21. 8% respectively. Fruits, flowers and seeds contributed a small proportion of the diet, 6. 2% , 2. 2% , and 1.4%, respectively. The macaques' diet varied according to season. In spring, the macaques fed predominantly on young leaves, petiole and bark. In summer, they increased the consumption of mature leaves and bark. The consumption of young leaves and mature leaves peaked in autumn, and the consumption of petiole and bark decreased significantly. In winter, the macaques increased significantly the consumption of petiole and bark, and also consumed mature leaves in large quantity.

  2. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD, gluten-free diet (GFD, barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB. It was hypothesized that the GD diet would lower the gut microbial diversity in GS macaques. This is the first report illustrating the reduction of gut microbial alpha-diversity (p < 0.05 following the consumption of dietary gluten in GS macaques. Selected bacterial families (e.g., Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae were enriched in GS macaques while Coriobacteriaceae was enriched in healthy animals. Within several weeks after the replacement of the GD by the GFD diet, the composition (beta-diversity of gut microbiome in GS macaques started to change (p = 0.011 towards that of a normal macaque. Significance for alpha-diversity however, was not reached by the day 70 when the feeding experiment ended. Several inflammation-associated microRNAs (miR-203, -204, -23a, -23b and -29b were upregulated (p < 0.05 in jejunum of 4 biopsied GS macaques fed GD with predicted binding sites on 16S ribosomal RNA of Lactobacillus reuteri (accession number: NR_025911, Prevotella stercorea (NR_041364 and Streptococcus luteciae (AJ297218 that were overrepresented in feces. Additionally, claudin-1, a validated tight junction protein target of miR-29b was significantly downregulated in jejunal epithelium of GS macaques. Taken together, we predict that with the introduction of effective treatments in future studies the diversity of gut microbiomes

  3. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility. PMID:25546106

  4. Milk composition varies in relation to the presence and abundance of Balantidium coli in the mother in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Katherine

    2007-06-01

    Primate infants require extensive maternal investment, and lactation is the most expensive aspect of this investment. However, the relationship between maternal condition and milk composition has been largely uninvestigated in primates. To better understand this relationship, I collected mid-lactation milk samples from 46 captive multiparous rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the Caribbean Primate Research Center, Sabana Seca Field Station, Puerto Rico. The maternal variables assessed were age, weight, weight for crown-rump length (CRL), and presence of parasites. Additionally the analysis included infant age, weight, and sex. Protein concentration in milk showed little interindividual variation, whereas fat had a high variance. Mothers without the lower intestinal parasite Balantidium coli had a significantly higher fat concentration in milk than mothers with B. coli, but other parasite species (Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides fulleborni) were not associated with milk fat concentration. Females with younger infants had a higher fat concentration in their milk than mothers with older infants; however, the association between B. coli and milk fat remained significant after controlling for infant age. These results, obtained from a well fed captive population, indicate that even small differences among mothers are associated with milk composition. PMID:17245767

  5. The Evolving Mcart Multimodal Imaging Core: Establishing a Protocol for Computed Tomography and Echocardiography in the Rhesus Macaque to Perform Longitudinal Analysis of Radiation-Induced Organ Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Eduardo B; Barrow, Kory R; Ruehle, Bradley T; Parker, Jordan T; Swartz, Elisa; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Kieta, Kaitlyn M; Lees, Cynthia J; Sleeper, Meg M; Dobbin, Travis; Baron, Adam D; Mohindra, Pranshu; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and Echocardiography (EC) are two imaging modalities that produce critical longitudinal data that can be analyzed for radiation-induced organ-specific injury to the lung and heart. The Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium has a well established animal model research platform that includes nonhuman primate (NHP) models of the acute radiation syndrome and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. These models call for a definition of the latency, incidence, severity, duration, and resolution of different organ-specific radiation-induced subsyndromes. The pulmonary subsyndromes and cardiac effects are a pair of interdependent syndromes impacted by exposure to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Establishing a connection between these will reveal important information about their interaction and progression of injury and recovery. Herein, the authors demonstrate the use of CT and EC data in the rhesus macaque models to define delayed organ injury, thereby establishing: a) consistent and reliable methodology to assess radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart; b) an extensive database in normal age-matched NHP for key primary and secondary endpoints; c) identified problematic variables in imaging techniques and proposed solutions to maintain data integrity; and d) initiated longitudinal analysis of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart.

  6. Depletion of CD8+ cells does not affect the lifespan of productively infected cells during pathogenic sivmac239 infection of rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Emi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    While CD8+ T cell responses are clearly important in anti-viral immunity during HIV/SIV infection, the mechanisms by which CD8+ T cells induce this effect remain poorly understood, as emphasized by the failure of the Merck adenovirus-based, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing AIDS vaccine in a large phase IIb clinical trial. In this study, we measured the in vivo effect of CD8+ lymphocytes on the lifespan of productively infected cells during chronic SIVmac239 infection of rhesus macaques by treating two groups of animals (i.e., CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted or controls) with antiretroviral therapy (PMPA and FTC). The lifespan of productively infected cells was calculated based on the slope of the decline of SIV plasma viremia using a well-accepted mathematical model. We found that, in both early (i.e., day 57 post-inoculation) and late (i.e., day 177 post-inoculation) chronic SIV infection, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes did not result in an increased lifespan of productively infected cells in vivo. This result indicates that direct killing of cells producing virus is unlikely to be a major mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of CD8+ T cells during SIV infection. These results have profound implications for the development of AIDS vaccines.

  7. Low dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIV SME660 or SIV MAC251 recapitulates human mucosal infection by HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koraber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel approach to the identification of transmitted or early founder HIV -1 genomes in acutely infected humans based on single genome amplification and sequencing. Here we tested this approach in 18 acutely infected Indian rhesus macaques to determine the molecular features of SIV transmission. Animals were inoculated intrarectally (IR) or intravenously (IV) with stocks of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 that exhibited sequence diversity typical of early-chronic HIV -1 infection. 987 full-length SIV env sequences (median of 48 per animal) were determined from plasma virion RNA one to five weeks after infection. IR inoculation was followed by productive infection by one or few viruses (median 1; range 1-5) that diversified randomly with near star-like phylogeny and a Poisson distribution of mutations. Consensus viral sequences from ramp-up and peak viremia were identical to viruses found in the inocula or differed from them by only one or few nuc1eotides, providing direct evidence that early plasma viral sequences coalesce to transmitted/founder virus( es). IV infection was approximately 10,000-fold more efficient than IR infection, and viruses transmitted by either route represented the full genetic spectra of the inocula. These findings identify key similarities in mucosal transmission and early diversification between SIV and HIV -1.

  8. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  9. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  10. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  11. Get it while it's hot: a peak-first bias in self-generated choice order in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Jung

    Full Text Available Animals typically must make a number of successive choices to achieve a goal: e.g., eating multiple food items before becoming satiated. However, it is unclear whether choosing the best first or saving the best for last represents the best choice strategy to maximize overall reward. Specifically, since outcomes can be evaluated prospectively (with future rewards discounted and more immediate rewards preferred or retrospectively (with prior rewards discounted and more recent rewards preferred, the conditions under which each are used remains unclear. On the one hand, humans and non-human animals clearly discount future reward, preferring immediate rewards to delayed ones, suggesting prospective evaluation; on the other hand, it has also been shown that a sequence that ends well, i.e., with the best event or item last, is often preferred, suggesting retrospective evaluation. Here we hypothesized that when individuals are allowed to build the sequence themselves they are more likely to evaluate each item individually and therefore build a sequence using prospective evaluation. We examined the relationship between self-generated choice order and preference in rhesus monkeys in two experiments in which the distinctiveness of options were relatively high and low, respectively. We observed a positive linear relationship between choice order and preference among highly distinct options, indicating that the rhesus monkeys chose their preferred food first: i.e., a peak-first order preference. Overall, choice order depended on the degree of relative preference among alternatives and a peak-first bias, providing evidence for prospective evaluation when choice order is self-generated.

  12. Get it while it's hot: a peak-first bias in self-generated choice order in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kanghoon; Kralik, Jerald D

    2013-01-01

    Animals typically must make a number of successive choices to achieve a goal: e.g., eating multiple food items before becoming satiated. However, it is unclear whether choosing the best first or saving the best for last represents the best choice strategy to maximize overall reward. Specifically, since outcomes can be evaluated prospectively (with future rewards discounted and more immediate rewards preferred) or retrospectively (with prior rewards discounted and more recent rewards preferred), the conditions under which each are used remains unclear. On the one hand, humans and non-human animals clearly discount future reward, preferring immediate rewards to delayed ones, suggesting prospective evaluation; on the other hand, it has also been shown that a sequence that ends well, i.e., with the best event or item last, is often preferred, suggesting retrospective evaluation. Here we hypothesized that when individuals are allowed to build the sequence themselves they are more likely to evaluate each item individually and therefore build a sequence using prospective evaluation. We examined the relationship between self-generated choice order and preference in rhesus monkeys in two experiments in which the distinctiveness of options were relatively high and low, respectively. We observed a positive linear relationship between choice order and preference among highly distinct options, indicating that the rhesus monkeys chose their preferred food first: i.e., a peak-first order preference. Overall, choice order depended on the degree of relative preference among alternatives and a peak-first bias, providing evidence for prospective evaluation when choice order is self-generated. PMID:24376758

  13. Development of space perception in relation to the maturation of the motor system in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Valentina; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To act on the environment, organisms must perceive object locations in relation to their body. Several neuroscientific studies provide evidence of neural circuits that selectively represent space within reach (i.e., peripersonal) and space outside of reach (i.e., extrapersonal). However, the developmental emergence of these space representations remains largely unexplored. We investigated the development of space coding in infant macaques and found that they exhibit different motor strategies and hand configurations depending on the objects' size and location. Reaching-grasping improved from 2 to 4 weeks of age, suggesting a broadly defined perceptual body schema at birth, modified by the acquisition and refinement of motor skills through early sensorimotor experience, enabling the development of a mature capacity for coding space.

  14. Live attenuated Rev-independent Nef¯SIV enhances acquisition of heterologous SIVsmE660 in acutely vaccinated rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa N Byrareddy

    Full Text Available Rhesus macaques (RMs inoculated with live-attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯ simian immunodeficiency virus (Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV as adults or neonates controlled viremia to undetectable levels and showed no signs of immunodeficiency over 6-8 years of follow-up. We tested the capacity of this live-attenuated virus to protect RMs against pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenges.Three groups of four RM were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV and compared. Group 1 was inoculated 8 years prior and again 15 months before low dose intrarectal challenges with SIVsmE660. Group 2 animals were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV at 15 months and Group 3 at 2 weeks prior to the SIVsmE660 challenges, respectively. Group 4 served as unvaccinated controls. All RMs underwent repeated weekly low-dose intrarectal challenges with SIVsmE660. Surprisingly, all RMs with acute live-attenuated virus infection (Group 3 became superinfected with the challenge virus, in contrast to the two other vaccine groups (Groups 1 and 2 (P=0.006 for each and controls (Group 4 (P=0.022. Gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of innate immune response-related chemokines and their receptors, most notably CCR5 in Group 3 animals during acute infection with Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV.We conclude that although Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV remained apathogenic, acute replication of the vaccine strain was not protective but associated with increased acquisition of heterologous mucosal SIVsmE660 challenges.

  15. Functional cure of SIVagm infection in rhesus macaques results in complete recovery of CD4+ T cells and is reverted by CD8+ cell depletion.

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    Ivona Pandrea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of infection control in elite controllers (EC may shed light on the correlates of control of disease progression in HIV infection. However, limitations have prevented a clear understanding of the mechanisms of elite controlled infection, as these studies can only be performed at randomly selected late time points in infection, after control is achieved, and the access to tissues is limited. We report that SIVagm infection is elite-controlled in rhesus macaques (RMs and therefore can be used as an animal model for EC HIV infection. A robust acute infection, with high levels of viral replication and dramatic mucosal CD4(+ T cell depletion, similar to pathogenic HIV-1/SIV infections of humans and RMs, was followed by complete and durable control of SIVagm replication, defined as: undetectable VLs in blood and tissues beginning 72 to 90 days postinoculation (pi and continuing at least 4 years; seroreversion; progressive recovery of mucosal CD4(+ T cells, with complete recovery by 4 years pi; normal levels of T cell immune activation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and no disease progression. This "functional cure" of SIVagm infection in RMs could be reverted after 4 years of control of infection by depleting CD8 cells, which resulted in transient rebounds of VLs, thus suggesting that control may be at least in part immune mediated. Viral control was independent of MHC, partial APOBEC restriction was not involved in SIVagm control in RMs and Trim5 genotypes did not impact viral replication. This new animal model of EC lentiviral infection, in which complete control can be predicted in all cases, permits research on the early events of infection in blood and tissues, before the defining characteristics of EC are evident and when host factors are actively driving the infection towards the EC status.

  16. Immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen composed of simian immunodeficiency virus DNA, rMVA, and viral particles administered to female rhesus macaques via four different mucosal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Mariana; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Cobo-Molinos, Antonio; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Wilson, Robert L; Montefiori, David C; Carville, Angela; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the immunity stimulated with a vaccine regimen that includes simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-15 DNAs, recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA), and inactivated SIVmac239 particles administered into the oral and nasal cavities, small intestine, and vagina was carried out in female rhesus macaques to determine the best route to induce diverse anti-SIV immunity that may be critical to protection from SIV infection and disease. All four immunizations generated mucosal SIV-specific IgA. Oral immunization was as effective as vaginal immunization in inducing SIV-specific IgA in vaginal secretions and generated greater IgA responses in rectal secretions and saliva samples compared to the other immunization routes. All four immunizations stimulated systemic T-cell responses against Gag and Env, albeit to a different extent, with oral immunization providing greater magnitude and nasal immunization providing wider functional heterogeneity. SIV-specific T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) dominated these responses. Limited levels of SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in plasma samples, and no SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in secretions. Vaccination also induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in the rectal and vaginal mucosa with greater functional heterogeneity than in blood samples. Rectal T-cell responses were significantly greater in the orally vaccinated animals than in the other animals. The most balanced, diverse, and higher-magnitude vaginal T-cell responses were observed after intestinal vaccination. Significantly higher CD8(+) granzyme B-positive T-cell responses were observed systemically after intestinal vaccination and in rectal cells after oral immunization. The majority of SIV-specific T cells that produced granzyme B did not produce cytokines. Of the immunization routes tested, oral vaccination provided the most diverse and significant response to the vaccine.

  17. Long-term programming of antigen-specific immunity from gene expression signatures in the PBMC of rhesus macaques immunized with an SIV DNA vaccine.

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    Sarah E Belisle

    Full Text Available While HIV-1-specific cellular immunity is thought to be critical for the suppression of viral replication, the correlates of protection have not yet been determined. Rhesus macaques (RM are an important animal model for the study and development of vaccines against HIV/AIDS. Our laboratory has helped to develop and study DNA-based vaccines in which recent technological advances, including genetic optimization and in vivo electroporation (EP, have helped to dramatically boost their immunogenicity. In this study, RMs were immunized with a DNA vaccine including individual plasmids encoding SIV gag, env, and pol alone, or in combination with a molecular adjuvant, plasmid DNA expressing the chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES, followed by EP. Along with standard immunological assays, flow-based activation analysis without ex vivo restimulation and high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed. Strong cellular immunity was induced by vaccination which was supported by all assays including PBMC microarray analysis that identified the up-regulation of 563 gene sequences including those involved in interferon signaling. Furthermore, 699 gene sequences were differentially regulated in these groups at peak viremia following SIVmac251 challenge. We observed that the RANTES-adjuvanted animals were significantly better at suppressing viral replication during chronic infection and exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression which included immune cell-trafficking and cell cycle genes. Furthermore, a greater percentage of vaccine-induced central memory CD8+ T-cells capable of an activated phenotype were detected in these animals as measured by activation analysis. Thus, co-immunization with the RANTES molecular adjuvant followed by EP led to the generation of cellular immunity that was transcriptionally distinct and had a greater protective efficacy than its DNA alone counterpart. Furthermore, activation analysis and high-throughput gene expression data may

  18. Infection with host-range mutant adenovirus 5 suppresses innate immunity and induces systemic CD4+ T cell activation in rhesus macaques.

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    Huma Qureshi

    Full Text Available Ad5 is a common cause of respiratory disease and an occasional cause of gastroenteritis and conjunctivitis, and seroconversion before adolescence is common in humans. To gain some insight into how Ad5 infection affects the immune system of rhesus macaques (RM 18 RM were infected with a host-range mutant Ad5 (Ad5hr by 3 mucosal inoculations. There was a delay of 2 to 6 weeks after the first inoculation before plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC frequency and function increased in peripheral blood. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed IFN-γ mRNA expression, but the second Ad5hr exposure induced a rapid increase in IFN-gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed CCL20, TNF and IL-1 mRNA expression in PBMC, and subsequent virus exposures further dampened expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Primary, but not secondary, Ad5hr inoculation increased the frequency of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells in blood, while secondary, but not primary, Ad5hr infection transiently increased the frequencies of Ki67+, HLADR+ and CD95+/CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in blood. Ad5hr infection induced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8+ T cells specific for the Ad5 hexon protein in all of the animals. Thus, infection with Ad5hr induced a complex pattern of innate and adaptive immunity in RM that included transient systemic CD4+ T cell activation and suppressed innate immunity on re-exposure to the virus. The complex effects of adenovirus infection on the immune system may help to explain the unexpected results of testing Ad5 vector expressing HIV antigens in Ad5 seropositive people.

  19. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

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    Michael Santosuosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues. METHODS: Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  20. Effect of plasma viremia on apoptosis and immunophenotype of dendritic cells subsets in acute SIVmac239 infection of Chinese rhesus macaques.

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    Hou-Jun Xia

    Full Text Available Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques (Ch Rhs provide good animal models for research on human infectious diseases. Similar to humans, there are two principal subsets of dendritic cells (DCs in the peripheral blood of Ch Rhs: myeloid DCs (mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs. In this study, two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analyses were used to identify the main DC subsets, namely CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs from Ch Rhs. Then, the apoptosis and immunophenotype changes of DCs subsets were first described during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection. Both the DCs subsets showed decreased CD4 expression and enhanced CCR5 expression; in particular, those of pDCs significantly changed at most time points. Interestingly, the plasma viral loads were negatively correlated with CD4 expression, but were positively correlated with CCR5 expression of pDCs. During this period, both CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs were activated by enhancing expressions of co-stimulatory molecules, accompanied with increase in CCR7. Either CD80 or CD86 expressed on CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs was positively correlated with the plasma viral loads. Our analysis demonstrates that the pDCs were more prone to apoptosis after infection during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection, which may be due to their high expressions of CD4 and CCR5. Both DCs subsets activated through elevating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, which was beneficial in controlling the replication of SIV. However, a mere broad immune activation initiated by activated DCs may lead to tragic AIDS progression.

  1. Spatiotemporal interplay of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and respiratory mucosal cells drives viral dissemination in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wei, Q; Nishiura, K; Peng, J; Wang, H; Midkiff, C; Alvarez, X; Qin, C; Lackner, A; Chen, Z

    2016-07-01

    Innate immune responses have a critical role in the control of early virus replication and dissemination. It remains unknown, however, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) evades respiratory innate immunity to establish a systemic infection. Here we show in Chinese macaques that SARS-CoV traversed the mucosa through the respiratory tract within 2 days, resulting in extensive mucosal infiltration by T cells, MAC387(+), and CD163(+) monocytes/macrophages followed by limited viral replication in the lung but persistent viral shedding into the upper airway. Mucosal monocytes/macrophages sequestered virions in intracellular vesicles together with infected Langerhans cells and migrated into the tonsils and/or draining lymph nodes within 2 days. In lymphoid tissues, viral RNA and proteins were detected in infected monocytes upon differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) within 3 days. Systemic viral dissemination was observed within 7 days. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the spatiotemporal interactions of SARS-CoV, monocytes/macrophages, and the DC network in mucosal tissues and highlights the fact that, while these innate cells contribute to viral clearance, they probably also serve as shelters and vehicles to provide a mechanism for the virus to escape host mucosal innate immunity and disseminate systemically. PMID:26647718

  2. 人工投食对黔灵公园"半野生"猕猴食物偏好的影响%Provision-induced food preference of a semi-free-ranging rhesus Macaque group at Qianling park of Guiyang,Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓怀庆

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous scanning sampling was used to study the feeding behavior of the semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques for two years in the Qianling park,The total observing time was 735h. The results revealed that the food preference of macaque's has obvious changed(P﹤0.01)under the influence of provision,food preference change not only affects the rhesus monkey population survival, and causing contradiction between the tourists and the rhesus macaques;Changing the way of feeding, can weaken the conflict between the tourists and the rhesus macaques.%采用瞬时扫描取样法对黔灵公园半野生猕猴的取食行为进行了为期2年的观察,总计观察时间约735h,结果表明:在人工投食的影响下,猴群的食物偏好发生了明显的改变(P﹤0.01),具有显著的选择性,喜食人工食物;黔灵山猕猴食物偏好的改变不仅影响猕猴种群的生存,而且导致人猴之间矛盾日益激化,改变投食方式,可以减弱人猴之间冲突.

  3. Maintenance or Emergence of Chronic Phase Secondary Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses after Loss of Acute Phase Immunodominant Responses Does Not Protect SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques from Disease Progression

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    M. Shannon Keckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV- infected rhesus macaque is the preferred animal model for vaccine development, but the correlates of protection in this model are not completely understood. In this paper, we document the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to SIV and its effects on viral evolution in an effort to identify events associated with disease progression regardless of MHC allele expression. We observed the evolution of epitopes targeted by CTLs in a group of macaques that included long-term nonprogressing (LTNP, slowly progressing (SP, normally progressing (NP, and rapidly progressing (RP animals. Collectively, our data (1 identify novel CTL epitopes from an SP animal that are not restricted by known protective alleles, (2 illustrate that, in this small study, RP and NP animals accrue more mutations in CTL epitopes than in SP or LTNP macaques, and (3 demonstrate that the loss of CTL responses to immunodominant epitopes is associated with viral replication increases, which are not controlled by secondary CTL responses. These findings provide further evidence for the critical role of the primary cell-mediated immune responses in the control of retroviral infections.

  4. Synthetic double-stranded RNAs are adjuvants for the induction of T helper 1 and humoral immune responses to human papillomavirus in rhesus macaques.

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    Christiane Stahl-Hennig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C, a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been stabilized against the serum nucleases that are present in the plasma of primates. Poly I:C(12U, another analogue, is less toxic but also less stable in vivo than poly I:C, and TLR3 is essential for its recognition. To study the effects of these compounds on the induction of protein-specific immune responses in an animal model relevant to humans, rhesus macaques were immunized subcutaneously (s.c. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH or human papillomavirus (HPV16 capsomeres with or without dsRNA or a control adjuvant, the TLR9 ligand CpG-C. All dsRNA compounds served as adjuvants for KLH-specific cellular immune responses, with the highest proliferative responses being observed with 2 mg/animal poly ICLC (p = 0.002 or 6 mg/animal poly I:C(12U (p = 0.001 when compared with immunization with KLH alone. Notably, poly ICLC -- but not CpG-C given at the same dose -- also helped to induce HPV16-specific Th1 immune responses while both adjuvants supported the induction of strong anti-HPV16 L1 antibody responses as determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. In contrast, control animals injected with HPV16 capsomeres alone did not develop substantial HPV16-specific immune responses. Injection of dsRNA led to increased numbers of cells producing the T cell-activating chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 as detected by in situ hybridization in draining lymph nodes 18 hours after injections, and to increased serum levels of CXCL10 (p = 0.01. This was paralleled by the reduced production of the homeostatic T cell-attracting chemokine CCL21. Thus, synthetic dsRNAs induce an innate chemokine response and act as adjuvants

  5. Relationships between IL-17(+ subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques.

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    Ladawan Khowawisetsut

    Full Text Available Comprehensive studies of the frequencies and absolute numbers of the various cell lineages that synthesize IL-17 in the blood and corresponding gastrointestinal (GI tissues, their correlation with CD4(+ Tregs, CD8(+ Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC relative to plasma viral load in SIV infection has been lacking. The unique availability of SIV infected rhesus macaques (RM classified as Elite Controllers (EC, and those with Low, Intermediate and High Viral Loads (HVL provided a unique opportunity to address this issue. Results of these studies showed that EC demonstrated a remarkable ability to reverse changes that are induced acutely by SIV in the various cell lineages. Highlights of the differences between EC and HVL RM within Gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT was the maintenance and/or increases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8, and NK cells and pDCs associated with slight decreases in the levels of CD4(+ Tregs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in EC as compared with decreases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8 and NK cells associated with increases in pDCs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in HVL monkeys. A previously underappreciated role for CD8(+ Tregs was also noted with a moderate increase in ECs but further increases of CD8(+ Tregs with increasing VL in viremic monkeys. Positive correlations between plasma VL and decreases in the levels of Th17, Tc17, NK-17, CD4(+ Tregs and increases in the levels of CD8(+ Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs were also noted. This study also identified 2 additional IL-17(+ subsets in GIT as CD3(-/CD8(+/NKG2a(- and CD3(+/CD8(+/NKG2a(+ subsets. Studies also suggest a limited role for IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in chronic immune activation despite persistent up-regulation of ISGs. Finally, elevated persistent innate immune responses appear associated with poor prognosis. These findings provide an initial foundation for markers important to follow for vaccine

  6. Relationships between IL-17(+) subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Mayne, Ann E; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the frequencies and absolute numbers of the various cell lineages that synthesize IL-17 in the blood and corresponding gastrointestinal (GI) tissues, their correlation with CD4(+) Tregs, CD8(+) Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) relative to plasma viral load in SIV infection has been lacking. The unique availability of SIV infected rhesus macaques (RM) classified as Elite Controllers (EC), and those with Low, Intermediate and High Viral Loads (HVL) provided a unique opportunity to address this issue. Results of these studies showed that EC demonstrated a remarkable ability to reverse changes that are induced acutely by SIV in the various cell lineages. Highlights of the differences between EC and HVL RM within Gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) was the maintenance and/or increases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8, and NK cells and pDCs associated with slight decreases in the levels of CD4(+) Tregs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in EC as compared with decreases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8 and NK cells associated with increases in pDCs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in HVL monkeys. A previously underappreciated role for CD8(+) Tregs was also noted with a moderate increase in ECs but further increases of CD8(+) Tregs with increasing VL in viremic monkeys. Positive correlations between plasma VL and decreases in the levels of Th17, Tc17, NK-17, CD4(+) Tregs and increases in the levels of CD8(+) Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs were also noted. This study also identified 2 additional IL-17(+) subsets in GIT as CD3(-/)CD8(+)/NKG2a(-) and CD3(+)/CD8(+)/NKG2a(+) subsets. Studies also suggest a limited role for IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in chronic immune activation despite persistent up-regulation of ISGs. Finally, elevated persistent innate immune responses appear associated with poor prognosis. These findings provide an initial foundation for markers important to follow for vaccine

  7. Variability of bio-clinical parameters in Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a nonhuman primate AIDS model.

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    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques (Ch RhMs infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV have been used for many years to evaluate the efficacy of AIDS vaccines and therapeutics, the bio-clinical variability of such a nonhuman primate AIDS model was so far not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By randomizing 150 (78 male and 72 female Ch RhMs with diverse MHC class I alleles into 3 groups (50 animals per group challenged with intrarectal (i.r. SIVmac239, intravenous (i.v. SIVmac239, or i.v. SIVmac251, we evaluated variability in bio-clinical endpoints for 118 weeks. All SIV-challenged Ch RhMs became seropositive for SIV during 1-2 weeks. Plasma viral load (VL peaked at weeks 1-2 and then declined to set-point levels as from week 5. The set-point VL was 30 fold higher in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. This difference in plasma VL increased overtime (>100 fold as from week 68. The rates of progression to AIDS or death were more rapid in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. No significant difference in bio-clinical endpoints was observed in animals challenged with i.r. or i.v. SIVmac239. The variability (standard deviation in peak/set-point VL was nearly one-half lower in animals infected with SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v. than in those infected with SIVmac251 (i.v., allowing that the same treatment-related difference can be detected with one-half fewer animals using SIVmac239 than using SIVmac251. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide solid estimates of variability in bio-clinical endpoints needed when designing studies using the Ch RhM SIV model and contribute to the improving quality and standardization of preclinical studies.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation following Vaginal Application of IQB3002, a Dual-Chamber Microbicide Gel Containing the Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor IQP-0528 in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Ham, Anthony; Singletary, Tyana; Deyounks, Frank; Martin, Amy; McNicholl, Janet; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, James M

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics and used a complementary ex vivo coculture assay to determine the pharmacodynamics of IQB3002 gel containing 1% IQP-0528, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), in rhesus macaques (RM). The gel (1.5 ml) was applied vaginally to 6 simian-human immunodeficiency (SHIV)-positive female RM. Blood, vaginal fluids, and rectal fluids were collected at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h. RM were euthanized at 4 h, and vaginal, cervical, rectal, and regional lymph node tissues were harvested. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity was evaluated ex vivo by coculturing fresh or frozen vaginal tissues with activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and measuring the p24 levels for 10 days after an HIV-1Ba-L challenge. The median levels of IQP-0528, determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) methods, were between 10(4) and 10(5) ng/g in vaginal and cervical tissue, between 10(3) and 10(4) ng/g in rectal tissues, and between 10(5) and 10(7) ng/ml in vaginal fluids over the 4-h period. The vaginal tissues protected the cocultured PBMCs from HIV-1 infection ex vivo, with a viral inhibition range of 81 to 100% in fresh and frozen tissues that were proximal, medial, and distal relative to the cervix. No viral inhibition was detected in untreated baseline tissues. Collectively, the median drug levels observed were 5 to 7 logs higher than the in vitro 50% effective concentration (EC50) range (0.21 ng/ml to 1.29 ng/ml), suggesting that 1.5 ml of the gel delivers IQP-0528 throughout the RM vaginal compartment at levels that are highly inhibitory to HIV-1. Importantly, antiviral activity was observed in both fresh and frozen vaginal tissues, broadening the scope of the ex vivo coculture model for future NNRTI efficacy studies. PMID:26666935

  9. Activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells in the rectum predict increased SIV acquisition in SIVGag/Tat-vaccinated rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnathan, Diane G; Wetzel, Katherine S; Yu, Joana; Lee, S Thera; Johnson, Brent A; Paiardini, Mirko; Yan, Jian; Morrow, Matthew P; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Ertl, Hildegund C J; Silvestri, Guido

    2015-01-13

    An effective T-cell-based AIDS vaccine should induce strong HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in mucosal tissues without increasing the availability of target cells for the virus. Here, we evaluated five immunization strategies that include Human adenovirus-5 (AdHu5), Chimpanzee adenovirus-6 (AdC6) or -7 (AdC7), Vaccinia virus (VV), and DNA given by electroporation (DNA/EP), all expressing Simian immunodeficiency virus group specific antigen/transactivator of transcription (SIV(mac239Gag/Tat)). Five groups of six rhesus macaques (RMs) each were vaccinated with DNA/EP-AdC6-AdC7, VV-AdC6-AdC7, DNA/-EP-VV-AdC6, DNA/EP-VV-AdC7, or AdHu5-AdHu5-AdHu5 and were challenged repeatedly with low-dose intrarectal SIVmac239. Upon challenge, there were no significant differences among study groups in terms of virus acquisition or viral load after infection. When taken together, the immunization regimens did not protect against SIV acquisition compared with controls but did result in an ∼ 1.6-log decline in set-point viremia. Although all immunized RMs had detectable SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in blood and rectal mucosa, we found no correlation between the number or function of these SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and protection against SIV acquisition. Interestingly, RMs experiencing breakthrough infection showed significantly higher prechallenge levels of CD4(+)C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5)(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells in the rectal biopsies (RB) than animals that remained uninfected. In addition, among the infected RMs, the percentage of CD4(+)CCR5(+)Ki-67(+) T cells in RBs prechallenge correlated with higher early viremia. Overall, these data suggest that the levels of activated CD4(+)CCR5(+) target T cells in the rectal mucosa may predict the risk of SIV acquisition in RMs vaccinated with vectors that express SIVGag/Tat. PMID:25550504

  10. Viral RNA levels and env variants in semen and tissues of mature male rhesus macaques infected with SIV by penile inoculation.

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    Francis Fieni

    Full Text Available HIV is shed in semen but the anatomic site of virus entry into the genital secretions is unknown. We determined viral RNA (vRNA levels and the envelope gene sequence in the SIVmac 251 viral populations in the genital tract and semen of 5 adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta that were infected after experimental penile SIV infection. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 1-9 weeks after infection and the monkeys were necropsied eleven weeks after infection. The axillary lymph nodes, testes, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles were collected and vRNA levels and single-genome analysis of the SIVmac251 env variants was performed. At the time of semen collection, blood vRNA levels were between 3.09 and 7.85 log10 vRNA copies/ml plasma. SIV RNA was found in the axillary lymph nodes of all five monkeys and in 3 of 5 monkeys, all tissues examined were vRNA positive. In these 3 monkeys, vRNA levels (log10 SIVgag copies/ug of total tissue RNA in the axillary lymph node (6.48 ± 0.50 were significantly higher than in the genital tract tissues: testis (3.67 ± 2.16; p<0.05, epididymis (3.08 ± 1.19; p<0.0001, prostate (3.36 ± 1.30; p<0.01, and seminal vesicle (2.67 ± 1.50; p<0.0001. Comparison of the SIVmac251 env viral populations in blood plasma, systemic lymph node, and genital tract tissues was performed in two of the macaques. Visual inspection of the Neighbor-Joining phylograms revealed that in both animals, all the sequences were generally distributed evenly among all tissue compartments. Importantly, viral populations in the genital tissues were not distinct from those in the systemic tissues. Our findings demonstrate striking similarity in the viral populations in the blood and male genital tract tissues within 3 months of penile SIV transmission.

  11. Protection against SHIV-KB9 Infection by Combining rDNA and rFPV Vaccines Based on HIV Multiepitope and p24 Protein in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

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    Chang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an effective vaccine against HIV infection remains an urgent goal. We used a DNA prime/fowlpox virus boost regimen to immunize Chinese rhesus macaques. The animals were challenged intramuscularly with pathogenic molecularly cloned SHIV-KB9. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines were investigated by measuring IFN-γ levels, monitoring HIV-specific binding antibodies, examining viral load, and analyzing CD4/CD8 ratio. Results show that, upon challenge, the vaccine group can induce a strong immune response in the body, represented by increased expression of IFN-γ, slow and steady elevated antibody production, reduced peak value of acute viral load, and increase in the average CD4/CD8 ratio. The current research suggests that rapid reaction speed, appropriate response strength, and long-lasting immune response time may be key protection factors for AIDS vaccine. The present study contributes significantly to AIDS vaccine and preclinical research.

  12. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIVKU2 infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-γ-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIVKU2. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-γ production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies

  13. Alopecia in three macaque species housed in a laboratory environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeker, R.; Bellanca, R. U.; Lee, G. H.; Thom, J. P.; Worlein, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 m...

  14. Comparative Efficacies of Two Antimony Regimens To Treat Leishmania braziliensis-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, G.; Porrozzi, R.; Friedrich, K.; Teva, A.; Marchevsky, R. S.; Vieira, F.; Miekeley, N.; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the efficacies of two N-methylglucomine antimoniate (MA) dose regimens for treating macaques with Leishmania braziliensis-induced chronic skin disease. Whereas all animals treated with the full dose (20 mg MA/kg/day) were cured, 50% of the monkeys receiving a low-dose regimen (5 mg MA/kg/day) relapsed. The antimony concentrations in macaque plasma and tissue samples were greater in the full-dose group than in that receiving a subtherapeutic MA regimen. Our data also suggest the presence of drug-induced hepatic pathology. PMID:19822700

  15. Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIVPPC. Macaques were administered two inoculations of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years

  16. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  17. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  18. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Feczko, Eric J.; Eliza Bliss-Moreau; Hasse Walum; Pruett, John R.; Parr, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, ...

  19. Optimization and qualification of an 8-color intracellular cytokine staining assay for quantifying T cell responses in rhesus macaques for pre-clinical vaccine studies

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Mitzi M.; Kao, Shing-Fen; Eslamizar, Leila; Gee, Connie; Koopman, Gerrit; Lifton, Michelle; Schmitz, Joern E.; Sylwester, Andrew W.; Wilson, Aaron; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steve G.; Roederer, Mario; Foulds, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination and SIV challenge of macaque species is the best animal model for evaluating candidate HIV vaccines in pre-clinical studies. As such, robust assays optimized for use in nonhuman primates are necessary for reliable ex vivo measurement of immune responses and identification of potential immune correlates of protection. We optimized and qualified an 8-color intracellular cytokine staining assay for the measurement of IFNγ, IL-2, and TNF from viable CD4 and CD8 T cells from cryopreser...

  20. A fruit in hand is worth many more in the bush: steep spatial discounting by free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Jerald D; Sampson, William W L

    2012-03-01

    Decision making is one of the principal cognitive processes underlying goal-directed behaviour and thus there is justifiably strong interest in modeling it. However, many of these models have yet to be tested outside of the laboratory. At the same time, field work would benefit from the use of experimental methods developed in the laboratory to determine the causal relationships between environmental variables and behaviour. We therefore adapted a laboratory-derived experimental paradigm to test decision making in the wild. The experiment used an indifference-point procedure to determine the influence of both the amount and distance of food on choice behaviour. Free-ranging rhesus monkeys were given the choice between a smaller amount of food at a closer distance and a larger amount farther away. In four conditions, we held the closer amount constant across trials and varied the farther amount to determine the point at which the monkeys were indifferent to the choice alternatives. For example, in condition one, we used one piece of food at the closer location, and determined how many pieces would be equivalent in the farther location. Four different closer amounts were tested to obtain an indifference point curve, with the indifference amounts at the farther location plotted against the closer amounts. The slope of the obtained linear indifference curve was surprisingly high, suggesting that rhesus monkeys significantly discount food that is farther away. Possible reasons for this steep spatial discounting are discussed.

  1. Titration of a SHIV1157ipd3N4 Stock by Intravenous Inoculation of Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques%SHIV1157ipd3N4中国恒河猴细胞适应株静脉感染中国恒河猴有效浓度的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛喆; 陈志伟; 魏强; 蒋虹; 金光; 陈霆; 王卫; 陶真; 姚南; 熊竞; 吴芳新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the viral concentration of SHIV1157ipd3N4 to infect Chinese-origin rhesus macaques intravenously, and to clarify the viral replication and immunological impairment in the monkeys after SHIV1157ipd3N4 inoculation. Methods 10 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques were used in this study. Firstly, all the monkeys were screened by serological test to ensure that they were free of SIV, SRV, and STLV. Then they were infected with 1 mL of 10-fold serial dilution of SHIV1157ipd3N4 separately. Finally to make blood routine examination and measure the viral loads of the monkeys by real-time RT-PCR. Results More than 5 TCID50/mL of SHIV1l57ipd3N4 can infect the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques i. v. successfully. Conclusions Our findings of this study provide a firm basis for establishing a SHIV1157ipd3N4 infection model of Chinese rhesus macaques intravenously. This model would be very useful for HIV-1 subtype C vaccine and pathogenesis studies.%目的 确定SHIV1157ipd3N4静脉途径感染中国恒河猴的有效病毒浓度,明确SHIV1157ipd3N4感染实验猴体内病毒复制和免疫损伤情况.方法 10只正常中国恒河猴分成6组,分别用10倍系列稀释的病毒液1 mL静脉感染,测定血浆病毒载量,CD4+/CD8+,CD4+T淋巴细胞绝对数,分析感染后恒河猴体内病毒复制和免疫损伤情况.结果 5TCID50/mL以上浓度的SHIV1157ipd3N4能通过静脉途径感染中国恒河猴.结论 该实验的成功进行为SHIV/中国恒河猴疾病及评价模型的建立莫定了良好的基础,为今后使用此模型评价抗病毒药物或疫苗提供了条件.

  2. Get It While It’s Hot: A Peak-First Bias in Self-Generated Choice Order in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kanghoon; Kralik, Jerald D.

    2013-01-01

    Animals typically must make a number of successive choices to achieve a goal: e.g., eating multiple food items before becoming satiated. However, it is unclear whether choosing the best first or saving the best for last represents the best choice strategy to maximize overall reward. Specifically, since outcomes can be evaluated prospectively (with future rewards discounted and more immediate rewards preferred) or retrospectively (with prior rewards discounted and more recent rewards preferred), the conditions under which each are used remains unclear. On the one hand, humans and non-human animals clearly discount future reward, preferring immediate rewards to delayed ones, suggesting prospective evaluation; on the other hand, it has also been shown that a sequence that ends well, i.e., with the best event or item last, is often preferred, suggesting retrospective evaluation. Here we hypothesized that when individuals are allowed to build the sequence themselves they are more likely to evaluate each item individually and therefore build a sequence using prospective evaluation. We examined the relationship between self-generated choice order and preference in rhesus monkeys in two experiments in which the distinctiveness of options were relatively high and low, respectively. We observed a positive linear relationship between choice order and preference among highly distinct options, indicating that the rhesus monkeys chose their preferred food first: i.e., a peak-first order preference. Overall, choice order depended on the degree of relative preference among alternatives and a peak-first bias, providing evidence for prospective evaluation when choice order is self-generated. PMID:24376758

  3. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000143.htm Self catheterization - male To use the sharing features on ... Read More Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  4. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000144.htm Self catheterization - female To use the sharing features on ... incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  5. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... then moved through the aortic valve into the left side of your heart. The pressure is measured ... coronary angiography) Take x-ray pictures of the left side of the heart (ventriculography)

  6. Variations in the Biological Functions of HIV-1 Clade C Envelope in a SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque during Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For Yue Tso

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the variations in the HIV-1 Env functions during disease progression. To this end, an animal model that can be infected under controlled environment and reflect the disease course of HIV-1 infection in human will be beneficial. Such an animal model was previously demonstrated by the infection of macaque with SHIV, expressing HIV-1 clade C Env V1-V5 region. By using this model, we examined the changes in biological functions of Env in the infected animal over the entire disease course. Our data showed an increase in the neutralization resistance phenotype over time and coincided with the decrease in the net charges of the V1-V5 region. Infection of PBMC with provirus expressing various Env clones, isolated from the infected animal over time, showed a surprisingly better replicative fitness for viruses expressing the Env from early time point. Biotinylation and ELISA data also indicated a decrease of cell-surface-associated Env and virion-associated gp120 content with disease progression. This decrease did not affect the CD4-binding capability of Env, but were positively correlated with the decrease of Env fusion ability. Interestingly, some of these changes in biological functions reverted to the pre-AIDS level during advance AIDS. These data suggested a dynamic relationship between the Env V1-V5 region with the host immune pressure. The observed changes of biological functions in this setting might reflect and predict those occurring during natural disease progression in human.

  7. Sequencing and analyses of the adenovirus polymerase gene in fecal samples of captively bred rhesus macaques%恒河猴肠道腺病毒聚合酶基因片段的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建溪; 曹红; 钱师宇; 王强; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究非人灵长类动物猴腺病毒的分子多样性。方法 采集圈养的57只恒河猴粪便样本,以腺病毒聚合酶基因为目的基因,用PCR方法进行扩增,对PCR阳性产物进行克隆、测序,并进行系统进化分析。结果 57只恒河猴粪便样本有12份样本中存在腺病毒DNA,系统进化分析提示这些序列主要可分为两大组:类SAdV-6组(2个非重复序列)和类SAdV-7组(9个非重复序列)。此外,有三个克隆,其最相似序列分别为:SAdV-1,SAdV-3和HAdV-52。结论 我们的研究证实了腺病毒的确在非人灵长类粪便中普遍存在,揭示了本研究所涉及动物肠道内腺病毒的多样性以及系统进化情况。%Objective In an attempt to study the moleculr characterization and epidemiology of simian adenoviruses in nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. MethodsWe examined a colony of captively bred rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ) in China for the presence of adenoviral DNA in stool samples. This was done by using the PCR method that targeted the adenovirus polymerase gene, and the PCR positive fragments were cloned for sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. ResultsAmong the 57animals analyzed, fecal samples from 12 animals were positive for the presence of adenoviral DNA. The results suggested that the viral DNA clones were primarily segregated into two large groups: SAdV-6 (2 nonredundant sequences) and SAdV-7 (9 non-redundant sequences). In addition, there were three clones with more similarity to SAdV-1, SAdV-3 and HAdV-52 respectively. ConclusionOur data confirmed the prevalence of adenoviral DNA in the feces of NHPs and revealed the heterogeneity and phylogenetics of the adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract of the study animals.

  8. Death in a catheterization laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, B C; Higginson, L A; Beanlands, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess current rates of death from diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization as well as changes in the rates, if any, from 1977 to 1991. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Catheterization laboratory, University of Ottawa Heart Institute. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures from 1977 to 1991. Those undergoing endomyocardial biopsy or electrophysiologic study were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: Cardiac catheterization w...

  9. Molecular ABO phenotyping in cynomolgus macaques using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premasuthan, A; Ng, J; Kanthaswamy, S; Trask, J S; Houghton, P; Farkas, T; Sestak, K; Smith, D G

    2012-10-01

    Macaques are commonly used in biomedical research as animal models of human disease. The ABO phenotype of donors and recipients plays an important role in the success of transplantation and stem cell research of both human and macaque tissue. Traditional serological methods for ABO phenotyping can be time consuming, provide ambiguous results and/or require tissue that is unavailable or unsuitable. We developed a novel method to detect the A, B, and AB phenotypes of macaques using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This method enables the simple and rapid screening of these phenotypes in macaques without the need for fresh blood or saliva. This study reports the distribution of the A, B, and AB phenotypes of captive cynomolgus macaques that, while regionally variable, closely resembles that of rhesus macaques. Blood group B, as in rhesus macaques, predominates in cynomolgus macaques and its frequency distribution leads to a probability of major incompatibility of 41%. No silencing mutations have been identified in exon 6 or 7 in macaques that could be responsible for the O phenotype, that, although rare, have been reported. The excess homozygosity of rhesus and cynomolgus macaque genotypes in this study, that assumes the absence of the O allele, suggests the possibility of some mechanism preventing the expression of the A and B transferases.

  10. 恒河猴感染H5N1禽流感病毒后肺组织病理变化及病毒分布%Distribution of influenza A (H5N1) virus and pathological lesions in major organ tissues of experimentally infected rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖天文; 邓少嫦; 吴东; 黎东明; 陈敏; 吕莹莹; 张钰; 黄韧; 吴斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological changes and viral invasion in the main organs of rhesus macaques after experimental infection with H5N1 virus.Methods The rhesus macaques were infected with H5N1 virus (AF148678/ACGoose/Guangdong/11961H5N1) by nasal inoculation under anesthesia.One rhesus macaque was killed respectively at 1,3,6,14 days after infection.The pathologic changes of the main organs were observed using HE staining and the characteristics of the viral invasion in the body were analyzed using viral isolation,RT-PCR andimmunohistochemistry.Results The influenza virus replicated only in the lung tissues characterized by diffuse alveolar damage in the infected rhesus macaques,mainly involving alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary macrophages.The pathological changes showed 3 phases including exudative inflammation,hyperplasia and fibrosis.Extra-pulmonary organs also showed different degree of pathological changes such as degeneration and necrosis,but virus was not isolated in the corresponding organs.Conclusions Acute diffuse lung injury was a central part of the pathogenesis in H5N1 avian influenza virus infection.The lung was the main target organ in H5N1 viral infection,and H5N1 virus cannot replicate in other organs,which may be one of the obstacles to H5N1 viral transmission from person to person.%目的 探讨恒河猴感染H5N1病毒后肺组织病理变化及病毒分布特点.方法 在麻醉状态下对4只雄性恒河猴经鼻部滴入H5N1禽流感病毒(AF148678/ACGoose/Guangdong/11961H5N1),在染毒后第1、3、6及14天分别剖杀1只恒河猴.HE染色观察主要组织器官的病理变化,应用实时荧光(RT)-PCR及免疫组织化学方法分析H5N1禽流感病毒侵袭机体后肺及其他主要器官的病理改变及病毒分布情况.结果 恒河猴感染H5N1禽流感病毒后,病毒仅在肺组织复制,主要侵犯肺泡上皮细胞和肺巨噬细胞,表现为弥漫性肺泡损伤,先后经历渗出期、增生期和纤

  11. 高+Gx环境对猴咬肌肌细胞c-jun表达影响的研究%Effect of high +Gx on c-jun expression in masseter muscle cell of Rhesus macaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施生根; 张建中; 汤楚华; 牛忠英; 张铭

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察高+Gx环境对猴咬肌组织病理学及c-jun表达的影响. 方法以9只雄性猕猴为对象,按受试猴暴露的+Gx环境及持续时间随机分4组,对照组为+1 Gx/300 s;实验组为3组,分别为+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s、+21 Gx/140 s.采用病理学和免疫组织化学方法,观察模拟高正加速度环境下猴咬肌肌细胞组织及c-jun表达的变化. 结果组织病理学观察:对照组猴咬肌肌细胞无明显变化;实验组肌细胞结构趋紊乱,偶见少量间质出血.免疫组织化学观察:对照组咬肌肌细胞c-jun呈阴性或弱阳性表达,主要位于肌细胞核,胞质着色不明显;实验组咬肌细胞核c-jun着色明显,呈强阳性表达,不同高+Gx暴露组之间无明显差别. 结论高于+15 Gx的模拟环境可引起猴咬肌肌细胞c-jun表达增强.%Objective To investigate the changes of c-jun expression in the monkey masseter muscles induced by stress reaction under +Gx loads. Methods Nine male Rhesus macaques were randomly divided in to four groups according to Gx loads and duration: control group was exposed to+1 Gx/300 s overloads, and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to +15 Gx/200 s,+18 Gx/165 s and + 21 Gx/140 s respectively. Masseter tissue was fixed with 10% buffered formaldehyde and embedded with paraffin, and histopathological changes were observed under microscope. The expression of c-jun was detected by immunohistochemical PicTureTM method on the masseters. Results Gross and histological analyses showed that no significant pathological changes were observed in the masseters in control group; there was structural disturbance of masseter with slight stromal hemorrhage in the different experimental groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that over-expression of c-jun was detected in the nuclei of the muscles in the experimental groups, and negative staining was also observed in the nuclei of muscles in controlanimals. There was no obvious difference in c

  12. 恒河猴基因组SINEs和Alu元件的数量和分布%The Numbers and Distribution of SINEs and Alu Elements in Rhesus Macaque Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏珊; 范振鑫

    2014-01-01

    哺乳动物的基因组中富含各种类型的重复序列,其中的微卫星作为分子标记在相关研究中得到了广泛的应用.而重复序列中的SINEs元件,在各类群物种的分子系统发育、遗传多样性等方面的研究也得到了使用.其中,灵长类物种特有的SINEs元件、Alu元件,也在灵长类物种的进化研究中得到了成功的使用.本研究对于重要的医学模式动物恒河猴的基因组中SINEs和Alu元件进行了搜索,并进一步统计分析其分布规律、长度等信息.在恒河猴基因组的20条常染色体上共发现了Alu元件1 093 185个,在性染色体X上发现了45 215个.长度为200 bp至300 bp区间的Alu元件分布最多;Alu元件中75%的分化值至少都为10,而只有6.2%左右的元件分化值能达到至少20,这一结果表明绝大部分的Alu元件都比较年轻.本研究的统计结果为后续应用SINEs和Alu元件作为分子标记的研究提供了重要的信息.%There are many different types of repeat elements in mammal genomes,and microsatellite has been widely used as molecular marker in researches.Additionally,another type of repeat element,SINEs,has also been used as molecular markers in molecular phylogeny and genetic diversity.Alu element,which was the primate-specific SINEs element,has been widely used in the evolutionary study of primate species.In this study,SINEs and Alu elements were screened in the genome of rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta,which was an important model animal in biomedical study.In total,there were 1 093 185 Alu elements in the 20 autosomes,and 45 215 Alu elements in the chromosome X.Most of the Alu elements were ranged in length from 200 bp to 300 bp,and 75% of which had a minimal divergence value of 10,whereas only 6.2% could reach 20,indicating that most of the Alu elements were relatively young.These results may provide important information for the future studies on the application of SINEs and Alu elements as molecular

  13. Therapeutic envelope vaccination in combination with antiretroviral therapy temporarily rescues SIV-specific CD4⁺ T-cell-dependent natural killer cell effector responses in chronically infected rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Xiao, Peng; Demberg, Thorsten; Pal, Ranajit; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-06-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are essential components of the immune system, and due to their rapid response potential, can have a great impact during early anti-viral immune responses. We have previously shown that interleukin-2-dependent NK and CD4(+) T-cell co-operative immune responses exist in long-term simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) -infected controlling macaques and can be rescued in SIV-infected non-controlling macaques by a short course of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Given that co-operative responses may play an important role in disease prevention and therapeutic treatment, in the present study we sought to determine if these responses can be enhanced in chronically SIV-infected macaques by vaccination with a single-dose of envelope protein given during ART. To this end, we treated 14 chronically SIV-infected macaques with ART for 11 weeks and gave 10 of these macaques a single intramuscular dose of SIV gp120 at week 9 of treatment. ART significantly decreased plasma and mucosal viral loads, increased the numbers of circulating CD4(+) T cells in all macaques, and increased T-cell-dependent envelope- and gag-specific interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α production by circulatory CD56(+) NK cells. The therapeutic envelope immunization resulted in higher envelope-specific responses compared with those in macaques that received ART only. Functional T-cell responses restored by ART and therapeutic Env immunization were correlated with transiently reduced plasma viraemia levels following ART release. Collectively our results indicate that SIV-specific T-cell-dependent NK cell responses can be efficiently rescued by ART in chronically SIV-infected macaques and that therapeutic immunization may be beneficial in previously vaccinated individuals. PMID:25626488

  14. Rhesus monkeys know when they remember

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Robert R.

    2001-01-01

    Humans are consciously aware of some memories and can make verbal reports about these memories. Other memories cannot be brought to consciousness, even though they influence behavior. This conspicuous difference in access to memories is central in taxonomies of human memory systems but has been difficult to document in animal studies, suggesting that some forms of memory may be unique to humans. Here I show that rhesus macaque monkeys can report the presence or absence...

  15. Interventional cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, J; Nykanen, D; Freedom, R M; Benson, L N

    1999-04-01

    Over the past decade, transcatheter interventions have become increasingly important in the treatment of patients with congenital heart lesions. These procedures may be broadly grouped as dilations (e.g., septostomy, valvuloplasty, angioplasty, and endovascular stenting) or as closures (e.g., vascular embolization and device closure of defects). Balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of choice for patients in all age groups with simple valvar pulmonic stenosis and, although not curative, seems at least comparable to surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in newborns to young adults. Balloon angioplasty is successfully applied to a wide range of aortic, pulmonary artery, and venous stenoses. Stents are useful in dilating lesions of which the intrinsic elasticity results in vessel recoil after balloon dilation alone. Catheter-delivered coils are used to embolize a wide range of arterial, venous, and prosthetic vascular connections. Although some devices remain investigational, they have been successfully used for closure of many arterial ducts and atrial and ventricular septal defects. In the therapy for patients with complex CHD, best results may be achieved by combining cardiac surgery with interventional catheterization. The cooperation among interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons was highlighted in a report of an algorithm to manage patients with tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries, involving balloon dilation, coil embolization of collaterals, and intraoperative stent placement. In this setting, well-planned catheterization procedures have an important role in reducing the overall number of procedures that patients may require over a lifetime, with improved outcomes.

  16. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove;

    1995-01-01

    of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...

  17. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  18. 恒河猴 H5 N1禽流感病毒性肺炎模型建立及其发病机制%Pathogenesis of influenza A (H5N1) virus-induced viral pneumonia in the rhesus macaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎东明; 赖天文; 邓少嫦; 吴东; 张钰; 陈敏; 吕莹莹; 吴斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨H5N1病毒(AF148678/ACGoose/Guangdong/11961H5N1)感染恒河猴诱发自初期至恢复期过程肺炎的机制。方法以 H5N1病毒液经鼻滴入恒河猴,染毒后第0h、12h、1d、2d、3d、4d、6d、10d、12d和14d采血作血液学和流感特异抗体检测。染毒后第1、3、6、14 d分别剖杀1只恒河猴,取气管支气管淋巴结、肺、心、肝、肾、大脑及小脑进行病毒分离、滴定、病理及免疫组化检测并观察感染后临床表现。结果猴感染后出现发热、呼吸困难,食欲下降等。病毒仅在肺组织复制,主要侵犯下呼吸道的肺泡上皮细胞和肺巨噬细胞。感染后第1~3d引起暂时性的严重肺炎,主要为中性粒细胞浸润;第6 d后逐渐恢复,以巨噬细胞浸润为主;第14 d后以 T 淋巴细胞浸润为主,肺组织呈恢复期状态。结论下呼吸道是H5N1病毒感染主要攻击的对象,这可能是H5N1病毒在人与人之间传递的障碍之一,其发病可能经过病毒侵入、复制阶段及免疫损伤阶段。%At present ,the mechanism of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus causing human infection or death is still not fully clear .In order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease ,the rhesus macaques were infected with H5N1 virus (AF148678/ACGoose/Guangdong/11961H5N1) .We analyzed the clinical symptoms ,characteristics of the virus invades body ,pathological changes ,and immune response to discuss the pathogenesis of viral pneumonia induced by H 5N1 virus infection from the early time to the recovery time .The rhesus macaques were infected with H5N1 virus through nasal .Clinical signs were assessed daily ,and major organs and blood were collected for detection of blood routine analysis ,viruses were isola-ted and titrated from organs ,and pathologic and immunohistochemical were also conducted .As a result ,the rhesus macaques in-fected with H5N1 virus experienced fever ,dyspnea ,and anorexia

  19. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  20. 高+Gx环境对猴舌黏膜上皮热休克蛋白质70表达的影响%Effect of high + Gx load on heat-shock protein 70 expression of tongue mucous membrane epithelium in rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤楚华; 张建中; 牛忠英; 施生根; 张铭

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究模拟高+Gx环境中猴舌黏膜上皮热休克蛋白质70(HSP-70)的表达. 方法 以9只雄性猕猴为对象,随机分为4组,对照组+1 Gx/300 s;实验1、2、3组,分别为+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s、+21 Gx/140 s.采用免疫组织化学方法 ,研究模拟高+Gx环境作用下猴舌黏膜上皮细胞组织病理学改变及HSP-70基因的表达情况,探讨其表达水平的改变与高+Gx环境的关系. 结果 组织病理学观察:实验组和对照组猴舌黏膜上皮细胞无明显变化;免疫组织化学观察:对照组舌黏膜上皮细胞核HSP-70呈阴性表达或弱阳性表达.实验组舌黏膜上皮细胞核HSP-70着色明显,呈强阳性表达,不同高+Gx组之间无明显差别. 结论 本研究表明模拟高+Gx环境可引起猴舌黏膜上皮细胞HSP-70基因表达增强.%Objective To observe the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) in tongue mucous membrane epithelium in the stress reaction of rhesus macaque under+Gx loads. Methods Nine male rhesus macaques were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group was exposed to +1 Gx/300 s load, and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to + 15 Gx/200 s,+21 Gx/165 s and + 21 Gx/140 s respectively. Tongue tissue was fixed with 10% buffered formaldehyde and embedded with paraffin, and histopathological changes were observed under microscope. The expression of HSP-70 was detected by immunohistochemical PicTureTM method in the mucous membrane epithelium of tongue. Results Gross and histological analyses showed that no significant pathological changes were observed in the membrane of tongue mucous epithelium in different experimental groups of the animals. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that overexpression of HSP-70 was detected in the nuclei of the epithelium in the experimental groups, but no or slight positive staining was also observed in the nuclei of the epithelium in control animals. There was no significant difference in HSP-70 expression in

  1. Experimental study on effect of HNA-1 extracted from a Chinese medicine compound on Chinese rhesus macaques infected by simian immunodeficiency virus%中药复方提取物HNA-1治疗猴免疫缺陷病毒感染的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠斌; 符春林; 陈颂; 卢芳国; 刘吉勇; 葛金文

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究中药复方提取物HNA-1治疗猴免疫缺陷病毒(SIV)感染的作用.方法:采用SIVmac239毒株静脉感染15只中国恒河猴,待感染10周病毒载量进入平台期后,将动物随机分为高剂量组、低剂量组和模型对照组,分别灌胃给予1.8g·kg-1·d-1和0.6g·kg-1·d-1HNA-1药物以及等容量温开水;给药治疗8周,之后停药观察8周.观察、检测动物的一般情况、血浆病毒载量、CD+4和CD+8细胞、血细胞学和活检淋巴结病理改变等.结果:模型对照组在观察期间有2例动物死亡,而治疗组动物均存活;且治疗组动物在体质量、CD+4T细胞数上均显著优于模型对照组(P<0.05);活检淋巴结病理检查显示,治疗组动物淋巴组织保存较好,部分原本淋巴组织结构已发生退变甚至耗竭的动物,经治疗后出现了恢复.结论:中药复方提取物HNA-1虽然不能直接起到抗SIV的作用,但可以提高动物体质量、减少动物死亡、提高CD+4细胞数、改善淋巴结组织结构的病理退变,对SIV感染导致的免疫系统破坏具有一定的保护作用.%Objective: To investigate the effect of HNA-lextracted from a Chinese medicine compound, on Chinese rhesus macaques infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which was widely used as model of HIV-1 infection. Methods:15 Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with SIVmac239 by intravenous injection. 10 weeks post-infection, animals with plasma viral load at set-point were distributed into 3 groups, including high-dose-treatment group (1.8g·kg-1·d-1HNA-1), lowdose-treatment group (0.6g·kg-1·d-1 HNA-1) and control group (same volume of warm water). Corresponding treatments were delivered to monkeys for 8 weeks followed by an 8 weeks period of observation. Results: 2 monkeys in control group died as rapid-progressors, while all animals in treatment groups kept alive. Moreover, animals under treatment showed less body weight loss (P<0.05), more CD4+T cells (P<0

  2. Social facilitation of cognition in rhesus monkeys: audience vs. coaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie J. Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  3. 模拟失重及高+Gx对猕猴心肌超微结构、血浆内皮素-1及C-反应蛋白的影响%Effects of Simulated Weightlessness and High +Gx Load on Myocardial Ultrastructure, Plasma Endothelin-1 and C-reactive Protein in Rhesus Macaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 罗惠兰; 吴萍; 魏璇

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨30天模拟失重后高+Gx过载对猴猴心肌超微结构、血浆内皮素-1及C反应蛋白的影响,来研究模拟失重超重对心血管的影响,本实验为研究抗荷服和飞船轨道运行段应急返回超重医学提供实验数据.方法:15只雄性猕猴随机分为5组,即模拟失重组(对照组,A),+13 Gx/230 s组(B),模拟失重超重组+11 Gx/270 s(C),模拟失重超重组+13 Gx/230 s(D)和模拟失重超重组+15 Gx/200 s(E).动物放血处死,抽取血液测定血浆内皮素-1及C反应蛋白的含量,组织取材后经戊二醛固定,制成电镜标本,观察猴心肌超微结构的变化.结果:C组、D组和E组血浆内皮素-1及C反应蛋白含量较A组升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05),C、D、E组之间无统计学意义(P>0.05).D组血浆内皮素-1及C反应蛋白含量较B组升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05).电镜下A组可见线粒体双层膜结构清晰,线粒体嵴清晰;B、C、D组部分线粒体出现双层膜结构消失,嵴数量减少;E组线粒体出现水肿、空泡样变,肌节断裂.结论:(1)失重后超重+13 Gx可引起心肌轻微损伤,失重后超重+15 Gx心肌损伤严重,且损伤程度随着+Gx值的增加而加重.(2)失重后超重比单纯超重心肌损伤严重.(3)本实验为超重耐力研究和提出科学合理的飞船轨道运行段应急返回超重医学提供实验支持.%Objective:To explore the effects of simulated weightlessness 30 days and high + Gx overload on myocardial ultrastructure,plasma endothelin-1 and c-reactive protein in rhesus macaque,to study simulated weightlessness and overweight on the effect of cardiovascular,this experiment can provide experimental data for the Study ofanti-G suits and spacecraft orbit segment emergency return overweight medicine.Methods:Fifteen male rhesus macaque are randomly divided into five groups:simulated weightlessness group (control group,A),+13 Gx/230 (1) group (B),+11 Gx/270 s exposure after simulated weightlessness

  4. Physiology and Endocrinology of the Ovarian Cycle in Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Weinbauer, Gerhard F.; Niehoff, Marc; Niehaus, Michael; Srivastav, Shiela; Fuchs, Antje; Van Esch, Eric; Cline, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Macaques provide excellent models for preclinical testing and safety assessment of female reproductive toxicants. Currently, cynomolgus monkeys are the predominant species for (reproductive) toxicity testing. Marmosets and rhesus monkeys are being used occasionally. The authors provide a brief review on physiology and endocrinology of the cynomolgus monkey ovarian cycle, practical guidance on assessment and monitoring of ovarian cyclicity, and new data on effects of social housing on ovarian ...

  5. A ventral salience network in the macaque brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Zhang, Jiahe; Mantini, Dante; Vanduffel, Wim; Dickerson, Bradford C; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-05-15

    Successful navigation of the environment requires attending and responding efficiently to objects and conspecifics with the potential to benefit or harm (i.e., that have value). In humans, this function is subserved by a distributed large-scale neural network called the "salience network". We have recently demonstrated that there are two anatomically and functionally dissociable salience networks anchored in the dorsal and ventral portions of the human anterior insula (Touroutoglou et al., 2012). In this paper, we test the hypothesis that these two subnetworks exist in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We provide evidence that a homologous ventral salience network exists in macaques, but that the connectivity of the dorsal anterior insula in macaques is not sufficiently developed as a dorsal salience network. The evolutionary implications of these finding are considered. PMID:26899785

  6. The rhesus site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A

    2014-10-01

    The Rhesus Site is a resource for information of the 'Rhesus' blood group. It is intended for specialists and non-specialists. The website details research in the field relevant for transfusion medicine, immunohematology, and molecular research. Link areas guide to important publications and to methodological resources for Rhesus. Many data originally presented at The Rhesus Site have been formally published later. The 'RhesusBase' section represents the largest database for RHD alleles; the 'RhesusSurveillance' section details the results of the largest prospective observational study on anti-D immunization events in D-positive patients. Visitors to the website are encouraged to explore the intricacies of the most complex blood group gene locus. PMID:25538538

  7. Sequential emergence and clinical implications of viral mutants with K70E and K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase during prolonged tenofovir monotherapy in rhesus macaques with chronic RT-SHIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Niels C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported previously on the emergence and clinical implications of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 mutants with a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase (RT, and the role of CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses in suppressing viremia during tenofovir therapy. Because of significant sequence differences between SIV and HIV-1 RT that affect drug susceptibilities and mutational patterns, it is unclear to what extent findings with SIV can be extrapolated to HIV-1 RT. Accordingly, to model HIV-1 RT responses, 12 macaques were inoculated with RT-SHIV, a chimeric SIV containing HIV-1 RT, and started on prolonged tenofovir therapy 5 months later. Results The early virologic response to tenofovir correlated with baseline viral RNA levels and expression of the MHC class I allele Mamu-A*01. For all animals, sensitive real-time PCR assays detected the transient emergence of K70E RT mutants within 4 weeks of therapy, which were then replaced by K65R mutants within 12 weeks of therapy. For most animals, the occurrence of these mutations preceded a partial rebound of plasma viremia to levels that remained on average 10-fold below baseline values. One animal eventually suppressed K65R viremia to undetectable levels for more than 4 years; sequential experiments using CD8+ cell depletion and tenofovir interruption demonstrated that both CD8+ cells and continued tenofovir therapy were required for sustained suppression of viremia. Conclusion This is the first evidence that tenofovir therapy can select directly for K70E viral mutants in vivo. The observations on the clinical implications of the K65R RT-SHIV mutants were consistent with those of SIVmac251, and suggest that for persons infected with K65R HIV-1 both immune-mediated and drug-dependent antiviral activities play a role in controlling viremia. These findings suggest also that even in the presence of K65R virus, continuation of tenofovir treatment as part of HAART may be

  8. Nursing ultrasound examination in catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Romei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US examination of the bladder can precisely determine the bladder volume and is a useful tool in estimating the residual urine volume. Its application is consequently recommended as an alternative to catheterization for the determination of residual urine. Moreover it represents a simple, noninvasive method to predict the outcome of a voiding trial following acute urine retention based on intravesical prostatic protrusion and on the US pattern of the bladder content. In this article, the Authors review the implementation and results of a bladder US program developed for non-medical caregivers at one Emergency Department.

  9. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  10. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru; Nigmatullina, A. R. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation); Urakov, A. L., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru [Institute of Mechanics Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, T.Baramzinoy street 34, Izhevsk, Russia, 426067, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  11. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  12. Methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin formation due to benzocaine and lidocaine in macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.G.; Woodard, C.L.; Gold, M.B.; Watson, C.E.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine (BNZ) and lidocaine (LC) are commonly used topical (spray) anesthetics approved for use in humans. BNZ has structural similarities to methemoglobin (MHb) forming drugs that are current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis, while LC has been reported to increase MHb in man. We therefore, compared MHb and sulfhemoglobin (SHb) production in three groups of Macaques (Macaca mulata, Chinese rhesus and Indian rhesus, and Macaca nemistrina, Pig-tailed Macaques) after exposure to BNZ and LC. Formation of SHb, unlike MHb, is not thought to be reversible and is considered to be toxic. MHb and SHb levels were measured periodically on a CO-Oximeter. All rhesus (n=8) were dosed intratrachealy/intranasaly with 56 mg and 280 mg BNZ and with 40 mg of LC in a randomized cross-over design. Pig-tailed macaques (n=6) were dosed with BNZ intranasaly 56 mg and with 40 mg of LC. Since no differences in the peak MHb or time to peak (mean +/- SD) were observed among the three macaque subspecies, the data were pooled. LC did not cause MHb or SHb formation above baseline in any monkey.

  13. Age-related alterations of plasma glutathione and oxidation of redox potentials in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, Jamespaul; Jones, Dean P.; Wilson, Mark E.; Herndon, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens) share physiological and genetic characteristics, but have remarkably different life spans, with chimpanzees living 50–60 % and the rhesus living 35–40 % of maximum human survival. Since oxidative processes are associated with aging and longevity, we might expect to see species differences in age-related oxidative processes. Blood and extracellular fluid contain two major thiol redox nodes, glutathione (...

  14. Aortic aneurysm secondary to umbilical artery catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14-month-girl presented with an asymptomatic posterior mediastinal mass. She had a history of prematurity, umbilical artery catheterization, and sepsis. The diagnosis of aortic aneurysm was made by dynamic computed tomography. The aneurysm was successfully resected. (orig.)

  15. Complications of cardiac catheterization: one centre's experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, B C; Beanlands, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Data on complication rates in a cardiac catheterization laboratory were prospectively gathered over a 6-year period. During this time 7960 catheterizations were performed. Death occurred in seven (0.1%) of the cases. The difference between the mortality rates for procedures performed with and without systemically administered heparin (0.04% and 0.2% respectively) was barely statistically significant (p less than 0.05). A significant complication occurred in 1.5% of the cases; however, most di...

  16. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  17. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343148

  18. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  19. Cognitive influences on risk-seeking by rhesus macaques,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other animals are idiosyncratically sensitive to risk, either preferring or avoiding options having the same value but differing in uncertainty. Many explanations for risk sensitivity rely on the non-linear shape of a hypothesized utility curve. Because such models do not place any importance on uncertainty extit{per se}, utility curve-based accounts predict indifference between risky and riskless options that offer the same distribution of rewards. Here we show that monkeys strongly prefer uncertain gambles to alternating rewards with the same payoffs, demonstrating that uncertainty itself contributes to the appeal of risky options. Based on prior observations, we hypothesized that the appeal of the risky option is enhanced by the salience of the potential jackpot. To test this, we subtly manipulated payoffs in a second gambling task. We found that monkeys are more sensitive to small changes in the size of the large reward than to equivalent changes in the size of the small reward, indicating that they attend preferentially to the jackpots. Together, these results challenge utility curve-based accounts of risk sensitivity, and suggest that psychological factors, such as outcome salience and uncertainty itself, contribute to risky decision-making.

  20. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica M; Cohen, Yale E; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L

    2016-05-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  1. Transcriptional reprogramming in nonhuman primate (rhesus macaque tuberculosis granulomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Mehra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In response to Mtb infection, the host remodels the infection foci into a dense mass of cells known as the granuloma. The key objective of the granuloma is to contain the spread of Mtb into uninfected regions of the lung. However, it appears that Mtb has evolved mechanisms to resist killing in the granuloma. Profiling granuloma transcriptome will identify key immune signaling pathways active during TB infection. Such studies are not possible in human granulomas, due to various confounding factors. Nonhuman Primates (NHPs infected with Mtb accurately reflect human TB in clinical and pathological contexts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied transcriptomics of granuloma lesions in the lungs of NHPs exhibiting active TB, during early and late stages of infection. Early TB lesions were characterized by a highly pro-inflammatory environment, expressing high levels of immune signaling pathways involving IFNgamma, TNFalpha, JAK, STAT and C-C/C-X-C chemokines. Late TB lesions, while morphologically similar to the early ones, exhibited an overwhelming silencing of the inflammatory response. Reprogramming of the granuloma transcriptome was highly significant. The expression of approximately two-thirds of all genes induced in early lesions was later repressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transcriptional characteristics of TB granulomas undergo drastic changes during the course of infection. The overwhelming reprogramming of the initial pro-inflammatory surge in late lesions may be a host strategy to limit immunopathology. We propose that these host profiles can predict changes in bacterial replication and physiology, perhaps serving as markers for latency and reactivation.

  2. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of macaques: a model for Lassa fever

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Juan C.; Pauza, C. David; Djavani, Mahmoud M.; Rodas, Juan D.; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Bryant, Joseph; Ateh, Eugene; Garcia, Cybele; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Salvato, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa fever virus (LASV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are benign in their natural reservoir hosts, and can occasionally cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in non-human primates and in human beings. LCMV is considerably more benign for human beings than Lassa virus, however certain strains, like the LCMV-WE strain, can cause severe disease when the virus is delivered as a high-dose inoculum. Here we describe a rhesus macaque model for Lassa fever t...

  3. Intergenic and Repeat Transcription in Human, Chimpanzee and Macaque Brains Measured by RNA-Seq

    OpenAIRE

    Augix Guohua Xu; Liu He; Zhongshan Li; Ying Xu; Mingfeng Li; Xing Fu; Zheng Yan; Yuan Yuan; Corinna Menzel; Na Li; Mehmet Somel; Hao Hu; Wei Chen; Svante Pääbo; Philipp Khaitovich

    2010-01-01

    Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 2...

  4. Morphological and hormonal parameters in two species of macaques: impact of seasonal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Campbell, Benjamin C; Murchison, Mark A; Phillippi, Kathrine M

    2002-03-01

    To compare physiological and developmental differences between two cogeneric species that differ by seasonal vs. aseasonal breeding, values for morphological measurements, testicular volume, serum testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels were obtained from 53 rhesus during the early breeding season, as well as 41 pig-tailed macaque males maintained at the Tulane Primate Center. The two species exhibited similar body size, testosterone, and estradiol levels, but differed substantially in testicular volume (3.00 +/- 1.7 vs. 1.72 +/- 1.3 cc), abdominal skinfold measures (15.7 +/- 9.2 vs. 9.0 +/- 7.7 mm), and DHEA-S levels (18.0 +/- 11.7 vs. 7.6 +/- 5.4 microg/dl). Significant interaction effects for species by age group were found for weight, tricep circumference, length, and estradiol level. In addition, length was more closely related to testicular volume among rhesus compared to pig-tailed macaques, suggesting different developmental patterns between the species. Predictors of hormonal levels differed between the two species. In the rhesus, estradiol levels were related to testicular volume and testosterone levels while there were no anthropometric predictors of testosterone or DHEA-S. For the pig-tailed macaques, testicular volume was related to tricep circumference, testosterone to triceps skinfold and testicular volume, and estradiol to weight. It is argued that rhesus have larger testes for body size and more abdominal fat deposits during the early breeding season relative to pig-tailed macaques reflecting the increased demands of sperm competition in a seasonally breeding species. Hormonal differences associated with the difference in breeding system appear to be primarily related to adrenal rather than testicular activity.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M D; Letvin, N L; Sehgal, P K; Schmidt, D K; Silva, D P; Solomon, K R; Hodi, F S; Ringler, D J; Hunt, R D; King, N W

    1988-04-15

    The prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian T-lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had antibodies to type D retrovirus. Of 3 macaques infected with SIV, 2 were rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and I was a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). STLV-1 and D retrovirus infection occurred in all 4 macaque species examined. SIV, STLV-1 and D retroviruses were isolated from sero-positive macaques. The low prevalence of SIV infection suggests that SIV is not being readily transmitted among macaques at NERPRC; this contrasts markedly with the high SIV prevalence in some captive mangabey colonies. In contrast to African green monkeys from eastern Africa, 160 Caribbean green monkeys examined showed no sign of SIV infection. These results provide a framework for monitoring spontaneous disease associated with infection by these 3 retroviruses and will help in further definition of STLV-1 and SIV infection of non-human primates as animal models for human disease.

  6. Iatrogenic intravascular pneumocephalus secondary to intravenous catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Altan; Oezer, Caner; Egilmez, Hulusi; Duce, Meltem Nass; Apaydin, Demir F.; Yalcinoglu, Orhan [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University (Turkey)

    2002-03-01

    The presence of pneumocephalus without a history of intracranial or intrathecal procedures is a significant radiographic finding. Although pneumocephalus means a violation of the dural barrier or the presence of infection, intravascular pneumocephalus is different from intraparenchymal pneumocephalus and its benign nature must be known in the presence of intravenous catheterization. Herein, we present a case of iatrogenic intravascular pneumocephalus with CT findings. To our knowledge, there are only a few reported cases of iatrogenic intravascular pneumocephalus in the literature. Careful intravenous catheterization and diagnosis of the condition on imaging helps to prevent unnecessary treatment procedures. (orig.)

  7. Discovery of a secular trend in Cayo Santiago macaque reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Kessler, Matthew J; Delgado, Diana L; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Sabat, Alberto M

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques from 1973 to 2013, this study distinguishes synchrony (a greater than chance clustering of births) from seasonality (a cluster of births during a period of the year when abiotic conditions are favorable) and shows that females are highly synchronized (>72% of births in a 3-month period) but the effects of environmental zeitgebers on reproduction are overridden by biological factors. Specifically, biotic and abiotic factors including (i) loss of immature offspring; (ii) population density; (iii) age at delivery; (iv) rainfall; and (v) changes in colony management were modeled in relation to the annual onset of births and the median birth date. Females experiencing loss of immature offspring had an interbirth interval of seasons by 2050. The secular trend in reproduction appears to be triggered by changes in the age at delivery of females, the absence of physiological constraints from maternal investment due to offspring loss, shorter interbirth interval, and a higher degree of coordination due to increasing population density. This study challenges the reproductive phenology previously described for rhesus macaques highlighting the importance of long-term studies in addressing the ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. PMID:26540010

  8. Therapeutic Cardiac Catheterizations for Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic Cardiac Catheterizations for Children with Congenital Heart Disease Introduction A therapeutic cardiac catheterization is a procedure performed to treat your child’s heart defect. A doctor will use special techniques and ...

  9. Contextual factors explain risk-seeking preferences in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys’ risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1 very small stakes, (2 serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3 task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures.

  10. Visualization of transepithelial passage of the immunogenic 33-residue peptide from alpha-2 gliadin in gluten-sensitive macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushiki Mazumdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on clinical, histopathological and serological similarities to human celiac disease (CD, we recently established the rhesus macaque model of gluten sensitivity. In this study, we further characterized this condition based on presence of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2 antibodies, increased intestinal permeability and transepithelial transport of a proteolytically resistant, immunotoxic, 33-residue peptide from alpha(2-gliadin in the distal duodenum of gluten-sensitive macaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six rhesus macaques were selected for study from a pool of 500, including two healthy controls and four gluten-sensitive animals with elevated anti-gliadin or anti-TG2 antibodies as well as history of non-infectious chronic diarrhea. Pediatric endoscope-guided pinch biopsies were collected from each animal's distal duodenum following administration of a gluten-containing diet (GD and again after remission by gluten-free diet (GFD. Control biopsies always showed normal villous architecture, whereas gluten-sensitive animals on GD exhibited histopathology ranging from mild lymphocytic infiltration to villous atrophy, typical of human CD. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis of biopsies revealed IgG+ and IgA+ plasma-like cells producing antibodies that colocalized with TG2 in gluten-sensitive macaques only. Following instillation in vivo, the Cy-3-labeled 33-residue gluten peptide colocalized with the brush border protein villin in all animals. In a substantially enteropathic macaque with "leaky" duodenum, the peptide penetrated beneath the epithelium into the lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rhesus macaque model of gluten sensitivity not only resembles the histopathology of CD but it also may provide a model for studying intestinal permeability in states of epithelial integrity and disrepair.

  11. Entrapment of guidewire during central venous catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is common in the setting of ICU for various reasons like monitoring of CVP, fluid administration and vasopressor or drug infusions. Guidewires are routinely used in the Seldinger technique during central venous catheter placement CVC placement is not innocuous as numerous complications may occur, with varying frequency and severity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3080-3081

  12. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  13. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation. PMID:25757574

  14. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M J Ylinen

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  15. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  16. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: Species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E.; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we fo...

  17. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg-1) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg-1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg-1, and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg-1. Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  18. FACIAL ASYMMETRY IS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO CONDITION IN FEMALE MACAQUE MONKEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Paukner, Annika; Woodward, Ruth A; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The face is an important visual trait in social communication across many species. In evolutionary terms there are large and obvious selective advantages in detecting healthy partners, both in terms of avoiding individuals with poor health to minimise contagion and in mating with individuals with high health to help ensure healthy offspring. Many models of sexual selection suggest that an individual's phenotype provides cues to their quality. Fluctuating asymmetry is a trait that is proposed to be an honest indicator of quality and previous studies have demonstrated that rhesus monkeys gaze longer at symmetric faces, suggesting preferences for such faces. The current study examined the relationship between measured facial symmetry and measures of health in a captive population of female rhesus macaque monkeys. We measured asymmetry from landmarks marked on front-on facial photographs and computed measures of health based on veterinary health and condition ratings, number of minor and major wounds sustained, and gain in weight over the first four years of life. Analysis revealed that facial asymmetry was negatively related to condition related health measures, with symmetric individuals being healthier than more asymmetric individuals. Facial asymmetry appears to be an honest indicator of health in rhesus macaques and asymmetry may then be used by conspecifics in mate-choice situations. More broadly, our data support the notion that faces are valuable sources of information in non-human primates and that sexual selection based on facial information is potentially important across the primate lineage.

  19. Developing Tools to Measure Quality in Congenital Catheterization and Interventions: The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes (C3PO)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry-Waterman, Nadia; Coombs, Sandra; Porras, Diego; Holzer, Ralf; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The broad range of relatively rare procedures performed in pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratories has made the standardization of care and risk assessment in the field statistically quite problematic. However, with the growing number of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization, it has become imperative that the cardiology community overcomes these challenges to study patient outcomes. The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes was able to develop benchmarks, tools ...

  20. Gonadotropin ratio affects the in vitro growth of rhesus ovarian preantral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Young; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chung Gyu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Liu, Hung Ching; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ku, Seung-Yup

    2016-04-01

    In vitro follicle growth (IVFG) strategy is critical in the fertility preservation of cancer survivors; however, its optimal protocol needs to be developed using primate models since the availability of human samples is limited. Only a few previous studies have reported the successful IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries using low-dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0.3 or 3 ng/mL) and long-term culture (up to 5 weeks) and it is still uncertain in regard to the optimal culture duration and effective dose of treated gonadotropins applicable to the IVFG of rhesus preantral follicles. Recently, we have reported that the FSH to luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio affects the in vitro growth of murine ovarian follicles. We aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin ratios affect the efficiency of rhesus follicular growth in vitro Ovaries were collected from six necropsied rhesus macaques (4-9 years) and preantral follicles were retrieved and cultured for 14 days using 200 mIU/mL FSH. The characteristics of follicular growth were compared between the FSH:LH=1:1 (n=24) and FSH:LH=2:1 (n=24) groups. High concentration gonadotropin treatment shortened the duration required for in vitro maturation of rhesus preantral follicles. The FSH:LH=2:1 group showed a faster follicular growth and enabled the acquisition of mature oocytes, although the expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taken together, high dose gonadotropin treatment can shorten the duration of IVFG and the gonadotropin ratio is important in the IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries. PMID:26980777

  1. Macaque cardiac physiology is sensitive to the valence of passively viewed sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bliss-Moreau

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.

  2. Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-03-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) can be used to generate rule-based sequences of stimuli. Some of these can be used to investigate sequence-processing computations in non-human animals that might be related to, but not unique to, human language. Previous AG learning studies in non-human animals have used different AGs to separately test for specific sequence-processing abilities. However, given that natural language and certain animal communication systems (in particular, song) have multiple levels of complexity, mixed-complexity AGs are needed to simultaneously evaluate sensitivity to the different features of the AG. Here, we tested humans and Rhesus macaques using a mixed-complexity auditory AG, containing both adjacent (local) and non-adjacent (longer-distance) relationships. Following exposure to exemplary sequences generated by the AG, humans and macaques were individually tested with sequences that were either consistent with the AG or violated specific adjacent or non-adjacent relationships. We observed a considerable level of cross-species correspondence in the sensitivity of both humans and macaques to the adjacent AG relationships and to the statistical properties of the sequences. We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques. A subset of humans was sensitive to this non-adjacent relationship, revealing interesting between- and within-species differences in AG learning strategies. The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties. However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans.

  3. Improved xenobiotic metabolism and reduced susceptibility to cancer in gluten-sensitive macaques upon introduction of a gluten-free diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A non-human primate (NHP model of gluten sensitivity was employed to study the gene perturbations associated with dietary gluten changes in small intestinal tissues from gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. METHODOLOGY: Stages of remission and relapse were accomplished in gluten-sensitive animals by administration of gluten-free (GFD and gluten-containing (GD diets, as described previously. Pin-head-sized biopsies, obtained non-invasively by pediatric endoscope from duodenum while on GFD or GD, were used for preparation of total RNA and gene profiling, using the commercial Rhesus Macaque Microarray (Agilent Technologies,targeting expression of over 20,000 genes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When compared with normal healthy control, gluten-sensitive macaques showed differential gene expressions induced by GD. While observed gene perturbations were classified into one of 12 overlapping categories--cancer, metabolism, digestive tract function, immune response, cell growth, signal transduction, autoimmunity, detoxification of xenobiotics, apoptosis, actin-collagen deposition, neuronal and unknown function--this study focused on cancer-related gene networks such as cytochrome P450 family (detoxification function and actin-collagen-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A loss of detoxification function paralleled with necessity to metabolize carcinogens was revealed in gluten-sensitive animals while on GD. An increase in cancer-promoting factors and a simultaneous decrease in cancer-preventing factors associated with altered expression of actin-collagen-MMP gene network were noted. In addition, gluten-sensitive macaques showed reduced number of differentially expressed genes including the cancer-associated ones upon withdrawal of dietary gluten. Taken together, these findings indicate potentially expanded utility of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques in cancer research.

  4. Suprapubic compared with transurethral bladder catheterization for gynecologic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, Eibhlín F

    2012-09-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is commonly used for postoperative bladder drainage after gynecologic procedures. However, recent studies have suggested an increased rate of complications compared with urethral catheterization. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing suprapubic catheterization and urethral catheterization in gynecologic populations.

  5. A novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To propose a novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization procedures. Technique: The sheath tip of an intravenous catheter is cut off, replaced to the needle tip and pushed through the distal drainage side hole to Foley catheter tip, and finally withdrawn for cannulation. In situations making urethral catheterization difficult, a guide wire is placed under direct vision. The modified Foley catheter is slid successfully over the guide wire from its distal end throughout the urethral passage into the bladder. Results: The modified Foley catheter was used successfully in our clinic in cases requiring difficult urethral catheterization. Conclusions: This easy and rapid modification of a Foley catheter may minimize the potential complications of blind catheter placement in standard catheterization.

  6. Difficult male urethral catheterization: a review of different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villanueva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To review and compare the different methods for difficult male urethral catheterization described in selected literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was done with the terms "difficult", "failed", or "complications" and "urethral catheterization", "transurethral catheterization", "Foley catheter", "urethral catheter" or "filiforms and followers". All articles addressing the issue of difficult adult male urethral catheterization were included. RESULTS: Six main approaches were identified on the 14 articles included for review: 1 Passage of either a Glidewire, guide wire or filiform under direct vision; 2 Blind passage of a filiform, guide wire, Glidewire or hydrophilic catheter; 3 "The Peel-away® sheath placed on a cystoscope/resectoscope technique"; 4 "The rigid ureteroscope placed inside the 22F Foley technique"; 5 Suprapubic catheterization; and 6 "The instillation of 60 cc of saline through the catheter as it is advanced technique". CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of prospective data comparing the benefits, risks, success rates and complications of the different approaches for difficult Foley catheter placement. Our suggested approach starts with the initial attempt at urethral catheterization with an 18F coude and a 12F silicone catheter. If these fail, using a flexible cystoscope or the blind Glidewire technique are reasonable alternatives. If dilatation of a stricture is necessary, ureteric dilatators or a urethral balloon dilatator are recommended.

  7. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  8. Natural Killer Cell Evasion Is Essential for Infection by Rhesus Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgill, Elizabeth R; Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Seo, Seongkyung; Schneider, Christine L; Womack, Jennie L; Verweij, Marieke C; Ventura, Abigail B; Bhusari, Amruta; Jeffries, Krystal M; Legasse, Alfred W; Axthelm, Michael K; Hudson, Amy W; Sacha, Jonah B; Picker, Louis J; Früh, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The natural killer cell receptor NKG2D activates NK cells by engaging one of several ligands (NKG2DLs) belonging to either the MIC or ULBP families. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL16 and UL142 counteract this activation by retaining NKG2DLs and US18 and US20 act via lysomal degradation but the importance of NK cell evasion for infection is unknown. Since NKG2DLs are highly conserved in rhesus macaques, we characterized how NKG2DL interception by rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) impacts infection in vivo. Interestingly, RhCMV lacks homologs of UL16 and UL142 but instead employs Rh159, the homolog of UL148, to prevent NKG2DL surface expression. Rh159 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and retains several NKG2DLs whereas UL148 does not interfere with NKG2DL expression. Deletion of Rh159 releases human and rhesus MIC proteins, but not ULBPs, from retention while increasing NK cell stimulation by infected cells. Importantly, RhCMV lacking Rh159 cannot infect CMV-naïve animals unless CD8+ cells, including NK cells, are depleted. However, infection can be rescued by replacing Rh159 with HCMV UL16 suggesting that Rh159 and UL16 perform similar functions in vivo. We therefore conclude that cytomegaloviral interference with NK cell activation is essential to establish but not to maintain chronic infection. PMID:27580123

  9. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  10. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  11. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of macaques: a model for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan C; Pauza, C David; Djavani, Mahmoud M; Rodas, Juan D; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Bryant, Joseph; Ateh, Eugene; Garcia, Cybele; Lukashevich, Igor S; Salvato, Maria S

    2011-11-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa fever virus (LASV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are benign in their natural reservoir hosts, and can occasionally cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in non-human primates and in human beings. LCMV is considerably more benign for human beings than Lassa virus, however certain strains, like the LCMV-WE strain, can cause severe disease when the virus is delivered as a high-dose inoculum. Here we describe a rhesus macaque model for Lassa fever that employs a virulent strain of LCMV. Since LASV must be studied within Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, the LCMV-infected macaque model has the advantage that it can be used at BSL-3. LCMV-induced disease is rarely as severe as other VHF, but it is similar in cases where vascular leakage leads to lethal systemic failure. The LCMV-infected macaque has been valuable for describing the course of disease with differing viral strains, doses and routes of infection. By monitoring system-wide changes in physiology and gene expression in a controlled experimental setting, it is possible to identify events that are pathognomonic for developing VHF and potential treatment targets. PMID:21820469

  12. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of macaques: a model for Lassa fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan C.; Pauza, C. David; Djavani, Mahmoud M.; Rodas, Juan D.; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Bryant, Joseph; Ateh, Eugene; Garcia, Cybele; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Salvato, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa fever virus (LASV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are benign in their natural reservoir hosts, and can occasionally cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in non-human primates and in human beings. LCMV is considerably more benign for human beings than Lassa virus, however certain strains, like the LCMV-WE strain, can cause severe disease when the virus is delivered as a high-dose inoculum. Here we describe a rhesus macaque model for Lassa fever that employs a virulent strain of LCMV. Since LASV must be studied within Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, the LCMV-infected macaque model has the advantage that it can be used at BSL-3. LCMV-induced disease is rarely as severe as other VHF, but it is similar in cases where vascular leakage leads to lethal systemic failure. The LCMV-infected macaque has been valuable for describing the course of disease with differing viral strains, doses and routes of infection. By monitoring system-wide changes in physiology and gene expression in a controlled experimental setting, it is possible to identify events that are pathognomonic for developing VHF and potential treatment targets. PMID:21820469

  13. Early short-term treatment with neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies halts SHIV infection in newborn macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessell, Ann J.; Jaworski, J. Pablo; Epson, Erin; Matsuda, Kenta; Pandey, Shilpi; Kahl, Christoph; Reed, Jason; Sutton, William F.; Hammond, Katherine B.; Cheever, Tracy A.; Barnette, Philip T.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Planer, Shannon; Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Pegu, Amarendra; Chen, Xuejun; Wang, Keyun; Siess, Don; Burke, David; Park, Byung S.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Lewis, Anne; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Graham, Barney S.; Mascola, John R.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested anti-HIV-1 human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAb) as post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with SHIVSF162P3. On days 1, 4, 7, and 10 after virus exposure, we injected animals subcutaneously with NmAbs and quantified systemic distribution of NmAbs in multiple tissues within 24 h following administration. Replicating virus was found in multiple tissues by day 1 in animals without treatment. All NmAb-treated macaques were free of virus in blood and tissues at 6 months post-exposure. We detected no anti-SHIV T cell responses in blood or tissues at necropsy, and no virus emerged following CD8+ T cell depletion. These results suggest early passive immunotherapy can eliminate early viral foci and thereby prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs. PMID:26998834

  14. A Forgotten Guidewire: Complication of Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gümüş

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization is an invasive procedure commonly preferred for hemodynamic monitorization, total parenteral nutrition, cardiac pacemaker implantation, long-term use of vasoactive or irritating agents and hemodialysis. We present a 19-year-old woman with acute renal failure scheduled for hemodialysis catheterization. A catheter guidewire extending from the right internal jugular vein to the right external iliac vein was detected in the chest X-ray, taken two hours following catheterization after occurrence of arrhythmia and hypotension. Catheteter guidewire was extracted noninvasively without any complications. Most common reasons for this complication are stated to be attention deficits, lack of experience, overtired staff, and inadequate supervision of trainees. In this paper, we discussed this complication’s causes and preventive methods. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:64-7

  15. Cardiac Catheterization in Thoraco-Omphalocardiopagus Twins: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati Choudhury

    2008-01-01

    literature on the anaesthetic management of these cases is sparse. The following case report details the expert and vigilant anaesthetic management leading to successful diagnostic cardiac catheterization. The report emphasizes the importance of synchronous ventilation, teamwork and communication required in cases such as this. This case report also details the difficulties encountered and how to overcome them during the prolonged procedure.

  16. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1α (SDF-1 α and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1α (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the

  17. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eOrtiz-Rios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate nucleus (MGN, auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG and sulcus (STS. Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (scrambled calls also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt.

  18. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150125

  19. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  20. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  1. Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, A.A.; Rodriguez, M.H.; Bush, C.E.; Munn, R.J.; Kwang, Hweising; Moore, P.F.; Osborn, K.G.; Marx, P.A.; Gardner, M.B.; Lowenstine, L.J. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California Primate Research Center is caused by a type D retrovirus designated SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 (SRV-1). This syndrome is characterized by profound immunosuppression and death associated with opportunistic infections. Neurologic signs and lesions have not been described as part of this syndrome. The distribution of SRV-1 in the salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleens, thymuses, and brains of eight virus-infected rhesus macaques was examined by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy, in situ RNA hybridization, and Southern blot hybridization were also performed on selected tissues to detect viral particles, RNA, and DNA, respectively. In seven of eight SRV-1-infected animals, the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (gp20) of SRV-1 was present in three or more tissues, but never in the brain. In the remaining animal, no viral antigen was detected in any tissue. In this same group of animals, viral nucleic acid was detected in the lymph nodes of six of six animals by Southern blot hybridization, in the salivary glands of two of five animals by both Southern blot and in situ hybridizations, and, surprisingly, in the brains of three of three animals by Southern blot and of three of five animals by in situ hybridization, including the one animal in which viral gp20 was undetectable. None of these animals had neurologic signs or lesions. The detection of viral nucleic acid in the absence of viral antigen in the brain suggests latent SRV-1 infection of the central nervous system.

  2. Ultra-rapid categorization of fourier-spectrum equalized natural images: macaques and humans perform similarly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Girard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of cognitive processes find similarities between humans and apes but also monkeys. Even high-level processes, like the ability to categorize classes of object from any natural scene under ultra-rapid time constraints, seem to be present in rhesus macaque monkeys (despite a smaller brain and the lack of language and a cultural background. An interesting and still open question concerns the degree to which the same images are treated with the same efficacy by humans and monkeys when a low level cue, the spatial frequency content, is controlled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a set of natural images equalized in Fourier spectrum and asked whether it is still possible to categorize them as containing an animal and at what speed. One rhesus macaque monkey performed a forced-choice saccadic task with a good accuracy (67.5% and 76% for new and familiar images respectively although performance was lower than with non-equalized images. Importantly, the minimum reaction time was still very fast (100 ms. We compared the performances of human subjects with the same setup and the same set of (new images. Overall mean performance of humans was also lower than with original images (64% correct but the minimum reaction time was still short (140 ms. CONCLUSION: Performances on individual images (% correct but not reaction times for both humans and the monkey were significantly correlated suggesting that both species use similar features to perform the task. A similar advantage for full-face images was seen for both species. The results also suggest that local low spatial frequency information could be important, a finding that fits the theory that fast categorization relies on a rapid feedforward magnocellular signal.

  3. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  4. Urinary catheterization in gynecological surgery: When should it be removed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adly N.A. Fattah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate time for urinary catheter removal following a gynecological surgery.Methods: Critical appraisal of clinical trial articles were conducted. It was aimed to answer our clinical question whether 24-hour postoperative urinary catheter removal is superior compared to other durations in avoiding postoperative urinary retention (PUR and urinary tract infection (UTI. The search was conducted on the Cochrane Library® and PubMed® using keywords “postoperative urinary retention”, “postoperative catheterization” and “urinary retention AND catheterization”. Reference lists of relevant articles were searched for other possibly relevant trials.Results: Seven articles were available as full text, then appraisals of six prospective RCTs involving 846 women underwent hysterectomy and vaginal prolapse surgery were performed finding at the re-catheterization and UTI rate. Subjects in earlier-removal groups were 3 to 4 times more likely to have re-catheterization (OR = 3.10-4.0 compared to later-removal groups, while they who have it removed on 5th day were 14 times more likely to develop UTI compared with immediate group (OR = 14.786, 95% CI 3.187- 68.595.Conclusion: The 24-hour catheterization policy in hysterectomy and vaginal prolapse surgery remains most appropriate although associated with an increased risk of re-catheterization. The removal of catheter before 24 hour (6 or 12 hour could be considered to be used as one of interventions in further RCT(s to find out the best duration which would result in lowest incidence in both of UTI and  PUR. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:183-8. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.589Keywords: Catheter, hysterectomy, prolapse, urinary tract infection

  5. Cardiac Catheterization in Thoraco-Omphalocardiopagus Twins: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Minati Choudhury; Usha Kiran

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of conjoined twin is rare and anaesthesia for procedures on conjoined twins is a demanding, exacting and meticulous exercise, whether prior to or during separation. literature on the anaesthetic management of these cases is sparse. The following case report details the expert and vigilant anaesthetic management leading to successful diagnostic cardiac catheterization. The report emphasizes the importance of synchronous ventilation, teamwork and communication required in cases...

  6. Role of suprapubic catheterization in retention of urine1

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, P H; Gaches, C G C; Green, N A; Shah, P J R; Ashken, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and nine male patients took part in a randomized trial of elective suprapubic or urethral catheterization in retention of urine. The self-retaining trocar suprapubic catheter proved safe and reliable in trained hands and its use was associated with a low incidence of side effects. The suprapubic catheter when used to allow continuous flow resection appeared to lead to decreased blood loss and reduced resection time. No decrease in urinary infection rate over the period of hospital...

  7. Incidence and Predictors of Radial Artery Occlusion Associated Transradial Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncez, Abdullah; Kaya, Zeynettin; Aras, Dursun; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Gül, Enes Elvin; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Karakaş, Mehmet Fatih; Kısacık, Halil Lütfü

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to assess the incidence and predictors of radial artery occlusion (RAO), which is a significant complication of transradial cardiac catheterization. We prospectively evaluated the results of 106 patients who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via the transradial approach (TRA). At the 3rd h of intervention, the radial artery was checked by palpation; color doppler ultrasonography was performed at the 24th h. Fluoroscopy duratio...

  8. Candiduria in catheterized intensive care unit patients : Emerging microbiological trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI as a result of Candida spp. is becoming increasingly common in hospitalized setting. Clinicians face dilemma in differentiating colonization from true infection and whether to treat candiduria or not. The objective of the present study was to look into the significance of candiduria in catheterized patients admitted in the ICUs and perform microbiological characterization of yeasts to guide treatment protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive isolates of Candida spp. from the urine sample of 70 catheterized patients admitted in the ICU were collected and stocked for further characterization. A proforma was maintained containing demographic and clinical details. Blood cultures were obtained from all these 70 patients and processed. Species identification of yeasts was done on VITEK. Results: Candiduria was more common at extremes of age. The mean duration of catheter days was 11.1 ± 6 days. Other associated risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and antibiotic usage were seen in 38% and 100% of our study group. Concomitant candidemia was seen in 4.3% of cases. Non-albicans Candida spp. (71.4% emerged as the predominant pathogen causing nosocomial UTI. Conclusion: The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients, especially in the presence of diabetes and antibiotic usage. Non-albicans Candida spp. are replacing Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. Hence, we believe that surveillance for nosocomial candiduria should be carried out in hospitalized patients.

  9. The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. Given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective Leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. This includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. Old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc. have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. The Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to Leishmania and parasite-specific T-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. Results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. This review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.

  10. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  11. Decreased dengue replication and an increased anti-viral humoral response with the use of combined Toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 agonists in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sariol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogenic versus protective outcomes to Dengue virus (DENV infection are associated with innate immune function. This study aimed to determine the role of increased TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated innate signaling after Dengue infection of rhesus macaques in vivo to evaluate its impact on disease and anti-DENV immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists (emulsified in Montanide were administered subcutaneously to rhesus macaques at 48 hours and 7 days after DENV infection. The Frequency and activation of myeloid dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and B cells were measured by flow cytometry while the serum levels of 14 different cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Adaptive immune responses were measured by DENV-specific antibody subtype measurements. Results showed that the combined TLR agonists reduced viral replication and induced the development of a proinflammatory reaction, otherwise absent in Dengue infection alone, without any clear signs of exacerbated disease. Specifically, the TLR-induced response was characterized by activation changes in mDC subsets concurrent with higher serum levels of CXCL-10 and IL-1Ra. TLR stimulation also induced higher titers of anti-DENV antibodies and acted to increase the IgG2/IgG1 ratio of anti-DENV to favor the subtype associated with DENV control. We also observed an effect of DENV-mediated suppression of mDC activation consistent with prior in vitro studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that concurrent TLR3/7/8 activation of the innate immune response after DENV infection in vivo acts to increase antiviral mechanisms via increased inflammatory and humoral responses in rhesus macaques, resulting in decreased viremia and melioration of the infection. These findings underscore an in vivo protective rather than a pathogenic role for combined TLR3/7/8-mediated activation in Dengue infection of rhesus macaques. Our study provides definitive

  12. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Feng, Meng; Bandara, K B Anura T; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Hirayama, Kenji; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed the revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli for a virulent ameba strain, P19-061405, from a rhesus macaque and located it phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. As E. nuttalli was originally described for an ameba found in a toque macaque in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and characteristics of Entamoeba species in wild toque macaques were examined. PCR analysis of 227 stool samples from six locations showed positive rates for E. nuttalli, E. dispar, and E. histolytica of 18.5%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively. Fifteen E. nuttalli strains were cultured successfully from five locations. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene showed only three nucleotide differences in comparison with P19-061405 strain. In isoenzyme analysis, the pattern of hexokinase in Sri Lankan strains was different from that of P19-061405 strains and the difference was confirmed by analysis of the genes. Hepatic inoculation of one of the Sri Lankan E. nuttalli strains in hamsters resulted in amebic abscess formation and body weight loss. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is prevalent in wild toque macaques and that several characteristics of the strains are unique. We conclude that use of the name E. nuttalli is appropriate for the new Entamoeba species found in nonhuman primates. PMID:26333681

  13. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  14. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth H. Pincus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome.

  15. Lipsmacking imitation skill in newborn macaques is predictive of social partner discrimination.

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    Elizabeth A Simpson

    Full Text Available Newborn rhesus macaques imitate facial gestures even after a delay, revealing the flexible nature of their early communicative exchanges. In the present study we examined whether newborn macaques are also sensitive to the identities of the social partners with whom they are interacting. We measured infant monkeys' (n = 90 lipsmacking and tongue protrusion gestures in a face-to-face interaction task with a human experimenter in the first week of life. After a one-minute delay, the same person who previously presented gestures or a different person returned and presented a still face to infants. We had two primary predictions: (1 infants would demonstrate higher rates of overall gesturing, and especially lipsmacking--an affiliative gesture--to a familiar person, compared to a novel person, and (2 infants' imitative skills would positively correlate with gestures to familiar, but not unfamiliar, social partners, as both abilities may reflect a strong general social interest. We found that overall infants did not produce more gestures or more lipsmacking when approached by a familiar person compared to a novel person; however, we did find individual differences in infants' social responsiveness: lipsmacking imitation was positively correlated with lipsmacking during the return period when the person was the same (p = .025, but not when the person was novel (p = .44. These findings are consistent with the notion that imitative skill is reflective of infants' more general interest in social interactions.

  16. Tonkean macaques communicate with their right hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Hélène; Fizet, Jonas; Vauclair, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    There are two conflicting hypotheses to explain the origins of language. Vocal origin theory states that language results from the gradual evolution of animals' vocal communication, but gestural origin theory considers that language evolved from gestures, with the initial left-hemispheric control of manual gestures gradually encompassing vocalizations. To contribute to this debate, we investigated functional hemispheric specialization related to hand biases when grasping or showing an object through manual gesture in Tonkean macaques. The results of this study, the first quantitative study on Tonkean macaques' handedness, showed a remarkable convergence of the Tonkean macaques' handedness patterns with those of baboons and human infants, with hand preferences for manual communicative gestures significantly favoring the use of the right hand. Our findings support the hypothesis that left hemispheric lateralization for language is derived from a gestural communication system that was present in the common ancestor of macaques, baboons and humans. PMID:23748098

  17. A macaque model for hantavirus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.P. Koeman; P.J.M. Roholl (Paul); G. van Amerongen (Geert); H.G.M. Jordans; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hallnas), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild pro

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus non-genetic Rhesus monkey model induced by high fat and high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuai-yao; Qi, Su-dong; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Yan-yan; Yang, Feng-mei; Yu, Wen-hai; Jin, Ma; Chen, Li-Xiong; Wang, Jun-bin; He, Zhan-long; Li, Hong-jun

    2015-01-01

    To build an ideal animal model for studying the mechanism of occurrence, developing and treating of diabetes become a more important issue, facing with the fact that the big threat of diabetes to human health has been worsen. First, we used the normal control diets or the high-fat/high-sucrose diets to feed the adult rhesus monkeys and the macaques induced by the high-fat/high-sucrose diets in the high-fat/high-sucrose group and the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group developed the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia at 6 months in accordance with the precious researches that reported that minipigs, rats and mice could develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and obesity after being induced with high-fat/high-carbohydrate diets. Second, the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group were injected STZ at a low dosage of 35 mg/kg BW to induce glucose persistent elevation which maintained pretty well after 12 months. Third, we took the assay of glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance index, assessed the changing tendency of serum resistin and analysed the pathological characteristics of the tissues like pancreas and liver by staining in different ways. The results indicate the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group have lots of clinical features of T2DM. The experimental non-genetic T2DM rhesus monkeys model not only contribute to simulating of clinical manifestations and pathological features of human T2DM, but also may be a good kind of model for research on the treatment of T2DM and for new drugs evaluation.

  19. Characterizing Human–Macaque Interactions in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Agustín; Kalchik, Stephanie; Gettler, Lee; Kwiatt, Anne; Konecki, Mckenna; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have noted substantial human–macaque interactions involving physical contact in Bali, Indonesia; Gibraltar; and Mt. Emei, China [Fuentes, American Journal of Primatology 68:880–896, 2006; Zhao, Tibetan macaques, visitors, and local people at Mt. Emei: problems and countermeasures. In: Paterson and Wallis, editor. Commensalism and conflict: the human–primate interface. Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists. p 376–399, 2005]. The aim of this study was to conduct prelim...

  20. Social and Nonsocial Content Differentially Modulates Visual Attention and Autonomic Arousal in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Christopher J.; Eliza Bliss-Moreau; Platt, Michael L.; Amaral, David G.

    2011-01-01

    The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that ben...

  1. Modeling Visual Exploration in Rhesus Macaques with Bottom-Up Salience and Oculomotor Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Seth D; Buffalo, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studying biological systems in natural settings, in which experimental stimuli are less artificial and behavior is less controlled. In primate vision research, free viewing of complex images has elucidated novel neural responses, and free viewing in humans has helped discover attentional and behavioral impairments in patients with neurological disorders. In order to fully interpret data collected from free viewing of complex scenes, it is critical to better understand what aspects of the stimuli guide viewing behavior. To this end, we have developed a novel viewing behavior model called a Biased Correlated Random Walk (BCRW) to describe free viewing behavior during the exploration of complex scenes in monkeys. The BCRW can predict fixation locations better than bottom-up salience. Additionally, we show that the BCRW can be used to test hypotheses regarding specific attentional mechanisms. For example, we used the BCRW to examine the source of the central bias in fixation locations. Our analyses suggest that the central bias may be caused by a natural tendency to reorient the eyes toward the center of the stimulus, rather than a photographer's bias to center salient items in a scene. Taken together these data suggest that the BCRW can be used to further our understanding of viewing behavior and attention, and could be useful in optimizing stimulus and task design. PMID:27445721

  2. Simian varicella virus infection of Chinese rhesus macaques produces ganglionic infection in the absence of rash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); R. Mahalingam (Ravi); V. Traina-Dorge (Vicki); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Wellish (Mary); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Gilden (Don); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis, and may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (shingles). VZV may infect ganglia via retrograde axonal transport from infected skin or through hematogenous spread. Simian varicell

  3. Evaluation of a Multivalent Vaccine against Lymphatic Filariasis in Rhesus macaque Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gajalakshmi Dakshinamoorthy; Agneta von Gegerfelt; Hanne Andersen; Mark Lewis; Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide and another 1.2 billion people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemotherapy with mass drug administration is substantially reducing the incidence of the infection. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is needed to prevent the infection and eradicate the disease. Previously we reported that a multivalent fusion protein vaccine (rBmHAT) composed of small heat shock proteins 12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and l...

  4. Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles in Response to Systemic Infusion of Fructose and Glucose in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Sean H.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Grant, Ryan W.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of circulating leptin concentrations are attenuated after consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, likely a result of limited postprandial glucose and insulin excursions after fructose. Differences in postprandial exposure of adipose tissue to peripheral circulating fructose and glucose or in adipocyte metabolism of the two sugars may also be involved. Thus, we compared plasma leptin concentrations after 6-h iv infusions of saline...

  5. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Zeamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood.

  6. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Richardson, Rebecca L; Weiss, Alison R; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC) task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood. PMID:25096364

  7. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Benjamin B; Xu, Cuiling; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Raehtz, Kevin D; He, Tianyu; Ma, Dongzhu; Li, Hui; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Haret-Richter, George S; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Mellors, John W; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD) to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to <10 SIV RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35-50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml) peaking at 5-12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml) that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control. Comparison of the patterns of virus rebound after RMD administration and CD8+ cell depletion suggested that RMD impact on T cells is only transient and does not irreversibly alter the ability of SIV-specific T cells to control the reactivated virus. PMID:27632364

  8. Modeling Visual Exploration in Rhesus Macaques with Bottom-Up Salience and Oculomotor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Seth D.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studying biological systems in natural settings, in which experimental stimuli are less artificial and behavior is less controlled. In primate vision research, free viewing of complex images has elucidated novel neural responses, and free viewing in humans has helped discover attentional and behavioral impairments in patients with neurological disorders. In order to fully interpret data collected from free viewing of complex scenes, it is critical to better understand what aspects of the stimuli guide viewing behavior. To this end, we have developed a novel viewing behavior model called a Biased Correlated Random Walk (BCRW) to describe free viewing behavior during the exploration of complex scenes in monkeys. The BCRW can predict fixation locations better than bottom-up salience. Additionally, we show that the BCRW can be used to test hypotheses regarding specific attentional mechanisms. For example, we used the BCRW to examine the source of the central bias in fixation locations. Our analyses suggest that the central bias may be caused by a natural tendency to reorient the eyes toward the center of the stimulus, rather than a photographer's bias to center salient items in a scene. Taken together these data suggest that the BCRW can be used to further our understanding of viewing behavior and attention, and could be useful in optimizing stimulus and task design.

  9. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Mapping by Monomeric gp120 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Humans and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P3N-Infected Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Manxue; Lu, Hong; Markowitz, Martin; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between neutralizing antibodies elicited by simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, we examined the plasma of 13 viremic macaques infected with SHIVSF162P3N and 85 HIV-1-infected humans with known times of infection. We identified 5 macaques (38%) from 1 to 2 years postinfection (p.i.) with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against tier 2 HIV-1. In comparison, only 2 out of 42 (5%) human plasma samples collected in a similar time frame of 1 to 3 years p.i. exhibited comparable neutralizing breadths and potencies, with the number increasing to 7 out of 21 (30%) after 3 years p.i. Plasma mapping with monomeric gp120 identified only 2 out of 9 humans and 2 out of 4 macaques that contained gp120-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating distinct specificities in these plasma samples, with most of them recognizing the envelope trimer (including gp41) rather than the gp120 monomer. Indeed, a total of 20 gp120-directed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) isolated from a human subject (AD358) and a Chinese rhesus macaque (GB40) displayed no or limited neutralizing activity against tier 2 strains. These isolated MAbs, mapped to the CD4-binding site, the V3 loop, the inner domain, and the C5 region of gp120, revealed genetic similarity between the human and macaque immunoglobulin genes used to encode some V3-directed MAbs. These results also support the use of envelope trimer probes for efficient isolation of HIV-1 bnAbs. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 vaccine research can benefit from understanding the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in rhesus macaques, commonly used to assess vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Here, we examined 85 HIV-1-infected humans and 13 SHIVSF162P3N-infected macaques for bnAbs and found that, similar to HIV-1-infected humans, bnAbs in SHIV-infected macaques are also rare

  10. Self-catheterization of urinary bladder complicated with extraperitoneal abscess that mimics an infected bladder diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cing Juho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For patients who are suffering from neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, intermittent urinary catheterization is an efficient way to empty the bladder.1 However, the method may result in various complications. Herein we present a rare complication of extraperitoneal abscess owing to intermittent urinary catheterization in a 62-year-old male who had cervical spine injury and was treated with intermittent urethral catheterization for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Treatment and a literature review are also described.

  11. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  12. Intravitreal Injection of AAV2 Transduces Macaque Inner Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Lu; Greenberg, Kenneth; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Dalkara, Deniz; Kolstad, Kathleen D; Masella, Benjamin D.; Wolfe, Robert; Visel, Meike; Stone, Daniel; Libby, Richard T.; DiLoreto, David; Schaffer, David; Flannery, John; Williams, David R.; Merigan, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Intravitreally injected AAV2 transduced inner retinal cells in a restricted region at the macaque fovea. Because macaque and human eyes are similar, the results suggest a need to improve transduction methods in gene therapy for the human inner retina.

  13. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Xiang Dong; Sarah E Rodenburg; Dana Hill; Catherine A VandeVoort

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  14. Urinary catheterization may not adversely impact quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi E; Mahajan, Sangeeta T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) healthcare providers (HCP) have undergone considerable educational efforts regarding the importance of evaluating and treating pelvic floor disorders, specifically, urinary dysfunction. However, limited data are available to determine the impact of catheterization on patient quality of life (QoL). Objectives. To describe the use of urinary catheterization among MS patients and determine the differences between those who report positive versus negative impact of this treatment on QoL. Methods. Patients were queried as part of the 2010 North American Research Committee On Multiple Sclerosis survey; topics included 1) urinary/bladder, bowel, or sexual problems; 2) current urine leakage; 3) current catheter use; 4) catheterizing and QoL. Results. Respondents with current urine leakage were 5143 (54.7%), of which 1201 reported current catheter use (12.8%). The types of catheters (intermittent self-catheterization and Foley catheter (indwelling and suprapubic)) did not differ significantly. Of the current catheter users, 304 (25.35%) respondents reported catheterization negatively impacting QoL, 629 (52.4%) reported a positive impact on QoL, and 223 (18.6%) reported neutral QoL. Conclusions. A large proportion of catheterized MS patients report negative or positive changes in QoL associated with urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization does not appear to have a universally negative impact on patient QoL. PMID:25006498

  15. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  16. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  17. The present and future of interventional catheterization for congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Over the past decade, the focus of the pediatric catheterization laboratory has changed dramatically from its primary function of providing diagnosis to offering treatment.Since Rashkind first described the technique for atrial septostomy in the setting of complete transposition of the great arteries in 1966, therapeutic catheterization techniques have replaced conventional surgery, including both corrective and palliative surgeries, for many lesions. Interventional catheterization has become an important modality in the treatment of congenital heart disease. In addition, in the staged management of complex congenital heart disease, better outcomes have been acquired by combined surgical and interventional catheterization strategies. Although great advances have been made in the therapeutic catheterization for congenital heart disease in some Chinese medical centers, there is considerable difference in both clinical applications and basic researches between China and other developed countries. Thus, it is very important to expand this advanced technique aggressively but carefully.

  18. Reengineering the Cardiac Catheterization Lab Processes: A Lean Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Raghavan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-functional effort in a US community hospital for an overall process improvement in its Cardiac Catheterization Lab (CCL. One of the key system performance metrics identified was the patient turnaround time. The objective of this study was to identify the sources of delays in the system that lead to prolonged patient turnaround time using a structured lean approach. A set of qualitative recommendations were proposed and implemented. Quantification of some of these recommendations and certain additional ‘what-if’ scenarios were evaluated using Discrete Event Simulation (DES. The simulation results showed that significant reduction in patient turnaround time could be achieved if the proposed recommendations were implemented. This study demonstrated the benefits of adopting the lean philosophy in the continuous process improvement journey in the healthcare delivery arena.

  19. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  20. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoceli, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation. Conclusion: Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations.

  1. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  2. A macaque model for hantavirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J; Gerding, M; Koeman, J P; Roholl, P J; van Amerongen, G; Jordans, H G; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hällnäs), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild proteinuria and

  3. Teaching practices of thoracic epidural catheterizations in different grade of anesthesia residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alagoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to clarify the importance of residency grade and other factors which influence the success of thoracic epidural catheterization in thoracotomy patients. METHODS: After the ethical committee approval, data were recorded retrospectively from the charts of 415 patients. All patients had given written informed consent. The thoracic epidural catheterization attempts were divided into two groups as second-third year (Group I and fourth year (Group II according to residency grade. We retrospectively collected demographic data, characteristics of thoracic epidural catheterization attempts, and all difficulties and complications during thoracic epidural catheterization. RESULTS: Overall success rate of thoracic epidural catheterization was similar between the groups. Levels of catheter placement, number and duration of thoracic epidural catheterization attempts were not different between the groups (p > 0.05. Change of needle insertion level was statistically higher in Group II (p = 0.008, whereas paresthesia was significantly higher in Group I (p = 0.007. Dural puncture and postdural puncture headache rates were higher in Group I. Higher body mass index and level of the insertion site were significant factors for thoracic epidural catheterization failure and postoperative complication rate and those were independence from residents' experience (p < 0.001, 0.005. CONCLUSION: Body mass index and level of insertion site were significant on thoracic epidural catheterization failure and postoperative complication rate. We think that residents' grade is not a significant factor in terms overall success rate of thoracic epidural catheterization, but it is important for outcome of these procedures.

  4. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  5. A Prospective, Randomized, Crossover, Multicenter Study Comparing Quality of Life Using Compact versus Standard Catheters for Intermittent Self-Catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Amarenco, Gérard; Lindbo, Lena;

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent catheterization is the recommended standard treatment for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. However, standard intermittent catheters can be unwieldy, difficult to use and carry discreetly. This can influence patient ability to perform catheterization efficiently, discreetly and private......, therefore, affecting patient quality of life. We evaluated whether the discreet design of the compact catheter would improve quality of life in intermittent catheterization users compared with standard catheters.......Intermittent catheterization is the recommended standard treatment for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. However, standard intermittent catheters can be unwieldy, difficult to use and carry discreetly. This can influence patient ability to perform catheterization efficiently, discreetly and privately...

  6. Nanogel-based pneumococcal surface protein A nasal vaccine induces microRNA-associated Th17 cell responses with neutralizing antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Y; Yuki, Y; Katakai, Y; Harada, N; Takahashi, H; Takeda, S; Mejima, M; Joo, S; Kurokawa, S; Sawada, S; Shibata, H; Park, E J; Fujihashi, K; Briles, D E; Yasutomi, Y; Tsukada, H; Akiyoshi, K; Kiyono, H

    2015-09-01

    We previously established a nanosized nasal vaccine delivery system by using a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan nanogel (cCHP nanogel), which is a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free nasal vaccination. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system safety and efficacy of nasal vaccination with our developed cCHP nanogel containing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-nanogel) against pneumococcal infection in nonhuman primates. When [(18)F]-labeled PspA-nanogel was nasally administered to a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), longer-term retention of PspA was noted in the nasal cavity when compared with administration of PspA alone. Of importance, no deposition of [(18)F]-PspA was seen in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination effectively induced PspA-specific serum IgG with protective activity and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) Ab responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nasal PspA-nanogel-induced immune responses were mediated through T-helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokine responses concomitantly with marked increases in the levels of miR-181a and miR-326 in the serum and respiratory tract tissues, respectively, of the macaques. These results demonstrate that nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination is a safe and effective strategy for the development of a nasal vaccine for the prevention of pneumonia in humans. PMID:25669148

  7. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for le...

  8. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Song, Jia-Hao; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-18

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27469256

  9. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Xiao-Liang; SONG, Jia-Hao; PANG, Wei; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27469256

  10. Transradial Approach for Cardiac Catheterization: The New Frontier of Coronary Intervention

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization: The new frontier of coronary intervention Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Spina Bifida on Intermittent Catheterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, Bas; Uiterwaal, Cuno; Kimpen, Jan; van Gool, Jan; de Jong, Tom; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Houterman, Saskia; Verpoorten, Carla; van Steenwijk, Catharine de Jong-de Vos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Antibiotic prophylaxis (low dose chemoprophylaxis) has been prescribed since the introduction of clean intermittent catheterization in children with spina bifida. We hypothesized that stopping low dose chemoprophylaxis does not increase the number of urinary tract infections in these patien

  12. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought.

  13. Enterovesical Fistula: A Rare Complication of Urethral Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hawary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the case of an eighty-two-year old lady with an indwelling urethral catheter inserted eight years prior to her presentation to manage her urinary incontinence. She underwent radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (stage T2b in 1991 and had a laparotomy and drainage of an appendicular abscess in her early twenties. She presented with a short history of fecaluria, pneumaturia, and passage of urine per rectum. On laparotomy she was found to have an inflated catheter balloon that has eroded through the bladder wall into the lumen of a terminal ileal segment. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in literature of a patient developing an enterovesical fistula as a result of a urethral catheter eroding through the bladder wall into the bowel lumen. There are numerous known complications of long-term urethral catheterization. They include recurrent urinary tract infections, recurrent pyelonephritis, sepsis, urethral stricture, blocked and retained catheters, among many other reported complications. This case describes an unusual presentation secondary to an even more unusual complication. This should be considered when handling patients with indwelling urethral catheters inserted in unhealthy bladders.

  14. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought. PMID:7824373

  15. Optimization of radiation protection in pediatric cardiac catheterization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac catheterization is among the interventional radiology procedures considered to give high doses to adult and pediatric patients. However, almost every year, the number of pediatric patients undergoing these procedures tends to increase. The King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) is a tertiary level medical center in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a 600 bed capacity. Diagnostic X ray procedures (radiography and fluoroscopy) average to about 150,000 annually. Pediatric cardiac catheterization procedures average to about 2,000 cases annually. Due to the limited published data on radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing these procedures, a study was conducted to assess the doses in pediatric patient undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures and to determine the factors contributing to high doses. Patient and occupational doses during interventional procedures depend on procedure type, fluoroscopy time, number of images, equipment performance and training of the interventionist. KFSH and RC has four X ray rooms in its Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory. There is only one X ray room that is dedicated for pediatric procedure and it was selected for the study. This room is equipped with a Siemens Bicor + biplane X ray unit with HVL of 3.5 mm Al each for the two X ray tubes. The equipment geometry allows the system to have X ray beams in the vertical, horizontal and oblique directions. The system has a built-in DAP meter. Data on quality control tests and DAP calibration performed by the in-house biomedical engineer of Siemens was retrieved. The DAP calibration data supplied by the engineer were verified using a Diamentor M1 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) DAP meter and following the NRPB protocol. Results of the quality control tests on the X ray machine generator were investigated. The dose area product values from records of pediatric patients in the age groups of 0 (neonates), 1, 5 and 10 years on four common procedures were

  16. Modified multipurpose catheter enhances clinical utility for cardiac catheterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, S C; Scavina, M; Palmer, S

    1994-10-01

    The Multipurpose technique for coronary arteriography employs a single catheter. The benefits are a reduction in the cost of the procedure and a shorter procedural time by experienced operators. To enhance the performance of these catheters, a modification was made in the materials and tip design, and these modifications were clinically evaluated in a small study. Compared to the control group of patients (n = 41), patients catheterized with the Multipurpose-SM (n = 43) were shown to have a shorter procedural time as measured by a reduced fluoroscopy time (7.08 min vs. 9.52 min, P = .007). This difference is statistically significant at a 95% confidence level and resulted in less radiation exposure to the operator and cath lab staff. The procedural time was significantly reduced by fewer catheter exchanges (19% study vs. 46% control; P = .006), which were needed to successfully complete the procedure. The new Multipurpose-SM catheter also demonstrated enhanced flexibility for cannulating coronary arteries with superior or anterior takeoffs. This study concludes that the utilization of a modified Multipurpose-SM catheter is safe and effective in cannulating both the left and right coronary arteries, bypass grafts, and performing left ventriculography. The primary benefits of using this modified catheter are reduced fluoroscopy time and the need for fewer catheter exchanges. PMID:7834732

  17. Effect of Rosa aromatherapy on anxiety before cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Atye Babaii; Mohammad Abbasinia; Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi; Seyyed Reza Seyyed Tabaei; Fariba Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Most patients experience moderate to severe anxiety before cardiac catheterization. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rosa aromatherapy on anxiety before cardiac catheterization. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. In the experimental group, patients received rou...

  18. Acute Kidney Injury after Using Contrast during Cardiac Catheterization in Children with Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Young Ju; Hyun, Myung Chul; Choi, Bong Seok; Chun, So Young; Cho, Min Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is closely associated with the mortality of hospitalized patients and long-term development of chronic kidney disease, especially in children. The purpose of our study was to assess the evidence of contrast-induced AKI after cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease and evaluate the clinical usefulness of candidate biomarkers in AKI. A total of 26 children undergoing cardiac catheterization due to various heart diseases were selected and urine and blood ...

  19. Right Cardiac Catheterization Using the Antecubital Fossa Vein in Korean Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Dae Sung; Lee, Soo Yong; Hwang, Jongmin; Chon, Min Ku; Hwang, Ki Won; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Huyn; Kim, June Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Right heart catheterization is traditionally performed using a femoral vein approach that involves admission, bed rest, and risks of bleeding and hematoma. Recent studies have confirmed safety of the use of forearm vein for right cardiac catheterization. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of right cardiac catheterization via the antecubital fossa vein in Korean patients. Subjects and Methods The medical records of all patients who underwent right heart catheterization at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Right cardiac catheterizations via the antecubital fossa vein and the femoral vein were compared in terms of demographic data (age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index), indications for right cardiac catheterization, and procedural and outcome data (initial success rate, procedure time, compression to ambulation time, and complications). Results We reviewed 132 cases (antecubital fossa vein approach, n=37; femoral vein approach, n=95). The demographic data, initial success rate (100% vs. 100%) and procedure time (21.6±16.8 min vs. 25.6±12.6 min, p=0.14) were similar in both groups. The antecubital fossa vein group had a shorter mean compression to ambulation time than the femoral vein group (0.0 min vs. 201.2±48.1 min, p<0.01). No complications were observed in either group. Conclusion Our study indicated the ease of performance of right cardiac catheterization via the antecubital fossa vein. Thus, the antecubital fossa vein can be an alternative access site for right cardiac catheterization in Korean patients. PMID:27014351

  20. Bladder catheterization increases susceptibility to infection that can be prevented by prophylactic antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Goh, H.M. Sharon; Holec, Sarah; Albert, Matthew L.; Williams, Rohan B.H.; Ingersoll, Molly A.; Kline, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infections. Here, we report that bladder catheterization initiated a persistent sterile inflammatory reaction within minutes of catheter implantation. Catheterization resulted in increased expression of genes associated with defense responses and cellular migration, with ensuing rapid and sustained innate immune cell infiltration into the bladder. Catheterization also resulted in hypersensitivity to Enterococcus faecalis and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection, in which colonization was achieved using an inoculum 100-fold lower than the ID90 for infection of an undamaged urothelium with the same uropathogens. As the time of catheterization increased, however, colonization by the Gram-positive uropathogen E. faecalis was reduced, whereas catheterization created a sustained window of vulnerability to infection for Gram-negative UPEC over time. As CAUTI contributes to poorer patient outcomes and increased health care expenditures, we tested whether a single prophylactic antibiotic treatment, concurrent with catheterization, would prevent infection. We observed that antibiotic treatment protected against UPEC and E. faecalis bladder and catheter colonization as late as 6 hours after implantation. Thus, our study has revealed a simple, safe, and immediately employable intervention, with the potential to decrease one of the most costly hospital-incurred infections, thereby improving patient and health care economic outcome. PMID:27699248

  1. Immune responses of a designed HIV-1 DNA vaccine on rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lishu; HONG Baoqing; LI Chang; JIN Ningyi; SONG Yingjin; SUN Yansong; WANG Hong; ZHAN Dawei; MA Hewen; SHANG Yupu; JIN Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    An effective HIV-1 vaccine will be the ultimate solution for the prevention of HIV/AIDS,though HAART plays important roles in treating the disease. In this study, a large-scale recombinant DNA plasmid containing a designed HIV-1 multi-epitopep24 chimeric gene was prepared and purified.Rhesus monkeys were then inoculated muscularly with the plasmid for four times in week 0, 4, 8 and 18.Whole blood was collected two weeks after the third and fourth inoculation, followed by serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) separation.The CTL activity and proliferation of PBMCs stimulated by macaque MHC-I-restricted HIV-1 CTL epitope peptide were analyzed by MTT and LDH release assay, respectively. Th1 cytokines in supernatant of cultured PBMC stimulated by HIV-1 CTL epitope peptide and anti-HIV-1 antibody in serum were assayed by ELISA. The results showed that increased CTL target-killing activity, higher secretion of Th1cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) and promoted proliferative reaction of monkey PBMCs stimulated by HIV-1 CTL epitope peptide were detected in the immunization group inoculated by the recombinant DNA vaccine for three times, which were further enhanced by the fourth inoculation. At the same time, HIV-1 specific antibody in serum of immunized monkeys was higher than that in controls. We concluded that the designed HIV-1 DNA vaccine may induce HIV-1 specific cellular and humoral immunity on monkeys.

  2. Pharmacotherapy in the cardiac catheterization laboratory: evolution and recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thind GS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Guramrinder S Thind,1 Raunak Parida,1 Nishant Gupta2 1SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India; 2University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Many recent innovations have been made in developing new antiplatelet and ­anticoagulant drugs in the last few years, with a total of nine new antithrombotic drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration after the year 2000. This has revolutionized the medical therapy given to manage acute coronary syndrome and support cardiac catheterization. The concept of dual antiplatelet therapy has been emphasized, and clopidogrel has emerged as the most-popular second antiplatelet drug after aspirin. Newer P2Y12 inhibitors like prasugrel and ticagrelor have been extensively studied and compared to clopidogrel. The role of glycoprotein (Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors is being redefined. Other alternatives to unfractionated heparin have become available, of which enoxaparin and bivalirudin have been studied the most. Apart from these, many more drugs with novel therapeutic targets are being studied and are currently under development. In this review, current evidence on these drugs is presented and analyzed in a way that would facilitate decision making for the clinician. For this analysis, various high-impact clinical trials, pharmacological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews were accessed through the MEDLINE database. Adopting a unique interdisciplinary approach, an attempt has been made to integrate pharmacological and clinical evidence to better understand and appreciate the pros and cons of each of these classes of drugs. Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, anticoagulants, antiplatelets, percutaneous coronary intervention

  3. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  4. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  5. Retinohypothalamic connections in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijuka, John C.

    Previous studies of retinohypothalamic projections in macaques were performed with anterograde degeneration or autoradiographic techniques that were not sufficiently sensitive to fully define these projections. Results of studies in non-primates using sensitive tracers have revealed more extensive retinohypothalamic projection than previously seen. We hypothesize that there are more extensive retinohypothalamic projections in the higher primate, macaque monkey. Thus, the primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the retinohypothalamic projections in the macaque monkey using the more sensitive tract tracer, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) unilaterally injected intravitreally. Secondary goals were to determine: (1) whether there is a retinal projection to the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus; (2) whether there are direct retinal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus; and (3) whether any retinally-projecting hypothalamic neurons can be retrogradely labeled by intravitreal CTB injections. Our results confirmed our hypothesis that there are more extensive projections to the central targets. We found that, in addition to the well-described retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a number of other hypothalamic areas were labeled. We observed projections to the medial and lateral preoptic areas, including the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area. A number of retinal fibers terminated immediately dorsal to the supraoptic nucleus (SO), with a few fibers penetrating and terminating within the nucleus. A few fibers continued laterally beyond the SO into the substantia innominata immediately ventral to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, a dense plexus of CTB-labeled, retinal fibers were present in the subventricular nucleus and adjacent subventricular area. Some of these fibers coursed dorsally from this region to penetrate the ependyma lining the third ventricle and apparently

  6. Postoperative Urinary Catheterization Thresholds of 500 versus 800 ml after Fast-track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Hornum, Ulla; Troldborg, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No evidence-based threshold exists for postoperative urinary bladder catheterization. The authors hypothesized that a catheterization threshold of 800 ml was superior to 500 ml in reducing postoperative urinary catheterization and urological complications after fast-track total hip...... and understood Danish. Participants were randomly allocated to a catheterization threshold of 500 or 800 ml, using opaque sealed envelopes. Group assignment was unmasked. Ultrasound bladder scans were performed every second hour until the first voluntary micturition, with subsequent urinary catheterization......-protocol analysis (20 did not complete the study and 59 were excluded from the analysis). In the 500-ml group, 32.2% received catheterization (114 of 354) compared to 13.4% (49 of 367) in the 800-ml group (relative risk, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6; P

  7. Routine preoperative cardiac catheterization necessary before repair of secundum and sinus venosus atrial septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between January 1976 and July 1983, 217 patients with atrial septal defect underwent surgical repair at Children's Hospital. Thirty with a primum atrial septal defect and 26 who underwent cardiac catheterization elsewhere before being seen were excluded from analysis. Of the 161 remaining patients, 52 (31%) underwent preoperative cardiac catheterization, 38 because the physical examination was considered atypical for a secundum atrial septal defect and 14 because of a preexisting routine indication. One hundred nine (69%) underwent surgery without catheterization, with the attending cardiologist relying on clinical examination alone in 5, additional technetium radionuclide angiocardiography in 5, M-mode echocardiography in 13 and two-dimensional echocardiography in 43; both M-mode echocardiography and radionuclide angiography were performed in 24 and two-dimensional echocardiography and radionuclide angiography in 19. Since 1976, there has been a trend toward a reduction in the use of catheterization and use of one rather than two noninvasive or semiinvasive techniques for the detection of atrial defects. Of the 52 patients who underwent catheterization, the correct anatomic diagnosis was made before catheterization in 47 (90%). Two patients with a sinus venosus defect and one each with a sinus venosus defect plus partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection without an atrial septal defect and a sinoseptal defect were missed. Of 109 patients without catheterization, a correct morphologic diagnosis was made before surgery in 92 (84%). Nine patients with a sinus venosus defect, three with sinus venous defect and partial anomolous pulmonary venous connection, four with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return without an atrial septal defect and one with a secundum defect were incorrectly diagnosed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Developing a visualized patient-centered, flow-based and objective-oriented care path of cardiac catheterization examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that visualization is a user-preferred and more meaningful interface of information systems. To reduce the anxiety and uncertainty of patients, we transformed the sophisticated process of cardiac catheterization into visualized information. The Microsoft Visio 2003 and Excel 2003 with the VBA automation tool were used to design a process flow of Cardiac Catheterization. The results show the technical feasibility and potentials helpful for patient to realize the nursing process of cardiac catheterization. PMID:19593031

  9. [Injuries of the pleural cupula and lung apex during catheterization of the subclavian vein, and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskiĭ, A V; Makharadze, N L

    1983-03-01

    In the clinic 1442 catheterizations were performed, 1156 of them being catheterizations of the subclavian vein. Dangerous complications such as punctures of the posterior wall of the subclavian vein in combination with injuries of the pleura cupola and apex pulmonis were observed three times. Hemo-, hydro- and pneumothorax accompanying these complications in different combinations are contraindications to repeated puncture and catheterization of the subclavian vein both in the left and in the right. Recommendations are given to reduced possible complications.

  10. Effects of tourists on Barbary macaques at Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, H; Fa, J E

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between tourists and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Queen's Gate, Gibraltar, are described. Interaction rates are high, with 99.6 interactions/h at peak times. Macaques spend 13.2% of their day interacting with tourists and 41.9% inactive. An overall ratio of 3.2:1 between human-initiated and macaque-initiated interactions was found. Of interactions involving humans, 85% concerned tourists. Diurnal activity patterns of the macaques were adapted to tourist visitation patterns. Old animals initiated more food-related interactions than younger ones. Infants/juveniles were the commonest class in contacts with humans and vehicles. Interactions involving more than one macaque were rare. High interaction rates were recorded for mothers and babies.

  11. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  12. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  13. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  14. Early ambulation following 6 French diagnostic left heart catheterization: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R A; Lewis, B K; Harber, D R; Kovack, P J; Bates, E R; Stomel, R J

    1997-09-01

    Outpatient cardiac catheterization is frequently performed, but the optimal recovery time after sheath removal has not been defined. Left heart catheterization was performed via the femoral artery utilizing 6 French catheters on 323 outpatients. One hundred thirty-five patients were randomized to ambulate at a mean of 2.5 hr (group 1) after puncture site compression, whereas 188 patients were randomized to ambulate at a mean of 4.1 hr (group 2). Telephone follow-up occurred within 48 hr. A small hematoma (< 5 cm) occurred in 2 (1.6%) patients in group 1 and in 4 (2.4%) patients in group 2. These results indicate that it is safe to ambulate patients 2.5 hr following 6 French diagnostic heart catheterization. PMID:9286529

  15. Prevention of SIV rectal transmission and priming of T cell responses in macaques after local pre-exposure application of tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cranage

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rectum is particularly vulnerable to HIV transmission having only a single protective layer of columnar epithelium overlying tissue rich in activated lymphoid cells; thus, unprotected anal intercourse in both women and men carries a higher risk of infection than other sexual routes. In the absence of effective prophylactic vaccines, increasing attention is being given to the use of microbicides and preventative antiretroviral (ARV drugs. To prevent mucosal transmission of HIV, a microbicide/ARV should ideally act locally at and near the virus portal of entry. As part of an integrated rectal microbicide development programme, we have evaluated rectal application of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitor tenofovir (PMPA, 9-[(R-2-(phosphonomethoxy propyl] adenine monohydrate, a drug licensed for therapeutic use, for protective efficacy against rectal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV in a well-established and standardised macaque model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 20 purpose-bred Indian rhesus macaques were used to evaluate the protective efficacy of topical tenofovir. Nine animals received 1% tenofovir gel per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge, four macaques received placebo gel, and four macaques remained untreated. In addition, three macaques were given tenofovir gel 2 h after virus challenge. Following intrarectal instillation of 20 median rectal infectious doses (MID50 of a noncloned, virulent stock of SIVmac251/32H, all animals were analysed for virus infection, by virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, quantitative proviral DNA load in PBMC, plasma viral RNA (vRNA load by sensitive quantitative competitive (qc RT-PCR, and presence of SIV-specific serum antibodies by ELISA. We report here a significant protective effect (p = 0.003; Fisher exact probability test wherein eight of nine macaques given tenofovir per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge were

  16. Urinary Tract Infections Due to Catheterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Isolated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available UTI is the most common infection in all ages and urinary catheters especially long-term catheterization are important predisposing factors of UTI. Urinary catheters are used in different hospital wards as a complementary curative method for the patients who are undergone various surgical procedures, such as : cesarean, hysterectomy , laparotomy, etc and they who are unable to control their voided urine . 226 urine specimens were collected from 119 catheterized patients which had been hospitalized in seven wards of Razi and Golestan hospitals in Ahwas city . At least two urine specimens were collected from each patient , before and after the insertion of the catheter . All of the specimens were inoculated to suitable Media, after transportation to the Microbiology Lab . Isolated colonies were identified and their resistance patterns were determined by the standard disk diffusion method (Kirby –Bauer procedure to 8 different antibiotics. 38 cases (43.6% out of 87 patients showed Bacteriuria in the end of catheterization . They had no bacteriuria symptoms or sign before the catheterization. The most cases(28.9% of bacteriuria occured in 30-39 years group and the lowest cases (2.6 % of them occured in 60-69 years group. Out of 50 bacterial strains isolated from urine cultures , E.coil (with 17 cases was the highest (34% and Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Edwardsiella tarda , Enterobacter sakazakii (with 2% for each were the lowest cases. E.coli, Enterobacter and Kl. rhinoscleromatis , showed the most resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin , Cephalexin , and the lowest rate to Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin . Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates ,also,showed the most resistance (100% to Penicillin and Ampicillin , and the lowest rate to Gentamicin (with 66.7%, Cotrimoxazol and Nitrofurantoin (with 50% .The results of this study suggested that catheterization , especially long- term catheterization causes the rise of

  17. Coil Embolization Treatment in Pulmonary Artery Branch Rupture During Swan-Ganz Catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupture of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches during Swan-Ganz catheterization is a complication that is rare but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this accident have been widely reported. Management is twofold: resuscitation procedures and specific medical or even surgical treatment. We report a case of pulmonary artery rupture occurring during Swan-Ganz catheterization that was treated by coil embolization. This technique, which is quick and simple to use, would appear to be very promising. This is the first case of successful emergency treatment of pulmonary artery rupture using an endovascular technique

  18. Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

  19. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  20. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  1. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the ...

  2. [Transradial percutaneous approach for cardiac catheterization in patients with previous brachial artery cutdown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Eduardo; Solioz, Germán; Cermesoni, Gabriel; Koretzky, Martín; Carnevalini, Mariana; González, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The percutaneous punction of the radial artery for catheterization procedures has gained acceptance lately. This was a consequence of achieving results similar to the femoral approach, with the benefits of a lower rate of complications and increased comfort for the patients post procedure. Recently it has gained an additional impulse with the better prognosis obtained in acute coronary syndromes. In this trial we have evaluated if the feasibility, results and advantages related with the use of the radial artery percutaneous approach to perform catheterization procedures, continues when used in patients who have had a previous brachial artery cutdown. Out of a total of 1356 percutaneous radial accesses, 53 were in patients with previous brachial artery cutdown. Through this access 71 catheterization procedures were performed, achieving access success in 96.2% (51/53) of the punctions. Once the access success was obtained, 93.6% (44/47) of the diagnostic procedures and 100% (24/24) of the therapeutics procedures were successful. During hospitalization, in this group of patients, no major adverse cardiac events occurred and there was a 1.4% (1/71) rate of minor events. At seven days follow up, no new complications were recorded. Although this is a small group, we believe that it is enough to show that percutaneous punctions of the radial artery to perform catheterization procedures, in patients with previous brachial artery cutdown, are feasible, allowing high access and procedure success rates, with a low frequency of complications.

  3. Transcervical catheterization and cervical patency during the oestrous cycle in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Lohachit, C; Ponglowhapan, S; Linde-Forsberg, C

    2001-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop a device for vaginal and transcervical catheterization in domestic cats, and to study cervical patency during the various stages of the oestrous cycle. Seventeen queens submitted for routine spaying were included in the study. A vaginal catheter was designed from a urinary catheter for dogs, to fit into the ventral vaginal fornix, and a 3.5 French tomcat catheter was used as an inner transcervical catheter. Cervical patency was studied by infusing 0.5 ml Urografin into the cranial vagina and taking X-rays of the queens after 5 min. The Urografin did not enter the uterus, even in the oestrous queens. Transcervical catheterization was then attempted. The correct placement of the intrauterine catheter was confirmed by injecting green food colour mixed with penicillin G and observing the presence of stain in the uterine horns during surgery. Catheterization was successful in 13 of 17 queens: six of nine in interoestrus, three of three in oestrus, one of two in metoestrus and three of three in the postpartum period. Transcervical catheterization is a non-invasive technique that is likely to improve the success rate of assisted feline reproduction, and is potentially a useful non-surgical technique for diagnosis and therapy of uterine diseases. PMID:11787175

  4. Acute kidney injury after using contrast during cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young Ju; Hyun, Myung Chul; Choi, Bong Seok; Chun, So Young; Cho, Min Hyun

    2014-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is closely associated with the mortality of hospitalized patients and long-term development of chronic kidney disease, especially in children. The purpose of our study was to assess the evidence of contrast-induced AKI after cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease and evaluate the clinical usefulness of candidate biomarkers in AKI. A total of 26 children undergoing cardiac catheterization due to various heart diseases were selected and urine and blood samples were taken at 0 hr, 6 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr after cardiac catheterization. Until 48 hr after cardiac catheterization, there was no significant increase in serum creatinine level in all patients. Unlike urine kidney injury molecule-1, IL-18 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urine liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level showed biphasic pattern and the significant difference in the levels of urine L-FABP between 24 and 48 hr. We suggest that urine L-FABP can be one of the useful biomarkers to detect subclinical AKI developed by the contrast before cardiac surgery.

  5. Prevention of urethral stricture recurrence using clean intermittent self-catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, B; Walter, S; Bartholin, J;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) on prevention of urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 55 men who were randomly selected, 43 completed the investigation. Of these, 21 patients performed CIC weekly for 1...

  6. Correlations Between Echocardiographic Systolic and Diastolic Function with Cardiac Catheterization in Biventricular Congenital Heart Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorlik, H; Stiver, C; Khan, S; Miao, Y; Holzer, R; Cheatham, J P; Cua, C L

    2016-04-01

    Newer echocardiographic techniques may allow for more accurate assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. Adult studies have correlated these echocardiographic measurements with invasive data, but minimal data exist in the pediatric congenital heart population. Purpose of this study was to evaluate which echocardiographic measurements correlated best with LV systolic and diastolic catheterization parameters. Patients with two-ventricle physiology who underwent simultaneous echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization were included. Images were obtained in the four-chamber view. LV systolic echocardiographic data included ejection fraction, displacement, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) s' wave, global longitudinal strain, and strain rate (SR) s' wave. Diastolic echocardiographic data included mitral E and A waves, TDI e' and a' waves, and SRe' and SRa' waves. E/TDI e', TDI e'/TDI a', E/SRe', and SRe'/SRa' ratios were also calculated. Catheterization dP/dt was used as a marker for systolic function, and LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) was used as a marker for diastolic function. Correlations of the echocardiographic and catheterization values were performed using Pearson correlation. Twenty-nine patients were included (14 females, 15 males). Median age at catheterization was 3.4 years (0.04-17.4 years). dP/dt was 1258 ± 353 mmHg/s, and LVEDP was 10.8 ± 2.4 mmHg. There were no significant correlations between catheterization dP/dt and systolic echocardiographic parameters. LVEDP correlated significantly with SRe' (r = -0.4, p = 0.03), SRa' (r = -0.4, p = 0.03), and E/SRe' (r = 0.5, p = 0.004). In pediatric congenital heart patients, catheterization dP/dt did not correlate with echocardiographic measurements of LV systolic function. Further studies are needed to determine which echocardiographic parameter best describes LV systolic function in this population. Strain rate analysis significantly correlated with LVEDP. Strain rate analysis should be considered as an

  7. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements.Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2 and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2, arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first examination, each eye was imaged three times. At the following two examinations, each eye was imaged once. All examinations were finished in one month. P values were calculated to evaluate the difference between the measurements during three visits by performing an ANOVA. Intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was determined.At baseline, the average SaO2 and SvO2 were 89.48 ± 2.64% and 54.85 ± 2.18%, respectively. The global A-V difference was 34.63 ± 1.91%. The difference between the three visits was not significant (p>0.05. The highest A-V difference in SO2 and lowest saturations were found in the inferotemporal quadrant. Intra-session and inter-visit repeatability were both high. For all oxygen saturation parameters, the ICC values of the intra-session repeatability ranged between 0.92 and 0.96. As found previously, a relatively high ICC value for inter-visit repeatability also was found for all oxygen saturation measurements, ranging between 0.86 and 0.94, with the lowest values in the infero-nasal quadrant.Our study is the first to describe retinal SO2 in healthy Rhesus monkeys. In normal monkey eyes, the reproducibility and repeatability of retinal oximetry oxygen saturation measurements were high in the retinal arterioles and venules. Our results support that Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry is a suitable and reliable technique in monkey studies.

  8. The statistical neuroanatomy of frontal networks in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Averbeck, B. B.; Seo, M.

    2008-01-01

    Author Summary The anatomical input to a cortical area defines, to a large extent, the functions that the area can perform. For example, if an area has no visual inputs, it cannot carry out computations on visual information. Therefore, understanding the inputs to a patch of cortex can provide fundamental insight into the function of the area. Anatomical tract tracing studies in macaque monkeys have defined much of the connectivity between areas of the macaque brain. We compiled the informati...

  9. Facial expression recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Bridget M Waller

    2015-01-01

    Facial expressions are a main communication channel used by many different species of primate. Despite this, we know relatively little about how primates discriminate between different facial expressions, and most of what we do know comes from a restricted number of well-studied species. In this study, three crested macaques (Macaca nigra) took part in matching-to-sample tasks where they had to discriminate different facial expressions. In a first experiment, the macaques had to match a photo...

  10. Brain volumetric and microstructural correlates of executive and motor performance in aged rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhavi eSridharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aged rhesus macaque exhibits brain atrophy and behavioral deficits similar to normal aging in humans. Here we studied the association between cognitive and motor performance and anatomic and microstructural brain integrity measured with 3T magnetic resonance imaging in aged monkeys. About half of these animals were maintained on moderate calorie restriction, the only intervention shown to delay the aging process in lower animals. T1-weighted anatomic and diffusion tensor images were used to obtain gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, respectively. We tested the extent to which brain health indexed by gray matter volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity were related to executive and motor function, and determined the effect of the dietary intervention on this relationship. We hypothesized that fewer errors on the executive function test and faster motor times would be correlated with higher volume, higher fractional anisotropy, and lower mean diffusivity in frontal areas that mediate executive function, and in motor, premotor, subcortical, and cerebellar areas underlying goal-directed motor behaviors. Higher error percentage on a cognitive conceptual shift task was significantly associated with lower gray matter volume in frontal and parietal cortices, and lower fractional anisotropy in major association fiber bundles. Similarly, slower performance time on the motor task was significantly correlated with lower volumetric measures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar areas and decreased fractional anisotropy in several major association fiber bundles. Notably, performance during the acquisition phase of the hardest level of the motor task was significantly associated with anterior mesial temporal lobe volume. Finally, these brain-behavior correlations for the motor task were attenuated in calorie restricted animals compared to controls, indicating a potential protective effect of the dietary

  11. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  12. Thrombolytic therapy for femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiong; YAN Chao-wu; ZHAO Shi-hua; JIANG Shi-liang; XU Zhong-ying; HUANG Lian-jun; LING Jian; ZHENG Hong; WANG Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Femoral artery thrombosis is one of the most common complications of catheterizations in infants and young children. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization in children.Methods Thrombolytic therapy with urokinase was carried out in children with femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization. Each patient was given a bolus injection of heparin (100 U/kg). A bolus of urokinase (30 000-100 000 U) was injected intravenously, and then a continuous infusion of 10 000-50 000 U/h was administered. Transcatheter thrombolysis was performed once previous procedures failed.Results Eight patients (aged (3.1±2.3) years (8 months to 7 years), body weight (13.1±4.2) kg (7 to 20 kg)) presented lower limbs ischemia alter left cardiac catheterizations was performed. Seven patients accepted thrombolytic therapy with urokinase. In 5 patients, peripheral intravenous thrombolysis was successful with restoration of a normal pulse. In the other 3 cases, peripheral intravenous thrombolysis failed, followed by successful transcatheter thrombolysis. The average duration of therapy was (7.25±5.31) hours (1-17 hours). The average doses of heparin and urokinase were (1600±723) U (800-3000 U) and (268 571±177 240) U (50 000-500 000 U), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in partial thromboplastin time before and during urokinase therapy ((40.6±22.3) to (49.9±39.2) seconds). However, the prothrombin time was significantly longer ((12.7±9.58) to (48.1±18.6) seconds, P<0.05). Patency of the target vessel was evaluated in all the patients for 2 weeks and no occlusion recurred.Conclusion Thrombolytic therapy with urokinase is a safe and useful modality in children with femoral artery thrombosis after left cardiac catheterization.

  13. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques. PMID:24187056

  14. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  15. Application of the Diagnostic Evaluation for Alopecia in Traditional Veterinary Species to Laboratory Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Luchins, Kerith R; Baker, Kate C.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Blanchard, James L; Liu, David Xianhong; Myers, Leann; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although nonbehavioral causes of alopecia in nonhuman primates are described in the literature, few prospective hypothesis-based studies have investigated ...

  16. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually tra...

  17. Obesity in Rhesus and Cynomolgus Macaques: A Comparative Review of the Condition and Its Implications for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Sharon A; Arndt, Tara P; Leslie, Ken E.; Pearl, David L.; Turner, Patricia V.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important health issue in both humans and animals and has been highly correlated as a risk factor for hyperglycemic conditions in humans. Naturally occurring obesity has been extensively studied in nonhuman primates with a focus on the development of biomarkers for characterizing overweight individuals and tracking the progression of obesity to conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Animal models have provided a basic understanding of metabolism and carbohydra...

  18. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims......, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. RESULTS: Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based...

  19. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  20. Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, James P.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Dubuc, Constance; Engelhardt, Antje; Heistermann, Michael; Maestriperi, Dario; Laurie R. Santos; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Animals signal their reproductive status in a range of sensory modalities. Highly social animals, such as primates, have access not only to such signals, but also to prior experience of other group members. Whether this experience affects how animals interpret reproductive signals is unknown. Here, we explore whether familiarity with a specific female affects a male's ability to assess that female's reproductive signals. We used a preferential looking procedure to assess signal discrimination...

  1. Social Learning as a Way to Overcome Choice-Induced Preferences? Insights from Humans and Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Gaveau, Valérie; Boussaoud, Driss; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Much theoretical attention is currently devoted to social learning. Yet, empirical studies formally comparing its effectiveness relative to individual learning are rare. Here, we focus on free choice, which is at the heart of individual reward-based learning, but absent in social learning. Choosing among two equally valued options is known to create a preference for the selected option in both humans and monkeys. We thus surmised that social learning should be more helpful when choice-induced...

  2. Co-transplantation of macaque autologous Schwann cells and human embryonic nerve stem cells in treatment of macaque Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zuowei Cao; Keshan Shi; Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of co-transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) and human embryonic nerve stem cells (NSCs) on macaque Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:Macaque autologous SCs and human embryonic NSCs were adopted for the treatment of macaque PD. Results: Six months after transplantation, positron emission computerized tomography showed that 18F-FP-β-CIT was significantly concentrated in the injured striatum in the co-transplanted group. Immunohistochemical staining of transplanted area tissue showed migration of tyroxine hydroxylase positive cells from the transplant area to the surrounding area was significantly increased in the co-transplanted group. Conclusions: Co-transplantation of SCs and NSCs could effectively cure PD in macaques. SCs harvested from the autologous peripheral nerves can avoid rejection and the ethics problems, so it is expected to be applied clinically.

  3. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  4. A prospective longitudinal in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy study of the SIV/macaque model of neuroAIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern Elkan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurological complications of HIV infection remain poorly understood. Clinically, in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS demonstrates brain injury caused by HIV infection even when the MRI is normal. Our goal was to undertsand the dynamics of cerebral injury by performing a longitudinal in vivo 1H MRS study of the SIV/macaque model of neuroAIDS. Results Eight rhesus macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and serially imaged with MRI and 1H MRS to terminal AIDS or the endpoint of 2 years. During acute infection, there were stereotypical brain MRS changes, dominated by a significant elevation of the Cho/Cr ratio in the frontal cortex. Subsequently, brain metabolic patterns diverged between animals. There was an elevation of basal ganglia Cho/Cr four weeks post-inoculation in 2 animals that developed SIV encephalitis (p = 0.022. Metabolite ratios averaged across all 8 animals were not significantly different from baseline at any time point after 2 weeks post inoculation. However, linear regression analysis on all 8 animals revealed a positive correlation between a change in frontal lobe Cho/Cr and plasma viral load (P Conclusions After infection with SIV, macaque brain metabolism changes in a complex manner that is dependent on brain region, host factors and viral load. An elevation of basal ganglia Cho/Cr 4 weeks after SIV infection may be marker of a propensity to develop SIV encephalitis. Elevations of Cho/Cr, often observed in CNS inflammation, were associated with increased plasma viral load during acute and chronic infection. Evidence of neuronal injury in the basal ganglia was associated with increased plasma viral load in the chronic stage of infection. These observations support the use of drugs capable of controlling the viral replication and trafficking of virus into the CNS, and may help explain the reduction in incidence of HIV-associated dementia in the era of HAART despite the inability of most of

  5. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M

    1992-03-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  6. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  7. Clinical feasibility and safety of a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in diagnosis and treatment for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ming; Han Yaling; Wang Geng; Yao Tianming; Sun Jingyang; Li Fei; Xu Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of medical facilities causes delayed diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease in remote mountainous area and/or at disaster site.The miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory was developed to be an intervention platform for coronary heart disease diagnosis and treatment by our team.Pre-clinical research indicated that the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory performed well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular diseases,even ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical safety and timeliness of the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for emergent coronary interventional diagnosis and treatment.Methods X-ray radiation safety and disinfection efficacy in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were tested during working status.Coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention were performed in remote mountainous areas on patients who were first diagnosed as having coronary heart disease by senior interventional cardiologists.The percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and results from patients in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were compared with patients who were treated in the hospital catheter lab.Results The X-ray radiation dosages in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were 39.55 μGy/s,247.4 μGy/h,90.3 μGy/h and 39.4 μGy/h which were corresponded to 0 m,1 m,2 m and 3 m away from the tube central of the medium C-arm.And the radiation dosages used in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory were less than the corresponding positions in the hospital catheter lab.The numbers of bacteria colonies in the miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory in different environments range from (60±8) cfu/m3 to (120±10) cfu/m3 and met the demands of percutaneous coronary intervention.A total of 17 patients who received angiography in the miniature mobile

  8. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  9. Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Delivered by Aerosol to the Lungs of Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A D; Sarfas, C; West, K; Sibley, L S; Wareham, A S; Clark, S; Dennis, M J; Williams, A; Marsh, P D; Sharpe, S A

    2015-09-01

    Nine million cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2013, with a further 1.5 million deaths attributed to the disease. When delivered as an intradermal (i.d.) injection, the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine provides limited protection, whereas aerosol delivery has been shown to enhance efficacy in experimental models. In this study, we used the rhesus macaque model to characterize the mucosal and systemic immune response induced by aerosol-delivered BCG vaccine. Aerosol delivery of BCG induced both Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. Polyfunctional CD4 T cells were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 8 weeks following vaccination in a dose-dependent manner. A similar trend was seen in peripheral gamma interferon (IFN-γ) spot-forming units measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and serum anti-purified protein derivative (PPD) IgG levels. CD8 T cells predominantly expressed cytokines individually, with pronounced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by BAL fluid cells. T-cell memory phenotype analysis revealed that CD4 and CD8 populations isolated from BAL fluid samples were polarized toward an effector memory phenotype, whereas the frequencies of peripheral central memory T cells increased significantly and remained elevated following aerosol vaccination. Expression patterns of the α4β1 integrin lung homing markers remained consistently high on CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from BAL fluid and varied on peripheral T cells. This characterization of aerosol BCG vaccination highlights features of the resulting mycobacterium-specific immune response that may contribute to the enhanced protection previously reported in aerosol BCG vaccination studies and will inform future studies involving vaccines delivered to the mucosal surfaces of the lung. PMID:26108288

  10. Modification of the right subclavian vein catheterization and its anatomic basis and techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Guang-hui; LI Wen-jian; ZHONG Shi-zhen; LI Zhong-hua; FANG Ji

    2005-01-01

    Background Several million subclavian-vein catheters are placed in patients each year to enable caregivers to administer chemotherapy, total parenteral nutrition, or long-term antibiotics or to manage preoperative fluids. Subclavian venipuncture requires the position of a deep vein to be identified with only surface landmarks. But the traditional right subclavian vein (RSV) catheterization (primitive procedures) is not the answer for all patients. The precise location of the vein is not known, and it is important to select the most appropriate method to achieve central venous access safely in any given patient. To modify the primitive procedures of the RSV catheterization for greater success and reduce the complications, anatomic studies and ultrasonography were conducted and clinical applications were validated.Methods Anatomical observation and measurement of the RSV and its adjacent structures were performed on 20 adult cadavers according to modified procedures. The RSV catheterization of 2900 cases was carried out by the modified procedure, 500 of these cases were observed by ultrasonography after the operation.Results The anatomical studies and clinical application showed that the insertion point differs from the bodily form of fatness or leptosome. The clinical data revealed that in the 2900 cases which were performed with the modified approach, the success rate was 98.90% (2868 cases), the failure rate was 1.10% (32 cases), and the complication rate is 0.79% (23 cases), and the catheterization time is (31.2±10.5) minutes. Five hundred and sixty cases of the RSV catheterization were carried out by the recommended insertion procedure; the results were compared with the modified approach and the traditional approach. The successful rate of the traditional approach was 73.0%, of which the complication rate was 6.1%; the two approaches were significantly different (successful rate: χ2=626.642, P<0.01; complication rate: χ2=80.708, P<0.01).Conclusions The

  11. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  12. Adipose tissue metabolism in humans determined by vein catheterization and microdialysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    A technique for catheterization of a vein draining abdominal subcutaneous tissue and a microdialysis technique that allows measurements of intercellular water concentrations in adipose tissue in humans have recently been described. In the present study, we compare the two techniques during an oral...... glucose load. In addition a technique using microdialysis for measurement of tissue oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions is described. Microdialysis and vein catheterization were performed in the same region on the abdomen, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe...... washout method. The results show that subcutaneous adipose tissue gas tensions are on level with gas tensions measured in abdominal venous blood. Comparison of metabolite concentrations measured in the venous blood and venous blood concentrations calculated from microdialysis data shows that there is good...

  13. Non-pharmacological strategies to decrease anxiety in cardiac catheterization: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natany da Costa Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and review the literature on non-pharmacological strategies used for reducing anxiety in patients receiving cardiac catheterization. Method: this study was an integrative literature review. The research was conducted using the databases LILACS, SciELO, Medline (through BVS and PubMed and Scopus. Studies were analyzed according to their objective, method, instruments used for evaluating patients' anxiety, and the results obtained. Results: the most used strategy for reducing anxiety in patients receiving cardiac catheterization was music therapy. However, no study identifying the most appropriate time for this intervention (before, during and/or after the procedure was found. Other strategies identified in this review were educational videos, massage, and palm therapy. Conclusion: the results found suggest that anxiety can be reduced using non-pharmacological strategies.

  14. Catheterization-associated complications of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Ye; Hong-Ming Pan; Hai-Yun Wang; Fang Lou; Wei Jin; Yu Zheng; Jin-Ming Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the catheterization-associated complications during intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPCT) for advanced gastric cancer.METHODS: From 1998 to 2002, 80 patients with advanced gastric cancer received a total of 320 courses of IPCT using a large bore central venous catheter and associated complications were analyzed.RESULTS: Catheterization-associated complications occurred in 11 of the 80 patients (13.8%), including abdominal pain caused by catheter in 2 cases (0.63%), insertion failure in 2 cases (0.63%), bowel perforation in 1 case (0.31%)and abdominal pain during chernotherapy in 6 cases (1.88%).No serious complications required surgical intervention.CONCLUSION: IPCT using central venous catheters can be performed safely and simply without severe associated complications.

  15. Cateterismo retrógrado em neuro-radiologia Retrograde catheterization in Neuro-radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. Raupp

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The bases and technical cares for the neuro-radiological study of the aorto-cervical and spinal vessels employing the retrograde catheterization according to Seldinger technic and with the Odman-Ledin catheters are reported. The authors recommend type II neuroleptanalgesia as anesthesical sedative and the use of percutaneous punction of the femoral artery or, by choice, of the axilar or humeral artery. For the selective catheterization by femoral via, they make previously an aortography, in order to know the anatomy of the supra-aortic vessels, with control through the image-inten-sifier or fluoroscopy. They employ manual injection for the study of the supra-aortic vessels and a Gidlung injector for the contrast of the ascending aorta. Complications are discussed.

  16. The value of cardiac catheterization and cineangiography in infantile lobar emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobar emphysema is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in infancy. Congenital heart disease is seen in about 20% of the patients with infantile (congenital) lobar emphysema. We described six infants with lobar emphysema. In three of them a congenital heart disease was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization and cineangiography; two had a tetralogy of Fallot with right aortic arch and the third infant a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary angiography showed stretching of the arteries with very poor filling of the peripheral arteries and a characteristic smaller pulmonary vein in the affected lobe. In all the six patients the pulmonary artery pressure was normal. All the patients underwent lobectomy with good results. We feel that a preoperative cardiac catheterization and cineangiography is of value in this very sick group of infants. (orig.)

  17. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Taleschian-Tabrizi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs. A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI. The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%. The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended.

  18. SU-E-P-10: Imaging in the Cardiac Catheterization Lab - Technologies and Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is often aided by a multitude of imaging technologies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the contributions to patient care offered by the various imaging systems used during cardiovascular interventional procedures. Methods: Imaging technologies used in the cardiac catheterization lab were characterized by their fundamental technology and by the clinical applications for which they are used. Whether the modality is external to the patient, intravascular, or intracavity was specified. Specific clinical procedures for which multiple modalities are routinely used will be highlighted. Results: X-ray imaging modalities include fluoroscopy/angiography and angiography CT. Ultrasound imaging is performed with external, trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE), and intravascular (IVUS) transducers. Intravascular infrared optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is used to assess vessel endothelium. Relatively large (>0.5 mm) anatomical structures are imaged with x-ray and ultrasound. IVUS and IVOCT provide high resolution images of vessel walls. Cardiac CT and MRI images are used to plan complex cardiovascular interventions. Advanced applications are used to spatially and temporally merge images from different technologies. Diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease frequently utilizes angiography and intra-vascular imaging, and treatment of complex structural heart conditions routinely includes use of multiple imaging modalities. Conclusion: There are several imaging modalities which are routinely used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to diagnose and treat both coronary artery and structural heart disease. Multiple modalities are frequently used to enhance the quality and safety of procedures. The cardiac catheterization laboratory includes many opportunities for medical physicists to contribute substantially toward advancing patient care.

  19. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development. PMID:27233955

  20. Clinical features and outcome of eight patients with mediastinal and neck hematoma after transradial cardiac catheterization approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟宪

    2014-01-01

    Objective The clinical features of patients with mediastinal and/or neck hematoma after transradial cardiac catheterization were reviewed and analyzed to help the clinicians to recognize this complication,and try their best to avoid the complication and treat the complication properly.Methods A total of 8 patients with mediastinal and/or neck hematoma after right transradial cardiac catheterization in Fuwai hospital from January 1,2005 to the end of 2012 were included in this study.Among

  1. Comparison of US-Guided Catheterization of the Right Internal Jugular Vein Using Medial-Oblique and Short Axis Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Kamalipour; Shahrbano Shahbazi; Mohammad Mehdi Derakhshan; Mohammad Taghi Moinvaziri; Elaheh Allahyari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations have shown higher rates of successful first attempt and fewer attempts by using ultrasound-guided Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) catheterization, arterial puncture is still common.. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate US-guided catheterization of the right IJV via medial-oblique technique and also compare this technique to short-axis technique in open-heart surgery patients.. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial...

  2. [Acute urinary retention: a few simple rules for a successful catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, Frédéric D; Studer, Urs E

    2015-01-01

    Acute urinary retention is a common emergency condition in elderly men. Transurethral and suprapubic catheterization are easy and safe procedures provided that a few simple rules are followed. Primarily, a transurethral catheter is placed if there is no urethral injury or stricture. Local anaesthesia of the urethra up to the sphincter region and a well-stretched penis warrant an atraumatic insertion of the catheter into the bladder. The use of a thick catheter with a round tip or of a catheter with a bended tip under rectal guidance facilitate the insertion of the catheter in difficult conditions. Alternatively, a suprapubic catheterization can be performed provided that no contraindication such as history or suspicion of transitional cell carcinoma is present. Optimal interventional conditions using ultrasound-guidance are mandatory in patients after abdominal surgery and with hemorrhagic diathesis in view of a safe and straight-forward placement of the suprapubic catheterization. In case of persistent bleeding after insertion of a suprapubic catheter, the suprapubic catheter should be replaced by one with a balloon blocked and kept under tension for several minutes. PMID:25533254

  3. The Incidence of Normal Coronary Angiography on Cardiac Catheterization in Jordanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Khalef Drabaa and Mohammed Holy Majed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of normal coronaries on cardiac catheterization and its pattern of occurrence according to sex and age. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at Queen Alia Heart Institute in Amman-Jordan during the period 2006 to 2011. A total number of 5000 adult patients who had coronary angiography for chest pain, which were reviewed looking for the presence of normal coronaries, its frequency among males and females and its occurrence according to age groups. Results: The overall incidence of normal coronaries on cardiac catheterization was 17.3%, with almost equal ratios for males and females (53.9% and 46.1% respectively. Women in the age group 50 ­ 59 years was the commonest category (33.7% to have normal coronary angiography, whereas the commonest age group for males was 40 to 49 years. Patients above 70 years of age were very less commonly to have normal coronaries (only in 8.5%. Conclusion: Normal coronaries on cardiac catheterization is a recognized finding in both men and women. Recognition of this issue is essential in order to prescribe proper follow up and appropriate medical therapy with correction of modifiable risk factors.

  4. Effect of Rosa aromatherapy on anxiety before cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atye Babaii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Most patients experience moderate to severe anxiety before cardiac catheterization. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rosa aromatherapy on anxiety before cardiac catheterization. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. In the experimental group, patients received routine care and Rosa aromatherapy for eighteen minutes. The level of anxiety was measured immediately before, and after the treatment. Results: In the stages before and after the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the terms of the mean scores of state and total anxiety. However, the mean score of trait anxiety in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pre- and post-treatment in both groups. Conclusion: Most of the patients experience moderate to severe anxiety before cardiac catheterization. The findings of this study demonstrate that aromatherapy, as administered in this study, is not beneficial.

  5. New Development in Urethral Catheterization%导尿技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣然; 王东华; 逯建娥; 张国清

    2001-01-01

    导尿是临床常用的基础护理技术操作。为预防因导尿引起的泌尿系感染,复习有关文献并结合自己的临床实践,总结导尿困难的常用对策,同时从预防感染角度提出了尿管及导尿途径的选择及导尿与拔管最佳时机的把握,以尽量减少患者的痛苦。%Urethral catheterization is a common clinical manipulation in basic nursing. By summarizing their clinical experience and reviewing the related literathre,the authors emphasize the importance of the material and type of catheter and option for the way of catheterization in preventing infection. In addition, optimal opportunity for catheterization and decatheterization is also important in reducing patient's suffering.

  6. Comparison of Short Term with Long Term Catheterization after Anterior Colporrhaphy Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Movahed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This belief that overfilling the bladder after anterior colporrhaphy might have a negative influence on surgical outcome, causes routine catheterization after operation. This study was done to compare short term (24h with long term (72h catheterization after anterior colporrhaphy.Materials & Methods: This randomized clinical trial was carried out at Kosar Hospital , Qazvin (Iran in 2005-2006. One hundred cases candidating for anterior colporrhaphy , were divided in two equal groups . In the first group foley catheter was removed 24 hours and in the second group 72 hours after the operation. Before removing catheter, urine sample was obtained for culture . After removal and urination, residual volume was determinded. If the volume exceeded 200 ml or retention occured, the catheter would be fixed for more 72 hours. Need for recatheterization, urinary retention, positive urine culture,and hospital stay were surveyed. The data was analyzed using T and Fisher tests.Results: Residual volume exceeding 200 ml and the need for recatheterization occurred in one case (2% in the short term group but in the long term group none of the subjects needed recatheterization (P=1. Retention was not seen. In the both groups, one case (2% had positive urine culture with no statistically significant difference (P=1. Mean hospital stay was short in the first group (P=0.00.Conclusion: Short term catheterization after anterior colporrhaphy does not cause urinary retention and decreases hospital stay.

  7. Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin in chronic autoimmune neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, AEJ; van der Hoeven, JH

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To investigate the effect of Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in patients with an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy. Material and methods - Three patients with an autoimmune mediated neuropathy received 1000 IU anti-D weekly for 2 months. Results - Two patients worsened gradually

  8. Effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Nelly; Motsch, Peggy; Delahaye, Alexia; Saintvanne, Alice; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dupé, Sandrine; Vallet, Dominique; Qarro, Mohamed; Tattou, Mohamed Ibn; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. In all three sites, diet varied seasonally. Heavy grazing led to a significant decrease in herbaceous production and species richness. As a consequence, the monkeys' diet in this poor habitat showed a decreased plant species richness. Moreover, it incorporated fewer above-ground herbaceous resources, and a greater proportion of subterranean resources (especially hypogeous fungi and subterranean invertebrates such as earthworms, eggs and adults of earwigs, and ant's larvae) than the diet of monkeys inhabiting ungrazed forest. Cedar bark, cedar strobiles, earthworms, and earwigs were part of the monkeys' diet only in grazed forest. Monkeys in heavily grazed forest compensated for a lack of herbaceous foods by eating subterranean foods preferentially to tree and shrub products. The foods they consumed take longer to harvest and process than the seeds or leaves consumed by Barbary macaques in less heavily grazed forest habitats. Our results suggest that monkeys do differ in their diets according to the degree of habitat change induced by human activities. They also highlight the dietary flexibility of Barbary macaques as a key element that allows them to cope with degraded habitats. We later compare the dietary adjustments of Barbary macaques facing environmental change to dietary strategies of other macaques and temperate-zone primates.

  9. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  10. Sex, Socioeconomic Status, Access to Cardiac Catheterization and Outcomes for Acute Coronary Syndromes in the Context of Universal Healthcare Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreau, Gabriel E.; Leung, Alexander A.; Southern, Danielle A.; Knudtson, Merrill L.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Ayanian, John Z.; Ghali, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) may independently affect the care and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), partly through barriers in timely access to cardiac catheterization. We sought to determine whether sex modifies the association between nSES, and the receipt of cardiac catheterization and mortality following an ACS in a universal healthcare system. Methods and Results We studied 14,012 ACS patients admitted to cardiology services between April 18, 2004 and December 31, 2011 in Southern Alberta, Canada. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare the odds of cardiac catheterization within 2 and 30 days of admission and the odds of 30-day and 1-year mortality for men and women by quintile of neighborhood median household income. Significant relationships between nSES and the receipt of cardiac catheterization and mortality after ACS were detected for women but not men. When examined by nSES, each incremental decrease in neighborhood income quintile for women was associated with a 6% lower odds of receiving cardiac catheterization within 30 days (p=0.01) and a 14% higher odds of 30-day mortality (p=0.03). For men, each decrease in neighborhood income quintile was associated with a 2% lower odds of receiving catheterization within 30 days (p=0.10), and a 5% higher odds of 30-day mortality (p=0.36). Conclusions Associations between nSES and receipt of cardiac catheterization and 30-day mortality were noted for women but not men in a universal healthcare system. Care protocols designed to improve equity of access to care and outcomes are required, especially for low-income women. PMID:24895450

  11. Cholinergic control of visual categorisation in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos C. Aggelopoulos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behaviour needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorisation, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorisation has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorisation in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorisation performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorised had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorising a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorised successfully in previous sessions. Categorisation performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorisation judgements at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorisation of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory or executive control within the context of our categorisation task.

  12. Cholinergic control of visual categorization in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C; Liebe, Stefanie; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer's disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behavior needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorization, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorization has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorization in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorization performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorized had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorizing a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorized successfully in previous sessions). Categorization performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorization judgments at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorization of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, or executive control within the context of our categorization task. PMID:22110428

  13. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  14. Stepping toward a Macaque Model of HIV-1 Induced AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Kimata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 exhibits a narrow host range, hindering the development of a robust animal model of pathogenesis. Past studies have demonstrated that the restricted host range of HIV-1 may be largely due to the inability of the virus to antagonize and evade effector molecules of the interferon response in other species. They have also guided the engineering of HIV-1 clones that can replicate in CD4 T-cells of Asian macaque species. However, while replication of these viruses in macaque hosts is persistent, it has been limited and without progression to AIDS. In a new study, Hatziioannou et al., demonstrate for the first time that adapted macaque-tropic HIV-1 can persistently replicate at high levels in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, but only if CD8 T-cells are depleted at the time of inoculation. The infection causes rapid disease and recapitulates several aspects of AIDS in humans. Additionally, the virus undergoes genetic changes to further escape innate immunity in association with disease progression. Here, the importance of these findings is discussed, as they relate to pathogenesis and model development.

  15. Focal damage to macaque photoreceptors produces persistent visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzeri, Jennifer M; Hunter, Jennifer J; Masella, Benjamin D; Yin, Lu; Fischer, William S; DiLoreto, David A; Libby, Richard T; Williams, David R; Merigan, William H

    2014-02-01

    Insertion of light-gated channels into inner retina neurons restores neural light responses, light evoked potentials, visual optomotor responses and visually-guided maze behavior in mice blinded by retinal degeneration. This method of vision restoration bypasses damaged outer retina, providing stimulation directly to retinal ganglion cells in inner retina. The approach is similar to that of electronic visual protheses, but may offer some advantages, such as avoidance of complex surgery and direct targeting of many thousands of neurons. However, the promise of this technique for restoring human vision remains uncertain because rodent animal models, in which it has been largely developed, are not ideal for evaluating visual perception. On the other hand, psychophysical vision studies in macaque can be used to evaluate different approaches to vision restoration in humans. Furthermore, it has not been possible to test vision restoration in macaques, the optimal model for human-like vision, because there has been no macaque model of outer retina degeneration. In this study, we describe development of a macaque model of photoreceptor degeneration that can in future studies be used to test restoration of perception by visual prostheses. Our results show that perceptual deficits caused by focal light damage are restricted to locations at which photoreceptors are damaged, that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to track such lesions, and that adaptive optics retinal imaging, which we recently used for in vivo recording of ganglion cell function, can be used in future studies to examine these lesions. PMID:24316158

  16. Hyperfractionation radiotherapy combined with hepatic artery catheterization chemotherapy for unresectable primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effect of hyperfractionation radiotherapy combined with hepatic artery catheterization chemotherapy and hepatic artery ligation (group A, 65 patients) with conventional fractionation radiation combined with hepatic artery catheterization chemotherapy and hepatic artery ligation (group B, 65 patients) for unresectable primary liver cancer. Methods: A total to 130 stage II primary liver patients confirmed by pathology and evaluated as unresectable by exploratory laparotomy were divided evenly into group A and group B by the sequence of exploration. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, tumor type and positive fetal protein (AFP). Group A patients were treated by hepatic artery chemotherapy (PDD, 10 mg/day) 6 day a week with hepatic artery ligation followed by hyperfractionation radiotherapy (250 cGy/f, bid) 3 days a week with the scheme alternated weekly. Group B patients were treated by conventional fractionation radiotherapy with the same scheme of chemotherapy as group A. The total dose of PDD and radiotherapy for both groups were 240 mg and 45 Gy. Results: The AFP level was reduced to half in 89.7% of patients in group A and 67.6% in group B. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 90.8%, 63.1%, 23.1% for group A and 73.9%, 41.5%, 9.2% for group B, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusions: Hyperfractionation radiotherapy combined with hepatic artery catheterization chemotherapy and hepatic artery ligation is an effective and reasonable therapeutic scheme for unresectable liver cancer. It can effectively relieve symptoms, reduce the tumor, increase second surgical resection rate and prolong the survival. At the same time, the operation is simple and relatively easy

  17. Effects of oral premedication on cognitive status of elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed M Ashraf; Marc Schweiger; Neelima Vallurupalli; Sandra Bellantonio; James R Cook

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedatives and analgesics are often administered to achieve conscious sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Appropriate concerns have been raised regarding post procedure delirium related to peri-procedural medication in the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of premedication on new onset delirium and procedural care in elderly patients. Methods Patients≥70 years old and scheduled for elective cardiac catheterization were randomly assigned to receive either oral diphenhydramine and diaze-pam (25 mg/5 mg) or no premedication. All patients underwent a mini mental state exam and delirium assessment using confusion assess-ment method prior to the procedure and repeated at 4 h after the procedure and prior to discharge. Patients’ cooperation during the procedure and ease of post-procedure were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The degree of alertness was assessed immediately on arrival to the floor, and twice hourly afterwards using Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S). Results A total of 93 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 77 years, and 47 patients received premedication prior to the procedure. None of the patients in either group developed delirium. Patients’ cooperation and the ease of procedure was greater and pain medication requirement less both during and after the procedure in the pre-medicated group (P < 0.05 for both). Nurses reported an improvement with patient management in the pre-medicated group (P=0.08). Conclusions In conclusion, premedication did not cause delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The reduced pain medication requirement, perceived procedural ease and post procedure management favors premedication in elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

  18. Cloning and Comparison of Factor X from Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Tan, Weidong; Lu, Yanrong; Jie ZHANG; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of the rhesus monkey as an important experimental animal depends on its genetic concordance with human. During our assessment of the rhesus monkey as a preclinical model for coagulation-related research, we cloned the full-length cDNA of rhesus monkey factor X (FX) and compared its genetic characteristics and coagulation activity with those of human FX. The full-length cDNA of rhesus monkey FX was 1683 bp in length, correspo