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Sample records for catheter function tropics

  1. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... most cases, the kidneys will regain their normal function within five to seven days. Rarely, the catheter ... limitations of Catheter Angiography? Patients with impaired kidney function, especially those who also have diabetes, are not ...

  3. Development of A MEMS Based Manometric Catheter for Diagnosis of Functional Swallowing Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H Y; Hariz, A J; Omari, T; Teng, M F; Sii, D; Chan, S; Lau, L; Tan, S; Lin, G; Haskard, M; Mulcahy, D; Bakewell, M

    2006-01-01

    Silicon pressure sensors based on micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are gaining popularity for applications in bio-medical devices. In this study, a silicon piezo-resistive pressure sensor die is used in a feasibility study of developing a manometric catheter for functional swallowing disorders diagnosis. The function of a manometric catheter is to measure the peak and intrabolus pressures along the esophageal segment during the swallowing action. Previous manometric catheters used the water perfusion technique to measure the pressure changes. This type of catheter is reusable, large in size and the pressure reading is recorded by an external transducer. Current manometric catheters use a solid state pressure sensor on the catheter itself to measure the pressure changes. This type of catheter reduces the discomfort to the patient but it is reusable and is very expensive. We carried out several studies and experiments on the MEMS-based pressure sensor die, and the results show the MEMS-based pressure sensors have a good stability and a good linearity output response, together with the advantage of low excitation biasing voltage and extremely small size. The MEMS-based sensor is the best device to use in the new generation of manometric catheters. The concept of the new MEMS-based manometric catheter consists of a pressure sensing sensor, supporting ring, the catheter tube and a data connector. Laboratory testing shows that the new calibrated catheter is capable of measuring pressure in the range from 0 to 100mmHg and maintaining stable condition on the zero baseline setting when no pressure is applied. In-vivo tests are carried out to compare the new MEMS based catheter with the current version of catheters used in the hospital

  4. Acceptance criteria for reprocessed AcuNav catheters: comparison between functionality testing and clinical image assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Alan J; Berry, James M; Wilson, Robert F; Lester, Bruce R

    2009-03-01

    The AcuNav-catheter is a vector-phased array ultrasound catheter that has shown great utility for both diagnosis and electrophysiological interventions. To test the feasibility of limited catheter reuse and to ensure that reprocessed catheters would produce acceptable clinical images, the present study compared the 2-D and Doppler image quality, as determined by clinical assessment, with the catheter's functional status as determined by the FirstCall 2000 transducer tester. Reprocessed catheters from four functional categories, two acceptable and two unacceptable, were used to collect images, 2-D and Doppler, from a porcine heart. The images were blinded and then rated by clinical evaluation. The study found that catheter images from all functional categories were found to be clinically acceptable except for those from the lowest unacceptable category. In addition, examination of tip deflection characteristics showed no significant difference between new and reprocessed catheters. We conclude that reprocessed AcuNav catheters that pass functional tests are able to produce clinical images, 2-D and Doppler, which are equivalent to their new counterparts.

  5. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included)

    In English, one or 2 pages.

    Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    Currently in the

  6. Urinary incontinence and indwelling urinary catheters in acutely admitted elderly patients: relationship with mortality, institutionalization, and functional decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, A. M. Jikke; Buurman, Bianca M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in functional status at admission in acutely hospitalized elderly patients with urinary incontinence, a catheter, or without a catheter or incontinence (controls) and to determine whether incontinence or a catheter are independent risk factors for death, institutionalization, or

  7. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter - urine; Foley catheter; Indwelling catheter; Suprapubic catheters ... stones Blood infections ( septicemia ) Blood in the urine (hematuria) Kidney damage (usually only with long-term, indwelling ...

  8. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the European Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available ... will regain their normal function within five to seven days. Rarely, the catheter punctures the artery, causing ...

  9. Assessment of the functional significance of coronary lesions using a monorail catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguori, C; Nishida, T; Adamian, M; Anzuini, A; Corvaja, N; Carlino, M; Colombo, A

    2001-04-01

    Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) monorail catheter, can be used to accurately measure intracoronary pressure and FFR. In 35 lesions (35 patients; learning group), we calculated FFR by both PW (FFRPW) and MFP (FFRMFP). Using ROC analysis, the FFRMFP value of 0.65 had the highest sensitivity with the FFRPW 0.75) by PW. In all these cases, minimal lumen cross-sectional area was 0.65, FFRPW is always > 0.75. These data demonstrate that even with larger cross-sectional area than a pressure wire, the MFP catheter can easily and reliably be used to assess the functional severity of coronary stenosis.

  10. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Catheter Angiography Catheter angiography uses a catheter, x-ray ... are the limitations of Catheter Angiography? What is Catheter Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test ...

  11. Does interscalene catheter placement with stimulating catheters improve postoperative pain or functional outcome after shoulder surgery? A prospective, randomized and double-blinded trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Markus F.; Werdehausen, Robert; Golla, Elisabeth; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Ilg, Ansgar; Willers, Reinhardt; Lipfert, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial we investigated the use of stimulating catheters in patients during and after shoulder surgery; functional improvement being the primary outcome measurement. METHODS: After eliciting an adequate muscular twitch at

  12. Improvement of Myocardial Function Following Catheter-Based Renal Denervation in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yan Liao, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Renal denervation (RD is a potential novel nonpharmacological therapy for heart failure (HF. We performed bilateral catheter-based RD in 10 adult pigs and compared them with 10 control subjects after induction of HF to investigate the long-term beneficial effects of RD on left ventricular (LV function and regional norepinephrine gradient after conventional HF pharmacological therapy. Compared with control subjects, animals treated with RD demonstrated an improvement in LV function and reduction of norepinephrine gradients over the myocardium and kidney at 10-week follow-up. Our results demonstrated that effective bilateral RD decrease regional norepinephrine gradients and improve LV contractile function compared with medical therapy alone. Key Words: heart failure, left ventricular function, norepinephrine, renal denervation

  13. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  14. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  15. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... of a catheter makes it possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. Catheter angiography ... of a catheter makes it possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. An example ...

  16. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... few millimeters) in the skin where the catheter can be inserted into an artery. The catheter is ... need for surgery. If surgery remains necessary, it can be performed more accurately. Catheter angiography presents a ...

  17. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... resonance imaging (MRI) In catheter angiography, a thin plastic tube, called a catheter , is inserted into an ... The catheter used in angiography is a long plastic tube about as thick as a strand of ...

  18. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... using: x-rays with catheters computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) In catheter angiography, a thin plastic ... called superselective angiography. Unlike computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography , use of a catheter makes it ...

  19. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  20. Functional diversity changes during tropical forest succession.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Paz, H.; Breugel, van M.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) ‘those components of biodiversity that influence how an ecosystem operates or functions’ is a promising tool to assess the effect of biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning. FD has received ample theoretical attention, but empirical studies are limited. We evaluate

  1. Ventricular Dyssynchrony and Function Improve following Catheter Ablation of Nonseptal Accessory Pathways in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Abadir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paradoxical or hypokinetic interventricular septal motion has been described in patients with septal or paraseptal accessory pathways. Data regarding nonseptal pathways is limited. Methods and Results. We quantified left ventricular dyssynchrony and function in 16 consecutive children, 14.2±3.7 years, weighing 53 ± 17 kg, prior to and following catheter ablation of bidirectional septal (N=6 and nonseptal (N=10 accessory pathways. Following ablation, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 4.9±2.1% (P=0.038 from a baseline value of 57.0%±7.8%. By tissue Doppler imaging, the interval between QRS onset and peak systolic velocity (Ts decreased from a median of 33.0 ms to 18.0 ms (P=0.013. The left ventricular ejection fraction increased to a greater extent following catheter ablation of nonseptal (5.9%±2.6%, P=0.023 versus septal (2.5%±4.1%, P=0.461 pathways. The four patients with an ejection fraction 50% after ablation. Similarly, the improvement in dyssynchrony was more marked in patients with nonseptal versus septal pathways (difference between septal and lateral wall motion delay before and after ablation 20.6±7.1 ms (P=0.015 versus 1.4±11.4 ms (P=0.655. Conclusion. Left ventricular systolic function and dyssynchrony improve after ablation of antegrade-conducting accessory pathways in children, with more pronounced changes noted for nonseptal pathways.

  2. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... Z Catheter Angiography Catheter angiography uses a catheter, x-ray imaging guidance and an injection of contrast material ... vessels in the body. Angiography is performed using: x-rays with catheters computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging ( ...

  3. Using traits to uncover tropical forest function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

    2017-04-11

    Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.

  4. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... incision in the skin. Once the catheter is guided to the area being examined, a contrast material ... inserted into an artery. The catheter is then guided through the arteries to the area to be ...

  5. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... it will make the rest of the procedure pain-free. You will not feel the catheter in ... nurse if you notice any bleeding, swelling or pain at the site where the catheter entered the ...

  6. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... an artery through a small incision in the skin. Once the catheter is guided to the area ... small incision (usually a few millimeters) in the skin where the catheter can be inserted into an ...

  7. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... should inform the nurse if you notice any bleeding, swelling or pain at the site where the ... Rarely, the catheter punctures the artery, causing internal bleeding. It also is possible that the catheter tip ...

  8. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... catheter , is inserted into an artery through a small incision in the skin. Once the catheter is ... the tube and images are captured using a small dose of ionizing radiation ( x-rays ). top of ...

  9. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) In catheter angiography, a thin plastic tube, called a catheter , is inserted into an artery ... examined, a contrast material is injected through the tube and images are captured using a small dose ...

  10. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... or other procedures such as chemoembolization or selective internal radiation therapy. identify dissection or splitting in the ... days. Rarely, the catheter punctures the artery, causing internal bleeding. It also is possible that the catheter ...

  11. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed using: x-rays with catheters computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) In catheter angiography, ... tumor; this is called superselective angiography. Unlike computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography , use of ...

  12. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed using: x-rays with catheters computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) In catheter angiography, a ... tumor; this is called superselective angiography. Unlike computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography , use of a ...

  13. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... Catheter angiography uses a catheter, x-ray imaging guidance and an injection of contrast material to examine ... removable dental appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x- ...

  14. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... lies. The catheter used in angiography is a long plastic tube about as thick as a strand of spaghetti. top of page How does the procedure work? Catheter angiography works much the same as a ...

  15. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... lessen your anxiety during the procedure. The area of the groin or arm where the catheter will be inserted is shaved, ... contrast material is injected through the catheter and reaches the blood vessels being studied, several sets of x-rays are taken. Then the catheter is ...

  16. Intellectual functioning in children with congenital heart defects treated with surgery or by catheter interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ryberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies suggest that children with congenital heart defects (CHD are at risk for adverse intellectual functioning. However, factors related to lower intellectual functioning in this group are largely unknown. This study describes intellectual functioning in children with CHD in relation to severity of the heart defect, the child´s age and the socioeconomic status of the family (SES.Methods: 228 children treated with surgery or by catheter technique were tested using the Wechsler intelligence scales to determine Full Scale IQ (FSIQ. FSIQ was then analyzed in relation to age (3- 5- , 9-, and 15-year-olds, severity of the diagnosis (mild, moderate, and severe, and SES (low, medium, and high. The median age was 70 months (5.8 years with a range of 162 months (30 months (2.5 years to 192 months (16.0 years. Results: The total mean score on FSIQ was 100.8 (SD = 14.5. Children with severe CHD had significantly lower FSIQ than children with mild and moderate CHD, and 9- and 15-year-olds had significantly lower FSIQ compared to the 3-year-olds. Children from families with low SES had significantly lower FSIQ than children from medium SES and high SES families. No interaction between severity of diagnosis, age, and SES was found for FSIQ.Conclusions: 83% of the children with CHD performed at or above average with respect to FSIQ. SES and severity of diagnosis had significant main effects on FSIQ. These factors should be considered when planning interventions and follow-up programs for children with CHD.

  17. Anatomic and functional outcomes of pharmacomechanical and catheter-directed thrombolysis of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Eric; Yuo, Theodore; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Naddaf, Abdullah; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Marone, Luke; Chaer, Rabih

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) are commonly used for the treatment of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term venous patency and venous valvular function as well as clinical outcomes of patients treated for iliofemoral DVT by PMT and CDT. A retrospective review of all patients with symptomatic DVT treated between 2006 and 2011 with PMT or CDT was performed. All patients were treated by local tissue plasminogen activator delivered with PMT or CDT. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of initial treatment modality: patients treated by PMT alone (group 1), and those who underwent PMT and CDT or CDT alone (group 2). Group comorbidities, initial presenting symptoms, and Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathologic (CEAP) classification scores were compared. Postprocedural duplex ultrasound was used to assess valve function and treated vein patency rates. At all visits, Villalta and CEAP scores were recorded and compared. Group demographic and procedural results were analyzed by Fisher exact test for dichotomous variables and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test for the ordinal and continuous data. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to assess preserved valve function as well as primary and secondary patency rates. There were 79 patients with 102 limbs treated for extensive iliofemoral DVT (median age, 51.5 years; range, 16.6-83.8 years). There were 18 patients in group 1 and 61 patients in group 2 (PMT + CDT [n = 54] or CDT alone [n = 7]). There were no differences in demographics or comorbidities between groups aside from malignant disease, which was more common in group 1 (35.3% vs 11.5%; P = .03). A total of 102 limbs were analyzed, 24 in group 1 and 78 in group 2. Patients in group 1 had a shorter symptom duration compared with group 2 (7 days vs 16 days; P = .011). The median number of procedures in group 1

  18. Functional nonredundancy of elephants in a disturbed tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-Lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, they might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their ranges even if they were not globally endangered. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique. We measured the contribution of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to the dispersal of 3 large-fruited species in a disturbed tropical moist forest and predicted the extent to which alternative dispersers could compensate for elephants in their absence. We created an empirical probability model with data on frugivory and seed dispersal from Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. These data were used to estimate the proportion of seeds consumed by elephants and other frugivores that survive handling and density-dependent processes (Janzen-Connell effects and conspecific intradung competition) and germinate. Without compensation, the number of seeds dispersed and surviving density-dependent effects decreased 26% (Artocarpus chaplasha), 42% (Careya arborea), and 72% (Dillenia indica) when elephants were absent from the ecosystem. Compensatory fruit removal by other animals substantially ameliorated these losses. For instance, reductions in successful dispersal of D. indica were as low as 23% when gaur (Bos gaurus) persisted, but median dispersal distance still declined from 30% (C. arborea) to 90% (A. chaplasha) without elephants. Our results support the theory that the largest animal species in an ecosystem have nonredundant ecological functionality and that their extirpation is likely to lead to the deterioration of ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. This effect is likely accentuated by the overall defaunation of many tropical

  19. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Catheter Angiography Catheter angiography ...

  20. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... is injected through the catheter and reaches the blood vessels being studied, several sets of x-rays are taken. Then the catheter is removed and the incision site is closed by applying pressure on the area for approximately 10 to 20 ...

  1. Functional over-redundancy and high functional vulnerability in global fish faunas on tropical reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Villéger, Sébastien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Arias-González, Jesus Ernesto; Bender, Mariana; Chabanet, Pascale; Floeter, Sergio R; Friedlander, Alan; Vigliola, Laurent; Bellwood, David R

    2014-09-23

    When tropical systems lose species, they are often assumed to be buffered against declines in functional diversity by the ability of the species-rich biota to display high functional redundancy: i.e., a high number of species performing similar functions. We tested this hypothesis using a ninefold richness gradient in global fish faunas on tropical reefs encompassing 6,316 species distributed among 646 functional entities (FEs): i.e., unique combinations of functional traits. We found that the highest functional redundancy is located in the Central Indo-Pacific with a mean of 7.9 species per FE. However, this overall level of redundancy is disproportionately packed into few FEs, a pattern termed functional over-redundancy (FOR). For instance, the most speciose FE in the Central Indo-Pacific contains 222 species (out of 3,689) whereas 38% of FEs (180 out of 468) have no functional insurance with only one species. Surprisingly, the level of FOR is consistent across the six fish faunas, meaning that, whatever the richness, over a third of the species may still be in overrepresented FEs whereas more than one third of the FEs are left without insurance, these levels all being significantly higher than expected by chance. Thus, our study shows that, even in high-diversity systems, such as tropical reefs, functional diversity remains highly vulnerable to species loss. Although further investigations are needed to specifically address the influence of redundant vs. vulnerable FEs on ecosystem functioning, our results suggest that the promised benefits from tropical biodiversity may not be as strong as previously thought.

  2. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  3. Echocardiographic assessment with right ventricular function improvement following ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in submassive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Charles; Gonzalez, Lorena; Duchman, Stanley M; Varon, Joseph; Bechara, Carlos F; Cheung, Mathew; Lin, Peter H

    2018-06-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism. Methods Clinical records of 46 patients with submassive pulmonary embolism who underwent ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed pulmonary thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator, from 2007 to 2017, were analyzed. All patients experienced clinical symptoms with computed tomography evidence of pulmonary thrombus burden. Right ventricular dysfunction was present in all patients by echocardiographic finding of right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio > 0.9. Treatment outcome, procedural complications, right ventricular pressures, and thrombus clearance were evaluated. Follow-up evaluation included echocardiographic assessment of right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio at one month, six months, and one year. Results Technical success was achieved in all patients ( n = 46, 100%). Our patients received an average of 18.4 ± 4.7 mg of tissue plasminogen activator using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolytic catheter with an average infusion time of 16.5± 5.4 h. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (100%). Significant reduction of mean pulmonary artery pressure occurred following the treatment, which decreased from 36 ± 8 to 21 ± 5 mmHg ( p right ventricular dysfunction based on echocardiographic assessment. The right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio decreased from 1.32 ± 0.18 to 0.91 ± 0.13 at the time of hospital discharge ( p right ventricular function remained improved at 6 months and 12 months of follow-up, as right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio were 0.92 ± 0.14 ( p right ventricular function in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of silver nanoparticles coated catheters via a biomimetic surface functionalization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wu,1 Yun Yang,2,3 Yanmei Zhang,2,3 Jiexi Deng,1 Changjian Lin2,31Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, 2Department of Medical Materials, Beijing Medical Implant Engineering Research Center, Beijing Naton Technology Group, Beijing, 3State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a significant problem in the clinic and may result in a serious infection. Here, we developed a facile and green procedure for buildup of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the central venous catheters (CVCs surface. Inspired by mussel adhesive proteins, dopamine was used to form a thin polydopamine layer and induce AgNPs formation without additional reductants or stabilizers. The chemical and physicochemical properties of AgNPs coated CVCs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle. The Staphylococcus aureus culture experiment was used to study the antibacterial properties. The cytocompatibility was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1 assay, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the CVCs surface was successfully coated with compact AgNPs. AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with a size of 30–50 nm. The density of AgNPs could be modulated by the concentration of silver nitrate solution. The antibacterial activity was dependent on the AgNPs dose. The high dose of AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity while associated with increased cytotoxicity. The appropriate density of AgNPs coated CVCs could exhibit improved biocompatibility and maintained evident sterilization effect. It is promising to design mussel-inspired silver releasing CVCs with both

  5. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. An example is finding an area of severe arterial narrowing, ... contrast material, your radiologist may advise that you take special medication for 24 hours before catheter angiography ...

  6. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. Catheter angiography produces very detailed, clear and ... possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. An example is finding an area of ...

  7. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you're taking and allergies, especially ... is Catheter Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical ...

  8. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spaghetti. top of page How does the procedure work? Catheter angiography works much the same as a ... angiogram may be performed in less than an hour; however, it may last several hours. top of ...

  9. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a catheter, x-ray imaging guidance and an injection of contrast material to examine blood vessels in ... technologies and, in most cases, a contrast material injection is needed to produce pictures of blood vessels ...

  10. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... far outweighs the risk. If you have a history of allergy to x-ray contrast material, your ... Angiography (CTA) X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Catheter Angiography Sponsored ...

  11. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spaghetti. top of page How does the procedure work? Catheter angiography works much the same as a ... and x-rays. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  12. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atherosclerosis (plaque). The use of a catheter makes it possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a ... the aorta in the chest or abdomen or its major branches. show the extent and severity of ...

  13. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Interventional radiologist performing an angiography exam View ... ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Catheter Angiography Sponsored by Please note ...

  14. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examine blood vessels in key areas of the body for abnormalities such as aneurysms and disease such ... to produce pictures of blood vessels in the body. Angiography is performed using: x-rays with catheters ...

  15. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 20 minutes (or by using a special closure device). When the examination is complete, you may be ... contrast material, your radiologist may advise that you take special medication for 24 hours before catheter angiography ...

  16. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays ). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Catheter angiography is used to ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  17. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spaghetti. top of page How does the procedure work? Catheter angiography works much the same as a ... possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. An example is finding an area of ...

  18. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Once the catheter is guided to the area being examined, a contrast material is injected through the ... You should inform your physician of any medications being taken and if there are any allergies, especially ...

  19. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Catheter Angiography ...

  20. Contrasting taxonomic and functional responses of a tropical tree community to selective logging

    OpenAIRE

    Baraloto, C.; Hérault, B.; Paine, C. E. T.; Massot, H.; Blanc, L.; Bonal, D.; Molino, Jean-François; Nicolini, E. A.; Sabatier, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    1. Considerable debate surrounds the extent to which tropical forests can be managed for resource extraction while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem properties, which depend on functional composition. Here we evaluate the compatibility of these aims by examining the effects of logging on taxonomic and functional diversity and composition in a tropical forest. 2. Twenty years after selective logging, we inventoried 4140 stems regenerating in logging gaps and adjacent undisturbed areas, and...

  1. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rare, and radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. There is a small risk that ... standard x-ray contrast. Catheter angiography should be done very cautiously—if at all—in patients who ...

  2. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... key areas of the body for abnormalities such as aneurysms and disease such as atherosclerosis (plaque). The use of a catheter makes ... including the: brain neck heart chest abdomen (such as the kidneys and liver) pelvis legs and feet ...

  3. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Catheter Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  4. Malfunctioning and infected tunneled infusion catheters: over-the-wire catheter exchange versus catheter removal and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, David M; Trerotola, Scott O; Clark, Timothy W; Dagli, Mandeep; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Itkin, Maxim; Soulen, Michael C; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Stavropoulos, S William

    2011-05-01

    To compare the safety and effectiveness of over-the-wire catheter exchange (catheter-exchange) with catheter removal and replacement (removal-replacement) at a new site for infected or malfunctioning tunneled infusion catheters. Using a quality assurance database, 61 patients with tunneled infusion catheters placed during the period July 2001 to June 2009 were included in this study. Patients receiving hemodialysis catheters were excluded. Catheter-exchange was performed in 25 patients, and same-day removal-replacement was performed in 36 patients. Data collected included demographic information, indication for initial catheter placement and replacement, dwell time for the new catheter, and ultimate fate of the new device. Statistical comparisons between the two cohorts were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier technique and Fisher exact test. Catheters exchanged over the wire remained functional without infection for a median of 102 days (range, 2-570 days), whereas catheters removed and replaced were functional for a median 238 days (range, 1-292 days, P = .12). After catheter replacement, there were 11 instances of subsequent infection in the catheter-exchange group and 7 instances in the removal-replacement cohort, accounting for infection rates of 4.4 and 2.3 per 1,000 catheter days (P = .049). Patients in the catheter-exchange group had 3.2 greater odds of infection compared with patients in the removal-replacement group. Five malfunction events occurred in each group, accounting for 2.0 and 1.7 malfunctions per 1,000 catheter days in the catheter-exchange and removal-replacement groups (P = .73). Catheter-exchange of tunneled infusion catheters results in a higher infection rate compared with removal-replacement at a new site. The rate of catheter malfunction is not significantly different between the two groups. Catheter-exchange is an alternative for patients with tunneled infusion catheters who have limited venous access, but this technique should not be

  5. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ewers, R. M.; Boyle, M. J. W.; Gleave, R. A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, S.; Bernard, H.; Bishop, T. R.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Chey, V. K.; Chung, A. Y. C.; Davies, R. G.; Edwards, D. P.; Eggleton, P.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Hardwick, S. R.; Homathevi, R.; Kitching, R. L.; Khoo, M. S.; Luke, S. H.; March, J. J.; Nilus, R.; Pfeifer, M.; Rao, S. V.; Sharp, A. C.; Snaddon, J. L.; Stork, N. E.; Struebig, M. J.; Wearn, O. R.; Yusah, K. M.; Turner, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 15 (2015), article number 6836 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541; Ministry of Higher Education(MY) FRG0302-STWN-1/2011; European Research Council Project(GB) 281986 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tropical rainforest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015 http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150413/ncomms7836/pdf/ncomms7836.pdf

  6. A phase III, open-label, single-arm study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Cameron; Costanzi, John; Shulman, Robert; Dreisbach, Luke; Jacobs, Brian R; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in a phase III, single-arm study, the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic agent tenecteplase in restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). Pediatric and adult patients with dysfunctional CVCs were eligible to receive as much as 2 mL (2 mg) of intraluminal tenecteplase, which was left to dwell in the CVC lumen for a maximum of 120 minutes. If CVC function was not restored at 120 minutes, a second dose was instilled for an additional 120 minutes. Tenecteplase was administered to 246 patients. Mean patient age was 44 years (range, 0-92 y); 72 patients (29%) were younger than 17 years of age. Chemotherapy was the most common reason for catheter insertion. Restoration of CVC function was achieved in 177 patients (72%) within 120 minutes after the first dose. After instillation of a maximum of two doses of tenecteplase, CVC function was restored in 200 patients (81%), with similar frequencies in pediatric (83%) and adult (80%) patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 31 patients (13%); fever (2%), neutropenia (1%), and nausea (0.8%) were most common. One serious AE, an allergic hypersensitivity reaction, was judged to be related to tenecteplase and/or a chemotherapeutic agent that the patient was receiving concurrently. Consecutive administration of one or two doses of tenecteplase into CVCs showed efficacy in the restoration of catheter function in patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Indwelling catheter care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley catheter ... You will need to make sure your indwelling catheter is working properly. You will also need to ... not get an infection or skin irritation. Make catheter and skin care part of your daily routine. ...

  8. A study of nephron function in normal tropical residents using the creatinine and lithium clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S. K.; Nyarko, A. K.; Asaku, J. Y.; Akyeampong, A. Y.

    The kidney bears the brunt of the demands of a tropical climate for water and electrolyte homeostasis. We hypothesised that a tropical climate may cause adaptive changes in the entire organism leading to altered renal function in our subjects. Hence renal function data for residents of a temperate climate may not be applic- able to tropical residents. We therefore sought to elucidate renal function in subjects residing in a tropical climate. We used lithium clearance, CLi, a non-invasive tool for assessing proximal tubular function in humans, and endogenous creatinine clearance, CCr, to estimate proximal tubular function and glomerular function, respectively, in our subjects. We did this in order to establish whether or not nephron function in our subjects differs from that for residents of a temperate climate. Nineteen male and 12 female Ghanaian subjects aged between 15 and 48 years were studied. The estimated GCr was 117.3+/-6.6 ml/min for male subjects and 97+/-6.4 ml/min for female subjects. CLi was 20.3+/-1.6 ml/min for male and 19.1+/-0.4 ml/min for female subjects, respectively. The estimated absolute reabsorption rate of fluid of proximal tubules was 97.0+/-6.0 ml/min for males and 78.1+/-6.0 ml/min for females. The percentage proximal fluid reabsorption for male and female subjects was 81.2+/-1.4 and 79.5+/-1.6, respectively. The differences between male and female values (mean+/-SEM) were not statistically significant. The data suggest that the proximal tubule in residents of a tropical climate may reabsorb more fluid compared to that in residents of a temperate climate. Our values for proximal tubular reabsorption are higher than those reported for residents of a temperature climate. Our estimate of glomerular filtration, however, is similar to published data for Caucasians. The difference in proximal tubular function may reflect possible renal adaptation to a hot, humid climate. We conclude that renal function of tropical residents differs from that of

  9. Plant functional traits with particular reference to tropical deciduous

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    predict its response as well as its influence on ecosystem functioning. ... can enable prediction of the dynamics of these forests in the face of disturbance and global climate change ...... cloud forest into two functional groups on the basis of SLA,.

  10. Deforestation Impacts on Bat Functional Diversity in Tropical Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García-Morales

    Full Text Available Functional diversity is the variability in the functional roles carried out by species within ecosystems. Changes in the environment can affect this component of biodiversity and can, in turn, affect different processes, including some ecosystem services. This study aimed to determine the effect of forest loss on species richness, abundance and functional diversity of Neotropical bats. To this end, we identified six landscapes with increasing loss of forest cover in the Huasteca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We captured bats in each landscape using mist nets, and calculated functional diversity indices (functional richness and functional evenness along with species richness and abundance. We analyzed these measures in terms of percent forest cover. We captured 906 bats (Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae, including 10 genera and 12 species. Species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are positively related with forest cover. Generalized linear models show that species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are significantly related with forest cover, while seasonality had an effect on abundance and functional richness. Neither forest cover nor season had a significant effect on functional evenness. All these findings were consistent across three spatial scales (1, 3 and 5 km radius around sampling sites. The decrease in species, abundance and functional richness of bats with forest loss may have implications for the ecological processes they carry out such as seed dispersal, pollination and insect predation, among others.

  11. Deforestation Impacts on Bat Functional Diversity in Tropical Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Moreno, Claudia E; Badano, Ernesto I; Zuria, Iriana; Galindo-González, Jorge; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Ávila-Gómez, Eva S

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity is the variability in the functional roles carried out by species within ecosystems. Changes in the environment can affect this component of biodiversity and can, in turn, affect different processes, including some ecosystem services. This study aimed to determine the effect of forest loss on species richness, abundance and functional diversity of Neotropical bats. To this end, we identified six landscapes with increasing loss of forest cover in the Huasteca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We captured bats in each landscape using mist nets, and calculated functional diversity indices (functional richness and functional evenness) along with species richness and abundance. We analyzed these measures in terms of percent forest cover. We captured 906 bats (Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae), including 10 genera and 12 species. Species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are positively related with forest cover. Generalized linear models show that species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are significantly related with forest cover, while seasonality had an effect on abundance and functional richness. Neither forest cover nor season had a significant effect on functional evenness. All these findings were consistent across three spatial scales (1, 3 and 5 km radius around sampling sites). The decrease in species, abundance and functional richness of bats with forest loss may have implications for the ecological processes they carry out such as seed dispersal, pollination and insect predation, among others.

  12. Green synthesis of Kocuran-functionalized silver glyconanoparticles for use as antibiofilm coatings on silicone urethral catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Sujitha, Pombala

    2014-01-01

    Microbial infections due to biofilm formation on medical implants are serious complications arising after surgery which can be prevented by using antimicrobial coatings on biomaterial surfaces. We developed a simple, rapid and green chemistry approach for synthesis of silver glyconanoparticles (AgNPs) using Kocuran, an exopolysaccharide produced by Kocuria rosea strain BS-1. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 435 nm. They were mono-dispersed, spherical with an average particle size of 12 nm. XRD and SAED studies suggested that AgNPs were crystalline in nature. AgNPs had a zeta potential of −33.9 mV and were anionic charged. They showed colloidal stability at different pH (6 to 10), temperatures (30 °C to 100 °C), in NaCl, NaNO 3 and BSA solutions. Kocuran-capped AgNPs exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and cell death was mainly due to hydroxyl radical induction and depletion of NADH. They also inhibited the biofilm development by S. aureus and E. coli and confocal scanning laser microscopic images revealed the damage of intact cell architecture. In vitro evaluation of Kocuran-capped silver glyconanoparticles on human gingival fibroblasts demonstrated good cell proliferation as compared to commercial AgNPs suggesting that they are biocompatible and non-toxic in nature. This is a first report on Kocuran-functionalized AgNPs exhibiting potential antibacterial and antiadhesive properties for use as antimicrobial coatings against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone urethral catheters. (paper)

  13. Available nitrogen is the key factor influencing soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Xu, Han; Li, Yide; Deng, Ye; Li, Diqiang; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-08-20

    Tropical rainforests cover over 50% of all known plant and animal species and provide a variety of key resources and ecosystem services to humans, largely mediated by metabolic activities of soil microbial communities. A deep analysis of soil microbial communities and their roles in ecological processes would improve our understanding on biogeochemical elemental cycles. However, soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforests and causative factors remain unclear. GeoChip, contained almost all of the key functional genes related to biogeochemical cycles, could be used as a specific and sensitive tool for studying microbial gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest was analyzed by using GeoChip technology. Gene categories detected in the tropical rainforest soils were related to different biogeochemical processes, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling. The relative abundance of genes related to C and P cycling detected mostly derived from the cultured bacteria. C degradation gene categories for substrates ranging from labile C to recalcitrant C were all detected, and gene abundances involved in many recalcitrant C degradation gene categories were significantly (P rainforest. Soil available N could be the key factor in shaping the soil microbial functional gene structure and metabolic potential.

  14. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  15. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil

  16. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and

  17. Drought tolerance of tropical tree species : functional traits, trade-offs and species distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.

    2010-01-01

    KEY-WORDS:
    Bolivia, drought tolerance, shade tolerance, functional traits, trade-offs, ecophysiology, species distribution
    Tropical forests occur under rainfall regimes that vary greatly in the rainfall pattern and frequency and intensity of drought. Consequently water availability is

  18. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function during the restoration of a tropical forest in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hai; LI ZhiAn; SHEN WeiJun; YU ZuoYue; PENG ShaoLin; LIAO ChongHui; DING MingMao; WU JianGuo

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly, but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored. Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China, we found that a tropical rain forest, once completely destroyed, could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts. We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover. The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil, while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes. Our three treatment catchments (un-restored barren land, single-species plantation, and mixed-forest stand) exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades. The mixed forest, having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.

  19. Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia G; Jones, Owen G; O'Haire, Marguerite E; Liceaga, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures' reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90min. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH). Protein solubility of hydrolysates improved (p30% soluble protein at pH 3 and 7 and 50-90% at alkaline pH, compared with the control. Emulsion activity index ranged from 7 to 32m 2 /g, while foamability ranged from 100 to 155% for all hydrolysates. These improved functional properties demonstrate the potential to develop cricket protein hydrolysates as a source of functional alternative protein in food ingredient formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-09-15

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author).

  1. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author)

  2. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  3. Evaluation of left atrial function by multidetector computed tomography before left atrial radiofrequency-catheter ablation: Comparison of a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Florian; Ourednicek, Petr; Loewe, Christian; Richter, Bernhard; Goessinger, Heinz David; Gwechenberger, Marianne; Plank, Christina; Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Toepker, Michael; Lammer, Johannes; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation tool for evaluation of left atrial (LA) function by 64-slice multidetector-CT (MDCT). Methods and materials: In 33 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation a MDCT scan was performed before radiofrequency-catheter ablation. Atrial function (minimal volume (LAmin), maximal volume (LAmax), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF)) was evaluated by two readers using a manual and an automatic tool and measurement time was evaluated. Results: Automated LA volume segmentation failed in one patient due to low LA enhancement (103HU). Mean LAmax, LAmin, SV and EF were 127.7 ml, 93 ml, 34.7 ml, 27.1% by the automated, and 122.7 ml, 89.9 ml, 32.8 ml, 26.3% by the manual method with no significant difference (p > 0.05) and high Pearsons correlation coefficients (r = 0.94, r = 0.94, r = 0.82 and r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), respectively. The automated method was significantly faster (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability was low for both methods with Pearson's correlation coefficients between 0.98 and 0.99 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Evaluation of LA volume and function with 64-slice MDCT is feasible with a very low interobserver variability. The automatic method is as accurate as the manual method but significantly less time consuming permitting a routine use in clinical practice before RF-catheter ablation.

  4. Environmental filtering structures tree functional traits combination and lineages across space in tropical tree assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Mengesha; Cao, Min; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Yang, Jie

    2017-03-09

    Environmental filtering consistently shapes the functional and phylogenetic structure of species across space within diverse forests. However, poor descriptions of community functional and lineage distributions across space hamper the accurate understanding of coexistence mechanisms. We combined environmental variables and geographic space to explore how traits and lineages are filtered by environmental factors using extended RLQ and fourth-corner analyses across different spatial scales. The dispersion patterns of traits and lineages were also examined in a 20-ha tropical rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. We found that environmental filtering was detected across all spatial scales except the largest scale (100 × 100 m). Generally, the associations between functional traits and environmental variables were more or less consistent across spatial scales. Species with high resource acquisition-related traits were associated with the resource-rich part of the plot across the different spatial scales, whereas resource-conserving functional traits were distributed in limited-resource environments. Furthermore, we found phylogenetic and functional clustering at all spatial scales. Similar functional strategies were also detected among distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic distance is not necessarily a proxy for functional distance. In summary, environmental filtering considerably structured the trait and lineage assemblages in this species-rich tropical rainforest.

  5. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-08-03

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees.

  6. Transhepatic venous catheters for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on our findings, transhepatic hemodialysis catheters have proven to achieve good long-term functionality. A high level of maintenance is required to preserve patency, although this approach provides remarkably durable access for patients who have otherwise exhausted access options.

  7. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... operate to reopen the vessel. If you have diabetes or kidney disease, the kidneys may be injured ... impaired kidney function, especially those who also have diabetes, are not good candidates for this procedure. Patients ...

  8. Action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and exponential tropical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya

    2014-01-01

    We consider exponential tropical varieties, which appear as analogues of algebraic tropical varieties when we pass from algebraic varieties to varieties given by zero sets of systems of exponential sums. We describe a construction of exponential tropical varieties arising from the action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and show that every such variety can be obtained in this way. As an application, we deduce a criterion for the vanishing of the value of the mixed Monge-Ampère operator. This is an analogue and generalization of the criterion for the vanishing of the mixed volume of convex bodies

  9. Functional connectivity experiments reflect routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Noelia L; Hadley, Adam S; Robinson, W Douglas; Betts, Matthew G

    Translocation experiments, in which researchers displace animals and then monitor their movements to return home, are commonly used as tools to assess functional connectivity of fragmented landscapes. Such experiments are purported to have important advantages of being time efficient and of standardizing “motivation” to move across individuals. Yet, we lack tests of whether movement behavior of translocated birds reflects natural behavior of unmanipulated birds. We compared the routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird, the Green Hermit (Phaethornis guy), to that of experimentally translocated individuals. We tested for differences in site selection patterns during movement at two spatial scales (point and path levels). We also compared movement rates between treatments. Behaviors documented during translocation experiments reflected those observed during routine movements. At the point level, both translocated and non-translocated birds showed similar levels of preference for mature tropical forest. At the path level, step selection functions showed both translocated and non-translocated hummingbirds avoiding movement across non-forested matrix and selecting streams as movement corridors. Movement rates were generally higher during translocation experiments. However, the negative influence of forest cover on movement rates was proportionately similar in translocation and routine movement treatments. We report the first evidence showing that movement behavior of birds during translocation experiments is similar to their natural movement behavior. Therefore, translocation experiments may be reliable tools to address effects of landscape structure on animal movement. We observed consistent selection of landscape elements between translocated and non-translocated birds, indicating that both routine and translocation movement studies lead to similar conclusions regarding the effect of landscape structure and forest composition on functional connectivity

  10. Evaluation of left atrial function by multidetector computed tomography before left atrial radiofrequency-catheter ablation: Comparison of a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Florian, E-mail: florian.wolf@meduniwien.ac.a [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Medical Systems, Prague (Czech Republic); Loewe, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Richter, Bernhard; Goessinger, Heinz David; Gwechenberger, Marianne [Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Plank, Christina; Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Toepker, Michael; Lammer, Johannes [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation tool for evaluation of left atrial (LA) function by 64-slice multidetector-CT (MDCT). Methods and materials: In 33 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation a MDCT scan was performed before radiofrequency-catheter ablation. Atrial function (minimal volume (LAmin), maximal volume (LAmax), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF)) was evaluated by two readers using a manual and an automatic tool and measurement time was evaluated. Results: Automated LA volume segmentation failed in one patient due to low LA enhancement (103HU). Mean LAmax, LAmin, SV and EF were 127.7 ml, 93 ml, 34.7 ml, 27.1% by the automated, and 122.7 ml, 89.9 ml, 32.8 ml, 26.3% by the manual method with no significant difference (p > 0.05) and high Pearsons correlation coefficients (r = 0.94, r = 0.94, r = 0.82 and r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), respectively. The automated method was significantly faster (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability was low for both methods with Pearson's correlation coefficients between 0.98 and 0.99 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Evaluation of LA volume and function with 64-slice MDCT is feasible with a very low interobserver variability. The automatic method is as accurate as the manual method but significantly less time consuming permitting a routine use in clinical practice before RF-catheter ablation.

  11. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Ishida, Françoise Y.; Tng, David Y. P.; Laidlaw, Melinda J.; Santos, Rubens M.; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species’ hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios. PMID:26087009

  12. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M G Apgaua

    Full Text Available Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees. We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  13. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M G; Ishida, Françoise Y; Tng, David Y P; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Santos, Rubens M; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A M; Laurance, Susan G W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  14. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A.; Wagner, H.J.; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg

    2008-01-01

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary

  15. Low Functional β-Diversity Despite High Taxonomic β-Diversity among Tropical Estuarine Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Miranda, Julia Ramos; Hernandez, Domingo Flores; Mouillot, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic and functional β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities, through space and time. We found extremely low functional β-diversity values among fish communities (diversities, α and γ functional diversities were very close to the minimal value. These patterns were caused by two dominant functional groups which maintained a similar functional structure over space and time, despite the strong dissimilarity in taxonomic structure along environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that taxonomic and functional β-diversity deserve to be quantified simultaneously since these two facets can show contrasting patterns and the differences can in turn shed light on community assembly rules. PMID:22792395

  16. Functional traits help predict post-disturbance demography of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Olivier; Hérault, Bruno; Delcamp, Matthieu; Garnier, Éric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    How tropical tree species respond to disturbance is a central issue of forest ecology, conservation and resource management. We define a hierarchical model to investigate how functional traits measured in control plots relate to the population change rate and to demographic rates for recruitment and mortality after disturbance by logging operations. Population change and demographic rates were quantified on a 12-year period after disturbance and related to seven functional traits measured in control plots. The model was calibrated using a Bayesian Network approach on 53 species surveyed in permanent forest plots (37.5 ha) at Paracou in French Guiana. The network analysis allowed us to highlight both direct and indirect relationships among predictive variables. Overall, 89% of interspecific variability in the population change rate after disturbance were explained by the two demographic rates, the recruitment rate being the most explicative variable. Three direct drivers explained 45% of the variability in recruitment rates, including leaf phosphorus concentration, with a positive effect, and seed size and wood density with negative effects. Mortality rates were explained by interspecific variability in maximum diameter only (25%). Wood density, leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum diameter and seed size were not explained by variables in the analysis and thus appear as independent drivers of post-disturbance demography. Relationships between functional traits and demographic parameters were consistent with results found in undisturbed forests. Functional traits measured in control conditions can thus help predict the fate of tropical tree species after disturbance. Indirect relationships also suggest how different processes interact to mediate species demographic response.

  17. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Correlated evolution of thermal niches and functional physiology in tropical freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The role of ecology in phenotypic and species diversification is widely documented. Nonetheless, numerous nonadaptive processes can shape realized niches and phenotypic variation in natural populations, complicating inferences about adaptive evolution at macroevolutionary scales. We tested for evolved differences in thermal tolerances and their association with the realized thermal niche (including metrics describing diurnal and seasonal patterns of temperature extremes and variability) across a genus of tropical freshwater fishes reared in a standardized environment. There was limited evolution along the thermal niche axis associated with variation in maximum temperature and in upper thermal limits. In contrast, there was considerable diversification along the first major axis of the thermal niche associated with minimum temperatures and in lower thermal limits. Across our adaptive landscape analyses, 70% of species exhibited evidence of divergence in thermal niches. Most importantly, the first two major axes of thermal niche variation were significantly correlated with variation in lower thermal limits. Our results indicate adaptation to divergent thermal niches and adaptive evolution of related functional traits, and highlight the importance of divergence in lower thermal limits for the evolution of tropical biodiversity. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  20. Consequences of tropical land use for multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew D; Jochum, Malte; Mumme, Steffen; Haneda, Noor Farikhah; Farajallah, Achmad; Widarto, Tri Heru; Brose, Ulrich

    2014-10-28

    Our knowledge about land-use impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is mostly limited to single trophic levels, leaving us uncertain about whole-community biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. We analyse consequences of the globally important land-use transformation from tropical forests to oil palm plantations. Species diversity, density and biomass of invertebrate communities suffer at least 45% decreases from rainforest to oil palm. Combining metabolic and food-web theory, we calculate annual energy fluxes to model impacts of land-use intensification on multitrophic ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate a 51% reduction in energy fluxes from forest to oil palm communities. Species loss clearly explains variation in energy fluxes; however, this relationship depends on land-use systems and functional feeding guilds, whereby predators are the most heavily affected. Biodiversity decline from forest to oil palm is thus accompanied by even stronger reductions in functionality, threatening to severely limit the functional resilience of communities to cope with future global changes.

  1. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  2. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Adame, Patricia; Brandeis, Thomas J; Uriarte, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon sp...

  3. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Luisa [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ruiz, Juan-Carlos [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Depto. de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin [Facultad de Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Ensenada-Tijuana 3917, Ensenada, B.C. C.P 22860 (Mexico); Isoshima, Takashi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from {sup 60}Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C{sub 1s} and O{sub 1s} content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  4. Tropical Land Use Conversion Effects on Soil Microbial Community Structure and Function: Emerging Patterns and Knowledge Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2016-12-01

    Modifications in vegetation due to land use conversions (LUC) between primary forests, pasture, cropping systems, tree plantations, and secondary forests drive shifts in soil microbial communities. These microbial community alterations affect carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, aboveground biomass, and numerous other soil processes. Despite their importance, little is known about soil microbial organisms' response to LUC, especially in tropical regions where LUC rates are greatest. This project identifies current trends and uncertainties in tropical soil microbiology by comparing 56 published studies on LUC in tropical regions. This review indicates that microbial biomass and functional groups shifted in response to LUC, supporting demonstrated trends in changing soil carbon stocks due to LUC. Microbial biomass was greatest in primary forests when compared to secondary forests and in all forests when compared to both cropping systems and tree plantations. No trend existed when comparing pasture systems and forests, likely due to variations in pasture fertilizer use. Cropping system soils had greater gram positive and less gram negative bacteria than forest soils, potentially resulting in greater respiration of older carbon stocks in agricultural soils. Bacteria dominated primary forests while fungal populations were greatest in secondary forests. To characterize changes in microbial communities resulting from land use change, research must reflect the biophysical variation across the tropics. A chi-squared test revealed that the literature sites represented mean annual temperature variation across the tropics (p-value=0.66).

  5. Suprapubic catheter care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going back into your bladder. Try not to disconnect the catheter more than you need to. Keeping ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  6. Rethinking plant functional types in Earth System Models: pan-tropical analysis of tree survival across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. J.; Needham, J.; Xu, C.; Davies, S. J.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Giardina, C. P.; Condit, R.; Cordell, S.; Litton, C. M.; Hubbell, S.; Kassim, A. R. B.; Shawn, L. K. Y.; Nasardin, M. B.; Ong, P.; Ostertag, R.; Sack, L.; Tan, S. K. S.; Yap, S.; McDowell, N. G.; McMahon, S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycling is a function of the growth and survival of trees. Current model representations of tree growth and survival at a global scale rely on coarse plant functional traits that are parameterized very generally. In view of the large biodiversity in the tropical forests, it is important that we account for the functional diversity in order to better predict tropical forest responses to future climate changes. Several next generation Earth System Models are moving towards a size-structured, trait-based approach to modelling vegetation globally, but the challenge of which and how many traits are necessary to capture forest complexity remains. Additionally, the challenge of collecting sufficient trait data to describe the vast species richness of tropical forests is enormous. We propose a more fundamental approach to these problems by characterizing forests by their patterns of survival. We expect our approach to distill real-world tree survival into a reasonable number of functional types. Using 10 large-area tropical forest plots that span geographic, edaphic and climatic gradients, we model tree survival as a function of tree size for hundreds of species. We found surprisingly few categories of size-survival functions emerge. This indicates some fundamental strategies at play across diverse forests to constrain the range of possible size-survival functions. Initial cluster analysis indicates that four to eight functional forms are necessary to describe variation in size-survival relations. Temporal variation in size-survival functions can be related to local environmental variation, allowing us to parameterize how demographically similar groups of species respond to perturbations in the ecosystem. We believe this methodology will yield a synthetic approach to classifying forest systems that will greatly reduce uncertainty and complexity in global vegetation models.

  7. Catheter Occlusion in Home Infusion: The Influence of Needleless Connector Design on Central Catheter Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann

    Thrombotic catheter occlusion is a common complication associated with central venous catheters (CVCs). A wide variety of needleless connectors that differ greatly in design and function are available for use with CVCs; however, there are a limited number of studies comparing the catheter occlusion rate associated with differently designed needleless connectors. This retrospective observational study compared occlusion rates associated with a split-septum neutral-displacement needleless connector versus those of a solid-surface neutral-reflux needleless connector in patients undergoing home infusion therapy. The neutral-reflux needleless connector was associated with a significant reduction in occlusion rate and thrombolytic use versus the neutral-displacement needleless connector.

  8. Low Left Atrial Compliance Contributes to the Clinical Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation after Catheter Ablation in Patients with Structurally and Functionally Normal Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junbeom; Yang, Pil-sung; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Joung-Youn; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Hwang, Chun; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Stiff left atrial (LA) syndrome was initially reported in post-cardiac surgery patients and known to be associated with low LA compliance. We investigated the physiological and clinical implications of LA compliance by estimating LA pulse pressure (LApp) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and structurally and functionally normal heart. Among 1038 consecutive patients with LA pressure measurements before AF ablation, we included 334 patients with structurally and functionally normal heart (81.7% male, 54.1±10.6 years, 77.0% paroxysmal AF) after excluding those with hypertension, diabetes, and previous ablation or cardiac surgery. We measured LApp (peak-nadir LA pressure) at the beginning of the ablation procedure and compared the values with clinical parameters and the AF recurrence rate. AF patients with normal heart were younger and more frequently male and had paroxysmal AF, a lower body mass index, and a lower LApp compared to others (all p<0.05). Based on the median value, the low LA compliance group (LApp≥13 mmHg) had a smaller LA volume index and lower LA voltage (all p<0.05) compared to the high LA compliance group. During a mean follow-up of 16.7±11.8 months, low LA compliance was independently associated with two fold-higher risk of clinical AF recurrence (HR:2.202; 95%CI:1.077-4.503; p = 0.031). Low LA compliance, as determined by an elevated LApp, was associated with a smaller LA volume index and lower LA voltage and independently associated with higher clinical recurrence after catheter ablation in AF patients with structurally and functionally normal heart.

  9. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Omar López-Martínez

    Full Text Available Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity. Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering, whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning, and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position, whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and

  10. Dedicated radial ventriculography pigtail catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu

    2013-05-15

    A new dedicated cardiac ventriculography catheter was specifically designed for radial and upper arm arterial access approach. Two catheter configurations have been developed to facilitate retrograde crossing of the aortic valve and to conform to various subclavian, ascending aortic and left ventricular anatomies. The “short” dedicated radial ventriculography catheter is suited for horizontal ascending aortas, obese body habitus, short stature and small ventricular cavities. The “long” dedicated radial ventriculography catheter is suited for vertical ascending aortas, thin body habitus, tall stature and larger ventricular cavities. This new design allows for improved performance, faster and simpler insertion in the left ventricle which can reduce procedure time, radiation exposure and propensity for radial artery spasm due to excessive catheter manipulation. Two different catheter configurations allow for optimal catheter selection in a broad range of patient anatomies. The catheter is exceptionally stable during contrast power injection and provides equivalent cavity opacification to traditional femoral ventriculography catheter designs.

  11. STUDIES ON FUNCTIONAL BACTERIA OF INDONESIAN TROPICAL FOREST PLANTS FOR BIOREHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irnayuli R. Sitepu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest  degradations  have left vast amount  of damaged  and abandoned  lands in Indonesia.   In this paper, we present our approaches  in rehabilitation of adverse soils using functional  bacteria isolated from plant species of Indonesian tropical  rain forests. For these purposes,  we collected  bacteria  from various  bio-geo-climatically different forests and conducted bioassays to test these bacterial abilities in improving plant growth. Repeated seedling-based studies on Shorea spp., Alstonia scholaris, Acacia crassicarpa, and Agathis lorantifolia have revealed that many bacteria were able to promote plant growth at early stage in the nursery.  Various  plant responses towards  inoculations suggested that although  forest soils maintain  highly diverse and potent  bacteria,  it is necessary to select appropriate approaches to obtain optimum  benefits from these plant-bacteria interactions.  Our  ideas and futures  studies  for further  management  of these plant- bacteria interactions for biorehabilitation are also discussed.

  12. Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Galbraith, David R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Kruijt, Bart; Rowland, Lucy; Fisher, Rosie A.; Binks, Oliver J.; Sevanto, Sanna; Xu, Chonggang; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; McDowell, Nate G.; Meir, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem models based on heuristic water stress functions poorly predict tropical forest response to drought partly because they do not capture the diversity of hydraulic traits (including variation in tree size) observed in tropical forests. We developed a continuous porous media

  13. Biodiversity and functional regeneration during secondary succession in a tropical dry forest: from microorganisms to mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Espírito Santo, M. M.; Neves, F. S.; Valério, H. M.; Leite, L. O.; Falcão, L. A.; Borges, M.; Beirão, M.; Reis, R., Jr.; Berbara, R.; Nunes, Y. R.; Silva, A.; Silva, L. F.; Siqueira, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the changes on soil traits, forest structure and species richness and composition of multiple groups of organisms along secondary succession in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in southeastern Brazil. We defined three successional stages based in forest vertical and horizontal structure and age: early (18-25 years), intermediate (50-60 years) and late (no records of clearing). Five plots of 50 x 20 m were established per stage, and the following groups were sampled using specific techniques: rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza, trees and lianas, butterflies, ants, dung beetles, mosquitoes (Culicidae), birds and bats. We also determined soil chemical and physical characteristics and forest structure (tree height, density and basal area). Soil fertility increased along the successional gradient, and the same pattern was observed for all the forest structure variables. However, species richness and composition showed mixed results depending on the organism group. Three groups usually considered as good bioindicators of habitat quality did not differ in species richness and composition between stages: butterflies, ants and dung beetles. On the other hand, rizhobacteria and mycorrhiza differed both in species richness and composition between stages and may be more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions in TDFs. The other five groups differed either in species richness or composition between one or two pairs of successional stages. Although changes in abiotic conditions and forest structure match the predictions of classical successional models, the response of each group of organism is idiosyncratic in terms of diversity and ecological function, as a consequence of specific resource requirements and life-history traits. In general, diversity increased and functional groups changed mostly from early to intermediate-late stages, strengthening the importance of secondary forests to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity of TDFs.

  14. Constraints on physiological function associated with branch architecture and wood density in tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Campanello, Paula I; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Genoveva Gatti, M; Goldstein, Guillermo; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Woodruff, David R

    2008-11-01

    This study examined how leaf and stem functional traits related to gas exchange and water balance scale with two potential proxies for tree hydraulic architecture: the leaf area:sapwood area ratio (A(L):A(S)) and wood density (rho(w)). We studied the upper crowns of individuals of 15 tropical forest tree species at two sites in Panama with contrasting moisture regimes and forest types. Transpiration and maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR(max)) per unit leaf area declined sharply with increasing A(L):A(S), as did the ratio of ETR(max) to leaf N content, an index of photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. Midday leaf water potential, bulk leaf osmotic potential at zero turgor, branch xylem specific conductivity, leaf-specific conductivity and stem and leaf capacitance all declined with increasing rho(w). At the branch scale, A(L):A(S) and total leaf N content per unit sapwood area increased with rho(w), resulting in a 30% increase in ETR(max) per unit sapwood area with a doubling of rho(w). These compensatory adjustments in A(L):A(S), N allocation and potential photosynthetic capacity at the branch level were insufficient to completely offset the increased carbon costs of producing denser wood, and exacerbated the negative impact of increasing rho(w) on branch hydraulics and leaf water status. The suite of tree functional and architectural traits studied appeared to be constrained by the hydraulic and mechanical consequences of variation in rho(w).

  15. Catheter-associated UTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI; Health care-associated UTI; Catheter-associated bacteriuria; Hospital acquired-UTI Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed.

  17. Totally implantable venous catheters for chemotherapy: experience in 500 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wolosker

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Totally implantable devices are increasingly being utilized for chemotherapy treatment of oncological patients, although few studies have been done in our environment to analyze the results obtained from the implantation and utilization of such catheters. OBJECTIVE: To study the results obtained from the implantation of totally implantable catheters in patients submitted to chemotherapy. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective. SETTING: Hospital do Câncer A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 519 totally implantable catheters were placed in 500 patients submitted to chemotherapy, with preference for the use of the right external jugular vein. Evaluations were made of the early and late-stage complications and patient evolution until removal of the device, death or the end of the treatment. RESULTS: The prospective analysis showed an average duration of 353 days for the catheters. There were 427 (82.2% catheters with no complications. Among the early complications observed, there were 15 pathway hematomas, 8 cases of thrombophlebitis of the distal stump of the external jugular vein and one case of pocket infection. Among the late-stage complications observed, there were 43 infectious complications (0.23/1000 days of catheter use, 11 obstructions (0.06/1000 days of catheter use and 14 cases of deep vein thrombosis (0.07/1000 days of catheter use. Removal of 101 catheters was performed: 35 due to complications and 66 upon terminating the treatment. A total of 240 patients died while the catheter was functioning and 178 patients are still making use of the catheter. CONCLUSION: The low rate of complications obtained in this study confirms the safety and convenience of the use of totally implantable accesses in patients undergoing prolonged chemotherapy regimes.

  18. Functional traits, drought performance, and the distribution of tree species in tropical forests of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, L.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests occur along a rainfall gradient where annual amount, the length and intensity of dry season vary and water availability shapes therefore strongly the distribution of tree species. Annual rainfall in West Africa has declined at a rate of 4% per decade, and climate change

  19. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a 13C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:21753801

  20. Intravascular (catheter) MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Hurst, G.C.; Katz, D.E.; Dverk, J.L.; Wiesen, E.J.; Czerski, L.W.; Malaya, R.; Bellon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intravascular MR probes allow excellent spatial resolution and have the potential to detect arterial wall microstructure. Ultrasonic intravascular probes suggest that detailed morphologic information can assist clinical decision making. Catheter MR probes of 2--7 mm outside diameter (OD) were built of copper wire, Teflon, and parts from standard commercial catheters. The probes were connected to the surface coil receiver input of our Picker VISTA 2055HP 1.5-T imaging system. The extant (linear) body coil was used for transmit. Phantoms were constructed of coaxial glass MR tubes, filled with doped water. Watanabe rabbit aorta and human autopsy iliac artery specimens were examined within 4 hours of excision or stored by freezing. In vivo iliac arteries in dogs under general anesthesia were imaged, with percutaneous placement of the probe. Results are presented

  1. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, M.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Sevanto, S.; Xu, C.; Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Mencuccini, M.; McDowell, N. G.; Meir, P.

    2015-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of tropical forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions that are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites where community-level distributions of stem and leaf trait spectra (wood density, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content) are known. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, while accounting for the counteracting effects of increasing hydraulic path length and xylem conduit taper on whole-plant hydraulic resistance with increasing tree size. Using existing trait databases and additional meta-analyses from the rich literature on tropical tree ecophysiology, we obtained all necessary hydraulic parameters associated with xylem conductivity, vulnerability curves, pressure-volume curves, and hydraulic architecture (e.g., leaf-to-sapwood area ratios) as a function of the aforementioned traits and tree size. Incorporating these relationships in the model greatly improved the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as in response to drought, as determined by comparison with field observations and experiments. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of tropical forests.

  2. Carbon emission as a function of energy generation in hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazilian dry tropical biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Jean P.; Cimbleris, André C.P.; Santos, Marco A. dos; Rosa, Luiz P.; Abe, Donato; Tundisi, José G.; Stech, José L.; Barros, Nathan; Roland, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Most energy generation globally is fueled by coal and oil, raising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroelectric reservoirs are anthropogenic aquatic systems that occur across a wide geographical extent, and, in addition to their importance for energy production, they have the potential to release two important greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide and methane. We report results from an extensive study of eight hydroelectric reservoirs located in central and southeastern tropical Brazil. In the Brazilian dry tropical biome reservoirs, emissions (in tons of CO 2 Eq. per MW h) varied from 0.01 to 0.55, and decreased with reservoir age. Total emissions were higher in the reservoir lake when compared to the river downstream the dam; however, emissions per unit area, in the first kilometer of the river after the dam, were higher than that in the reservoir. The results showed, despite higher carbon emissions per energy production in the youngest reservoirs, lower emission from hydroelectric reservoirs from the studied region in relation to thermo electrical supply, fueled by coal or fossil fuel. The ratio emission of GHG per MWh produced is an important parameter in evaluating the service provided by hydroelectric reservoir and for energy planning policies. - Highlights: ► Hydroelectric reservoirs construction is growing worldwide. ► The effect of hydropower reservoir in the carbon cycle is dependent on environment characteristics. ► Carbon emissions per energy production are higher in the youngest tropical savannah reservoirs. ► Methane emissions decrease with reservoir age in tropical savannah reservoirs. ► In general, the effect of hydropower in the carbon cycle is lower than other energy sources

  3. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics. -- Highlights: ► Fish farm effluent discharge had moderate effects on stream water quality. ► Impacts on the benthic invertebrate community occurred at one stream. ► Whole-stream nitrate uptake showed no consistent impact pattern. ► Effluents caused considerable increases in stream ecosystem metabolism. ► Compliance with best management practices is important for small fish farms. -- Moderate water pollution by small fish farms caused considerable eutrophication responses in tropical headwater streams

  4. Life Cycle and Secondary Production of Four Species from Functional Feeding Groups in a Tropical Stream of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarappan Anbalagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on life strategies of species from functional feeding groups (FFGs found in a tropical stream of the Sirumalai hills, South India. We examined the life cycle and secondary production of species of shredders (Lepidostoma nuburagangai, scrapers (Baetis sp., collectors (Choroterpes alagarensis, and predators (Neoperla biseriata. In addition, we studied the assemblage structure of functional feeding groups. We found the collectors occupied the highest percentage, followed in turn by scrapers, predators, and shredders. The diversity of FFGs was higher at riffle areas and assemblage with stream substrates differing in each functional group. An asynchronous life cycle was observed for Baetis, C. alagarensis, and N. biseriata, while L. nuburagangai was found in four to five generations per year. We acquired data on secondary production of scraper species of Baetis, which reached the highest values among all investigated species. This observation stresses the importance of scrapers as playing a key role in converting coarse particulate organic matter to fine particulate organic matter with low or high abundances of shredder population and maintaining the food chain in tropical streams.

  5. Amino acid composition reveals functional diversity of zooplankton in tropical lakes related to geography, taxonomy and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren-Riaño, Nelson J; Guisande, Cástor; Shurin, Jonathan B; Jones, Natalie T; Barreiro, Aldo; Duque, Santiago R

    2018-04-16

    Variation in resource use among species determines their potential for competition and co-existence, as well as their impact on ecosystem processes. Planktonic crustaceans consume a range of micro-organisms that vary among habitats and species, but these differences in resource consumption are difficult to characterize due to the small size of the organisms. Consumers acquire amino acids from their diet, and the composition of tissues reflects both the use of different resources and their assimilation in proteins. We examined the amino acid composition of common crustacean zooplankton from 14 tropical lakes in Colombia in three regions (the Amazon floodplain, the eastern range of the Andes, and the Caribbean coast). Amino acid composition varied significantly among taxonomic groups and the three regions. Functional richness in amino acid space was greatest in the Amazon, the most productive region, and tended to be positively related to lake trophic status, suggesting the niche breadth of the community could increase with ecosystem productivity. Functional evenness increased with lake trophic status, indicating that species were more regularly distributed within community-wide niche space in more productive lakes. These results show that zooplankton resource use in tropical lakes varies with both habitat and taxonomy, and that lake productivity may affect community functional diversity and the distribution of species within niche space.

  6. Relationships between Community Level Functional Traits of Trees and Seedlings during Secondary Succession in a Tropical Lowland Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, XingHui; Zang, RunGuo; Huang, JiHong

    2015-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on functional traits focus exclusively on either seedlings or trees. Little knowledge exists on the relationships between community level functional traits of trees and seedlings during succession. Here, we examine variations of the community-level functional traits for trees and seedlings and their correlations along a secondary successional and environmental gradient in a tropical lowland rainforest after shifting cultivation. The results showed that the dynamic patterns in community level functional traits of seedlings were generally consistent with those of the trees during secondary succession. Compared with seedlings, community level traits for trees were less affected by abiotic factors during secondary succession. Correlations between community level functional traits of trees and seedlings were significant for: leaf dry matter content and leaf nitrogen concentration in the 18-year-old fallow; leaf chlorophyll content in the 30-year-old fallow; specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content and leaf nitrogen concentration in the 60-year-old fallow; and leaf nitrogen concentration in old growth. However, these traits except specific leaf area for the tree and seedling communities were all significantly correlated if all the successional stages were combined. Our results suggest that the correlations between community level functional traits of trees and those of seedlings depend on the actual traits and the successional stages examined. However, if all the four successional stages are combined, then four out of five of the community level functional traits for trees could be well predicted by those of the seedlings in the tropical lowland rain forest.

  7. Radiologic placement of Hickman catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, L.J.; Mauro, M.A.; Jaques, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Hickman catheter inserter has previously been predominantly accomplished surgically by means of venous cutdown or percutaneous placement in the operating room. The authors describe their method and results for 55 consecutive percutaneous placements of Hickman catheters in the interventional radiology suite. Complication rates were comparable to those for surgical techniques. Radiologic placement resulted in increased convenience, decreased time and cost of insertion, and super fluoroscopic control of catheter placement and any special manipulations. Modern angiographic materials provide safer access to the subclavian vein than traditional methods. The authors conclude that radiologic placement of Hickman catheters offers significant advantages over traditional surgical placement

  8. Continuous infusion versus intermittent flushing to prevent loss of function of peripheral intravenous catheters used for drug administration in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A; McIntosh, D; Davies, M W

    2005-10-19

    The use of peripheral intravenous cannulae is common in newborn babies. Many of them require an intravenous line only for medications and not for fluid. Currently there is little uniformity in methods used to maintain cannula patency. The object of this review was to determine which method was better for maintaining intravenous lines used in neonates for intravenous medication only: intermittent flushing or continuous infusion We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004), CINAHL (from 1982 to June 2004) and MEDLINE (from 1966 to June 2004) . Randomised controlled trials comparing continuous infusion to intermittent flushing to maintain patency of intravenous cannulas. Units of randomisation might include individual catheters or individual babies. Three reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Two studies were eligible for inclusion. In one study only one of our primary outcomes was available: the duration of cannula patency for the first cannula used per infant was slightly longer in the continuous infusion group, but not significantly so, with a mean difference of -4.3 hours (95% CI -18.2 to 9.7). In the second study, only one of our primary outcomes was available: the mean (SD) number cannulas used per infant in the first 48 hours was less in the intermittent flush group with a mean difference of -0.76 cannulas (95% CI -1.37 to -0.15). No results were available for any of our other primary outcomes: in the published report, results were reported per catheter rather than per infant, a number of infants received more than one intravenous catheter (39 infants received an unknown number of catheters). The overall duration of cannula patency was significantly longer in the intermittent flush group with a mean duration of patency in the intermittent flush group of 2.1 days (SD 1.0) compared with the continuous infusion group where the mean duration of patency was 1.0 days (SD 0

  9. Analyses of the influencing factors of soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest based on GeoChip 5.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Xu, Han; Li, Yide; Deng, Ye; Li, Diqiang; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-09-01

    To examine soil microbial functional gene diversity and causative factors in tropical rainforests, we used a microarray-based metagenomic tool named GeoChip 5.0 to profile it. We found that high microbial functional gene diversity and different soil microbial metabolic potential for biogeochemical processes were considered to exist in tropical rainforest. Soil available nitrogen was the most associated with soil microbial functional gene structure. Here, we mainly describe the experiment design, the data processing, and soil biogeochemical analyses attached to the study in details, which could be published on BMC microbiology Journal in 2015, whose raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE69171).

  10. Agile and Bright Intracardiac Catheters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pekař (Martin)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIntracardiac imaging catheters represent unique instruments to diagnose and treat a diseased heart. While there are imminent advances in medical innovation, many of the commercially available imaging catheters are outdated. Some of them have been designed more than 20 years and

  11. Functional diversity of fish in tropical estuaries: A traits-based approach of communities in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, C. A. B.; Mérigot, B.; Lucena-Frédou, F.; Ferreira, B. P.; Coxey, M. S.; Rezende, S. M.; Frédou, T.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental changes and human activities may have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. While biodiversity is traditionally based on species richness and composition, there is a growing concern to take into account functional diversity to assess and manage species communities. In spite of their economic importance, functional diversity quantified by a traits-based approach is still poorly documented in tropical estuaries. In this study, the functional diversity of fishes was investigated within four estuaries in Pernambuco state, northeast of Brazil. These areas are subject to different levels of human impact (e.g. mangrove deforestation, shrimp farming, fishing etc.) and environmental conditions. Fishes were collected during 34 scientific surveys. A total of 122 species were identified and 12 functional traits were quantified describing two main functions: food acquisition and locomotion. Fish abundance and functional dissimilarities data were combined into a multivariate analysis, the Double Principal Coordinate Analysis, to identify the functional typology of fish assemblages according to the estuary. Results showed that Itapissuma, the largest estuary with a wider mangrove forest area, differs from the other three estuaries, showing higher mean values per samples of species richness S and quadratic entropy Q. Similarly, it presented a different functional typology (the first two axes of the DPCoA account for 68.7% of total inertia, while those of a traditional PCA based solely on species abundances provided only 17.4%). Conversely, Suape, Sirinhaém, and to a lower extent Rio Formoso, showed more similarity in their diversity. This result was attributed to their predominantly marine influenced hydrological features, and similar levels of species abundances and in morphological traits. Overall, this study, combining diversity indices and a recent multivariate analysis to access species contribution to functional typology, allows to deepen

  12. The effect of elastic modulus on ablation catheter contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jon J; Linte, Cristian A; Rettmann, Maryam E; Sun, Deyu; Packer, Douglas L; Robb, Richard A; Holmes, David R

    2015-02-21

    Cardiac ablation consists of navigating a catheter into the heart and delivering RF energy to electrically isolate tissue regions that generate or propagate arrhythmia. Besides the challenges of accurate and precise targeting of the arrhythmic sites within the beating heart, limited information is currently available to the cardiologist regarding intricate electrode-tissue contact, which directly impacts the quality of produced lesions. Recent advances in ablation catheter design provide intra-procedural estimates of tissue-catheter contact force, but the most direct indicator of lesion quality for any particular energy level and duration is the tissue-catheter contact area, and that is a function of not only force, but catheter pose and material elasticity as well. In this experiment, we have employed real-time ultrasound (US) imaging to determine the complete interaction between the ablation electrode and tissue to accurately estimate contact, which will help to better understand the effect of catheter pose and position relative to the tissue. By simultaneously recording tracked position, force reading and US image of the ablation catheter, the differing material properties of polyvinyl alcohol cryogel [1] phantoms are shown to produce varying amounts of tissue depression and contact area (implying varying lesion quality) for equivalent force readings. We have shown that the elastic modulus significantly affects the surface-contact area between the catheter and tissue at any level of contact force. Thus we provide evidence that a prescribed level of catheter force may not always provide sufficient contact area to produce an effective ablation lesion in the prescribed ablation time.

  13. Functional strategies of tropical dry forest plants in relation to growth form and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Silvera, K.; Andrade, J. L.; Dawson, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) undergo a substantial dry season in which plant species must endure several months of drought. Although TDFs support a diverse array of plant growth forms, it is not clear how they vary in mechanisms for coping with seasonal drought. We measured organic tissue stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) across six plant growth forms including epiphytes, terrestrial succulents, trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, and oxygen (δ18O) of four growth forms, to distinguish among patterns of resource acquisition and evaluate mechanisms for surviving annual drought in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatan, Mexico. Terrestrial succulent and epiphyte δ13C was around -14‰, indicating photosynthesis through the Crassulacean acid metabolism pathway, and along with one C4 herb were distinct from mean values of all other growth forms, which were between -26 and -29‰ indicating C3 photosynthesis. Mean tissue δ15N across epiphytes was -4.95‰ and was significantly lower than all other growth forms, which had values around +3‰. Tissue N concentration varied significantly among growth forms with epiphytes and terrestrial succulents having significantly lower values of about 1% compared to trees, shrubs, herbs and vines, which were around 3%. Tissue C concentration was highest in trees, shrubs and vines, intermediate in herbs and epiphytes and lowest in terrestrial succulents. δ18O did not vary among growth forms. Overall, our results suggest several water-saving aspects of resource acquisition, including the absolute occurrence of CAM photosynthesis in terrestrial succulents and epiphytes, high concentrations of leaf N in some species, which may facilitate CO2 drawdown by photosynthetic enzymes for a given stomatal conductance, and potentially diverse N sources ranging from atmospheric N in epiphytes with extremely depleted δ15N values, and a large range of δ15N values among trees, many of which are legumes and dry season

  14. Correction of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ryong; Baek, Kyong Hee; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Rim, Hark

    1997-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance. Between November 1994 and March 1997, we performed 15 manipulations in 12 patients in whom a dual-cuff, straight Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheter had been implanted due to chronic renal failure. The causes of catheter malfunctioning were inadequate drainage of the dialysate(n=14) and painful dialysis(n=1). Under fluoroscopic guidance, adhesiolysis and repositioning of the malfunctioning catheter were performed with an Amplatz Super Stiff guidewire and the stiffener from a biliary drainage catheter. The results of procedures were categorized as either immediate or durable success, this latter being defined as adequate catheter function for at least one month after the procedure. Immediate success was achieved in 14 of 15 procedures (93%), and durable success in 7 of 15(47%). The mean duration of catheter function was 157 (range, 30 to 578) days. After manipulation, abdominal pain developed in eight patients and peritonitis in two, but with conservative treatment, these symptoms improved. The correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective means of restoring catheter function and may be an effective alternative to surgical reimplantation of the catheter, or hemodialysis

  15. Correction of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Ryong; Baek, Kyong Hee; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Rim, Hark [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance. Between November 1994 and March 1997, we performed 15 manipulations in 12 patients in whom a dual-cuff, straight Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheter had been implanted due to chronic renal failure. The causes of catheter malfunctioning were inadequate drainage of the dialysate(n=14) and painful dialysis(n=1). Under fluoroscopic guidance, adhesiolysis and repositioning of the malfunctioning catheter were performed with an Amplatz Super Stiff guidewire and the stiffener from a biliary drainage catheter. The results of procedures were categorized as either immediate or durable success, this latter being defined as adequate catheter function for at least one month after the procedure. Immediate success was achieved in 14 of 15 procedures (93%), and durable success in 7 of 15(47%). The mean duration of catheter function was 157 (range, 30 to 578) days. After manipulation, abdominal pain developed in eight patients and peritonitis in two, but with conservative treatment, these symptoms improved. The correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective means of restoring catheter function and may be an effective alternative to surgical reimplantation of the catheter, or hemodialysis.

  16. Relating belowground microbial composition to the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional trait distributions of trees in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, Albert; McGuire, Krista L; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Jones, F Andrew; Wright, Stuart Joseph; Turner, Benjamin L; Essene, Adam; Hubbell, Stephen P; Faircloth, Brant C; Fierer, Noah

    2015-12-01

    The complexities of the relationships between plant and soil microbial communities remain unresolved. We determined the associations between plant aboveground and belowground (root) distributions and the communities of soil fungi and bacteria found across a diverse tropical forest plot. Soil microbial community composition was correlated with the taxonomic and phylogenetic structure of the aboveground plant assemblages even after controlling for differences in soil characteristics, but these relationships were stronger for fungi than for bacteria. In contrast to expectations, the species composition of roots in our soil core samples was a poor predictor of microbial community composition perhaps due to the patchy, ephemeral, and highly overlapping nature of fine root distributions. Our ability to predict soil microbial composition was not improved by incorporating information on plant functional traits suggesting that the most commonly measured plant traits are not particularly useful for predicting the plot-level variability in belowground microbial communities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Fish functional groups in a tropical wetland of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Córdova-Tapia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The characterization of species' functional traits is a major step in the understanding and description of communities in natural habitats. The classification of species into functional groups is a useful tool to identify redundancy and uniqueness. We studied the fish community of a pristine freshwater wetland in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve by analysing two multidimensional functions: food acquisition and locomotion. We investigated changes in the functional group structure between habitats (permanent and temporary pools and seasons (dry and wet. Six functional groups with different ecological characteristics were detected, two of which had high functional redundancy and three of them were represented by single species with unique ecological functions. In permanent pools during the dry season, functional group richness and diversity were lower, while evenness was higher. During the wet season, all functional groups were detected and similar functional group structure was found between habitats. These results suggest an effect of environmental filtering during the dry season and niche complementarity during the wet season.

  18. Spurious and functional correlates of the isotopic composition of a generalist across a tropical rainforest landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirson Evan K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isotopic composition of generalist consumers may be expected to vary in space as a consequence of spatial heterogeneity in isotope ratios, the abundance of resources, and competition. We aim to account for the spatial variation in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of a generalized predatory species across a 500 ha. tropical rain forest landscape. We test competing models to account for relative influence of resources and competitors to the carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment of gypsy ants (Aphaenogaster araneoides, taking into account site-specific differences in baseline isotope ratios. Results We found that 75% of the variance in the fraction of 15N in the tissue of A. araneoides was accounted by one environmental parameter, the concentration of soil phosphorus. After taking into account landscape-scale variation in baseline resources, the most parsimonious model indicated that colony growth and leaf litter biomass accounted for nearly all of the variance in the δ15N discrimination factor, whereas the δ13C discrimination factor was most parsimoniously associated with colony size and the rate of leaf litter decomposition. There was no indication that competitor density or diversity accounted for spatial differences in the isotopic composition of gypsy ants. Conclusion Across a 500 ha. landscape, soil phosphorus accounted for spatial variation in baseline nitrogen isotope ratios. The δ15N discrimination factor of a higher order consumer in this food web was structured by bottom-up influences - the quantity and decomposition rate of leaf litter. Stable isotope studies on the trophic biology of consumers may benefit from explicit spatial design to account for edaphic properties that alter the baseline at fine spatial grains.

  19. A unique case of pulmonary artery catheter bleeding from the oximetry connection port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Rajagopalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery catheter is an invasive monitor usually placed in high-risk cardiac surgical patients to optimize the cardiac functions. We present this case of blood oozing from the oximetry connection port of the pulmonary artery catheter that resulted in the inability to monitor continuous cardiac output requiring replacement of the catheter. The cause of this abnormal bleeding was later confirmed to be due to a manufacturing defect.

  20. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  1. Adverse effects associated with ethanol catheter lock solutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A; Alang, Neha

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial lock therapy has been widely utilized internationally for the prevention and management of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. One of the agents commonly utilized for lock therapy is ethanol. However, a systematic review of adverse events associated with ethanol locks has not been published. PubMed was searched to collect articles published from May 2003 through March 2014. The bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. In vitro studies of the mechanical properties of catheters after ethanol immersion have revealed changes predominantly in polyurethane catheters and to a lesser extent in silicone and Carbothane catheters. An elution of polymers from polyurethane and Carbothane catheters has been observed at the ethanol concentrations used in ethanol lock therapy. Ethanol above a concentration of 28% leads to plasma protein precipitation. Ethanol locks were associated with catheter occlusion in 11 studies and independently increased the risk of thrombosis compared with heparin lock in a randomized trial. Six studies noted abnormalities in catheter integrity, including one case leading to catheter embolization. Of note, five of these studies involved silicone catheters. Ethanol lock use was associated with systemic side effects in 10 studies and possible side effects in one additional study. Four studies noted liver function test abnormalities, predominantly transaminase elevation, related to ethanol lock use. However, a prospective study did not find any difference in the risk of doubling the transaminase level above the normal range during use of ethanol locks compared with not using an ethanol lock. The use of ethanol locks has been associated with structural changes in catheters, as well as the elution of molecules from the catheter polymers. Clinical studies have revealed systemic toxicity, increased catheter occlusion and breaches in catheter integrity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  3. TDDFT calculations and photoacoustic spectroscopy experiments used to identify phenolic acid functional biomolecules in Brazilian tropical fruits in natura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Neto, M.; Agra, K. L.; Suassuna Filho, J.; Jorge, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of electronic transitions have been widely used to determine molecular structures. The excitation wavelengths and oscillator strengths obtained with the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3LYP in conjunction with the ADZP basis set are employed to simulate the UV-Vis spectra of eight phenolic acids. Experimental and theoretical UV-Vis spectra reported previously in the literature are compared with our results. The fast, sensitive and non-destructive technique of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is used to determine the UV-Vis spectra of four Brazilian tropical fresh fruits in natura. Then, the PAS along with the TDDFT results are for the first time used to investigate and identify the presence of phenolic acids in the fruits studied in this work. This theoretical method with this experimental technique show to be a powerful and cheap tool to detect the existence of phenolic acids in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and grains. Comparison with high performance liquid chromatography results, when available, is also carried out.

  4. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention.

  6. Parameterization of Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for Plant Functional Groups From Amazonian Seasonal Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Berry, J. A.; Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant communities exert strong influence over the magnitude of carbon and water cycling through ecosystems by controlling photosynthetic gas exchange and respiratory processes. Leaf-level gas exchange fluxes result from a combination of physiological properties, such as carboxylation capacity, respiration rates and hydraulic conductivity, interacting with environmental drivers such as water and light availability, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit, and temperature. Carbon balance models concerned with ecosystem-scale responses have as a common feature the description of eco-physiological properties of vegetation. Here we focus on the parameterization of ecophysiological gas-exchange properties of plant functional groups from a pristine Amazonian seasonally dry tropical rain forest ecosystem (FLONA-Tapajós, Santarém, PA, Brazil). The parameters were specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, photosynthetic carboxylation capacity, dark respiration rates, and stomatal conductance to water vapor. Our plant functional groupings were lianas at the top of the canopy, trees at the top of the canopy, mid-canopy trees and undestory trees. Within the functional groups, we found no evidence that leaves acclimated to seasonal changes in precipitation. However, there were life-form dependent distinctions when a combination of parameters was included. Top-canopy lianas were statistically different from top-canopy trees for leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance to water vapor, suggesting that lianas are more conservative in the use of water, causing a stomatal limitation on photosynthetic assimilation. Top-canopy, mid canopy and understory groupings were distinct for specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and photosynthetic carboxylation capacity. The recognition that plant

  7. Tropical Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew

    The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

  8. Tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  9. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.

    2017-07-01

    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  10. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. © 2015 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg{sup -1} and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}, the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant {>=}2 mg kg{sup -1}. There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils.

  12. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg -1 and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg -1 , the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant ≥2 mg kg -1 . There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils

  13. Analyses of the influencing factors of soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest based on GeoChip 5.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine soil microbial functional gene diversity and causative factors in tropical rainforests, we used a microarray-based metagenomic tool named GeoChip 5.0 to profile it. We found that high microbial functional gene diversity and different soil microbial metabolic potential for biogeochemical processes were considered to exist in tropical rainforest. Soil available nitrogen was the most associated with soil microbial functional gene structure. Here, we mainly describe the experiment design, the data processing, and soil biogeochemical analyses attached to the study in details, which could be published on BMC microbiology Journal in 2015, whose raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE69171.

  14. Effects of renal denervation with a standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter on blood pressure and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Maia, George Luiz Marques; de Queiroz Carreira, Maria Angela Magalhães; Kiuchi, Tetsuaki; Chen, Shaojie; Andrea, Bruno Rustum; Graciano, Miguel Luis; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of renal denervation with a standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter (SICAC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with refractory hypertension. Twenty-four patients were included and treated with a SICAC. Denervation was performed by a single operator following the standard technique. Patients included with CKD were on stages 2 (n = 16), 3 (n = 4), and 4 (n = 4). Data were obtained at baseline and monthly until 180th day of follow-up. Baseline values of blood pressure (mean ± SD) were 186 ± 19 mmHg/108 ± 13 mmHg in the office, and 151 ± 18 mmHg/92 ± 11 mmHg by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Office blood pressure values at 180th day after the procedure were 135 ± 13 mmHg/88 ± 7 mmHg (P < 0.0001, for both comparisons). The mean ABPM decreased to 132 ± 15 mmHg/85 ± 11 mmHg at the 180th day after the procedure (P < 0.0001 for systolic and P = 0.0015 for diastolic). Estimated glomerular filtration (mean ± SD) increased from baseline (64.4 ± 23.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) to the 180th day (85.4 ± 34.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P < 0.0001) of follow-up. The median urine albumin:creatinine ratio decreased from baseline (48.5, IQR: 35.8-157.2 mg/g) to the 180th day after ablation (ACR = 15.7, IQR: 10.3-34.2 mg/g, P = 0.0017). No major complications were seen. The procedure using SICAC seemed to be feasible, effective, and safe resulting in a better control of BP, a short-term increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and reduced albuminuria. Although encouraging, our data are preliminary and need to be validated in the long term.

  15. Environmental gradient favours functionally diverse macrobenthic community in a placer rich tropical bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.; Fernandes, C.E.G.

    .2. Functional Group. Macrofaunae were divided into func- tional groups based upon their trophic guilds, mobility, and habit type. Trophic groups used in this study were surface- deposit feeder (SDF), subsurface-deposit feeder (SSDF), filter feeder (FF), grazer... (GR), omnivore (O), and carnivore (C). Mobility categories included: mobile (M), discretely mobile (D), and sessile (S). Five categories of habit type were classified free living, that is, living on surface or actively burrowing (F), tubiculous (T...

  16. Infraclavicular versus axillary nerve catheters: A retrospective comparison of early catheter failure rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Michaela B; Sviggum, Hans P; Hanson, Andrew C; Stoike, David E; Martin, David P; Niesen, Adam D

    2018-05-01

    Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery. Retrospective study. Postoperative recovery unit and inpatient hospital floor. 328 patients who received IC or AX nerve catheters and underwent elbow surgery were identified by retrospective query of our institution's database. Data collected included unplanned catheter dislodgement, catheter replacement rate, postoperative pain scores, and opioid administration on postoperative day 1. Catheter failure was defined as unplanned dislodging within 24 h of placement or requirement for catheter replacement and evaluated using a covariate adjusted model. 119 IC catheters and 209 AX catheters were evaluated. There were 8 (6.7%) failed IC catheters versus 13 (6.2%) failed AX catheters. After adjusting for age, BMI, and gender there was no difference in catheter failure rate between IC and AX nerve catheters (p = 0.449). These results suggest that IC and AX nerve catheters do not differ in the rate of early catheter failure, despite differences in anatomic location and catheter placement techniques. Both techniques provided effective postoperative analgesia with median pain scores < 3/10 for patients following elbow surgery. Reasons other than rate of early catheter failure should dictate which approach is performed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. UK Renal Registry 15th annual report: Chapter 8 UK multisite peritoneal dialysis access catheter audit for first PD catheters 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Victoria; Pitcher, David; Braddon, Fiona; Fogarty, Damian; Wilkie, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central paradigm of effective peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an appropriate standard of PD catheter function. The aim of the project was to develop an effective national PD access audit which would identify an 'appropriate standard' of PD catheter function. The UK Renal Registry collected centre specific information on various PD access outcome measures including catheter functionality and post-insertion complications. The first PD access audit covering England, Northern Ireland and Wales was conducted during April to June 2012 looking at incident dialysis patients in 2011. Forty three data collection spreadsheets were returned from a total of 65 centres describing 917 PD catheter placements. The median age of PD patients was 61 years and 61.5% were male. The proportion of patients initiated on PD in comparison to HD was lower in socially deprived areas. There was a relationship between the timing of nephrology referral and the likelihood of surgical assessment regarding PD catheter placement. Patients with diabetes did not have higher rates of PD catheter failure or of early peritonitis. A comparative PD catheter audit has the potential to provide valuable information on an important patient related outcome measure and lead to an improvement in patient experience. There was wide variation between centres of PD catheter use for late presenting patients. Overall patients were more likely to get a PD catheter if they had been known to the service for more than 1 year. The percutaneous insertion technique was associated with a higher early (less than 2 week) peritonitis rate and more catheter flow problems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. An epidural catheter removal after recent percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery stenting: Epidural catheter and antiaggregation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in the presence of the epidural catheter is still controversial. It is well known that dual antiplatelet therapy is indicated for 12 months after the placement of drug-eluting stents (DES. Removal of an epidural catheter during that period is related to an increased risk of stent occlusion in case of discontinuation of platelet function inhibitors or, on the other hand, increased risk of epidural hematoma associated with neurological deficit if suppressed platelet function is still present. Case Report: Here we present a case of a 63-year-old man who was admitted to Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases Dedinje for elective aortic surgery. Before the induction, an epidural catheter was inserted at the Th10-Th11 epidural space. Uneventful surgery was performed under the combined epidural and general anesthesia. On the 2nd postoperative day, the patient sustained a ST depression myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention with DES placement, while epidural catheter was still in place. Dual antiplatelet therapy with 600mg of clopidogrel, 100 mg of acetilsalicylic acid (ASA and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH were started during the procedure. The next day, clopidogrel (75 mg and ASA (100 mg were continued as well as LMWH. The decision to remove the epidural catheter was made on the 9th postoperative day, after platelet aggregation assays were performed. Six hours after catheter removal the patient again received clopidogrel, ASA and LMWH. There were no signs of epidural hematoma. Conclusion: This case shows that point-of-care testing with platelet aggregation assays may be useful in increasing the margin of safety for epidural catheter removal during dual antiplatelet therapy.

  19. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  20. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Spinal canal extension of hyperalimentation catheter without neurologic sequela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasier, M.; Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock; Hassell, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt at placement of a left femoral vein hyperalimentation catheter resulted in entrance of the catheter into the spinal canal. Catheter location was documented by injections of nonionic contrast material into the catheter without neurologic sequellae. (orig.)

  2. Translumbar aortography by catheter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, B.; Honemeyer, U.; Meier-Duis, H.

    1982-01-01

    400 examinations performed during the last three years by TLA (only catheter technique) were subjected to critical analysis and studied particularly in respect to the rate of complications. We observed 13 complications (3.25%) of moderate severity, including 3 large hematomas (documented by CT), 3 paravasations and 7 dissections, but no fatal complication. Two (0.5%) of these complications had clinical evidence. The advantages of the catheter technique of TLA are described. Injections through rigid metal cannula should be avoided because of the high incidence of complications (mainly the increased risk of dissection). Downstream injection resulted in excellent visualization of peripheral occluding vascular disease. Upstream injection should be preferred to demonstrate the major abdominal arteries as well as supraceliac collateral circulation in the case of high Leriche syndrome. The low or intermediate puncture of the aorta is preferable to facilitate caudad direction of the catheter and to diminish the risk of damaging other vessels or puncturing an organ. (orig.) [de

  3. Two years experience with tunneled dialysis catheters in patients requiring haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, A.; Rana, A. I.; Ramzan, M.; Shah, R. A.; Mehmood, S. N.; Naseem, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look for survival rate and major reasons behind the failure of tunnelled dialysis catheters in patients on haemodialysis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Interventional Radiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, and comprised records of 100 consecutive subjects from a list of patients in whom tunnelled cuffed catheters were placed from February 2009 to January 2011 and were followed up for two years. Data was collected on a proforma from the hospital database and medical records of patients. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 122 catheters placed in 100 patients, 49(40.16%) were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 73(59.83%) catheters, 38(52%) had achieved their desired function, while 35(48%) failed to achieve the target duration. Among the reasons of catheter failure, infection was the commonest at 13(37.14%) with infection rate of 0.24 per 1000 catheter days. According to Kaplan Meier analysis, catheter survival rates at 60, 90 and 180 days were 89%, 77% and 64% respectively. Mean effective duration of catheter was 129+-117 days. Conclusion: Tunnelled dialysis catheters can be safely used as vascular access till the maturation of fistula and may be an alternative to Arterio-Venous Fistula or graft for long-term vascular access if indicated. (author)

  4. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  5. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest succession and increasing light scarcity during wet forest succession. Although similar trait spectra were observed among dry and

  6. FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS AFFECTING CATHETER AND TECHNIQUE SURVIVAL WITH PERMANENT SINGLE-LUMEN DIALYSIS CATHETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEESTER, J; VANHOLDER, R; DEROOSE, J; RINGOIR, S

    1994-01-01

    This long-term study on the outcome of permanent silicone single-lumen dialysis catheters consisted of 43 surgically inserted catheters in 33 patients. All catheters were attached to a pressure-pressure single-cannula dialysis system. Technique and catheter survival were 80 and 59% at 1 year, and 63

  7. Epidural Catheter Breakage In-Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali S Verma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 45yr old woman diagnosed with dysfunctional uterine bleeding and incisional hernia was planned for total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and mesh repair under combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia. Using VYGON® epidural catheter with its recommended introducer, the catheter was inserted but it snapped off at 11cm mark while positioning the catheter. After radiological confirmation, the neurosurgeon removed the catheter under general anaesthesia, which was followed by the scheduled surgery.

  8. Grupos funcionais de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais Functional clusters of tropical forage grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Santos Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as características morfogênicas e estruturais de gramíneas forrageiras com o objetivo de agrupá-las, de acordo com seu padrão de desenvolvimento, em seus respectivos grupos funcionais. As gramíneas foram plantadas em parcelas de 1,0 m² com 24 plantas, em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de fatores, reduzindo as variáveis em quatro fatores: desenvolvimento de massa, mortalidade de perfilhos, estádio de desenvolvimento e longevidade foliar. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de agrupamento por otimização de Tocher adotando-se a distância euclidiana média como medida básica de dissimilaridade. As gramíneas foram agrupadas da seguinte forma: Verão - grupo I (Xaraés, Massai, Mombaça e Marandu; grupo II (Gordura e Aruana; e grupo III (Jaraguá. Outono - grupo I (Mombaça, Massai, Xaraés, Marandu e Gordura; grupo II - (Jaraguá; e grupo III (Aruana. Possivelmente a maior participação do fator mortalidade de perfilhos na formação dos grupos no período de outono influenciou na reorganização dos grupos. Os padrões de desenvolvimento de massa dos diferentes grupos de gramíneas diferiram entre si quanto à forma de utilização dos recursos disponíveis. Houve mudança nos escores de todos os fatores com a mudança do período do verão para o outono. O agrupamento funcional comprova que gramíneas de gêneros e/ou espécies diferentes podem ser enquadradas em um mesmo grupo.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of forage grasses were evaluated in order to group them according to their pattern of development in their respective functional groups. Grasses were planted in plots of 1.0 m² with 24 plants in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Data were submitted to factor analysis, reducing the variables to four factors: mass development, tiller mortality, developmental stage and leaf longevity. The data

  9. Functional connectivity of coral reef fishes in a tropical seascape assessed by compound-specific stable isotope analyses

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological integrity of tropical habitats, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs, is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Many coral reef fish species are thought to use mangroves and seagrass beds as juvenile nurseries before migrating to coral reefs as adults. Identifying essential habitats and preserving functional linkages among these habitats is likely necessary to promote ecosystem health and sustainable fisheries on coral reefs. This necessitates quantitative assessment of functional connectivity among essential habitats at the seascape level. This thesis presents the development and first application of a method for tracking fish migration using amino acid (AA) δ13C analysis in otoliths. In a controlled feeding experiment with fish reared on isotopically distinct diets, we showed that essential AAs exhibited minimal trophic fractionation between consumer and diet, providing a δ13C record of the baseline isoscape. We explored the potential for geochemical signatures in otoliths of snapper to act as natural tags of residency in seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean. The δ13C values of otolith essential AAs varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk stable isotope analyses (SIA). Using our otolith AA SIA approach, we quantified the relative contribution of coastal wetlands and reef habitats to Lutjanus ehrenbergii populations on coastal, shelf and oceanic coral reefs in the Red Sea. L. ehrenbergii made significant ontogenetic migrations, traveling more than 30 km from juvenile nurseries to coral reefs and across deep open water. Coastal wetlands were important nurseries for L. ehrenbergii; however, there was significant plasticity in L. ehrenbergii juvenile habitat requirements. Seascape configuration played an important role in determining the functional connectivity of L

  10. Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity of Fleshy-Fruited Plants Are Positively Associated with Seedling Diversity in a Tropical Montane Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Muñoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic interactions between plants and animals can affect both plant and animal communities, and potentially leave imprints on plant demography. Yet, no study has simultaneously tested how trait variation in plant resources shapes the diversity of animal consumers, and how these interactions influence seedling recruitment. Here, we analyzed whether (i phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of fruiting plants were correlated with the corresponding diversity of frugivorous birds, and (ii whether phylogenetic diversity and functional identity of plant and bird communities influenced the corresponding diversity and identity of seedling communities. We recorded mutualistic interactions between fleshy-fruited plants and frugivorous birds and seedling communities in 10 plots along an elevational gradient in the Colombian Andes. We built a phylogeny for plants/seedlings and birds and measured relevant morphological plant and bird traits that influence plant-bird interactions and seedling recruitment. We found that phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of frugivorous birds were positively associated with the corresponding diversities of fruiting plants, consistent with a bottom-up effect of plants on birds. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of seedlings was related to the phylogenetic diversity of plants, but was unrelated to the phylogenetic diversity of frugivorous birds, suggesting that top-down effects of animals on seedlings were weak. Mean seed mass of seedling communities was positively associated with the mean fruit mass of plants, but was not associated with the mean avian body mass in the frugivore communities. Our study shows that variation in the traits of fleshy-fruited plants was associated with the diversity of frugivorous birds and affected the future trajectory of seedling recruitment, whereas the morphological traits of animal seed dispersers were unrelated to the phylogenetic and functional structure of

  11. Suicide by severing the arterio-venous subclavian dialysis catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Busuttil, A

    2006-02-01

    Haemodialysis access is an essential requirement for haemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal disease. The common forms are arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts in ante-cubital fossa, forearm and upper thigh. Sometimes temporary or immediate access is created via a subclavian catheter or internal jugular catheter. This report is on a 79-year-old man who was suffering from chronic renal failure with a non-functional peripheral AVF; he was being dialysed through a permanent subclavian catheter and he became depressed due to continuing deterioration of his health. He used the easily accessible haemodialysis site as the method of suicide by cutting the tube that connected with the main vessel in his chest and bled to death. This highlights the requirement to assess carefully the patient's mental state in those on chronic haemodialysis, even though very few similar fatal cases have been previously reported.

  12. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Lohbeck

    Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during

  13. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion, the LOCI-trial: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Sander M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a well-functioning dialysis catheter. Several complications, such as in- and outflow obstruction, peritonitis, exit-site infections, leakage and migration, can lead to catheter removal and loss of peritoneal access. Currently, different surgical techniques are in practice for PD-catheter placement. The type of insertion technique used may greatly influence the occurrence of complications. In the literature, up to 35% catheter failure has been described when using the open technique and only 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, a well-designed randomized controlled trial is lacking. Methods/Design The LOCI-trial is a multi-center randomized controlled, single-blind trial (pilot. The study compares the laparoscopic with the open technique for PD catheter insertion. The primary objective is to determine the optimum placement technique in order to minimize the incidence of catheter malfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary objectives are to determine the best approach to optimize catheter function and to study the quality of life at 6 months postoperatively comparing the two operative techniques. Discussion This study will generate evidence on any benefits of laparoscopic versus open PD catheter insertion. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR2878

  14. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Akins, E. William; Young, Ronald S.

    1997-01-01

    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  15. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall) of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian) forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian) forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods) and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because of

  16. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard David Mason-Romo

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because

  17. Dialysis catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome with patent vena cava: Long term efficacy of unilateral viatorr stent-graft avoiding catheter manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaretti, Pietro; Galli, Franco; Maramarco, Lorenzo Paplo; Corti, Riccardo; Leati, Giovanni; Fiorina, Ilaria; Maestri, Marcello [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Central venous catheters are the most frequent causes of benign central vein stenosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman on hemodialysis through a twin catheter in the right internal jugular vein, presenting with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome with patent SVC. The clinically driven endovascular therapy was conducted to treat the venous syndrome with a unilateral left brachiocephalic stent-graft without manipulation of the well-functioning catheter. The follow-up was uneventful until death 94 months later.

  18. Dialysis catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome with patent vena cava: Long term efficacy of unilateral viatorr stent-graft avoiding catheter manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaretti, Pietro; Galli, Franco; Maramarco, Lorenzo Paplo; Corti, Riccardo; Leati, Giovanni; Fiorina, Ilaria; Maestri, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are the most frequent causes of benign central vein stenosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman on hemodialysis through a twin catheter in the right internal jugular vein, presenting with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome with patent SVC. The clinically driven endovascular therapy was conducted to treat the venous syndrome with a unilateral left brachiocephalic stent-graft without manipulation of the well-functioning catheter. The follow-up was uneventful until death 94 months later.

  19. Applying a Dynamic Stomatal Optimization to Predict Shifts in the Functional Composition of Tropical Forests Under Increased Drought And CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. K.; Detto, M.; Pacala, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate prediction of tropical forest carbon fluxes is key to forecasting global climate, but forest responses to projected increases in CO2 and drought are highly uncertain. Here we present a dynamic optimization that derives the trajectory of stomatal conductance (gs) during drought, a key source of model uncertainty, from plant and soil water relations and the carbon economy of the plant hydraulic system. This optimization scheme is novel in two ways. First, by accounting for the ability of capacitance (i.e., the release of water from plant storage tissue; C) to buffer evaporative water loss and maintain gs during drought, this optimization captures both drought tolerant and avoidant hydraulic strategies. Second, by determining the optimal trajectory of plant and soil water potentials, this optimization quantifies species' impacts on the water available to competing plants. These advances allowed us to apply this optimization across the range of physiology trait values observed in tropical species to evaluate shifts in the competitively optimal trait values, or evolutionarily stable hydraulic strategy (ESS), under increased drought and CO2. Increasing the length of the dry season shifted the ESS towards more drought tolerant, rather than avoidant, trait values, and these shifts were larger for longer individual drought periods (i.e., more consecutive days without rainfall), even if the total time spent in drought was the same. Concurrently doubling the CO2 level reduced the magnitude of these shifts and slightly favored drought avoidant strategies under wet conditions. Overall, these analyses predicted that short, frequent droughts would allow elevated CO2 to shift the functional composition in tropical forests towards more drought avoidant species, while infrequent but long drought periods would shift the ESS to more drought tolerant trait values, despite increased CO2. Overall, these analyses quantified the impact of physiology traits on plant performance

  20. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Bouskill; Tana E. Wood; Richard Baran; Zhao Hao; Zaw Ye; Ben P. Bowen; Hsiao Chien Lim; Peter S. Nico; Hoi-Ying Holman; Benjamin Gilbert; Whendee L. Silver; Trent R. Northen; Eoin L. Brodie

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however...

  1. Air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for urethral pressure measurement: a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Burkhard, Fiona C; Kessler, Thomas M

    2008-09-01

    We determined and compared urethral pressure measurements using air charged and microtip catheters in a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial. A consecutive series of 64 women referred for urodynamic investigation underwent sequential urethral pressure measurements using an air charged and a microtip catheter in randomized order. Patients were blinded to the type and sequence of catheter used. Agreement between the 2 catheter systems was assessed using the Bland and Altman 95% limits of agreement method. Intraclass correlation coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest were 0.97 and 0.93, and for functional profile length they were 0.9 and 0.78, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Lin's concordance coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters were r = 0.82 and rho = 0.79 for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest, and r = 0.73 and rho = 0.7 for functional profile length, respectively. When applying the Bland and Altman method, air charged catheters gave higher readings than microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (mean difference 7.5 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (mean difference 1.8 mm). There were wide 95% limits of agreement for differences in maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (-24.1 to 39 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (-7.7 to 11.3 mm). For urethral pressure measurement the air charged catheter is at least as reliable as the microtip catheter and it generally gives higher readings. However, air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for clinical purposes because of insufficient agreement. Hence, clinicians should be aware that air charged and microtip catheters may yield completely different results, and these differences should be acknowledged during clinical decision making.

  2. Catheter-based intervention for symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation and very poor left ventricular systolic function - Safe but no room for complacency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bourantas, Christos V; Chan, Pak Hei; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Gustafsson, Fin; Clark, Andrew L; Price, Susanna; Mario, Carlo Di; Moat, Neil; Alamgir, Farqad; Estevez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Søndergaard, Lars; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-11-26

    Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Their symptoms and prognosis worsen with increasing severity of MR. Percutaneous MitraClip(®) can be used safely to reduce the severity of MR even in patients with advanced heart failure and is associated with improved symptoms, quality of life and exercise tolerance. However, a few patients with very poor left ventricular systolic function may experience significant haemodynamic disturbance in the peri-procedural period. We present three such patients, highlighting some of the potential problems encountered and discuss their possible pathophysiological mechanisms and safety measures.

  3. More than just a urinary catheter — Haemorrhage control by using a Foley catheter in a penetrating aortic root injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Elmoghrabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of great vessel injuries in thoracic trauma is reported at 0.3–10%, predominantly due to a penetrating mechanism. Thoracic aortic injuries, more specifically those within proximity of the aortic root are challenging to manage and unceasing bleeding hampers adequate visualisation for performing repair. We report a case of a 31-year-old male that presented to the emergency department 1 h after sustaining a stab wound injury within proximity of the left upper sternal border. Vital signs were stable on presentation. Physical examination revealed a 1.5 cm laceration in the 3rd intercostal space. Chest X-ray revealed a small left pneumothorax, FAST scan was negative, and CT of the chest revealed left sided haemopneumothorax and haemopericardium. The patient was emergently transferred to the operating room where median thoracotomy was performed. A significant amount of bleeding was observed originating from a 1 cm laceration of the aortic root. Bleeding was controlled using a Foley catheter after unsuccessful attempts of digital compression, and the laceration was repaired using pledgeted sutures. Postoperative echocardiography and CT scan of the chest revealed normal cardiac functions with resolution of haemopericardium and haemopneumothorax, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition. High index of suspicion should be maintained for injury to the great vessels in patients with penetrating chest injuries, despite apparent haemodynamic stability. In this case, balloon tamponade using a Foley catheter served as a quick and simple technique that resulted in an almost bloodless field, facilitating adequate visualisation for definitive repair. Although the use of this technique has been previously described, this report serves as a reminder that a Foley catheter can be successfully used for balloon catheter tamponade in injuries to the aortic root. Keywords: Aortic root, Injury, Foley's catheter, Balloon catheter, Aorta

  4. SURVIVAL OF CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS CATHETERS: AN EVALUATION OF SURGICAL AND NON-SURGICAL FACTORS (SINGLE CENTER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keshvari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis is an established form of renal replacement therapy used in many patients with end-stage renal disease. The key to a successful chronic peritoneal dialysis is a permanent and safe access to the peritoneal cavity. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the catheter survival and its related factors in Imam Khomeini Hospital. A total of 80 catheters were inserted into 69 patients (52 men and 28 women with end-stage chronic renal failure during a period of 84 months. Retrospectively the correlation between catheter survival (overall and event free with demographic factors (sex and age, surgical factors (surgeons and surgical methods, nephrologic factors (the causes of peritoneal dialysis selection and the history of hemodialysis and peritonitis factors (the history and number of peritonitis has been evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 48.35 years (16 to 79 years. The overall survival of catheters or the probability of having a functioning catheter after one, two and three years was 53%, 41%, 22%, respectively. The event free survival of the catheter or the probability of having a functioning catheter without any problems after one year was 14%. It has been found out that among all factors in this study only history of hemodialysis had statistically significant effect on the overall survival of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter (P = 0.04. It seems that the overall survival of catheters is better when CAPD is started before any other attempts for hemodialysis.

  5. Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

    2014-07-01

    Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance.

  6. Reinnervation following catheter-based radio-frequency renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Nishi, Erika E; Yao, Song T; Ramchandra, Rohit; Lambert, Gavin W; Schlaich, Markus P; May, Clive N

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? Does catheter-based renal denervation effectively denervate the afferent and efferent renal nerves and does reinnervation occur? What advances does it highlight? Following catheter-based renal denervation, the afferent and efferent responses to electrical stimulation were abolished, renal sympathetic nerve activity was absent, and levels of renal noradrenaline and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and calcitonin gene-related peptide were significantly reduced. By 11 months after renal denervation, both the functional responses and anatomical markers of afferent and efferent renal nerves had returned to normal, indicating reinnervation. Renal denervation reduces blood pressure in animals with experimental hypertension and, recently, catheter-based renal denervation was shown to cause a prolonged decrease in blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. The randomized, sham-controlled Symplicity HTN-3 trial failed to meet its primary efficacy end-point, but there is evidence that renal denervation was incomplete in many patients. Currently, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of catheter-based renal denervation and the extent of reinnervation. We assessed the effectiveness of renal nerve denervation with the Symplicity Flex catheter and the functional and anatomical reinnervation at 5.5 and 11 months postdenervation. In anaesthetized, non-denervated sheep, there was a high level of renal sympathetic nerve activity, and electrical stimulation of the renal nerve increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate (afferent response) and caused renal vasoconstriction and reduced renal blood flow (efferent response). Immediately after renal denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity and the responses to electrical stimulation were absent, indicating effective denervation. By 11 months after denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity was present and the responses to electrical stimulation

  7. Tropical Agro-Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Tropical Agro-Sciences Division has two functions: conduct research on the impact of air pollution on tropical agricultural and to provide training to UPR graduate students and visiting scientists. Since the reorientation of the Center's interests under ERDA, the Division has directed its research activities, with particular emphasis on the effects of atmospheric pollution on tropical agriculture in the Guayanilla-Penuelas region, which has a fossil-fuel power plant, petroleum refineries, and associated industries. This new area of research is important to ERDA because the knowledge gained regarding the effects of air pollution related to energy technology on the agricultural environment and productivity will be useful in planning future energy developments. Information about the potential harm of air pollutants to man through the food chain and about ways of alleviating their impact on agriculture are of practical importance. Studies of the mechanisms involved in pollution injury, protection, and tolerance are of basic significance

  8. Lung abscess; Percutaneous catheter therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, H.K. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kang, M.W. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, J.M. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Yang, W.J. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Shinn, K.S. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Bahk, Y.W. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1993-07-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.).

  9. CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER AS A VASCULAR APPROACH TO HEMODIALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Djordjevic

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of the central venous catheter (CVC as a temporary orpermanent vascular approach to hemodialysis has been practiced in our Center since1994. So far 30 (12,6% patients have been thus treated. The primary application hasbeen done in 25 patients, namely: the first making of the A V fistula has been done in16, the ABT in 6, while the vascular approach correction in 3 patients. The secondaryapplication has been done in 5 patients. The infection episode incidence concerningthe CVC application is 20 infections per 1.000 patients. This is the upper limitaccording to the data given in the literature (5, rang 3-20. The average duration of thecatheter is 21 + - 13 days (rang 1-47. Two-volume catheters have been used for ajugular approach though less often for a femoral one. The unsuccessful placing due tothe catheter thrombosis has occurred in 4 patients, the catheter drop-out and itsreplacing have been done in 2 patients, while no replacement has happened in onečaše. The treatment has been stopped in one patient. Tn four patients the cerebrovascularinsult has happened after placing the CVC. The mortality rate is 26,6%,that is, K patients, namely: 4 due to cerebrovascular insult, one due to lung emboly,one due to heart weakness and one due to the sepsis from the V fistula. One patientdied at home for unknown reason. A high infection episode incidence rate is related toinadequate patients' placing so that their location in the rooms for intensive care is away of reducing it. It is necessary to provide for general aseptic procedure at work aswell as for betterment of the accompanying procedures (hemoculture, antibiograms,sterilization in order to maintain a safe catheter function.

  10. Laser welding of balloon catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Aidan J.

    2003-03-01

    The balloon catheter is one of the principal instruments of non-invasive vascular surgery. It is used most commonly for angioplasty (and in recent years for delivering stents) at a multitude of different sites in the body from small arteries in the heart to the bilary duct. It is composed of a polymer balloon that is attached to a polymer shaft at two points called the distal and proximal bonds. The diverse utility of balloon catheters means a large range of component sizes and materials are used during production; this leads to a complexity of bonding methods and technology. The proximal and distal bonds have been conventionally made using cyanoacrylate or UV curing glue, however with performance requirements of bond strength, flexibility, profile, and manufacturing costs these bonds are increasingly being made by welding using laser, RF, and Hot Jaw methods. This paper describes laser welding of distal and proximal balloon bonds and details beam delivery, bonding mechanisms, bond shaping, laser types, and wavelength choice.

  11. 21 CFR 880.5200 - Intravascular catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.5200 Intravascular catheter. (a) Identification. An intravascular catheter is a device that consists of a slender tube and any necessary connecting fittings and that is inserted into the patient's vascular system for short term use (less than 30 days) to sample blood, monitor blood pressure, or...

  12. Urethral catheters: can we reduce use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, P.J. van den; Wille, J.C.; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Perenboom, R.J.M.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Nielen, A.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are the main cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections. It can be expected that reduction of the use of urinary catheters will lead to decreased numbers of urinary tract infection. The efficacy of an intervention programme to improve adherence to

  13. Phytoplankton composition and functional groups in a tropical humic coastal lagoon, Brazil Composição e grupos funcionais do fitoplâncton de uma lagoa costeira tropical húmica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Alves-de-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the composition and functional groups of the phytoplankton from Comprida lagoon, a tropical humic coastal Lagoon located in Southeast Brazil. A total of 28 taxa was found, distributed in eight taxonomic divisions as follows: 26% Heterokontophyta, 21% Chlorophyta, 21% Cyanophyta, 14% Bacillariophyta, 14% Cryptophyta, and 4% Prymnesiophyta. Twenty-three taxa were identified at the specific and infraspecific levels, from which four are new records for Brazil and two for Rio de Janeiro State. Phytoplankton of the Comprida lagoon was comprised of several flagellates, but also eukaryote and prokaryote picoplankton, filamentous cyanobacteria and several diatoms. The biomass was lower than that found in other lacustrine systems, and showed remarkable temporal variability. According to the functional-group approach, the populations formed eight groups: Q, Z, E, N, X3, X2, S1 and Y, most typical of oligo- or mesotrophic systems, tolerant to nutrient deficiency and sensitive to increased pH.Este trabalho apresenta a composição e os grupos funcionais do fitoplâncton da lagoa Comprida, uma lagoa costeira tropical húmica localizada no sudeste brasileiro. Foi registrado um total de 28 táxons distribuídos em oito divisões taxonômicas: 26% Heterokontophyta, 21% Chlorophyta, 21% Cyanophyta, 14% Bacillariophyta, 14% Cryptophyta e 4% Prymnesiophyta. Vinte e três táxons foram identificados em nível específico e intraespecíficos, dos quais quatro constituem novos registros para o Brasil e dois para o estado do Rio de Janeiro. O fitoplâncton da lagoa Comprida esteve constituído por alguns flagelados, mas também por organismos picoplanctônicos eucariontes e procariontes, cianobactérias filamentosas e algumas diatomáceas. A biomassa foi menor que a comumente encontrada em outros sistemas lacustres e mostrou uma notável variabilidade temporal. Em relação aos grupos funcionais, as populações foram agrupadas em oito grupos: Q, Z

  14. The efficacy of noble metal alloy urinary catheters in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanood Ahmed Aljohi

    2016-01-01

    Results: A 90% relative risk reduction in the rate of CAUTI was observed with the noble metal alloy catheter compared to the standard catheter (10 vs. 1 cases, P = 0.006. When considering both catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria and CAUTI, the relative risk reduction was 83% (12 vs. 2 cases, P = 0.005. In addition to CAUTI, the risk of acquiring secondary bacteremia was lower (100% for the patients using noble metal alloy catheters (3 cases in the standard group vs. 0 case in the noble metal alloy catheter group, P = 0.24. No adverse events related to any of the used catheters were recorded. Conclusion: Results from this study revealed that noble metal alloy catheters are safe to use and significantly reduce CAUTI rate in ICU patients after 3 days of use.

  15. Light requirements of Australian tropical vs. cool-temperate rainforest tree species show different relationships with seedling growth and functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Christopher H; Kelly, Jeff W G; Gleason, Sean M

    2013-03-01

    A trade-off between shade tolerance and growth in high light is thought to underlie the temporal dynamics of humid forests. On the other hand, it has been suggested that tree species sorting on temperature gradients involves a trade-off between growth rate and cold resistance. Little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact. Seedlings of Australian tropical and cool-temperate rainforest trees were grown in glasshouse environments to compare growth versus shade-tolerance trade-offs in these two assemblages. Biomass distribution, photosynthetic capacity and vessel diameters were measured in order to examine the functional correlates of species differences in light requirements and growth rate. Species light requirements were assessed by field estimation of the light compensation point for stem growth. Light-demanding and shade-tolerant tropical species differed markedly in relative growth rates (RGR), but this trend was less evident among temperate species. This pattern was paralleled by biomass distribution data: specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) of tropical species were significantly positively correlated with compensation points, but not those of cool-temperate species. The relatively slow growth and small SLA and LAR of Tasmanian light-demanders were associated with narrow vessels and low potential sapwood conductivity. The conservative xylem traits, small LAR and modest RGR of Tasmanian light-demanders are consistent with selection for resistance to freeze-thaw embolism, at the expense of growth rate. Whereas competition for light favours rapid growth in light-demanding trees native to environments with warm, frost-free growing seasons, frost resistance may be an equally important determinant of the fitness of light-demanders in cool-temperate rainforest, as seedlings establishing in large openings are exposed to sub-zero temperatures that can occur throughout most of the year.

  16. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  17. Attitudes Towards Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians´ attitudes towards catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish...... cardiologists towards catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes towards catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between...... attitudes towards ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases...

  18. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  19. Cardiac pacemaker dysfunction in children after thoracic drainage catheter manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobdell, K W; Walters, H L; Hudson, C; Hakimi, M

    1997-05-01

    Two children underwent placement of permanent, epicardial-lead, dual-chamber, unipolar pacemaker systems for complete heart block. Postoperatively, both patients demonstrated subcutaneous emphysema-in the area of their pulse generators-temporally related to thoracic catheter manipulation. Acutely, each situation was managed with manual compression of the pulse generator, ascertaining appropriate pacemaker sensing and pacing. Maintenance of compression with pressure dressings, vigilant observation/monitoring, and education of the care givers resulted in satisfactory pacemaker function without invasive intervention.

  20. Development of a force-reflecting robotic platform for cardiac catheter navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Woo; Choi, Jaesoon; Pak, Hui-Nam; Song, Seung Joon; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Seung Min; Sun, Kyung

    2010-11-01

    Electrophysiological catheters are used for both diagnostics and clinical intervention. To facilitate more accurate and precise catheter navigation, robotic cardiac catheter navigation systems have been developed and commercialized. The authors have developed a novel force-reflecting robotic catheter navigation system. The system is a network-based master-slave configuration having a 3-degree of freedom robotic manipulator for operation with a conventional cardiac ablation catheter. The master manipulator implements a haptic user interface device with force feedback using a force or torque signal either measured with a sensor or estimated from the motor current signal in the slave manipulator. The slave manipulator is a robotic motion control platform on which the cardiac ablation catheter is mounted. The catheter motions-forward and backward movements, rolling, and catheter tip bending-are controlled by electromechanical actuators located in the slave manipulator. The control software runs on a real-time operating system-based workstation and implements the master/slave motion synchronization control of the robot system. The master/slave motion synchronization response was assessed with step, sinusoidal, and arbitrarily varying motion commands, and showed satisfactory performance with insignificant steady-state motion error. The current system successfully implemented the motion control function and will undergo safety and performance evaluation by means of animal experiments. Further studies on the force feedback control algorithm and on an active motion catheter with an embedded actuation mechanism are underway. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Venous catheter-related infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Carmen; Almirante, Benito

    2014-02-01

    Venous catheter-related infections are a problem of particular importance, due to their frequency, morbidity and mortality, and because they are potentially preventable clinical processes. At present, the majority of hospitalized patients and a considerable number of outpatients are carriers of these devices. There has been a remarkable growth of knowledge of the epidemiology of these infections, the most appropriate methodology for diagnosis, the therapeutic and, in particular, the preventive strategies. Multimodal strategies, including educational programs directed at staff and a bundle of simple measures for implementation, applied to high-risk patients have demonstrated great effectiveness for their prevention. In this review the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the therapeutic and preventive aspects of these infections are updated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiofrequency catheter ablation: A study concerning electrode configuration, lesion size and potential complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfinsen, Ole-Gunnar

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate different methods of increasing the lesion size in radiofrequency catheter ablation, which is an important issue as the clinical indications for RF ablation are extended. The safety aspects of RF ablation are also studied, both with standard catheters and with experimental ones. The studies have been performed in vitro, in an animal model and in patients. The results are presented in 5 papers with titles of: 1) 'Radiofrequency catheter ablation of procine right atrium: Increased lesion size with bipolar two-catheter technique compared to unipolar application in vitro and in vivo. 2) Bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation creates confluent lesions at a larger interelectrode spacing than does unipolar ablation from two electrodes in porcine heart. 3) Temperature-controlled radiofrequency catheter ablation with a 10 mm tip electrode creates larger lesions without charring in the porcine heart. 4) Radiofrequency catheter ablation in vitro: The difference between tissue and catheter tip temperature depends on location of the temperature sensor. 5) The activation of platelet function, coagulation and fibrinolysis during radiofrequency catheter ablation in heparin zed patients. The main conclusions are: 1) Large RF lesions may be created either by using larger electrodes and more power in the unipolar mode, or by changing the electrode configuration and thereby the geometry of the electrical field during RF current delivery. Both the 10 mm unipolar, the dielectrode and the bipolar mode showed feasible in porcine IVC-TV isthmus and right atrial free wall ablations, but the gain in lesion length was most pronounced in the bipolar mode. 2) Crater formation and intramural haemorrhages may complicate RF ablation using high current density in the right atrial free wall. In our study this was observed with 10 mm unipolar and bipolar two-catheter ablation. Phrenic nerve injury and lesions of the adjacent pulmonary tissue are risks related to

  3. Radiofrequency catheter ablation: A study concerning electrode configuration, lesion size and potential complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfinsen, Ole-Gunnar

    1999-07-01

    The study was performed to evaluate different methods of increasing the lesion size in radiofrequency catheter ablation, which is an important issue as the clinical indications for RF ablation are extended. The safety aspects of RF ablation are also studied, both with standard catheters and with experimental ones. The studies have been performed in vitro, in an animal model and in patients. The results are presented in 5 papers with titles of: 1) 'Radiofrequency catheter ablation of procine right atrium: Increased lesion size with bipolar two-catheter technique compared to unipolar application in vitro and in vivo. 2) Bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation creates confluent lesions at a larger interelectrode spacing than does unipolar ablation from two electrodes in porcine heart. 3) Temperature-controlled radiofrequency catheter ablation with a 10 mm tip electrode creates larger lesions without charring in the porcine heart. 4) Radiofrequency catheter ablation in vitro: The difference between tissue and catheter tip temperature depends on location of the temperature sensor. 5) The activation of platelet function, coagulation and fibrinolysis during radiofrequency catheter ablation in heparin zed patients. The main conclusions are: 1) Large RF lesions may be created either by using larger electrodes and more power in the unipolar mode, or by changing the electrode configuration and thereby the geometry of the electrical field during RF current delivery. Both the 10 mm unipolar, the dielectrode and the bipolar mode showed feasible in porcine IVC-TV isthmus and right atrial free wall ablations, but the gain in lesion length was most pronounced in the bipolar mode. 2) Crater formation and intramural haemorrhages may complicate RF ablation using high current density in the right atrial free wall. In our study this was observed with 10 mm unipolar and bipolar two-catheter ablation. Phrenic nerve injury and lesions of the adjacent pulmonary tissue are risks

  4. Radiofrequency catheter oblation in atrial flutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ji; Wang Heping; Xu Jian; Liu Fuyuan; Fan Xizhen; An Chunsheng; Han Xiaoping; Ding Xiaomei; Wang Jiasheng; Gu Tongyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiofrequency catheter ablation for type I atrial flutter through application of Holo catheter labelling with anatomic imaging localization to ablate the isthmus of IVCTA during complete double-way block. Methods: Eleven cases with type I atrial flutter undergone Holo catheter labelling technique and consecution with conduction time change of coronary venous sinus orifice with-right atrial lower lateral wall pace excitation, were performed with radiofrequency catheter ablation for the isthmus outcoming with complete double-way conduction block. Results: All together 11 cases with 4 of atrial flutter and 7 of sinus rhythm were undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation resulting with double-way conduction block of the isthmus accompanied by prolongation of right atrial conduction time 56.0 ± 2.3 ms and 53.0 ± 4.6 ms respectively. The right atrial excitation appeared to be in clockwise and counter-clockwise of single direction. No recurrence occurred during 3-34 months follow up with only one showing atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: The application of Holo catheter labelling technique with anatomic imaging localization to achieve the double-way conduction block by radiofrequency catheter ablation of TVC-TA isthmus, is a reliable method for treating atrial flutter

  5. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Erika Pedreira da; Sá, Katia Nunes; Nunes, Rebeca Freitas Reis; Ribeiro Junior, Antônio Carlos; Lira, Síntia Freitas Bastos; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS) and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG) test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve; 5% alpha was considered. We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (prisk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values ​​of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  6. The influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of headwater stream fish assemblages: a study of two tropical basins in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Assis Carvalho

    Full Text Available We investigated functional patterns of fish assemblages of two adjacent basins (Araguaia and Tocantins to test whether their headwater stream fish assemblages are more functionally (dissimilar than expected by chance and whether these (dissimilarities are related to differences of environmental conditions between basins. We used an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM on a functional dissimilarity matrix to test for (dissimilarities between fish assemblages of both basins. We performed RLQ and fourth-corner analyses to determine fish species trait-environment relationship. Our results revealed functional dissimilarities between fish assemblages of both basins and significant species trait-environment relationships, suggesting that environmental conditions are driving such dissimilarities. Inter-basin dissimilarities are mainly driven by altitudinal and water temperature gradients, whereas dissimilarities among streams within the basins are influenced by channel depth, turbidity and conductivity. These five environmental variables mostly affected six fish species traits (body mass, water column position, substrate preference, parental care, foraging locality and migration in different manners. This study is an attempt to understand functional trends of fish assemblages in a tropical region that remains poorly known but severely threatened.

  7. Central venous catheters: the role of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.L.; Gibson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The insertion and management of long-term venous catheters have long been the province of anaesthetists, intensive care physicians and surgeons. Radiologists are taking an increasing role in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) because of their familiarity with the imaging equipment and their ability to manipulate catheters and guide-wires. The radiological management of the complications of CVCs has also expanded as a result. This article reviews the role of radiology in central venous access, covering the detection and management of their complications

  8. Miniaturization of catheter systems for angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, I.F. Jr.; Akins, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the use of small catheters and needles in angiography and interventional procedures to improve the quality of the procedures and increase the success rate and safety. This philosophy was initially poorly received, both by operators and by industry; however, more recently microtechniques have become more acceptable primarily because of the changing economic climate requiring procedures with shorter or no hospitalization time. Since 1970, the authors have performed well over 10,000 angiographic procedures using 5 French catheters, or smaller. During the last 12 years, they have used almost exclusively 4 French catheters, primarily with standard filming techniques which have resulted in no thrombosed arteries, or significant hematoma formation

  9. Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevher Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation with catheter ablation is an effective treatment in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to antiarrhythmic medications. The cryoballoon catheter was recently approved for this procedure. In this paper, the basics of cryothermal energy ablation are reviewed including its ability of creating homogenous lesion formation, minimal destruction to surrounding vasculature, preserved tissue integrity, and lower risk of thrombus formation. Also summarized here are the publications describing the clinical experience with the cryoballoon catheter ablation in both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation, its safety and efficacy, and discussions on the technical aspect of the cryoballoon ablation procedure.

  10. Iatrogenic Bowel Injury at Exchange of Supra-Pubic Catheter

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foran, AT

    2018-04-01

    Suprapubic catheter insertion and exchange is a common urological procedure, but it is not without risks and complications. While bowel perforation is a recognised complication at suprapubic catheter insertion, it is not commonly reported at suprapubic catheter exchange. We report our experience of recognition, diagnosis and subsequent successful management of the most important complication related to suprapubic catheters.

  11. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL, the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species, Pontederiaceae (3 species and Onarograceae (3 genera were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Lye always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%, followed by submersed rooted (24.5%, free floating (19.5%, floating rooted (9.7% and free submersed (0.3%. Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among

  12. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Santino, M B; Fushita, A T; Peret, A C; Bianchini-Junior, I

    2016-05-03

    Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species), Pontederiaceae (3 species) and Onarograceae (3 genera) were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye) always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%), followed by submersed rooted (24.5%), free floating (19.5%), floating rooted (9.7%) and free submersed (0.3%). Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence) among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among limnological

  13. Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Galbraith, David R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Kruijt, Bart; Rowland, Lucy; Fisher, Rosie A.; Binks, Oliver J.; Sevanto, Sanna; Xu, Chonggang; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; McDowell, Nate G.; Meir, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Forest ecosystem models based on heuristic water stress functions poorly predict tropical forest response to drought partly because they do not capture the diversity of hydraulic traits (including variation in tree size) observed in tropical forests. We developed a continuous porous media approach to modeling plant hydraulics in which all parameters of the constitutive equations are biologically interpretable and measurable plant hydraulic traits (e.g., turgor loss point πtlp, bulk elastic modulus ɛ, hydraulic capacitance Cft, xylem hydraulic conductivity ks,max, water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity for both xylem (P50,x) and stomata (P50,gs), and the leaf : sapwood area ratio Al : As). We embedded this plant hydraulics model within a trait forest simulator (TFS) that models light environments of individual trees and their upper boundary conditions (transpiration), as well as providing a means for parameterizing variation in hydraulic traits among individuals. We synthesized literature and existing databases to parameterize all hydraulic traits as a function of stem and leaf traits, including wood density (WD), leaf mass per area (LMA), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), and evaluated the coupled model (called TFS v.1-Hydro) predictions, against observed diurnal and seasonal variability in stem and leaf water potential as well as stand-scaled sap flux. Our hydraulic trait synthesis revealed coordination among leaf and xylem hydraulic traits and statistically significant relationships of most hydraulic traits with more easily measured plant traits. Using the most informative empirical trait-trait relationships derived from this synthesis, TFS v.1-Hydro successfully captured individual variation in leaf and stem water potential due to increasing tree size and light environment, with model representation of hydraulic architecture and plant traits exerting primary and secondary controls, respectively, on the fidelity of model predictions. The plant

  14. Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Christoffersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem models based on heuristic water stress functions poorly predict tropical forest response to drought partly because they do not capture the diversity of hydraulic traits (including variation in tree size observed in tropical forests. We developed a continuous porous media approach to modeling plant hydraulics in which all parameters of the constitutive equations are biologically interpretable and measurable plant hydraulic traits (e.g., turgor loss point πtlp, bulk elastic modulus ε, hydraulic capacitance Cft, xylem hydraulic conductivity ks,max, water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity for both xylem (P50,x and stomata (P50,gs, and the leaf : sapwood area ratio Al : As. We embedded this plant hydraulics model within a trait forest simulator (TFS that models light environments of individual trees and their upper boundary conditions (transpiration, as well as providing a means for parameterizing variation in hydraulic traits among individuals. We synthesized literature and existing databases to parameterize all hydraulic traits as a function of stem and leaf traits, including wood density (WD, leaf mass per area (LMA, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax, and evaluated the coupled model (called TFS v.1-Hydro predictions, against observed diurnal and seasonal variability in stem and leaf water potential as well as stand-scaled sap flux. Our hydraulic trait synthesis revealed coordination among leaf and xylem hydraulic traits and statistically significant relationships of most hydraulic traits with more easily measured plant traits. Using the most informative empirical trait–trait relationships derived from this synthesis, TFS v.1-Hydro successfully captured individual variation in leaf and stem water potential due to increasing tree size and light environment, with model representation of hydraulic architecture and plant traits exerting primary and secondary controls, respectively, on the fidelity of model

  15. Shifts in functional traits elevate risk of fire-driven tree dieback in tropical savanna and forest biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Franco, Augusto C; Hoffmann, William A

    2016-03-01

    Numerous predictions indicate rising CO2 will accelerate the expansion of forests into savannas. Although encroaching forests can sequester carbon over the short term, increased fires and drought-fire interactions could offset carbon gains, which may be amplified by the shift toward forest plant communities more susceptible to fire-driven dieback. We quantify how bark thickness determines the ability of individual tree species to tolerate fire and subsequently determine the fire sensitivity of ecosystem carbon across 180 plots in savannas and forests throughout the 2.2-million km(2) Cerrado region in Brazil. We find that not accounting for variation in bark thickness across tree species underestimated carbon losses in forests by ~50%, totaling 0.22 PgC across the Cerrado region. The lower bark thicknesses of plant species in forests decreased fire tolerance to such an extent that a third of carbon gains during forest encroachment may be at risk of dieback if burned. These results illustrate that consideration of trait-based differences in fire tolerance is critical for determining the climate-carbon-fire feedback in tropical savanna and forest biomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Catheter visualisation in MR tomography: first animal experimental experiences with field inhomogeneity catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Glowinski, A.; Neuerburg, J.; Buecker, A.; Vaals, J.J. van; Hurtak, W.; Guenther, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of a new developed field inhomogeneity catheter for interventional MR imaging in vivo. Materials and methods: Three different prototypes of a field inhomogeneity catheter were investigated in 6 pigs. The catheters were introduced in Seldinger technique via the femoral vessels over a guide wire on an interventional MR system (Philips Gyroscan NT combined with a C-arm fluoroscopy unit [Philips BV 212[). Catheters were placed in veins and arteries. The catheter position was controlled by a fast gradient echo sequence (Turbo Field Echo [TEF[). Results: Catheters were introduced over a guide wire without complications in all cases. Using the field inhomogeneity concept, catheters were easily visualised in the inferior vena cava and the aorta by the fast gradient echo technique on MR in all cases. Although aortic branches were successfully cannulated, the catheters were not displayed by the TFE technique due to the complex and tortuous anatomy. All animals survived the experiments without complications. Conclusion: MR guided visualisation of a field inhomogeneity catheter is a simple concept which can be realised on each MR scanner and may allow intravascular MR guided interventions in future. (orig.) [de

  17. A Brief Recap of Tips and Surgical Manoeuvres to Enhance Optimal Outcome of Surgically Placed Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie H. Frost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD is an effective option of renal replacement therapy for ESRF, offering advantages over haemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC placement is thought to be the key to successful PD and the economic advantages are lost if a patient switches to HD in the 1st year. This paper is a brief document elaborating a recap of published literature, looking at various surgical tips and manoeuvres to enhance optimal outcome of PDC placement. Methods. A search strategy assessing for access team, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, type of catheter, catheter exit site, intraoperative catheter trial, optimal time to commence PD, hernia repairs, number of cuffs, catheter-embedding procedures, rectus sheath tunnelling, laparoscopic fixing, omentopexy, omentectomy, the “Y”-Tec system, resection of epiploic appendages, adhesiolysis, a trained surgeon, and perioperative catheter care protocol was used looking at various databases. Findings. The complications of catheterrelated dysfunction can be reduced with advanced planning of access placement, immaculate surgery, and attention to catheter insertion techniques. Conclusion. The success of a peritoneal dialysis programme depends upon functional and durable long term access to the peritoneal cavity; this depends on placement techniques and competent surgeons and psychosocial support to the patient. The various technical tips and manoeuvres elaborated here should be considered options carried out to improve outcome and reduce catheter dysfunction.

  18. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duodenoscope Sampling Method Interim Duodenoscope Culture Method Multiplex Real-Time PCR Detection of KPC & NDM-1 genes Quinolones ... The most commonly used external catheter is a soft flexible sheath that fits over the penis (“condom” ...

  19. [Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sar-van der Brugge, Simone; Posthuma, E F M Ward

    2011-01-01

    Phlebitis is a very common complication of the use of intravenous catheters. Two patients with an i.v. catheter complicated by thrombophlebitis are described. Patient A was immunocompromised due to chronic lymphatic leukaemia and developed septic thrombophlebitis with positive blood cultures for S. Aureus. Patient B was being treated with flucloxacillin because of an S. Aureus infection and developed chemical phlebitis. Septic phlebitis is rare, but potentially serious. Chemical or mechanical types of thrombophlebitis are usually less severe, but happen very frequently. Risk factors include: female sex, previous episode of phlebitis, insertion at (ventral) forearm, emergency placement and administration of antibiotics. Until recently, routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters after 72-96 h was recommended, but randomised controlled trials have not shown any benefit of this routine. A recent Cochrane Review recommends replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated only.

  20. Assessment of Plant Functional Types in Tropical Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems of India Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Krishna, P. Hari; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2011-09-01

    Tropical ecosystems undergo changes caused by season, climate or multiple anthropogenic impacts. Such changes may cause gradual or rapid shifts from one state to another. There has been a focus on functional classifications of plants to find tools for monitoring and assessing species status in changing environments. It has been recognised that plant biological characteristics can be related to their response to predominant environmental factors and interactions between other organisms. These findings have resulted in a search for plant functional types (PFTs) that are user-defined groups of species with similar response to environmental resources and disturbance associated to common biological traits. Now, identification of plant functional types is priority area in the climate change research. Satellite Earth observation data is an important tool in providing considerable information on extracting PFT information at global and regional levels. From the modelling perspective, some of the current needs are the refinement of processes that govern community assembly, such as natural and anthropogenic disturbances. PFTs used in large-scale models are insufficient to represent the diversity of responses in natural plant communities. The currently available MODIS PFT map was generated by re-labeling the IGBP land cover type classes. However, the error magnitudes of the MODIS PFT product and their spatial and temporal distributions have not been fully characterized. Remotely sensed derived information of the phenology, community composition and vegetation structure are the key inputs to integrate with the variability in precipitation and temperature to map the spatial distribution of Plant functional types. PFTs allows accurate representation of the land surface by separately specifying the composition and structure of PFTs within a grid cell. Very little research efforts are discernible in India that explicitly address the PFTs. In the present study five natural

  1. Comparison of two indwelling central venous access catheters in dogs undergoing fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.L.; Smeak, D.D.; Couto, C.G.; Hammer, A.S.; Gaynor, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty dogs with neoplasms requiring multiple radiation treatments received either percutaneous vascular access catheters (PVACs; Cook, Bloomington, IN) or subcutaneous vascular access ports (SVAPs; Vascular-Access-Ports, Norfolk Medical Products, Inc., Skokie, IL); 10 dogs were entered in each group. All catheters were implanted and removed aseptically and the catheter tips were cultured during implant removal. Complications with PVACs included mild incisional swelling and redness and accidental severance or rupture of the catheter. Complications with SVAPs included incisional or port swelling, bruising or redness, hematoma formation, and pain. Ports in 4 of these dogs could not be used for 1 to 3 days after surgery because of swelling and pain. Surgical wound complications, when pooled for comparison, occurred significantly more frequently with the SVAPs (P = .023). Wound complications associated with both catheters were self-limiting and resolved within 7 days. Bacterial cultures were positive in two PVACs and four SVAP tips, however, none of these dogs had clinical signs of infection or sepsis. Although both types of indwelling catheters were functional in a clinical setting, PVACs were preferred to SVAPs for dogs undergoing radiation therapy because of decreased time for implantation and fewer overall complications

  2. The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protat, A.; Delanoë, J.; May, P. T.; Haynes, J.; Jakob, C.; O'Connor, E.; Pope, M.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in different tropical "regimes" recently identified in the literature to aid the development of better process-oriented parameterizations in models. For this purpose, the statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness), and the microphysical and radiative properties (ice water content, visible extinction, effective radius, and total concentration). The variability of these tropical ice cloud properties is then studied as a function of the large-scale cloud regimes derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the amplitude and phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the large-scale atmospheric regime as derived from a long-term record of radiosonde observations over Darwin. The vertical variability of ice cloud occurrence and microphysical properties is largest in all regimes (1.5 order of magnitude for ice water content and extinction, a factor 3 in effective radius, and three orders of magnitude in concentration, typically). 98 % of ice clouds in our dataset are characterized by either a small cloud fraction (smaller than 0.3) or a very large cloud fraction (larger than 0.9). In the ice part of the troposphere three distinct layers characterized by

  3. CO laser angioplasty system: efficacy of manipulatable laser angioscope catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sakurada, Masami; Miyamoto, Akira; Arakawa, Koh; Kurita, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Utsumi, Atsushi; Akai, Yoshiro

    1992-08-01

    A percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty system using a unique combination of CO laser (5 micrometers ) and As-S infrared glass fiber under the guidance of a manipulatable laser angioscope catheter is described. The ablation and guidance functions of this system are evaluated. The angioplasty treatment procedure under angioscope guidance was studied by in vitro model experiment and in vivo animal experiment. The whole angioplasty system is newly developed. That is, a transportable compact medical CO laser device which can emit up to 10 W, a 5 F manipulatable laser angioscope catheter, a thin CO laser cable of which the diameter is 0.6 mm, an angioscope imaging system for laser ablation guidance, and a system controller were developed. Anesthetized adult mongrel dogs (n equals 5) with an artificial complete occlusion in the femoral artery and an artificial human vessel model including occluded or stenotic coronary artery were used. The manipulatability of the catheter was drastically improved (both rotation and bending), therefore, precise control of ablation to expand stenosis was obtained. A 90% artificial stenosis made of human yellow plaque in 4.0 mm diameter in the vessel was expanded to 70% stenosis by repetitive CO laser ablations of which total energy was 220 J. All procedures were performed and controlled under angioscope visualization.

  4. Three-dimensional tracking of cardiac catheters using an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speidel, Michael A.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis at multiple planes. This study describes a tomosynthesis-based method for 3D tracking of high-contrast objects and present the first experimental investigation of cardiac catheter tracking using a prototype SBDX system. Methods: The 3D tracking algorithm utilizes the stack of regularly spaced tomosynthetic planes that are generated by SBDX after each frame period (15 frames/s). Gradient-filtered versions of the image planes are generated, the filtered images are segmented into object regions, and then a 3D coordinate is calculated for each object region. Two phantom studies of tracking performance were conducted. In the first study, an ablation catheter in a chest phantom was imaged as it was pulled along a 3D trajectory defined by a catheter sheath (10, 25, and 50 mm/s pullback speeds). SBDX tip tracking coordinates were compared to the 3D trajectory of the sheath as determined from a CT scan of the phantom after the registration of the SBDX and CT coordinate systems. In the second study, frame-to-frame tracking precision was measured for six different catheter configurations as a function of image noise level (662-7625 photons/mm 2 mean detected x-ray fluence at isocenter). Results: During catheter pullbacks, the 3D distance between the tracked catheter tip and the sheath centerline was 1.0±0.8 mm (mean ±one standard deviation). The electrode to centerline distances were comparable to the diameter of the catheter tip (2.3 mm), the confining sheath (4 mm outside diameter), and the estimated SBDX-to-CT registration error (±0.7 mm). The tip position was localized for all 332 image frames analyzed and 83% of tracked positions were inside the 3D sheath volume derived from CT. The pullback speeds derived from the catheter trajectories were within 5% of the programed pullback speeds. The

  5. Peritoneal catheter fixation combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position to prevent catheter malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyan; Jiang, Chunming; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Xia, Yangyang; Tang, Tianfeng; Wan, Cheng; Shao, Qiuyuan; Liu, Jing; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    Catheter malfunction is the main reason for early peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a new surgery technique with catheter fixation to the lower abdominal wall combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position in reducing catheter malfunction. Patients with end stage renal disease who received PD in our centre from January 2013 to December 2015 were involved in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups according to surgical technique: traditional open surgery group, modified open surgery group and modified open surgery with catheter fixation group. All patients were followed up for six months after surgery. Catheter- related complications were analyzed. A total of 152 patients were involved. Among them, 49 received traditional open surgery (TOS group), 49 received modified open surgery (MOS group), and 54 received modified open surgery with catheter fixation (MOS-F group). During follow-up, no patients (0%) in MOS-F group developed catheter malfunction which was significantly lower than that of the TOS group (0 vs 16.33%, P = 0.002). Although not statistically significant, the incidence of catheter malfunction was lower in MOS-F group than that in MOS group (0 vs 4.08%, P = 0.134). No significant difference was observed in the episodes of infection, bleeding, leakage, inflow or outflow pain, hernia and delayed wound healing among the three groups (all P > 0.05). Catheter fixation combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position can effectively prevent catheter malfunction in PD catheter placement. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Use of GLM approach to assess the responses of tropical trees to urban air pollution in relation to leaf functional traits and tree characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2018-05-15

    Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM 10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO 2 (sulphur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O 3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics. Stepwise linear regression a general linear modelling approach was used to quantify the pollution response of trees against air pollutants. The study was performed for six successive seasons for two years in three distinct urban areas (traffic, industrial and residential) of Varanasi city in India. At all the study sites, concentrations of air pollutants, specifically PM (particulate matter) and NO 2 were above the specified standards. Distinct variations were recorded in all the fifteen leaf functional traits with pollution load. Caesalpinia sappan was identified as most tolerant species followed by Psidium guajava, Dalbergia sissoo and Albizia lebbeck. Stepwise regression analysis identified maximum response of Eucalyptus citriodora and P. guajava to air pollutants explaining overall 59% and 58% variability's in leaf functional traits, respectively. Among leaf functional traits, maximum effect of air pollutants was observed on non-enzymatic antioxidants followed by photosynthetic pigments and leaf water status. Among the pollutants, PM was identified as the major stress factor followed by O 3 explaining 47% and 33% variability's in leaf functional traits. Tolerance and pollution response were regulated by different tree characteristics such as height, canopy size, leaf from, texture and nature of tree. Outcomes of this study will help in urban forest

  7. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, L.; Cavallo, A.; Perin, B.; Bighi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  8. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pedreira da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve; 5% alpha was considered. RESULTS: We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (p<0.05. Good accuracy was determined for the BBS (77% and TUG test (70% and the cutoff points for the risk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  9. Clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Janita; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the most frequent health care-associated infection in neonatal units. This study aimed to analyze articles on the clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in neonates. A systematic search was performed for studies published from 1987-2017, without language restriction. Observational studies carried out in neonates with CRBSI diagnosed using catheter-drawn blood samples or catheter tip cultures were included. A total of 412 articles were identified in the databases and 10 articles were included. The 7 studies that evaluated central venous catheter tip cultures and cultures of catheter fragments presented sensitivities ranging from 58.5%-100% and specificities ranging from 60%-95.7%. Three studies that evaluated catheter-drawn blood cultures, paired with peripheral blood cultures, reported sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 71% when evaluated for the differential time to positivity. When quantitative evaluation was performed, the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 99.4%. Most of the studies analyzed cultures from the central venous catheter tip and catheter fragments for the diagnosis of CRBSI in neonatal populations. The results of this review suggest that the analysis of the catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures, paired with peripheral blood cultures, are efficient methods for the diagnosis of CRBSI in neonates. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of biodiversity and dominance for multiple ecosystem functions in a human-modified tropical landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Bongers, F.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that biodiversity may be particularly important for ecosystem multifunctionality, because different species with different traits can contribute to different functions. Support, however, comes mostly from experimental studies conducted at small spatial scales in low-diversity

  11. Catheter ablation of epicardial ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Yamada, MD, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular tachycardias (VTs can usually be treated by endocardial catheter ablation. However, some VTs can arise from the epicardial surface, and their substrate can be altered only by epicardial catheter ablation. There are two approaches to epicardial catheter ablation: transvenous and transthoracic. The transvenous approach through the coronary venous system (CVS has been commonly used because it is easily accessible. However, this approach may be limited by the distribution of the CVS and insufficient radiofrequency energy delivery. Transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation has been developed to overcome these limitations of the transvenous approach. It is a useful supplemental or even preferred strategy to eliminate epicardial VTs in the electrophysiology laboratory. This technique has been applied for scar-related VTs secondary to often non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and sometimes ischemic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic VTs as the epicardial substrates of these VTs have become increasingly recognized. When endocardial ablation and epicardial ablation through the CVS are unsuccessful, transthoracic epicardial ablation should be the next option. Intrapericardial access is usually obtained through a subxiphoidal pericardial puncture. This approach might not be possible in patients with pericardial adhesions caused by prior cardiac surgery or pericarditis. In such cases, a hybrid procedure involving surgical access with a subxiphoid pericardial window and a limited anterior or lateral thoracotomy might be a feasible and safe method of performing an epicardial catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory. Potential complications associated with this technique include bleeding and collateral damage to the coronary arteries and phrenic nerve. Although the risk of these complications is low, electrophysiologists who attempt epicardial catheter ablation should know the complications associated with this technique, how to minimize their

  12. Synchrony, compensatory dynamics, and the functional trait basis of phenological diversity in a tropical dry forest tree community: effects of rainfall seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Muscarella, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Interspecific variation in phenology is a key axis of functional diversity, potentially mediating how communities respond to climate change. The diverse drivers of phenology act across multiple temporal scales. For example, abiotic constraints favor synchronous reproduction (positive covariance among species), while biotic interactions can favor synchrony or compensatory dynamics (negative covariance). We used wavelet analyses to examine phenology of community flower and seed production for 45 tree species across multiple temporal scales in a tropical dry forest in Puerto Rico with marked rainfall seasonality. We asked three questions: (1) do species exhibit synchronous or compensatory temporal dynamics in reproduction, (2) do interspecific differences in phenology reflect variable responses to rainfall, and (3) is interspecific variation in phenology and response to a major drought associated with functional traits that mediate responses to moisture? Community-level flowering was synchronized at seasonal scales (˜5-6 mo) and at short scales (˜1 mo, following rainfall). However, seed rain exhibited significant compensatory dynamics at intraseasonal scales (˜3 mo), suggesting interspecific variation in temporal niches. Species with large leaves (associated with sensitivity to water deficit) peaked in reproduction synchronously with the peak of seasonal rainfall (˜5 mo scale). By contrast, species with high wood specific gravity (associated with drought resistance) tended to flower in drier periods. Flowering of tall species and those with large leaves was most tightly linked to intraseasonal (˜2 mo scale) rainfall fluctuations. Although the 2015 drought dramatically reduced community-wide reproduction, functional traits were not associated with the magnitude of species-specific declines. Our results suggest opposing drivers of synchronous versus compensatory dynamics at different temporal scales. Phenology associations with functional traits indicated that

  13. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L.; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results. PMID:22006970

  14. Initial placement and secondary displacement of a new suture-method catheter for sciatic nerve block in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, T S; Rothe, C; Steen-Hansen, C

    2017-01-01

    electromyography and cold sensation. After return of motor and sensory function, volunteers performed standardised physical exercises; injection of the same study medication was repeated in the same leg and followed by motor and sensory assessments. Fifteen of 16 (94%; 95%CI 72-99%) initial catheter placements...... displacement was 5 mm. Catheters with secondary block failure were displaced between 6 and 10 mm. One catheter was displaced 1.8 mm that resulted in a decrease in maximum voluntary isometric contraction of less than 20%. After repeat test injection, 14 of the 16 volunteers had loss of cold sensation. Neither...

  15. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment

  16. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  17. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  18. The value of biodiversity for the functioning of tropical forests: insurance effects during the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Philipson, Christopher D.; Saner, Philippe; Tanadini, Matteo; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Godoong, Elia; Nilus, Reuben; Ong, Robert C.; Schmid, Bernhard; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Snoep, Martijn; Tangki, Hamzah; Tay, John; Ulok, Philip; Wai, Yap Sau; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen

    2016-01-01

    One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the ‘insurance hypothesis’ predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in species traits and ecologies. To test for potential insurance effects, we analyse the patterns of seedling mortality and growth in monoculture and mixture plots over the first decade of the Sabah biodiversity experiment. Our results reveal the species differences required for potential insurance effects including a trade-off in which species with denser wood have lower growth rates but higher survival. This trade-off was consistent over time during the first decade, but growth and mortality varied spatially across our 500 ha experiment with species responding to changing conditions in different ways. Overall, average survival rates were extreme in monocultures than mixtures consistent with a potential insurance effect in which monocultures of poorly surviving species risk recruitment failure, whereas monocultures of species with high survival have rates of self-thinning that are potentially wasteful when seedling stocks are limited. Longer-term monitoring as species interactions strengthen will be needed to more comprehensively test to what degree mixtures of species spread risk and use limited seedling stocks more efficiently to increase diversity and restore ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:27928046

  19. Impact of short-term hemodialysis catheters on the central veins: a catheter venographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Tercan, Fahri; Torun, Dilek; Yildirim, Tuelin; Zuemruetdal, Ayseguel; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2004-12-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, and stenosis of the central veins in hemodialysis patients with temporary catheters. Methods and material: In this prospective study, 57 patients (40 males, 17 females) with temporary dialysis catheters had catheter venography by pulling back the catheter just before removal. Patient's age range was 25-87 years (mean age, 51 years). The venographic studies were evaluated for pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, and stenosis of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV) and the superior vena cava (SVC). The IJV could only be evaluated if there was adequate filling during contrast administration. In a subgroup of patients who had had only right IJV or only right SCV catheters, impact of these catheters on the central veins was compared. Results: The catheter location was right internal jugular vein (IJV) in 26 cases, right subclavian vein (SCV) in 27 cases, left IJV in 1 case, and left SCV in 3 cases. Thirty-two patients (56%) had had only one temporary catheter and the rest had had more than one inserted. The mean dwell time for the catheters was 21 days (range 7-59 days). A pericatheter sleeve was detected on venography in 32 (56%) patients and thrombus formation was noted in 16 patients (28%). A total of 41 patients (72%) exhibited pericatheter sleeve and/or thrombus formation. While 19 of the 32 patients (59%) without previous catheterization had a sleeve around the catheter, only 13 (52%) of 25 patients who had had multiple catheters inserted had a sleeve (P>0.05). Of the eight patients (14%) with BCV stenosis, two had >50% stenosis. Only one patient (2%) had mild stenosis of the SVC. Three patients out of 15 (20%) who had diagnostic venography for the IJV had severe stenosis of the vein. Pericatheter sleeve formation was more frequent in women (P<0.05). However, there were no statistical differences with respect to pericatheter sleeve formation, luminal filling

  20. Balloon-tipped flow-directed catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, P.; Swan, H.J.C.; Ganz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic catheterization of the right side of the heart with semirigid cardiac catheters requires fluoroscopic guidance and substantial skill. Abnormal positions of the heart chambers and of the great vessels associated with cardiac dilatation or with congenital malformation present difficulties even to experienced laboratory cardiologists. These problems have been largely overcome by the introduction of balloon tipped flow directed catheters, which allow for rapid and relatively safe catheterization of the pulmonary artery without fluoroscopy. It was through the application of these catheters in the intensive care unit that the many pitfalls in the clinical assessment of hemodynamic disturbances became apparent. Although S3 gallop sounds may be useful in the clinical recognition of chronic ventricular failure, their presence or absence has limited predictive value in estimating left ventricular filling pressure in myocardial infarction. Information derived from right heart catheterization is often pivotal in the evaluation of hemodynamic disorders, in directing treatment, and in monitoring the results of therapy in critically ill patients

  1. The importance of effective catheter securement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jayne

    This article examines the importance of securing/fixing indwelling urinary catheters. The Oxford English dictionary interlinks the two words-'secure' and 'fix'-as having the same meaning. To secure the catheter should not be confused with 'support', whereby the weight of the urine drainage bag is supported with the use of velcro straps or a sleeve. The author introduces the need for the concept of this practice to be at the forefront of nurses' minds in all settings, and this is demonstrated through the use of case studies. Current guidance in this area is reviewed, as well as the problems that can arise when catheters are not secured properly and the available products for health professionals to use.

  2. [The role of the uretral catheter in the development of catheter- related urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A O; Govorov, A V; Shiryaev, A A; Pushkar, D Yu

    2017-12-01

    The most common source of nosocomial infection is the urinary tract, especially if they it is drained with a urethral catheter. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for at least 80% of all complicated urinary tract infections and are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. Intestinal microflora plays the leading role in the pathogenesis of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, whereas the most important risk factor for their development is the long duration of urinary catheter drainage. In the case of short-term and intermittent catheterization, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not required, but if a patient develops clinically significant infection, antibiotic therapy is required followed by definitive therapy based on culture. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances and anti-inflammatory agents can significantly reduce the adhesion and migration of bacteria, thereby reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections. Despite this, the incidence of catheter-associated infection remains high. We have reviewed recent literature related to catheter-associated urinary tract infections and the best means of preventing this condition.

  3. Spatial and temporal fluctuation of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical reservoir - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.12988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Cleide Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Along the horizontal axis of reservoirs are generally recognized three zones (fluvial, transition and lacustrine with distinct hydrodynamic and physical, chemical and biological properties. Quarterly samplings were conducted in 2002, in the limnetic region from each zone, at different depths of a tropical reservoir. To test the hypothesis that highest biomass (biovolume of phytoplankton are found in the transition zone, the PERMANOVA analysis was realized. 106 taxa were recorded. Significant differences between biovolume values of the three zones were not verified (pseudo F = 0,89; p = 0,55. Higher values of biomass were obtained in lacustrine and transition zones of the reservoir. The functional group (FG N (Cosmarium spp. was dominant in these zones, in rain period, and related to low phosphorus concentration, high transparency and water column stability. Low biovolume values in reservoir characterized oligotrophic conditions in all zones of the reservoir, most of the period. The dominance of FGs Y, Lo, E, P and A, as evidenced by the CCA, was associated with low light availability and higher nutrients concentrations.  

  4. Microbiocidal effects of various taurolidine containing catheter lock solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, E.D.; Nijland, R van; Gulich, A.F.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have recently shown that a catheter lock solution containing taurolidine dramatically decreases catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) when compared to heparin. Since several taurolidine formulations are commercially

  5. A central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride for the prevention of catheter-related microbial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, H A; Tebbs, S E; Faroqui, M H; Herbst, T; Isaac, J L; Brown, J; Elliott, T S

    2000-11-01

    In an attempt to overcome infections associated with central venous catheters, a new antiseptic central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride on the internal and external surfaces has been developed and evaluated in a clinical trial. Patients (235) randomly received either a triple-lumen central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride (117) or a polyurethane non-antiseptic catheter (118). The incidence of microbial colonization of both catheters and retained antiseptic activity of the benzalkonium chloride device following removal were determined. The benzalkonium chloride resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of microbial colonization on both the internal and external catheter surfaces. The reduction in colonization was detected at both the intradermal (21 benzalkonium chloride catheters vs. 38 controls, P = 0.0016) and distal segments of the antiseptic-coated catheters. Following catheter removal retained activity was demonstrated in benzalkonium chloride catheters which had been in place for up to 12 days. No patients developed adverse reactions to the benzalkonium chloride catheters. The findings demonstrate that the benzalkonium chloride catheter significantly reduced the incidence of catheter-associated colonization.

  6. Vascular access in neonatology: peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lienemann

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present aspects of peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter, highlighting important points in choosing the type of access. For the passage of peripherally inserted central catheter is previously performing specific course necessary, while the primary indication occurs when it is necessary to access the patient's stay for a long period of time. Whereas peripheral venipuncture is the most appropriate in cases of needing an IV line quickly and safely, for the administration of fluids, blood collection, blood transfusion and other.

  7. Driving forces of the diel distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a shallow tropical lake (Lake Monte Alegre, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Rangel

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton vertical and diel dynamics in a small shallow lake (Lake Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo were investigated in two climatological periods: July 2001 (cool-dry season and March 2002 (warm-rainy season. Monte Alegre is a eutrophic reservoir, with a warm polymictic discontinuous circulation pattern. The lake was thermally stratified in both periods, although dissolved oxygen varied less in the cool-dry period. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the warm-rainy season and the vertical distribution was stratified in both seasons. Flagellate groups (Lm, Y, W1 and W2 and functional groups typical of shallow eutrophic environments (J, X1 and Sn were important throughout the study period. The lake's thermal pattern strongly influenced the vertical distribution of the phytoplankton community in both periods. Biomass, functional groups and size classes of phytoplankton also were determined by the presence of more efficient herbivores in the lake, especially during the cool-dry period when phytoplankton biomass decreased.

  8. Urinary catheterization diary – A useful tool in tracking causes of non-deflating Foley catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Okorie

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Most urinary catheters marketed in developing countries are unidentifiable after unpacking. A catheterization diary is a useful tool for solving catheter-related problems, and its application in health-care facilities should be encouraged. Companies marketing Foley catheters should print the catheter name on both the catheter packaging and on the catheter itself.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5120 - Anesthesia conduction catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction catheter. 868.5120 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5120 Anesthesia conduction catheter. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction catheter is a flexible tubular device used to inject...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a form...

  11. Management of Non- Deflating Foley Suprapubic Catheters - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedure described uses a 10 ml syringe and needle passed through the lumen of the catheter to puncture the inner surface of the catheter balloon and thus deflate it. Because the catheter balloon does not burst in this procedure there is no risk of balloon fragmentation or subsequent stone formation. The technique is ...

  12. Low-angled peripheral intravenous catheter tip placement decreases phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hidenori; Murayama, Ryoko; Yabunaka, Koichi; Oe, Makoto; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Komiyama, Chieko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-02

    Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are frequently removed due to phlebitis. We hypothesized that catheters made of polyurethane, which is more flexible than Teflon, would decrease phlebitis, and that flexibility could be estimated by measuring the catheter-tip angle. Ultrasonography in two groups of patients with different catheter types was then used to compare catheter-tip angles and phlebitis. Observational studies were carried out at a medical ward in a university hospital. Infusion therapy was administered to one group of patients in 2014 using Teflon catheters (control group, n = 200), and to another group of patients in 2015 using polyurethane catheters (investigational group, n = 207). The symptoms were assessed according to a scale developed by the Infusion Nurses Society. Long-axis ultrasonography images taken immediately before catheter removal were used to measure the angle between the central line of the catheter within 2 mm from the distal point and a tangent to the vessel wall. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, age, and medical diagnosis. In the control and investigational groups, the rates of phlebitis were 37% (73/200) and 17% (36/207), respectively (pPhlebitis occurred more frequently when the catheter-tip was placed at angle >5.8°. The frequency of phlebitis was lower in the polyurethane, in which the catheter was placed at lower angle, almost parallel to the vessel. Our results will aid in developing new catheters and in improving PIVC-securement techniques.

  13. Intravascular catheter related infections in children admitted on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peripheral venous intravascular catheters uncoated with no antibiotic or antiseptic, was done. Social demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical examination including the catheter site were determined at enrollment. The children had their blood, catheter tip and hub samples taken off for culture and sensitivity as ...

  14. Paravertebral block catheter breakage by electrocautery during thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Noboru; Sugimoto, Yuki; Mori, Yoko; Kato, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Ryuji; Koga, Tomomichi

    2017-06-01

    Advantages of thoracic paravertebral analgesia (TPA) include placement of the catheter closer to the surgical field; however, the catheter can become damaged during the operation. We experienced a case of intraoperative TPA catheter breakage that prompted us to perform an experiment to investigate possible causes. A 50-year-old male underwent a thoracoscopic lower lobectomy under general anesthesia with TPA via an intercostal approach. Following surgery, it was discovered that the catheter had become occluded, as well as cut and fused, so we reopened the incision and removed the residual catheter. From that experience, we performed an experiment to examine electrocautery-induced damage in normal (Portex™, Smith's Medical), radiopaque (Perifix SoftTip™, BBraun), and reinforced (Perifix FX™, BBraun) epidural catheters (n = 8 each). Chicken meat was penetrated by each catheter and then cut by electrocautery. In the normal group, breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 6 of the catheters, and in the radiopaque group breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 7. In contrast, breakage occurred in only 3 and occlusion in none in the reinforced group, with the 5 without breakage remaining connected only by the spring coil. Furthermore, in 7 of the reinforced catheters, electric arc-induced thermal damage was observed at the tip of the catheter. A TPA catheter for thoracic surgery should be inserted via the median approach, or it should be inserted after surgery to avoid catheter damage during surgery.

  15. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so. o Avoid disconnecting the catheter and drain tube. This helps to pre - vent germs from getting into the catheter tube. o The catheter is secured to the leg to prevent pulling on the ... regularly. The drainage spout should not touch any - thing while emptying ...

  16. Intra-Arterial Hepatic Chemotherapy: A Comparison of Percutaneous Versus Surgical Implantation of Port-Catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, F.; Elias, D.; Goere, D.; Malka, D.; Ducreux, M.; Boige, V.; Auperin, A.; Baere, T. de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare retrospectively the safety and efficacy of percutaneous and surgical implantations of port-catheters for intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC). Materials and Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2008, 126 consecutive patients (mean age 58 years) suffering from liver colorectal metastases were referred for intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC). Port-catheters were percutaneously implanted (P) through femoral access with the patient under conscious sedation when no other surgery was planned or were surgically implanted (S) when laparotomy was performed for another purpose. We report the implantation success rate, primary functionality, functionality after revision, and complications of IAHC. Results: The success rates of implantation were 97% (n = 65 of 67) for P and 98% (n = 58 of 59) for S. One hundred eleven patients received IAHC in our institution (n = 56P and n = 55S). Primary functionality was the same for P and S (4.80 vs. 4.82 courses), but functionality after revision was significantly higher for P (9.18 vs. 5.95 courses, p = 0.004) than for S. Forty-five complications occurred during 516 courses for P and 28 complications occurred during 331 courses for S. The rates of discontinuation of IAHC linked to complications of the port-catheters were 21% (n = 12 of 56) for P and 34% (n = 19 of 55) for S. Conclusion: Overall, significantly better functionality and similar complication rates occurred after P versus S port-catheters.

  17. Emergency coronary angioplasty with stenting using Cordis® diagnostic coronary catheters when there is difficulty in engaging guide catheters and bench evaluation of diagnostic and guide catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiaraj, Mark Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Difficulty in engaging with guide catheters is not uncommon in acute emergencies. We aimed to evaluate the use of Cordis ® INFINITI diagnostic catheters to perform angioplasty in patients in whom the coronaries cannot be engaged using standard guide catheters. In 34 cases of acute coronary syndrome, when difficulty in engagement with two standard guide catheters was encountered with reasonable manipulations, angioplasty was performed using diagnostic catheters. In total, 40 stents were placed by this technique. Pushability and trackability, distal tip flexion and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the guide and diagnostic catheters. Angioplasty was performed easily in a setting where it would have been very difficult to perform. Coronary dissection occurred in one patient, treated by a stent. The stent and dilatation balloons were easily passed through the diagnostic catheters. Pressure tracings were clearly preserved with certain stent delivery systems, and at angioplasty, although there was slightly reduced opacification of the respective artery, the coronary anatomy was sufficiently visualized to perform angioplasty. No periprocedural target lesion complications were seen in any cases. Pushability and trackability tests showed good force transmission along a tortuous path with diagnostic catheters, and balanced force-displacement curves from three-point bending tests and distal tip softness tests. Angioplasty with stenting can be performed safely through 6F Cordis ® infiniti diagnostic catheters when difficulty in engaging guide catheters is encountered. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Catheter Removal versus Retention in the Management of Catheter-Associated Enterococcal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Marschall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococci are an important cause of central venous catheter (CVC-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSI. It is unclear whether CVC removal is necessary to successfully manage enterococcal CA-BSI.

  19. OCCASIONAL REVIEW 'Map and zap' - electrode catheter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where does this leave surgical treatment of WPW syndrome? Despite the high success rates reported, ·it is acknowledged that not all patients can be successfully treated by catheter ablation. The treatment of those with multiple accessory pathways and associated defects such as Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve is ...

  20. Thoracoscopic retrieval of a fractured thoracentesis catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; McAllister, E W

    1994-08-01

    With the resurgence of laparoscopic surgical procedures, thorascopic procedures have followed close behind. Many procedures which in the past have required formal thoracotomy may now be performed via less invasive methods. Presented herein is a report and description of thoracoscopic retrieval of a fractured thoracentesis catheter.

  1. Does water-perfused catheter overdiagnose anismus compared to balloon probe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, G; Leroi, A M; Bertot-Sassigneux, P; Touchais, J Y; Devroede, G; Denis, P

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the manometric assessment of straining effort as if to defecate and rectoanal inhibitory reflex obtained with a rectosphincteric balloon probe and with a water-perfused catheter in the same subject. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent two manometric assessments of anal sphincter function and electromyographic (EMG) surface recordings. one with a rectosphincteric balloon and one with a water-perfused catheter, 7 days apart in random order. Increased EMG activity in the external anal sphincter in the midst of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (P anismus, particularly if pelvic floor EMG is only taken into account for the diagnosis of anismus.

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of long-term intermittent catheterisation with hydrophilic and uncoated catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, J F; Mealing, S J; Scott, D A

    2016-01-01

    includes the long-term sequelae of impaired renal function and urinary tract infection (UTI). SETTING: Analysis based on a UK perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic Markov decision model was constructed, to compare lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years, taking renal and UTI health states...... into consideration, as well as other catheter-related events. UTI event rates for the primary data set were based on data from hospital settings to ensure controlled and accurate reporting. A sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate best- and worst-case scenarios. RESULTS: The model predicts that a 36-year......-old SCI patient with chronic urinary retention will live an additional 1.4 years if using HC catheters compared with UC catheters, at an incremental cost of £2100. Moreover, the lifetime number of UTI events will be reduced by 16%. All best- and worst-case estimates were within the UK threshold of being...

  3. Urethral catheters: can we reduce use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Akker-van Marle M Elske

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indwelling urinary catheters are the main cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections. It can be expected that reduction of the use of urinary catheters will lead to decreased numbers of urinary tract infection. Methods The efficacy of an intervention programme to improve adherence to recommendations to reduce the use of urethral catheters was studied in a before-after comparison in ten Dutch hospitals. The programme detected barriers and facilitators and each individual facility was supported with developing their own intervention strategy. Outcome was evaluated by the prevalence of catheters, alternatives such as diapers, numbers of urinary tract infections, the percentage of correct indications and the duration of catheterization. The costs of the implementation as well as the catheterization were evaluated. Results Of a population of 16,495 hospitalized patients 3335 patients of whom 2943 were evaluable for the study, had a urethral catheter. The prevalence of urethral catheters decreased insignificantly in neurology (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.77 - 1.13 and internal medicine wards (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.83 - 1.13, decreased significantly in surgical wards (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75 - 0.96, but increased significantly in intensive care (IC and coronary care (CC units (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.17. The use of alternatives was limited and remained so after the intervention. Duration of catheterization decreased insignificantly in IC/CC units (ratio after/before 0.95; 95% CI 0.78 - 1.16 and neurology (ratio 0.97; 95% CI 0.80 - 1.18 and significantly in internal medicine (ratio 0.81; 95% CI 0.69 - 0.96 and surgery wards (ratio 0.80; 95% CI 0.71 - 0.90. The percentage of correct indications on the day of inclusion increased from 50 to 67% (p Conclusion Targeted implementation of recommendations from an existing guideline can lead to better adherence and cost savings. Especially, hospitals which use a lot of urethral catheters or

  4. Concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters for percutaneous retrieval of dislodged central venous port catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsung Chuang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report our experience of percutaneous retrieval of dislodged port catheters with concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters. During a 5-year period at our institute (June 2005 to July 2010, a total of 23 dislodged port catheters were retrieved. The interval between port catheter implantation and dislodged catheter retrieval ranged from 43 days to 1,414 days (mean 586.7 days. The time of delayed retrieval ranged from 1 day to 45 days (mean 4.6 days. All dislodged catheters were retrieved with the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters via femoral venous route. The prevalence of port catheter dislodgement at our institute was 3.4%. All dislodged port catheters were removed successfully with pigtail and loop snare catheters together. No procedure-related complications were encountered, except for transient arrhythmia in two patients, which required no medication. In conclusion, the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters is a feasible and easy way for percutaneous retrieval of a dislodged central venous port catheter.

  5. [Incidence of phlebitis due to peripherally inserted venous catheters: impact of a catheter management protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete-Morales, C; Vázquez-Pérez, M A; Sánchez-Berna, M; Gilabert-Cerro, I; Corzo-Delgado, J E; Pineda-Vergara, J A; Vergara-López, S; Gómez-Mateos, J

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact on the incidence of PPIVC by implementing a catheter management protocol and to determine risk factors for PPIVC development in hospitalized patients. A total of 3978 episodes of venous catheterization were prospectively included from September 2002 to December 2007. A catheter management protocol was implemented during this period of time. The incidence and variables associated to the occurrence of PPIVC were determined. The incidence of PPIVC from 2002 to 2007 was 4.8%, 4.3%, 3.6%, 2.5%, 1.3% and 1.8% (phistory of phlebitis was the only factor independently associated to phlebitis due to peripherally inserted central venous catheters (AOR 3.24; CI at 95% CI= 1.05-9.98, p=0.04). A catheter management protocol decreases the incidence of PPIVC in hospitalized patients. The risk of PPIVC increases for peripherally inserted central venous catheters when the patients have a history of phlebitis and for peripheral venous catheters when amiodarone or cefotaxime are infused. Catheterization of peripheral veins performed during morning shifts is associated with a lower incidence of PPIVC when compared with night shift catheterizations.

  6. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion, the LOCI-trial: A study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hagen (Sander); A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a well-functioning dialysis catheter. Several complications, such as

  7. Repositioning of malpositioned or flipped central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Balzer, J.; Vogl, T.J. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Central Radiology Clinic, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    Primary misplaced or secondary flipped implanted catheters are located mostly in the right jugular vein. We demonstrate an effective method to replace fix implanted catheters such as Ports, Grochomg or Hickman catheters. Using a femoral venous approach, replacement into the superior vena cava can easily be done with a Sidewinder 1 catheter which is hooked over the misplaced central venous approach. In all our patients the method was successful. The repositioning technique described is simple, fast and has low costs. We can keep sterile conditions and do not need to solve the catheters' fixation. (orig.)

  8. Detection of electrophysiology catheters in noisy fluoroscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Erik; Rongen, Peter; van Almsick, Markus; ter Haar Romeny, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure to treat patients with heart rhythm disorders. It is useful to know the positions of the catheters and electrodes during the intervention, e.g. for the automatization of cardiac mapping. Our goal is therefore to develop a robust image analysis method that can detect the catheters in X-ray fluoroscopy images. Our method uses steerable tensor voting in combination with a catheter-specific multi-step extraction algorithm. The evaluation on clinical fluoroscopy images shows that especially the extraction of the catheter tip is successful and that the use of tensor voting accounts for a large increase in performance.

  9. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B.; Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P.; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2–8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines. PMID:28192438

  10. Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest–savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lloyd

    2015-11-01

    C / N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged leaf traits with savanna trees typically having higher leaf mass per unit area but lower mass-based nitrogen (Nm and potassium (Km. Both Nm and Km also increased with declining mean annual precipitation (PA, but most area-based leaf traits such as leaf photosynthetic capacity showed no systematic variation with PA or vegetation type. Despite this invariance, when taken in conjunction with other measures such as mean canopy height, area-based soil exchangeable potassium content, [K]sa , proved to be an excellent predictor of several photosynthetic properties (including 13C isotope discrimination. Moreover, when considered in a multivariate context with PA and soil plant available water storage capacity (θP as covariates, [K]sa also proved to be an excellent predictor of stand-level canopy area, providing drastically improved fits as compared to models considering just PA and/or θP. Neither calcium, nor magnesium, nor soil pH could substitute for potassium when tested as alternative model predictors (ΔAIC > 10. Nor for any model could simple soil texture metrics such as sand or clay content substitute for either [K]sa or θP. Taken in conjunction with recent work in Africa and the forests of the Amazon Basin, this suggests – in combination with some newly conceptualised interacting effects of PA and θP also presented here – a critical role for potassium as a modulator of tropical vegetation structure and function.

  11. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Brelsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus, so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  12. HDR monotherapy for prostate cancer: A simulation study to determine the effect of catheter displacement on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Roos, Martin A.; Aluwini, Shafak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically analyse the effect of catheter displacements both on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in fractionated high dose rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, using a simulation study, and to define tolerances for catheter displacement ensuring that both target coverage and normal tissue doses remain clinically acceptable. Besides the effect of total implant displacement, also displacements of catheters belonging to selected template rows only were evaluated in terms of target coverage and normal tissue dose, in order to analyse the change in dose distribution as a function of catheter dwell weight and catheter location. Material and methods: Five representative implant geometries, with 17 catheters each, were selected. The clinical treatment plan was compared to treatment plans in which an entire implant displacement in caudal direction over 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm was simulated. Besides, treatment plans were simulated considering a displacement of either the central, most ventral or most dorsal catheter rows only, over 5 mm caudally. Results: Due to displacement of the entire implant the target coverage drops below the tolerance of 93% for all displacements studied. The effect of displacement of the entire implant on organs at risk strongly depended on the patient anatomy; e.g., for 80% of the implant geometries the V 80 of the rectum exceeded its tolerance for all displacements. The effect of displacement of catheters belonging to selected template rows depended strongly on the relative weight of each catheter row when considering the target coverage and on its location when considering the dose in the organs at risk. Conclusion: This study supports the need for a check of the catheter locations before each fraction and correction of deviations of the catheter position exceeding 3 mm.

  13. Use of monorail PTCA balloon catheter for local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Vijay; Nair, Girish M; Gupta, Mohit D

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of monorail coronary balloon as an infusion catheter to give bailout abciximab selectively into the site of stent thrombosis as an adjunct to plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) in a patient of subacute stent thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The balloon component (polyamide material) of the monorail balloon catheter was shaved off the catheter so that abciximab injected through the balloon port of the catheter exited out the shaft of the balloon catheter at the site from where the balloon material was shaved off. We believe that selective infusion with abciximab along with POBA established antegrade flow and relieved the patient's ischemia. In the absence of essential hardware to give intracoronary drugs in an emergency situation, one may employ our technique of infusion through a monorail balloon catheter after shaving the balloon component from the catheter.

  14. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  15. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  16. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Erol, Bekir; Ciftci, Tuerkmen T.; Akhan, Okan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Between July 2005 and June 2009, 41 tunneled peritoneal catheters were placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in 40 patients (mean age, 55 years; 22 women) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. No procedure related mortality was observed. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.5%) in the form of serious bacterial peritonitis that necessitated catheter removal. Minor complications such as minor bacterial peritonitis, catheter dislodgement, tunnel infection, and catheter blockage occurred in 11 patients (27.5%). The mean duration of survival after catheter placement was 11.8 weeks. All patients expired of their primary malignancies in the follow-up. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter is safe and effective in palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites.

  17. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim; Erol, Bekir; Ciftci, Tuerkmen T. [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Between July 2005 and June 2009, 41 tunneled peritoneal catheters were placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in 40 patients (mean age, 55 years; 22 women) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. No procedure related mortality was observed. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.5%) in the form of serious bacterial peritonitis that necessitated catheter removal. Minor complications such as minor bacterial peritonitis, catheter dislodgement, tunnel infection, and catheter blockage occurred in 11 patients (27.5%). The mean duration of survival after catheter placement was 11.8 weeks. All patients expired of their primary malignancies in the follow-up. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter is safe and effective in palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites.

  18. Catheter versus non-catheter angiography in isolated third nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    To discuss the controversies surrounding the indications for catheter angiography versus non-catheter and less invasive angiography techniques (e.g. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computerized tomography angiography (CTA)) in the evaluation of patients with a third nerve palsy. Clinical opinion-perspective and literature review. The patient with an isolated third nerve palsy might have a vasculopathic (and typically benign, self limited course) etiology or a life threatening intracranial posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Although it is clear that non-isolated third nerve palsies require imaging directed at the topographical localization of the clinical findings, the evaluation of the neurologically isolated third nerve palsy remains controversial. The completeness of the external (i.e. somatic) motor dysfunction and the presence or absence of internal (i.e. pupillary) dysfunction are generally used to guide the choice of initial neuroimaging. Advances in MRA and CTA technology have reduced but not eliminated our dependence upon catheter angiography in this setting. A properly performed and interpreted MRA or CTA probably will be able to detect greater than 95 % of aneurysms producing a third nerve palsy. The issues surrounding the use of catheter angiography in third nerve palsy are reviewed. If the clinician is highly confident in the capability, availability, and reliability of the neuroradiologist and of their institutional experience and quality of less invasive non-catheter MRA and CTA and if the risk of aneurysm is low or if the risk of angiography is high (e.g. elderly, renal failure, iodinated contrast allergy, risk of stroke) then MRI and MRA (or CTA) may be a reasonable alternative to catheter angiography. Patients with a moderate or uncertain risk of aneurysm and a lower risk for catheter angiography or if there is a low confidence in the quality or the interpretation of the institutional MRA (or CTA) may still require catheter

  19. Usefulness of gram staining of blood collected from total parenteral nutrition catheter for rapid diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonens, F; el Alami, S; Van Gossum, A; Struelens, M J; Serruys, E

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of Gram staining of blood drawn from catheters used to administer total parenteral nutrition was compared with paired quantitative blood cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis. Gram staining was positive in 11 of 18 episodes of catheter-related sepsis documented by quantitative culture (sensitivity, 61%) but in none of the 5 episodes of fever unrelated to catheter infection. Thus, this procedure enabled the rapid presumptive diagnosis and guidance of antimicrobial therapy for total parenteral nutrition catheter sepsis, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 42%. PMID:7521359

  20. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  1. Heparin for prolonging peripheral intravenous catheter use in neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A; Verma, K K; Lal, P; Chawla, D; Sreenivas, V

    2015-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of heparinized saline administered as intermittent flush on functional duration of the peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) in neonates. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Term and preterm neonates born at >32 weeks of gestation who required PIVC only for intermittent administration of antibiotics. Eligible neonates were randomized to receive 1 ml of either heparinized saline (10 U ml(-1)) (n=60) or normal saline (n=60) every 12 h before and after intravenous antibiotics. Functional duration of first peripheral intravenous catheter. A total of 120 neonates were randomized to two groups of 60 neonates each. The mean (s.d.) of age of babies in case and control group was 5.7 (2.5) days and 4.6 (3.1) days, respectively. The average weight of babies in both the groups was 2.1 kg. Mean functional duration of first catheter was more in heparinized saline group, mean (s.d.) of 71.68 h  (27.3) as compared with 57.7 h (23.6) in normal saline group (P<0.005). The mean (95% confidence interval) difference in functional duration in the two groups was 13.9 h (4.7-23.15). Mean duration of patency for any catheter was also significantly more in heparinized saline group than control group. Heparinized saline flush increases the functional duration of peripheral intravenous catheter.

  2. Neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molyneux

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO. It is estimated that over 1 billion people are infected with NTDs, with a further 1 billion at risk. The majority of NTDs occur in the tropics and sub-tropics and have particular characteristics in common.

  3. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  4. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  5. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  6. In vitro analysis of balloon cuffing phenomenon: inherent biophysical properties of catheter material or mechanics of catheter balloon deflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; So, Karina

    2012-06-01

    To investigates the different methods of balloon deflation, types of urinary catheters and exposure to urine media in catheter balloon cuffing. Bardex®, Bard-Lubri-Sil®, Argyle®, Releen® and Biocath® were tested in sterile and E.Coli inoculated urine at 0, 14 and 28 days. Catheter deflation was performed with active deflation; passive deflation; passive auto-deflation; and excision of the balloon inflow channel. Balloon cuffing was assessed objectively by running the deflated balloon over a plate of agar and subjectively by 3 independent observers. Bardex®, Argyle® and Biocath® showed greater degree of catheter balloon cuffing (p deflation was the worst method (p 0.05). Linear regression model analysis confirmed time as the most significant factor. The duration of catheters exposure, different deflation methods and types of catheters tested contributed significantly to catheter balloon cuffing (p < 0.01).

  7. The humanization of catheter room design: its clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Hanying; Shi Fengxia; Guo Huiying

    2011-01-01

    American scholar Engeer has proposed biological, psychological and sociological medicine pattern, which has been well accepted by the society, It has manifested the medical arena humanism return and has made the profound influence on the nursing development. The idea, 'the human is a whole', has gradually become the mainstream of the nurse service concept, meanwhile, the environment has more and more become a beneficial part for diagnosing and treating in hospitalization. The improvement and more user-friendly design of the diagnosing and treating environment has already become an important ring linked with the whole nursing work. At the beginning of the fitting up design for the Catheter Lab Room of Interventional Radiology in General Hospital of PLA, the authors receive the idea 'the environment experience and admiration of the patient', put more attention to the humanization in the diagnosing and treating environmental construction. The functional compartments are separated clearly. The color, the background music as well as the video are designed to be coordinated with each other in order to produce a relaxing system. Practice for the past three years indicates that the use of humanization environment design can markedly reduce the patient intense and the anxious level in perioperative period, it can also significantly promote the patient to be restored to health. This article will describe user-friendly diagnosing and treating environmental construction practice in the Catheter Lab Room of Interventional Radiology in General Hospital of PLA. (authors)

  8. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2018-06-01

    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:1328-1334, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angheloiu, George O.; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Anderson, William D.; Kellum, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min −1 where 1 × min −1 was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes

  10. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angheloiu, George O., E-mail: goangheloiu@drmc.org [Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Cardiology, Dubois Regional Medical Center, Dubois, PA (United States); Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Anderson, William D. [Cardiology Department, Exempla Healthcare, Denver, CO (United States); Kellum, John A. [CRISMA Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min{sup −1} where 1 × min{sup −1} was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes.

  11. Large-volume paracentesis with indwelling peritoneal catheter and albumin infusion: a community hospital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Martin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of ascites can be problematic. This is especially true in patients with diuretic refractory ascites who develop a tense abdomen. This often results in hypotension and decreased venous return with resulting renal failure. In this paper, we further examine the risks and benefits of utilizing an indwelling peritoneal catheter to remove large-volume ascites over a 72-h period while maintaining intravascular volume and preventing renal failure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts and identified 36 consecutive patients undergoing continuous large-volume paracentesis with an indwelling peritoneal catheter. At the time of drain placement, no patients had signs or laboratory parameters suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The patients underwent ascitic fluid removal through an indwelling peritoneal catheter and were supported with scheduled albumin throughout the duration. The catheter was used to remove up to 3 L every 8 h for a maximum of 72 h. Regular laboratory and ascitic fluid testing was performed. All patients had a clinical follow-up within 3 months after the drain placement. Results: An average of 16.5 L was removed over the 72-h time frame of indwelling peritoneal catheter maintenance. The albumin infusion utilized correlated to 12 mg/L removed. The average creatinine trend improved in a statistically significant manner from 1.37 on the day of admission to 1.21 on the day of drain removal. No patients developed renal failure during the hospital course. There were no documented episodes of neutrocytic ascites or bacterial peritonitis throughout the study review. Conclusion: Large-volume peritoneal drainage with an indwelling peritoneal catheter is safe and effective for patients with tense ascites. Concomitant albumin infusion allows for maintenance of renal function, and no increase in infectious complications was noted.

  12. tropical OCTOBER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the physiological functions of the ovaries on one hand and the risk of ovarian diseases, ... long-term oestrogen replacement are strong arguments ... Attitude of Nigerian Gynaecologists to Bilateral Oophorectomy During .... Type of Consent. Attitude. Yes ... of elective bilateral oophorectomy: effect of changes in compliance ...

  13. Exploring relationships of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and blockage in people with long-term indwelling urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mary H; McMahon, James M; Crean, Hugh F; Brasch, Judith

    2017-09-01

    To describe and explore relationships among catheter problems in long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, including excess healthcare use for treating catheter problems. Long-term urinary catheter users experience repeated problems with catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage of the device, yet little has been reported of the patterns and relationships among relevant catheter variables. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a sample in a randomised clinical trial, using data from the entire sample of 202 persons over 12 months' participation. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the sample over time. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were employed for logistic regressions to evaluate predictor variables of the presence/absence and frequencies of catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage. Catheter-related urinary tract infection was marginally associated with catheter blockage. Problems reported at least once per person in the 12 months were as follows: catheter-related urinary tract infection 57%, blockage 34%, accidental dislodgment 28%, sediment 87%, leakage (bypassing) 67%, bladder spasms 59%, kinks/twists 42% and catheter pain 49%. Regression analysis demonstrated that bladder spasms were significantly related to catheter-related urinary tract infection and sediment amount, and catheter leakages were marginally significantly and positively related to catheter-related urinary tract infection. Frequencies of higher levels of sediment and catheter leakage were significantly associated with higher levels of blockage, and being female was associated with fewer blockages. Persons who need help with eating (more disabled) were also more likely to have blockages. Catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage appear to be related and both are associated with additional healthcare expenditures. More research is needed to better understand how to prevent adverse catheter outcomes and patterns of problems in

  14. Distributed pressure sensors for a urethral catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Timm, Gerald; Sezen, A S

    2015-01-01

    A flexible strip that incorporates multiple pressure sensors and is capable of being fixed to a urethral catheter is developed. The urethral catheter thus instrumented will be useful for measurement of pressure in a human urethra during urodynamic testing in a clinic. This would help diagnose the causes of urinary incontinence in patients. Capacitive pressure sensors are fabricated on a flexible polyimide-copper substrate using surface micromachining processes and alignment/assembly of the top and bottom portions of the sensor strip. The developed sensor strip is experimentally evaluated in an in vitro test rig using a pressure chamber. The sensor strip is shown to have adequate sensitivity and repeatability. While the calibration factors for the sensors on the strip vary from one sensor to another, even the least sensitive sensor has a resolution better than 0.1 psi.

  15. Percutaneous catheter drainage of tuberculous psoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, F.; Martin-Egana, R.; Cela, A.; Diaz, J.L.; Linares-Mondejar, P.; Freire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Six patients with 7 tuberculous psoas or ilio-psoas abscesses were treated by CT-guided catheter drainage and chemotherapy. The abscesses (5 unilateral and 1 bilateral) were completely drained using a posterior or lateral approach. The abscess volume was 70 to 700 ml (mean 300 ml) and the duration of drainage 5 to 11 days (mean 7 days). Immediate local symptomatic improvement was achieved in all patients, and there were no procedural complications. CT follow-up at 3 to 9 months showed normalization in 5 patients, 2 of whom are still in medical therapy. One patient, who did not take the medication regularly, had a recurrent abscess requiring new catheter drainage after which the fluid collection disappeared. Percutaneous drainage represents an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical drainage as a supplement to medical therapy in the management of patients with large tuberculous psoas abscesses. (orig.)

  16. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  17. Incidence of phlebitis associated with the use of peripheral IV catheter and following catheter removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and its association with risk factors when using peripheral IV catheters (PIC and following their removal - (post-infusion phlebitis in hospitalized adults. Method: a cohort study of 171 patients using PIC, totaling 361 punctures. Sociodemographic variables and variables associated with the catheter were collected. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were performed. Results: average patient age was 56.96 and 51.5% of the sample population was male. The incidence of phlebitis was 1.25% while using PIC, and 1.38% post-infusion. The incidence of phlebitis while using PIC was associated with the length of time the catheter remained in place, whereas post-infusion phlebitis was associated with puncture in the forearm. Ceftriaxone, Clarithromycin and Oxacillin are associated with post-infusion phlebitis. Conclusions: this study made it possible to investigate the association between risk factors and phlebitis during catheter use and following its removal. The frequency of post-infusion phlebitis was larger than the incidence of phlebitis with the catheter in place, with Phlebitis Grade III and II being the most frequently found in each of these situations, respectively. Aspects related to post-infusion phlebitis can be explained, given the limited number of studies addressing this theme from this perspective.

  18. CATHETER DURATION AND THE RISK OF SEPSIS IN PREMATURE BABIES WITH UMBILICAL VEIN CATHETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartojo Hartojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical catheters are frequently required in the management of severely ill premature babies. The risk of complications may increase with duration of UVC use. Objective: To determine whether the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs and sepsis remained constant over the duration of umbilical vein catheters (UVCs in high-risk premature neonates. Methods:retrospective analysis. The data were collected from the medical record of high risk premature neonates who had a UVC placed in neonatal care unit of Husada Utama Hospital between April 1st 2008 to April 30th 2011 with purposive sampling. Catheter duration was observed before and after 14 days on placement. Blood and UVC culture was performed to establish the risk of CLA-BSIs and sepsis. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were performed in the laboratorium data. Result: A total 44 high risk premature babies with UVCs were enrolled (sepsis group: n = 23 and non sepsis group: n = 21. Baseline demographics were similar between the groups. 15 babies in sepsis group have UVCs duration > 14 days, and 8 babies have UVCs 14 days show blood culture performance in 11 babies with positive evidence, UVCs culture performance is negative in 18 babies (p = 0.456. Burkholderia cepacia and Klebsiella pneumonia mostly appeared in blood culture performance. 25% of UVC culture performance shows Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Conclusions: The catheter duration have no significant difference in risk of sepsis in premature babies with Umbilical Vein Catheters.

  19. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde prostatic urethroplasty in 18 patients using a 25-mm urethroplasty balloon catheter. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. Voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, rectal US, and MRE imaging were performed before and immediately after the procedure and at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Long-term results at 18 months and possible clinical implications are discussed

  20. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate

  1. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczuk, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.kowalczuk@umlub.pl [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death.

  2. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate.

  3. Current status of endovascular catheter robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Alan B; Bismuth, Jean

    2018-06-01

    In this review, we will detail the evolution of endovascular therapy as the basis for the development of catheter-based robotics. In parallel, we will outline the evolution of robotics in the surgical space and how the convergence of technology and the entrepreneurs who push this evolution have led to the development of endovascular robots. The current state-of-the-art and future directions and potential are summarized for the reader. Information in this review has been drawn primarily from our personal clinical and preclinical experience in use of catheter robotics, coupled with some ground-breaking work reported from a few other major centers who have embraced the technology's capabilities and opportunities. Several case studies demonstrating the unique capabilities of a precisely controlled catheter are presented. Most of the preclinical work was performed in the advanced imaging and navigation laboratory. In this unique facility, the interface of advanced imaging techniques and robotic guidance is being explored. Although this procedure employs a very high-tech approach to navigation inside the endovascular space, we have conveyed the kind of opportunities that this technology affords to integrate 3D imaging and 3D control. Further, we present the opportunity of semi-autonomous motion of these devices to a target. For the interventionist, enhanced precision can be achieved in a nearly radiation-free environment.

  4. Hemodialysis Access Usage Patterns in the Incident Dialysis Year and Associated Catheter-Related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ix, Joachim H.; Wang, Weiling; Brunelli, Steven M.; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond; Lacson, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis(HD) access is considered a critical and actionable determinant of morbidity, with a growing literature suggesting that initial HD access type is an important marker of long term outcomes. Accordingly, we examined HD access during the incident dialysis period, focusing on infection risk and successful fistula creation over the first dialysis year. Study Design Longitudinal cohort Setting & Participants All United States adults admitted to Fresenius Medical Care North America facilities within 15 days of first maintenance dialysis session between January 1 and December 31, 2007. Predictor Vascular access type at HD initiation Outcomes Vascular access type at 90 days and at the end of the first year on HD, bloodstream infection within the first year by access type, and catheter complication rate. Results Amongst the 25,003 incident dialysis patients studied, 19,622(78.5%) initiated dialysis with a catheter, 4,151(16.6%) with a fistula, and 1,230(4.9%) with a graft. At 90 days, 14,105(69.7%) had a catheter, 4432(21.9%) patients had a fistula, and 1705(8.4%) had a graft. Functioning fistulas and grafts at dialysis initiation had first year failure rates of 10% and 15%, respectively. Grafts were seldom replaced by fistulas (3%), while 7,064 (47.6%) of all patients who initiated with a catheter alone still had only a catheter at 1 year. Overall, 3,327 (13.3%) patients had at least one positive blood culture during follow-up, with the risk being similar between fistula and graft groups, but approximately 3-fold higher in patients with a catheter (p<0.001 for either comparison). Nearly one in three catheters (32.5%) will require TPA use by median time of 41 days, with 59% requiring more than one TPA administration. Limitations Potential underestimation of bacteremia because follow-up blood culture results did not include samples sent to local laboratories. Conclusions Among a large and representative population of incident US dialysis patients

  5. Incidence of catheter-related complications in patients with central venous or hemodialysis catheters: a health care claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napalkov, Pavel; Felici, Diana M; Chu, Laura K; Jacobs, Joan R; Begelman, Susan M

    2013-10-16

    Central venous catheter (CVC) and hemodialysis (HD) catheter usage are associated with complications that occur during catheter insertion, dwell period, and removal. This study aims to identify and describe the incidence rates of catheter-related complications in a large patient population in a United States-based health care claims database after CVC or HD catheter placement. Patients in the i3 InVision DataMart® health care claims database with at least 1 CVC or HD catheter insertion claim were categorized into CVC or HD cohorts using diagnostic and procedural codes from the US Renal Data System, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association's Physician Performance Measures. Catheter-related complications were identified using published diagnostic and procedural codes. Incidence rates (IRs)/1000 catheter-days were calculated for complications including catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), thrombosis, embolism, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding (MB), and mechanical catheter-related complications (MCRCs). Thirty percent of the CVC cohort and 54% of the HD cohort had catheter placements lasting <90 days. Catheter-related complications occurred most often during the first 90 days of catheter placement. IRs were highest for CRBSIs in both cohorts (4.0 [95% CI, 3.7-4.3] and 5.1 [95% CI, 4.7-5.6], respectively). Other IRs in CVC and HD cohorts, respectively, were thrombosis, 1.3 and 0.8; MCRCs, 0.6 and 0.7; embolism, 0.4 and 0.5; MB, 0.1 and 0.3; and ICH, 0.1 in both cohorts. Patients with cancer at baseline had significantly higher IRs for CRBSIs and thrombosis than non-cancer patients. CVC or HD catheter-related complications were most frequently seen in patients 16 years or younger. The risk of catheter-related complications is highest during the first 90 days of catheter placement in patients with CVCs and HD catheters and in younger patients (≤16 years of age) with HD catheters. Data provided in this study can be applied

  6. Reducing catheter-related thrombosis using a risk reduction tool centered on catheter to vessel ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Timothy R; Mahoney, Keegan J

    2017-11-01

    In vascular access practices, the internal vessel size is considered important, and a catheter to vessel ratio (CVR) is recommended to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate-sized device for the vessel. In 2016, new practice recommendations stated that the CVR can increase from 33 to 45% of the vessels diameter. There has been evidence on larger diameter catheters and increased thrombosis risk in recent literature, while insufficient information established on what relationship to vessel size is appropriate for any intra-vascular device. Earlier references to clinical standards and guidelines did not clearly address vessel size in relation to the area consumed or external catheter diameter. The aim of this manuscript is to present catheter-related thrombosis evidence and develop a standardized process of ultrasound-guided vessel assessment, integrating CVR, Virchow's triad phenomenon and vessel health and preservation strategies, empowering an evidence-based approach to device placement. Through review, calculation and assessment on the areas of the 33 and 45% rule, a preliminary clinical tool was developed to assist clinicians make cognizant decisions when placing intravascular devices relating to target vessel size, focusing on potential reduction in catheter-related thrombosis. Increasing the understanding and utilization of CVRs will lead to a safer, more consistent approach to device placement, with potential thrombosis reduction strategies. The future of evidence-based data relies on the clinician to capture accurate vessel measurements and device-related outcomes. This will lead to a more dependable data pool, driving the relationship of catheter-related thrombosis and vascular assessment.

  7. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik

    that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  8. Technique of Peritoneal Catheter Placement under Fluoroscopic Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, A.K.; Gaddikeri, S.; Saddekni, S.

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal catheters are mainly used for peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Other uses of this catheter include intraperitoneal chemotherapy and gene therapy for ovarian cancer and draining of uncontrolled refractory ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Traditionally, surgeons place most of these peritoneal catheters either by laparoscopy or open laparotomy. We detail our percutaneous approach to placing peritoneal catheters using fluoroscopic guidance. We emphasize the use of additional ultrasound guidance, including gray scale and color Doppler ultrasound, to determine the safest puncture site and to guide the initial needle puncture in order to avoid bowel perforation and injury to epigastric artery. We present our experience in placing peritoneal catheters using this technique in 95 patients with various indications. Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous placement of peritoneal catheters is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective alternative to open surgical or laparoscopic placement.

  9. Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations using tracker catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong; Son, Mi Young; Jang, Jae Chun; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    With the recent advance in micro catheters, steerable guide wires, balloons, embolic materials and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), as well as technical refinements in endovascular surgery, there has been a revolution in therapeutic strategies for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have performed super selective angiography and embolization with Tracker micro catheter about 12 cases of brain AVMs for therapeutic and preoperative aims. This micro catheter and guide wire provided high selectivity of feeding artery, greater maneuverability and useful for deliver various embolus materials

  10. Successful Use of Modified Suprapubic Catheter to Rescue Prostatorectal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatorectal fistula is a complication following radiotherapy. It remains a clinical challenge to treat because most patients experience a poor quality of life. This case report discusses a modified suprapubic catheter for use in a patient with a prostatorectal fistula that developed after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. It is an inexpensive, easily available, and more patient-tolerable catheter that improves quality of life. Herein, we describe the development of this catheter.

  11. Analog experiment of transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shufeng Li Zheng; Gu Weizhong; Ru Fuming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to the heating effect by transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion with the evaluation of the feasibility in controlling the tumor temperature. Methods: Infusing 55-68 degree C liquid at the speed of 10-40 ml/min through 6F, 5F or 3F catheter with different length respectively under the similar clinical condition. The liquid temperature at the terminal exit of the catheter was measured with a digital thermometer. The factors related to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results: The infusion temperature , rate and the catheter length were the main related factors to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter as the condition similar in clinical use. When 60-65 degree C liquid was infused at the rate of 20-40 ml/min through 5F catheter with length of 80 cm, the mean and 95% confident interval of the liquid temperature at the catheter exit were (47.55±0.44) degree C and 44.61-48.49 degree C respectively. Conclusions: The liquid temperature at the exit of infusion catheter can be regulated and controlled through adjusting the liquid perfusion temperature and speed. (authors)

  12. Hyperacute stroke patients and catheter thrombolysis therapy. Correlation between computed tomography perfusion maps and final infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yukari; Tanaka, Shigeko; Inoue, Yuichi; Ota, Shinsuke; Sakaki, Saburo; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between abnormal perfusion areas by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) study of hyperacute stroke patients and the final infarction areas after intraarterial catheter thrombolysis. CTP study using the box-modulation transfer function (box-MTF) method based on the deconvolution analysis method was performed in 22 hyperacute stroke patients. Ischemic lesions were immediately treated with catheter thrombolysis after CTP study. Among them, nine patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion were investigated regarding correlations of the size of the prolonged mean transit time (MTT) area, the decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) area, and the final infarction area. Using the box-MTF method, the prolonged MTT area was almost identical to the final infarction area in the case of catheter thrombolysis failure. The decreased CBV areas resulted in infarction or hemorrhage, irrespective of the outcome of recanalization after catheter thrombolysis. The prolonged MTT areas, detected by the box-MTF method of CTP in hyperacute stroke patients, included the area of true prolonged MTT and the tracer delay. The prolonged MTT area was almost identical to the final infarction area when recanalization failed. We believe that a tracer delay area also indicates infarction in cases of thrombolysis failure. (author)

  13. Coronary angioplasty with second generation Monorail catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, A K; Meier, B; Urban, P; Villavicencio, R; de la Serna, F; Moles, V

    1991-07-01

    The Monorail system (Schneider) consists of a balloon catheter in which the guidewire passes through the balloon itself, exits the catheter proximal to the balloon, and runs alongside its small shaft (3 French) through the length of the guiding catheter. It offers distinct advantages over conventional systems of coronary angioplasty. It facilitates contrast injections and permits rapid balloon exchanges. This system was used for coronary angioplasty in 273 unselected consecutive patients (age 59 +/- 10, mean 35 to 73 years). There were 216 patients (84%) undergoing single-vessel and 57 patients (16%) with multi-vessel coronary angioplasty. A total of 335 coronary stenoses were dilated, which included 35 total occlusions. The size of balloon used ranged from 2.0 to 4.25 mm (3.0 +/- 0.5 mm) and the severity of stenosis was 85 +/- 11%. Technical success was defined as a residual stenosis of less than 50% as determined angiographically. Clinical success was defined as technical success, and absence of a major inhospital complication defined as absence of myocardial infarction, lack of need for coronary arterial bypass surgery, and survival. The Monorail system was technically successful in 294/300 stenotic lesions (98%). It was clinically successful for 281 lesions (94%). Of the 35 total occlusions, technical success was obtained in 25 (71%). The residual stenosis of successful cases was 26 +/- 21%. The Monorail system was also successful in 5 patients with stenosis of more than 90% in whom conventional systems failed. The complications included acute occlusion causing acute myocardial infarction in 13 cases (5%), emergency coronary arterial bypass surgery in 1 patient (0.4%), and death in 4 patients (1.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Where does the pulmonary artery catheter float: Transesophageal echocardiography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Tempe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary artery (PA catheter provides a variety of cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. In majority of the patients, the catheter tends to float in the right pulmonary artery (RPA than the left pulmonary artery (LPA. We evaluated the location of PA catheter with the help of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE to know the incidence of its localization. Three views were utilized for this purpose; midesophageal ascending aorta (AA short-axis view, modified mid esophageal aortic valve long-axis view, and modified bicaval view. Methods: We enrolled 135 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery where both the PA catheter and TEE were to be used; for this prospective observational study. PA catheter was visualized by TEE in the above mentioned views and the degree of clarity of visualization by three views was also noted. Position of the PA catheter was further confirmed by a postoperative chest radiograph. Results: One patient was excluded from the data analysis. PA catheter was visualized in RPA in 129 patients (96% and in LPA in 4 patients (3%. In 1 patient, the catheter was visualized in main PA in the chest radiograph. The midesophageal AA short-axis, modified aortic valve long-axis, and modified bicaval view provided good visualization in 51.45%, 57.4%, and 62.3% patients respectively. Taken together, PA catheter visualization was good in 128 (95.5% patients. Conclusion: We conclude that the PA catheter has a high probability of entering the RPA as compared to LPA (96% vs. 3% and TEE provides good visualization of the catheter in RPA.

  15. Dosimetric equivalence of nonstandard HDR brachytherapy catheter patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, J. A. M.; Hsu, I-C.; Pouliot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether alternative high dose rate prostate brachytherapy catheter patterns can result in similar or improved dose distributions while providing better access and reducing trauma. Materials and Methods: Standard prostate cancer high dose rate brachytherapy uses a regular grid of parallel needle positions to guide the catheter insertion. This geometry does not easily allow the physician to avoid piercing the critical structures near the penile bulb nor does it provide position flexibility in the case of pubic arch interference. This study used CT datasets with 3 mm slice spacing from ten previously treated patients and digitized new catheters following three hypothetical catheter patterns: conical, bi-conical, and fireworks. The conical patterns were used to accommodate a robotic delivery using a single entry point. The bi-conical and fireworks patterns were specifically designed to avoid the critical structures near the penile bulb. For each catheter distribution, a plan was optimized with the inverse planning algorithm, IPSA, and compared with the plan used for treatment. Irrelevant of catheter geometry, a plan must fulfill the RTOG-0321 dose criteria for target dose coverage (V 100 Prostate >90%) and organ-at-risk dose sparing (V 75 Bladder 75 Rectum 125 Urethra <<1 cc). Results: The three nonstandard catheter patterns used 16 nonparallel, straight divergent catheters, with entry points in the perineum. Thirty plans from ten patients with prostate sizes ranging from 26 to 89 cc were optimized. All nonstandard patterns fulfilled the RTOG criteria when the clinical plan did. In some cases, the dose distribution was improved by better sparing the organs-at-risk. Conclusion: Alternative catheter patterns can provide the physician with additional ways to treat patients previously considered unsuited for brachytherapy treatment (pubic arch interference) and facilitate robotic guidance of catheter insertion. In addition, alternative catheter

  16. Use of asymmetric bidirectional catheters with different curvature radius for catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziari, Lilian; Suman-Horduna, Irina; Gujic, Marko; Jones, David G; Wong, Tom; Markides, Vias; Foran, John P; Ernst, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    The impact of recently introduced asymmetric bidirectional ablation catheters on procedural parameters and acute success rates of ablation procedures is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding ablations using a novel bidirectional catheter in a tertiary cardiac center and compared these in 1:5 ratio with a control group of procedures matched for age, gender, operator, and ablation type. A total of 50 cases and 250 controls of median age 60 (50-68) years were studied. Structural heart disease was equally prevalent in both groups (39%) while history of previous ablations was more common in the study arm (54% vs 30%, P = 0.001). Most of the ablation cases were for atrial fibrillation (46%), followed by atrial tachycardia (28%), supraventricular tachycardia (12%), and ventricular tachycardia (14%). Median procedure duration was 128 (52-147) minutes with the bidirectional, versus 143 (105-200) minutes with the conventional catheter (P = 0.232), and median fluoroscopy time was 17 (10-34) minutes versus 23 (12-39) minutes, respectively (P = 0.988). There was a trend toward a lower procedure duration for the atrial tachycardia ablations, 89 (52-147) minutes versus 130 (100-210) minutes, P = 0.064. The procedure was successfully completed in 96% of the bidirectional versus 84% of the control cases (P = 0.151). A negative correlation was observed between the relative fluoroscopy duration and the case number (r = -0.312, P = 0.028), reflecting the learning curve for the bidirectional catheter. The introduction of the bidirectional catheter resulted in no prolongation of procedure parameters and similar success rates, while there was a trend toward a lower procedure duration for atrial tachycardia ablations. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Obstruction of peritoneal dialysis catheter is associated with catheter type and independent of omentectomy: A comparative data analysis from a transplant surgical and a pediatric surgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Josephine; Schild, Raphael; Reismann, Marc; Ridwelski, Robert-Richard; Kempf, Caroline; Nashan, Bjoern; Rothe, Karin; Koch, Martina

    2018-04-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter occlusion is a common complication with up to 36% of catheter obstructions described in the literature. We present a comparison of complications and outcome after implantation of PD catheters in a transplant surgical and a pediatric surgical department. We retrospectively analyzed 154 PD catheters, which were implanted during 2009-2015 by transplant surgeons (TS, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, n=85 catheters) and pediatric surgeons (PS, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Germany, n=69 catheters) in 122 children (median (range) age 3.0 (0.01-17.1) years) for acute (n=65) or chronic (n=89) renal failure. All catheters were one-cuffed or double-cuffed curled catheters, except that straight catheters were implanted into smaller children (n=19) by TS in Hamburg. Patient characteristics and operation technique did not differ between the departments. Peritonitis was the most common complication (33 catheters, 21.4%). Leakage (n=18 catheters, 11.7%) occurred more often in children weighing <10kg (p<0.001). The incidence of obstruction and dysfunction was significantly higher in catheters used in PS than catheters used in TS (30.4% vs. 11.8%, p=0.004). Omentectomy did not reduce the incidence of catheter obstruction (p=1.0). Perforation at the catheter tips was larger and appeared to be rougher in catheters used in PS than the catheters in TS. The type of catheter and presumably the type of perforation at the catheter tip may influence the incidence of peritoneal dialysis catheter obstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Double-Balloon Catheter for Isolated Liver Perfusion: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Harnek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Further development of a previously described interventional method for isolated liver perfusion (ILP) with a new double-lumen balloon catheter, and evaluation of the side-effects of such isolation.Methods: In six pigs a double-balloon occlusion catheter was placed via the transjugular approach with its tip in the portal vein. One of the balloons was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC), cranial to the origin of the hepatic veins and the other balloon in the portal vein. By the transfemoral approach, a single-balloon occlusion catheter was placed in the IVC caudal to the origin of the hepatic veins. A third catheter was placed by the transfemoral route with the occlusion balloon in the proper hepatic artery. After inflation of all balloons 99 Tc m -labelled human serum albumin was recirculated through the liver. The isolation was evaluated by repeated measurement of radioactivity levels in peripheral blood. Laboratory tests of liver and pancreas function, and hemoglobin, were taken before, at the end of, and 3 days after the procedure. Blood gases were tested at the beginning and end of the procedure.Results: One pig died during the procedure due to technical failure and was excluded from the study. In the other pigs leakage from the isolated liver to the systemic circulation increased slowly, up to 9.7% (mean) during 30 min of recirculation of the perfusate through the liver. Laboratory tests were normal in all pigs except insignificant acidosis directly after the procedure and the slight elevation of s-ALAT after 3 days.Conclusions: Only minor leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation was noted during ILP performed with a new, double-balloon catheter. There were no serious side effects

  19. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical college, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess.

  20. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess

  1. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  2. Femoral venous catheters: a safe alternative for delivering parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B; Kanter, G; Titus, D

    1994-04-01

    Femoral vein catheterization is an alternative method of obtaining central venous access. Placement of femoral venous catheters (FVCs) is possible in the majority of patients, suitable for most indications, and associated with a low complication rate during insertion. We wished to determine the incidence of infections or other complications resulting when parenteral nutrition was delivered through FVCs. Fifty-two patients were followed from a hospital-wide population including patients in the critical care units. Triple-lumen catheters were placed by using the sterile Seldinger technique, and sites were examined daily for inflammation. Bacteriologic surveillance was accomplished by submitting the catheter tip for semiquantitative cultures. If catheter line sepsis was suspected, blood samples for cultures were drawn through the catheter and peripherally. The rate of occurrence of colonized catheters was 9.6% (five of 52), and catheter sepsis was found in one case (1.9%). Other than inflammation at six (11.5%) of 52 catheter sites, noninfectious complications of FVCs were not found. On the basis of these findings, we consider FVC-delivered parenteral alimentation a safe and effective alternative to other forms of central venous access.

  3. Management of retained encrusted urethral catheter with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Anwar Kunzman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of non-deflating heavily encrusted Foley catheter successfully removed by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL. To our knowledge this is the first case of using ESWL to remove encrusted foley catheter retained in the bladder.

  4. The left atrial catheter: its uses and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, B S; Naidich, D P; McGuinness, G; McCauley, D I

    1992-11-01

    The authors describe the radiographic appearance of the left atrial catheter, a widely used postsurgical intracardiac device. Recognition of the characteristic appearance of this catheter should be of value in detection of potential complications, including line fracture with resultant retention and/or embolization, infection, prosthetic valve dysfunction, and even cardiac tamponade.

  5. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  6. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...

  7. Detection of electrophysiology catheters in noisy fluoroscopy images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, E.M.; Rongen, P.M.J.; Almsick, van M.A.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure to treat patients with heart rhythm disorders. It is useful to know the positions of the catheters and electrodes during the intervention, e.g. for the automatization of cardiac mapping. Our goal is therefore to develop a robust

  8. Risk factors for peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) failure still remains a common clinical problem in pediatric patients despite advancements in catheter placement and dialysis techniques. Our aim was to determine the risk factors that may lead to PDC failure, especially those factors that could be potentially modified to ...

  9. Unusual migration of ventriculo peritoneal distal catheter into vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sghavamedin Tavallaee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available VP shunt is one of the most popular methods for ICP reduction and treatment of hydrocephalus. Various complications of this method are not uncommon such as shunt malfunction, infection and unusual migration of distal catheter. I present a case of migration of the peritoneal catheter out of the vagina.

  10. Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, G G; Roizental, M

    1995-04-01

    Central venous catheters inserted by blind surgical placement may not advance into a satisfactory position and may require repositioning. Malpositioning via surgical insertion is common in patients in whom central venous catheters have previously been placed, as these patients are more likely to have central venous thrombosis and distortion of central venous anatomy. This is less of a problem when catheter placement is guided by imaging; however, even when insertion is satisfactory, central venous catheters may become displaced spontaneously after insertion (Fig. 1). Repositioning can be effected by direct manipulation using guidewires or tip-deflecting wires [1, 2], by manipulation via a transfemoral venous approach [3-5], and by injection of contrast material or saline [6]. Limitations of the direct approach include (1) the number and type of maneuvers that can be performed to effect repositioning when anatomy is distorted, (2) difficulty in accessing the catheter, and (3) the risk of introducing infection. Moreover, these patients are often immunosuppressed, and there is a risk of introducing infection by exposing and directly manipulating the venous catheter. Vigorous injection of contrast material or saline may be unsuccessful for the same reasons: It seldom exerts sufficient force to reposition large-caliber central venous catheters and may cause vessel damage or rupture if injection is made into a small or thrombosed vessel. We illustrate several alternative methods for catheter repositioning via a transfemoral venous approach.

  11. A prototype catheter designed for ultraviolet C disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    UVC light exposure, sampling and plate counting. Findings Two minutes of UVC exposure was sufficient to obtain 4 log10 disinfection for the full-length prototype catheter. This exposure corresponds to ∼40 mJ/cm2 at the catheter tip and indicates that even shorter exposure times can be achieved...

  12. Intravascular catheter-related infection – current concepts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... prevented. ... blood from both the catheter and a peripheral site, may ... Given the important role of cutaneous microflora in the ... valvular heart disease (especially prosthetic valves) and ... be explained by high arterial flow around the catheter, ... vena cava or right atrium via the cephalic and basilar veins of ...

  13. Predicting success of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; Van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. Methods: This was a

  14. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Ahmed Ali, Usama; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. This was a post hoc analysis of 130

  15. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, R.A.; Bollen, T.L.; Brunschot, S. van; Bakker, O.J.; Ali, U. Ahmed; Goor, H. van; Boermeester, M.A.; Gooszen, H.G.; Besselink, M.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. METHODS: This was a

  16. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-25

    Nov 25, 2010 ... cases of extraluminal encrusted urethral catheters. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been utilised in the treatment of the bladder stones. Borrowing this principle, Kunzman et al. (12) has even used ESWL to fragment the stone-like encrustation over the retained Foley catheter balloon.

  17. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6–20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6–38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5–14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10–58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites

  18. Preprocedural ultrasound examination versus manual palpation for thoracic epidural catheter insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hasanin

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Preprocedural ultrasound imaging increased the incidence of first pass success in thoracic epidural catheter insertion and reduced the catheter insertion time compared to manual palpation method.

  19. Phrenic Nerve Injury After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Clementy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic Nerve Injury (PNI has been well studied by cardiac surgeons. More recently it has been recognized as a potential complication of catheter ablation with a prevalence of 0.11 to 0.48 % after atrial fibrillation (AF ablation. This review will focus on PNI after AF ablation. Anatomical studies have shown a close relationship between the right phrenic nerve and it's proximity to the superior vena cava (SVC, and the antero-inferior part of the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV. In addition, the proximity of the left phrenic nerve to the left atrial appendage has been well established. Independent of the type of ablation catheter (4mm, 8 mm, irrigated tip, balloon or energy source used (radiofrequency (RF, ultrasound, cryothermia, and laser; the risk of PNI exists during ablation at the critical areas listed above. Although up to thirty-one percent of patients with PNI after AF ablation remain asymptomatic, dyspnea remain the cardinal symptom and is present in all symptomatic patients. Despite the theoretical risk for significant adverse effect on functional status and quality of life, short-term outcomes from published studies appear favorable with 81% of patients with PNI having a complete recovery after 7 ± 7 months.Conclusion: Existing studies have described PNI as an uncommon but avoidable complication in patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation for AF. Prior to ablation at the SVC, antero-inferior RSPV ostium or the left atrial appendage, pacing should be performed before energy delivery. If phrenic nerve capture is documented, energy delivery should be avoided at this site. Electrophysiologist's vigilance as well as pacing prior to ablation at high risk sites in close proximity to the phrenic nerve are the currently available tools to avoid the complication of PNI.

  20. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...

  1. Tropical Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 2012 Author Guidelines: Instructions to Authors: TROPICAL VETERINARIAN welcomes original work on all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the Tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public ...

  2. Tropical Cyclone Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, William

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of tropical cyclone propagation or why the average tropical cyclone moves 1-2 m/s faster and usually 10-20 deg to the left of its surrounding (or 5-7 deg radius) deep layer (850-300 mb) steering current...

  3. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  4. Innovating urinary catheter design: An introduction to the engineering challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cathy

    2018-05-01

    Every day, people around the world rely on intermittent and indwelling urinary catheters to manage bladder dysfunction, but the potential or actual harm caused by these devices is well-recognised. Current catheter designs can cause urinary tract infection and septicaemia, bladder and urethral trauma and indwelling devices frequently become blocked. Furthermore, the devices can severely disrupt users' lives, limiting their daily activities and can be costly to manage for healthcare providers. Despite this, little significant design innovation has taken place in the last 80 years. In this article current catheter designs and their limitations are reviewed, common catheter-associated problems are outlined and areas of design ripe for improvement proposed. The potential to relieve the individual and economic burden of catheter use is high.

  5. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  6. Positioning of nasobiliary tube using magnet-loaded catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seitaro; Sato, Takamitsu; Kato, Shingo; Hosono, Kunihiro; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Kubota, Kensuke

    2013-10-01

    In endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD), repositioning the catheter from the mouth to the nose is complicated. We devised a method using catheters with magnets and verified its utility and safety. We prospectively enrolled 20 patients undergoing ENBD at Yokohama City University Hospital. The procedures were successful in all 20 cases and no case required a change of operators to a senior doctor. The mean time for the procedure was 36.6 seconds. The emetic reflex was induced 0.5 times on average using the magnet method. The mean X-ray exposure time was 29.6 seconds. No complications occurred. The magnet-loaded catheter method for positioning the ENBD catheter before finally leading it through the nose took little time and was performed successfully and safely. Therefore, the magnet method could become the first choice among techniques for ENBD catheter placement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Dose requirements for UVC disinfection of catheter biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D.; Tvede, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms on permanent catheters are the major sources of infection. Exposure to ultraviolet-C (UVC) light has been proposed as a method for disinfecting the inner surface of catheters. Specification of a UVC-based device for in vivo disinfection is based on the knowledge of the required...... doses to kill catheter biofilm. Given these doses and the power of available UVC light sources, calculation of the necessary treatment times is then possible. To determine the required doses, contaminated urinary catheters were used as test samples and UVC treated in vitro. Patient catheters (n = 67......) were collected and cut into segments of equal size and treated with various UVC doses. After treatment, the biofilm was removed by scraping and quantified by counting colony forming units. Percentage killing rates were determined by calculating ratios between UVC-treated samples and controls (no UVC...

  8. The dialysis catheter and infectious peritonitis in intermittent peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Hemmeløff Andersen, Karl Erik; Hansen, Lise

    1984-01-01

    118 episodes of infectious peritonitis registered among 156 patients treated with intermittent peritoneal dialysis over a 5-yr period were analysed with special reference to potential routes of infection associated with the dialysis catheter. Peritonitis was randomly distributed among the patients......, and the change of keeping free of peritonitis declined exponentially with time. The main factor determining the individual number of episodes was the total space of time, in which a patient had been wearing a dialysis catheter, whereas the number of catheter disconnections played no significant role. A relative...... preponderance of cases due to Enterobacteriaceae was noted within the first week after catheter implantation. In contrast with this, peritonitis with skin microorganisms was not associated with the implantation of catheters....

  9. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  10. Removal of non-deflatable retained foley catheter in the bladder by percutaneous puncture of catheter balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Duk; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyun; Chung, Hyon De

    1988-01-01

    Nondeflatable Foley catheter in the bladder is an uncommon event. We recently experienced a patient in whom the urologist were unable to remove a Foley catheter with cystoscope due to public bone fractures. The procedure, which was successfully carried out, consists of puncturing the ballon under fluoroscope.

  11. Value of Micronester coils in port-catheter implantation for continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with fixed catheter tip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Kato, Takeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; White, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the use of Micronester coils in port-catheter implantation with the fixed catheter tip method in comparison with other previously used coils. The cohort of this study was 143 consecutive patients with unresectable advanced liver cancer for whom a port-catheter system was percutaneously implanted. In the most recent 32 patients, Micronester coils were used for catheter tip fixation. Details of embolic agents for fixation, persistent blood flow beyond the distal end of the indwelling catheter, and complications were compared between cases without and with Micronester coils. In all, percutaneous port-catheter placement was successful. Mean number of coils used for fixation was 4.2 without Micronester coils vs. 2.5 with Micronester coils. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol was additionally used for catheter tip fixation in 85.6% of 111 procedures without Micronester coils and in 50% of 32 using Micronester coils. The gastroduodenal artery beyond the distal end was not detected at the final examination after any procedure. Catheter dislocation occurred in five and hepatic arterial obstruction or severe stenosis in eight. The number of coils used and necessity of NBCA-Lipiodol could be decreased with usage of Micronester coils without decreasing fixation ability compared to other coils. (orig.)

  12. Design and performance evaluation of collision protection-based safety operation for a haptic robot-assisted catheter operating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linshuai; Guo, Shuxiang; Yu, Huadong; Song, Yu; Tamiya, Takashi; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori

    2018-02-23

    The robot-assisted catheter system can increase operating distance thus preventing the exposure radiation of the surgeon to X-ray for endovascular catheterization. However, few designs have considered the collision protection between the catheter tip and the vessel wall. This paper presents a novel catheter operating system based on tissue protection to prevent vessel puncture caused by collision. The integrated haptic interface not only allows the operator to feel the real force feedback, but also combines with the newly proposed collision protection mechanism (CPM) to mitigate the collision trauma. The CPM can release the catheter quickly when the measured force exceeds a certain threshold, so as to avoid the vessel puncture. A significant advantage is that the proposed mechanism can adjust the protection threshold in real time by the current according to the actual characteristics of the blood vessel. To verify the effectiveness of the tissue protection by the system, the evaluation experiments in vitro were carried out. The results show that the further collision damage can be effectively prevented by the CPM, which implies the realization of relative safe catheterization. This research provides some insights into the functional improvements of safe and reliable robot-assisted catheter systems.

  13. Comparative study of peripherally inserted central venous catheter and traditional central catheter assisted with X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianchun; Wang Xiurong; Jiang Zhuming

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility, complications, mid- and long-term advantages of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) compared with central venous access assisted with X-ray. Methods: From Jan 1997 to Dec 1998, the authors conducted a study in 60 patients with placed PICC lines and 60 patients with central lines. Study variables included tip placement and complication rates. Results: Tere were on significant differences between PICC and CVC in the successful placement 95.0% and 88.3%, t = 1.745, P 0.19; the mean duration 13(6-98) days and 14 (7-104) days, F = 0.049, P = 0.83; the total occlusion rate 6.7% (4/60) and 5.0%(3/60), t = 0.152, P = 0.70. In PICC patients, the occlusion rate was slightly higher in 3 Fr (20-gauge) catheter (3/20, 15.0%) than in 4 Fr(18-gauge) catheters (1/20, 5.0%), t = 1.111, P=0.29. Phlebitis occurred in 5.0% of patients (3/60) and one catheter fracture was happened on the catheter hub junction (1.7%). In 3 catheter tips dislocation cases, the catheter tips were moved to the optional position assisted with X-ray image. In CVC group, pneumothorax happened in 1 case (1.7%). In 4 catheter dislocation cases, the catheters were with drawn. No catheter-related sepsis and hemo-pneumothorax happened in both group patients. Conclusions: Both PICC and CVC can be acceptable in clinical use. PICC assisted with X-ray possesses the advantages of less trauma, accurate localization preventing some possible severe complications of central venous access such as pneumothorax. The new method provides a reliable, effective venous access for mid-and long-term usage in patients receiving a variety of solutions, primarily parenteral alimentation, chemotherapy or antibiotic infusion

  14. Innovations in Balloon Catheter Technology in Rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anza, Brian; Sindwani, Raj; Woodard, Troy D

    2017-06-01

    Since being introduced more than 10 years ago, balloon catheter technology (BCT) has undergone several generations of innovations. From construction to utilization, there has been a myriad of advancements in balloon technology. The ergonomics of the balloon dilation systems have improved with a focus on limiting the extra assembly. "Hybrid" BCT procedures have shown promise in mucosal preservation, including treating isolated complex frontal disease. Multiple randomized clinical trials report improved long-term outcomes in stand-alone BCT, including in-office use. The ever-expanding technological innovations ensure BCT will be a key component in the armamentarium of the modern sinus surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central venous catheter insertion problem solving using intravenous catheter: technical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemohammad M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous catheter is an accepted method for hemodynamic monitor-ring, drug and fluid administration, intravenous access, hemodialysis and applying cardiac pace-maker in hospitalized patients. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to prevent catheter malposition in states that the guide wire will not pass freely.During central venous insertion in internal jugular vein using modified seldinger technique, when after venous insertion, the passage of the guide wire shows difficulties and don’t pass freely, insertion of an intravenous cannula over the wire and re-insertion of the wire can help to prevent malposition of the wire and the catheter. Use of an intravenous cannula over the guide, in situations that the guide wire cannot pass freely among the needle inserted in internal jugular vein, and re-insertion of the guide can probably prevent or reduce the tissue or vascular trauma and the associated complica-tions. This simple maneuver can be helpful in difficult cases especially in cardiac surgery patients who receive high dose heparin and it is necessary to avoid traumatize-tion of carotid artery.

  16. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-04-15

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  17. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  18. Prostate HDR brachytherapy catheter displacement between planning and treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, May; Hruby, George; Lovett, Aimee; Patanjali, Nitya

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: HDR brachytherapy is used as a conformal boost for treating prostate cancer. Given the large doses delivered, it is critical that the volume treated matches that planned. Our outpatient protocol comprises two 9 Gy fractions, two weeks apart. We prospectively assessed catheter displacement between CT planning and treatment delivery. Materials and methods: Three fiducial markers and the catheters were implanted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Metal marker wires were inserted into 4 reference catheters before CT; marker positions relative to each other and to the marker wires were measured from the CT scout. Measurements were repeated immediately prior to treatment delivery using pelvic X-ray with marker wires in the same reference catheters. Measurements from CT scout and film were compared. For displacements of 5 mm or more, indexer positions were adjusted prior to treatment delivery. Results: Results are based on 48 implants, in 25 patients. Median time from planning CT to treatment delivery was 254 min (range 81–367 min). Median catheter displacement was 7.5 mm (range −2.9–23.9 mm), 67% of implants had displacement of 5 mm or greater. Displacements were predominantly caudal. Conclusions: Catheter displacement can occur in the 1–3 h between the planning CT scan and treatment. It is recommended that departments performing HDR prostate brachytherapy verify catheter positions immediately prior to treatment delivery.

  19. Feedforward Coordinate Control of a Robotic Cell Injection Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weyland; Law, Peter K

    2017-08-01

    Remote and robotically actuated catheters are the stepping-stones toward autonomous catheters, where complex intravascular procedures may be performed with minimal intervention from a physician. This article proposes a concept for the positional, feedforward control of a robotically actuated cell injection catheter used for the injection of myogenic or undifferentiated stem cells into the myocardial infarct boundary zones of the left ventricle. The prototype for the catheter system was built upon a needle-based catheter with a single degree of deflection, a 3-D printed handle combined with actuators, and the Arduino microcontroller platform. A bench setup was used to mimic a left ventricle catheter procedure starting from the femoral artery. Using Matlab and the open-source video modeling tool Tracker, the planar coordinates ( y, z) of the catheter position were analyzed, and a feedforward control system was developed based on empirical models. Using the Student's t test with a sample size of 26, it was determined that for both the y- and z-axes, the mean discrepancy between the calibrated and theoretical coordinate values had no significant difference compared to the hypothetical value of µ = 0. The root mean square error of the calibrated coordinates also showed an 88% improvement in the z-axis and 31% improvement in the y-axis compared to the unmodified trial run. This proof of concept investigation leads to the possibility of further developing a feedfoward control system in vivo using catheters with omnidirectional deflection. Feedforward positional control allows for more flexibility in the design of an automated catheter system where problems such as systemic time delay may be a hindrance in instances requiring an immediate reaction.

  20. Magnetic catheter manipulation in the interventional MR imaging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W; Martin, Alastair B; Lillaney, Prasheel; Losey, Aaron D; Yee, Erin J; Bernhardt, Anthony; Malba, Vincent; Evans, Lee; Sincic, Ryan; Saeed, Maythem; Arenson, Ronald L; Hetts, Steven W

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate deflection capability of a prototype endovascular catheter, which is remotely magnetically steerable, for use in the interventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging environment. Copper coils were mounted on the tips of commercially available 2.3-3.0-F microcatheters. The coils were fabricated in a novel manner by plasma vapor deposition of a copper layer followed by laser lithography of the layer into coils. Orthogonal helical (ie, solenoid) and saddle-shaped (ie, Helmholtz) coils were mounted on a single catheter tip. Microcatheters were tested in water bath phantoms in a 1.5-T clinical MR scanner, with variable simultaneous currents applied to the coils. Catheter tip deflection was imaged in the axial plane by using a "real-time" steady-state free precession MR imaging sequence. Degree of deflection and catheter tip orientation were measured for each current application. The catheter tip was clearly visible in the longitudinal and axial planes. Magnetic field artifacts were visible when the orthogonal coils at the catheter tip were energized. Variable amounts of current applied to a single coil demonstrated consistent catheter deflection in all water bath experiments. Changing current polarity reversed the observed direction of deflection, whereas current applied to two different coils resulted in deflection represented by the composite vector of individual coil activations. Microcatheter navigation through the vascular phantom was successful through control of applied current to one or more coils. Controlled catheter deflection is possible with laser lithographed multiaxis coil-tipped catheters in the MR imaging environment. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inappropriate use of urinary catheters in patients admitted to medical wards in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Calvo, Beatriz; Vara, Rebeca; Villar, Rocío N; Aguado, José María

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence and predisposing factors were determined for inappropriate urinary catheterization (UC) among inpatients in medical wards. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to medical wards in a 1300-bed tertiary-care centre, and who had a urinary catheter in place on the day of the survey. Of 380 patients observed, 46 (12.1%) had a urinary catheter in place. Twelve of them (26.1%) were inappropriately catheterized. The most common indication for inappropriate UC was urine output monitoring in a cooperative, non-critically ill patient. Inappropriateness was associated with increased age, poor functional status, urinary incontinence, dementia, and admission from a long-term care facility. Further educational efforts should be focused on improving catheterization prescribing practices by physicians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prevention of catheter-related infection: usefulness and cost-effectiveness of antiseptic catheters in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Ana M; Vassallo, Juan C; Moreno, Guillermo E; Althabe, María; Gómez, Silvia; Magliola, Ricardo; Casimir, Lidia; Bologna, Rosa; Barretta, Jorge; Ruffa, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the antiseptic-impregnated catheter compared with conventional catheters in preventing catheter- related blood stream infections (CR-BSI). Cost-effectiveness analysis; clinical trial, experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, open label. Patients and methods. A 172 patient cohort, under 1-year-old or less than 10 kg, postoperative cardiovascular children with central venous catheters (CVC) admitted to Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (UCI 35) at Hospital Nacional de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", since September 2005 to December 2007. Demographic and CVC data were retrieved to compare: age, gender, weight, diagnosis, surgery, CVC days, costs and complications. Intervention. CVC Arrow, double-lumen, > 48 h of duration; intervention group: antiseptic-impregnated CVC vs. control group: CVC without antiseptics (conventional). The incidence of CR-IE (CR-Infected Events: colonization, local infection and/or CRBSI; combined end point) was 27% for antiseptic- impregnated CVC vs. 31% for conventional catheters (p= 0.6) with similar accumulated incidence of CR- BSI: 2.8 vs. 3.3 per 1000 dayscatheter. We found no differences between groups, except in weight: median 4.0 kg (r 2-17) vs. 4.7 kg (r 2-9) p= 0.0002 and age, median 2 months (r 1- 48) vs. 5 months (r 1- 24) p= 0.0019 in antiseptic-impregnated CVC group. These differences, though statistically significant were clinically non relevant. Median cost per patient during intensive care stay in the conventional CVC group was $3.417 (359-9.453) and in the antiseptic-impregnated-CVC group was $4.962 (239-24.532), p= 0.10. The use of antiseptic-impregnated CVC compared with conventional CVC did not decrease CR-BSI in this population. The cost per patients was higher in the antiseptic impregnated CVC group. These results do not support the routine use of this type of CVC in our population.

  3. Hickman catheter embolism in a child during stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, P.; Khan, B.; Ullah, K.; Ahmed, W.; Hussain, I.; Khan, A.A.; Anwar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of stem cell recipients rely on indwelling central venous catheters situated in superior vena cava or right atrium. Semi-permanent tunneled silicone rubber Hickman catheters are widely used to provide durable central venous access for patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. A case of 5 years old child with diagnosis of severe aplastic anemia is reported. The patient received peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and had successful engraftment with complete hematological recovery. He had Hickman catheter embolism in the pulmonary circulation following unsuccessful attempt to remove the line. The catherter was successfully removed by midsternostomy operation. The child is normal with sustained remission on day +218 post stem cell transplant. (author)

  4. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.

  5. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  6. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  7. Hematologic patients' clinical and psychosocial experiences with implanted long-term central venous catheter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients.......A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients....

  8. Percutaneous untying of a knot in a retained Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Waqar A.; Sinha, Sankar; Rowlands, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A patient was referred to us with a tightly knotted Swan-Ganz catheter. The catheter could not be removed by conventional simple methods. We describe a minimally invasive means of removal of the catheter using an Amplatz gooseneck snare and an angioplasty balloon. This allowed the Catheter to be removed without trauma.

  9. Patency of Femoral Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters and Factors Predictive of Patency Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Guo, Lancia L. Q.; Tan, Kong T.; Simons, Martin E.; Sniderman, Kenneth W.; Kachura, John R.; Beecroft, John R.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patency rates of and factors associated with increased risk of patency failure in patients with femoral vein tunneled hemodialysis catheters. Methods: All femoral tunneled catheter insertions from 1996 to 2006 were reviewed, during which time 123 catheters were inserted. Of these, 66 were exchanges. Patients with femoral catheter failure versus those with femoral catheter patency were compared. Confounding factors, such as demographic and procedural factors, were incorporated and assessed using univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results: Mean catheter primary patency failure time was 96.3 days (SE 17.9 days). Primary patency at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days was 53.8%, 45.4%, 32.1%, and 27.1% respectively. Crude rates of risk of catheter failure did not suggest a benefit for patients receiving catheters introduced from one side versus the other, but more cephalad location of catheter tip was associated with improved patency. Multivariate analysis showed that patients whose catheters were on the left side (p = 0.009), were of increasing age at the time of insertion (p = 0.002) and that those who had diabetes (p = 0.001) were at significantly greater risk of catheter failure. The catheter infection rate was 1.4/1000 catheter days. Conclusion: Patients who were of a more advanced age and had diabetes were at greater risk of femoral catheter failure, whereas those who received femoral catheters from the right side were less at risk of catheter failure.

  10. Septic Thrombophlebitis of the Cephalic Vein Caused by a Peripherally Inserted Venous Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Septic thrombophlebitis of a vein is a rare but life-threatening complication of an intravascular (IV catheter placed percutaneously in the veins. Most published clinical experiences with IV catheters, mainly in the outpatient settings, have reported very low rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection compared to rates with central venous catheters placed in a subclavian or internal jugular vein. Most of the complications reported with IV catheters have been non-infectious, particularly sterile phlebitis or thrombosis. We report a case of cephalic vein suppurative thrombophlebitis from an intravascular catheter and offer guidelines for diagnosis and management of this complication. Key words: Septic thrombophlebitis, Intravascular catheter, Suppurative thrombophlebitis

  11. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  13. Monorail Piccolino catheter: a new rapid exchange/ultralow profile coronary angioplasty system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M R; Douglas, J S; Mooney, J F; Madison, J D; Brandenburg, R O; Fernald, R; Van Tassel, R A

    1990-06-01

    The Monorail Piccolino coronary angioplasty balloon catheter (MBC) was evaluated on 118 patients at two centers. Technical success was achieved in 110 patients (93%). Time for catheter exchange and total fluoroscopy time were significantly lower for the Monorail catheter than with standard equipment (exchange time 97 vs. 170 seconds P less than .05 and fluoroscopy time 17 vs. 88 seconds P less than .001). The advantages of rapid exchange and the ability of utilize 2 Monorail balloon catheters through one 9F guiding catheter for simultaneous inflations allowed for maximal flexibility in treating patients with bifurcation lesions. The double wire approach utilizing one Monorail balloon catheter with a 7F guiding catheter was also technically successful. The Monorail Piccolino balloon catheter has unique features that allow for greater ease of operator use, rapid catheter exchange, and optimal angiographic visualization. It is felt that this catheter design provides distinct advantages over standard angioplasty equipment.

  14. Percutaneous insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters using ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance: A single centre experience and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, Diederick W.; Mott, Nigel; Tregaskis, Peter; Quach, Trung; Menahem, Solomon; Walker, Rowan G.; Koukounaras, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Various methods of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a percutaneous insertion technique using ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopy performed under conscious sedation and as day case procedure. Data of 87 percutaneous inserted dialysis catheters were prospectively collected, including patients' age, gender, body mass index, history of previous abdominal surgery and cause of end stage renal failure. Length of hospital stay, early complications and time to first use were also recorded. Institutional review board approval was obtained. A 100% technical success rate was observed. Early complications included bleeding (n = 3), catheter dysfunction (n = 6), exit site infection (n = 1) and exit site leakage (n = 1). All cases of catheter dysfunction and one case of bleeding required surgical revision. Median time of follow-up was 18 months (range 3–35), and median time from insertion to first use was days 14 (1–47). Of the 82 patients who started dialysis, 20 (23%) ceased PD at some stage during follow-up. Most frequently encountered reasons include deteriorating patient cognitive or functional status (n = 5), successful transplant kidney (n = 4) and pleuro-peritoneal fistula (n = 4). Sixty-two (71%) PD catheter insertions were performed as day case. The remaining insertions were performed on patients already admitted to the hospital. Percutaneous insertion of dialysis catheter using US and fluoroscopy is not only safe but can be performed as day case procedure in most patients, even with a medical history of abdominal surgery and/or obesity.

  15. Catheter Calibration Using Template Matching Line Interpolation Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagy, L

    2001-01-01

    ..., such as: image resolution, type of the calibration, algorithm used for contour detection, size of the FOV, other parameters of the image The studied calibration method is the one using catheter size...

  16. Experience with the Bonanno Catheter in the Management of OHSS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : A retrospective study of all IVF ... Result: Within the period under review, 234 patients had controlled ... (six intrauterine, one ectopic and one heterotopic pregnancies), giving a clinical ... The Bonanno catheter is a medical device described by.

  17. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  18. Catheter ablation in the treatment of electrical storm: Integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Teixeira Leal

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Catheter ablation is the initial therapy for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM and ES. The endocardial approach presents more relevant success rates than the other therapeutic methods presented.

  19. Catheter-Related Sepsis Due to Rhodotorula glutinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2003-01-01

    We describe a central venous catheter-related (Port-A-Cath; Smiths Industries Medical Systems [SIMS] Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) infection caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 51-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was treated with fluconazole for 8 weeks and had the catheter removed. Two isolates of R. glutinis recovered from blood specimens (one obtained via peripheral veins and one via the catheter) before administration of fluconazole and one recovered from the removed catheter 17 days after initiation of fluconazole therapy exhibited high-level resistance to fluconazole (MICs, >256 μg/ml). These three isolates were found to belong to a single clone on the basis of identical antibiotypes determined by the E test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and biotypes determined by API ID32 C (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and their identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. PMID:12574300

  20. Catheter fracture of intravenous ports and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yang; Fu, Jui-Ying; Feng, Po-Hao; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Li, Hao-Jui; Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang

    2011-11-01

    Intravenous ports are widely used for oncology patients. However, catheter fractures may lead to the need for re-intervention. We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with catheter fractures. Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and plain chest films of 1,505 patients implanted with an intravenous port at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Different vascular sites were compared using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, and the t test was used for continuous variables with normal distribution; P port type Arrow French (Fr.) 8.1 (P port and catheter removal is recommended. Female gender, intravenous port implantation via the subclavian route, and the Arrow Fr. 8.1 port were found to be risk factors. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored closely to avoid catheter fractures.

  1. Radiographic signs of non-venous placement of intended central venous catheters in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Erin C. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children, and inadvertent arterial or extravascular cannulation is rare but has potentially serious complications. To identify the radiographic signs of arterial placement of CVCs. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of arterially malpositioned CVCs on chest radiograph. These cases were identified through departmental quality-assurance mechanisms and external consultation. Comparison of arterial cases was made with 127 age-matched chest radiographs with CVCs in normal, expected venous location. On each anteroposterior (AP) radiograph we measured the distance of the catheter tip from the right lateral border of the thoracic spine, and the angle of the vertical portion of the catheter relative to the midline. On each lateral radiograph we measured the angle of the vertical portion of each catheter relative to the anterior border of the thoracic spine. When bilateral subclavian catheters were present, the catheter tips were described as crossed, overlapping or uncrossed. On AP radiographs, arterially placed CVCs were more curved to the left, with catheter tip positions located farther to the left of midline than normal venous CVCs. When bilateral, properly placed venous catheters were present, all catheters crossed at the level of the superior vena cava (SVC). When one of the bilateral catheters was in arterial position, neither of the catheters crossed or the inter-catheter crossover distance was exaggerated. On lateral radiographs, there was a marked anterior angulation of the vertical portion of the catheter (mean angle 37 ± 15 standard deviation [SD] in arterial catheters versus 5.9 ± 8.3 SD in normally placed venous catheters). Useful radiographic signs suggestive of unintentional arterial misplacement of vascular catheters include leftward curvature of the vertical portion of the catheter, left-side catheter tip position, lack of catheter crossover on the frontal radiograph, as well as exaggerated

  2. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip radiofrequency catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures radiofrequency ablation. Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation using power control and high infusion rates enlarges lesion......: We conclude that temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation with irrigated tip catheters using low target temperature and low infusion rate enlarges lesion size without increasing the incidence of cratering and reduces coagulum formation of the tip....

  3. Urinary catheter with polyurethane coating modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondyurina, I.; Nechitailo, G.S.; Svistkov, A.L.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.

    2015-01-01

    A low friction urinary catheter that could be used without a lubricant is proposed in this work. A polyurethane coating was synthesised on the surface of a metal guide wire catheter. Ion implantation was applied to surface modify the polyurethane coating. FTIR ATR, wetting angle, AFM and friction tests were used for analysis. Low friction was found to be provided by the formation of a hard carbonised layer on the polyurethane surface

  4. False coronary dissection with the new Monorail angioplasty balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugas, E; Cequier, A R; Sabaté, X; Jara, F

    1990-01-01

    During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, the appearance of persistent staining in the vessel by contrast media suggests coronary dissection. We report seven patients in whom a false image of severe coronary dissection was observed during angioplasty performed with the new Monorail balloon catheter. This image emerges at the moment of balloon inflation, is distally located to the balloon, and disappears with balloon catheter deflation. No complications were associated with the appearance of this image.

  5. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou J; Zamdborg L; Sebastian E

    2015-01-01

    Jun Zhou,1,2 Leonid Zamdborg,1 Evelyn Sebastian1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, 2Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA Abstract: The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy ...

  6. Massive hydrothorax with malpositioned central venous catheter – Ultrasound detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Hasija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioimaging is the gold standard for confirmation of the position of central venous catheter as well as its related complications. Use of ultrasound has been proven in guiding central venous cannulations, and it can also be used in detecting related complications. We report a case of a 2 year old child with hydrothorax causing desaturation due to malpositioned central venous catheter diagnosed by ultrasound in the delay for getting a radiograph.

  7. Needle catheter duodenostomy: a technique for duodenal alimentation of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, R L; Goldman, A; Kaufman, K J; Roberts, C; Quesenberry, K E; Kollias, G V

    1986-11-01

    A technique for duodenal alimentation (needle catheter duodenostomy) of birds was developed, using the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) as the experimental model. A needle catheter was inserted into the descending duodenum of 5 pigeons and was secured to the body wall and dorsum of each bird. A liquid diet was administered daily (in equal amounts of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) for 14 days without adverse effects. On day 15, the catheters were removed, and the birds immediately resumed normal consumption of a pigeon ration and water diet. Although 4 of the 5 birds had minor weight loss, dietary alterations probably could be used on an individual basis to alleviate this problem. After oral alimentation was resumed, the 5 birds exceeded their initial body weight within 7 days. Four weeks after catheter removal, positive-contrast radiographic evaluations indicated that the duodenum of each pigeon appeared normal. Needle catheter duodenostomy was a viable method of alimentation in the domestic pigeon. This technique should be applicable for other avian species requiring bypass of the upper gastrointestinal tract proximal to the region of catheter insertion in the duodenum.

  8. Tunnel unroofing effectiveness in chronic peritoneal catheter infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carranza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic catheter infection usually involves external Dacron cuff colonization, without its removal, antibiotic treatment proved ineffective. Catheter unroofing technique has been described as an alternative to peritoneal catheter removal. Material and methods: We analyzed the data from 13 patients retrospectively. Evolution after unroofing was evaluated, considering as treatment failure the appearance of new infection in the hole, tunnel or peritonitis associated to the same germ. Results: Between 1997-2014 years, unroofing was performed on 13 patients. Mean age-rate: 46.2 (IC 95%: 35.9 years – 56.5 years male sex 9, 69.23%. Germs: staphylococcus 7, pseudomona 2, polymicrobial 1, negative culture 3. Nine patiens healed: 69.2%; there was no statistical association among sex, age, microbiological result, previous hemodialysis use, type of catheter, surgical technique or with the surgeon who performed the procedure (p≥ 0.05. Discussion: Catheter removal implies transient transference to hemodialysis and new replacement surgery, although there is few experience with this technique, it could be an acceptable alternative, enabling a group of patients to continue with PD treatment. Conclusion: Unroofing technique proved to be beneficial in 69.2% of the cases (9 patients independently of the type of germ present, representing an acceptable treatment which avoids catheter removal, enabling the procedure to continue, and decreasing the need to employ more aggressive therapies.

  9. The dangers of long-term catheter drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowthian, P

    There are many dangers associated with long-term urinary bladder drainage by catheter. For various reasons, the choice of catheter is important, and its initial insertion can be particularly hazardous. All catheterizations should, however, be safer when there is some urine (or other fluid) in the bladder. The appropriate choice of drainage system attached to the catheter can delay bacterial invasion of the bladder. Great care is needed to prevent blockage of the system, particularly when bacteriuria is present. Recent evidence indicates that some bacteria encourage the development of encrustations, so that, in some circumstances, catheters may become blocked within 24 hours. This, together with other considerations, strongly suggests that indwelling catheters should be changed at intervals of not more than 5 days. The practical implications of this are considered, as are the benefits that may accrue. Accidental catheter traction is another danger, and some possible methods of avoiding this are discussed. Finally, the need for a new kind of drainage-bag support is highlighted.

  10. Cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Brost, Alexander; Jakob, Carolin; Mewes, Philip W.; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive catheter ablation has become the preferred treatment option for atrial fibrillation. Although the standard ablation procedure involves ablation points set by radio-frequency catheters, cryo-balloon catheters have even been reported to be more advantageous in certain cases. As electro-anatomical mapping systems do not support cryo-balloon ablation procedures, X-ray guidance is needed. However, current methods to provide support for cryo-balloon catheters in fluoroscopically guided ablation procedures rely heavily on manual user interaction. To improve this, we propose a first method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images based on a blob detection algorithm. Our method is evaluated on 24 clinical images from 17 patients. The method successfully detected the cryoballoon in 22 out of 24 images, yielding a success rate of 91.6 %. The successful localization achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm +/- 0.44 mm. Even though our methods currently fails in 8.4 % of the images available, it still offers a significant improvement over manual methods. Furthermore, detecting a landmark point along the cryo-balloon catheter can be a very important step for additional post-processing operations.

  11. Nuclear medicine in tropical diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira

    2002-01-01

    Tropical diseases affect more people in the world than any other kind of disease, but scintigraphic data on that matter are not so frequent in the literature. Since the geographic regions where such diseases occur are normally very poor, scintillation cameras may not be available. We present a resumed summary of part of what has been done on this subject to-date. Leprosy affects circa 12 million people worldwide and has already been studied by means of the following scintigraphic exams: gallium-67, 99mTc-MDP or HMDP, 99mTc-colloid or Dextran, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-WBC. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep mycosis and such cases may be evaluated by means of gallium-67, bone scintigraphy, lymphoscintigraphy, hepato-biliary, bone marrow and liver/spleen scintigraphies. Mycetoma is bone and soft tissue mycosis and gallium-67 and bone studies are very useful in the evaluation of such cases. Tuberculosis is the most well studied tropical disease and dozens of radiopharmaceuticals and techniques were described to evaluate such patients. Jorge Lobo disease is a rare mycosis that affects mainly indians from the Amazon region and gallium-67 was shown to accumulate in active disease. Neurocysticercosis is spread worldwide and brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO) is a very good tool for the functional evaluation of the disease. Patients suffering from cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis may benefit from gallium-67 scintigraphy. Chagas disease may affect the heart and or the digestive tract and several scintigraphic exams may be helpful in the evaluation of such cases (gated blood pool, heart perfusions tests, pharyngeal transit tests, gastric emptying tests, intestinal transit tests, hepato-biliary scintigraphy, among others). Scintigraphy should be more largely used in the functional evaluation of organs and systems of patients affected y tropical diseases. It is a powerful tool to evaluate both the extent of disease and the efficacy of therapy. (author)

  12. Nuclear medicine in tropical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira [Centro Oncologico da Regiao de Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: fjbraga@dfm.ffclrp.usp.br

    2002-09-01

    Tropical diseases affect more people in the world than any other kind of disease, but scintigraphic data on that matter are not so frequent in the literature. Since the geographic regions where such diseases occur are normally very poor, scintillation cameras may not be available. We present a resumed summary of part of what has been done on this subject to-date. Leprosy affects circa 12 million people worldwide and has already been studied by means of the following scintigraphic exams: gallium-67, 99mTc-MDP or HMDP, 99mTc-colloid or Dextran, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-WBC. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep mycosis and such cases may be evaluated by means of gallium-67, bone scintigraphy, lymphoscintigraphy, hepato-biliary, bone marrow and liver/spleen scintigraphies. Mycetoma is bone and soft tissue mycosis and gallium-67 and bone studies are very useful in the evaluation of such cases. Tuberculosis is the most well studied tropical disease and dozens of radiopharmaceuticals and techniques were described to evaluate such patients. Jorge Lobo disease is a rare mycosis that affects mainly indians from the Amazon region and gallium-67 was shown to accumulate in active disease. Neurocysticercosis is spread worldwide and brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO) is a very good tool for the functional evaluation of the disease. Patients suffering from cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis may benefit from gallium-67 scintigraphy. Chagas disease may affect the heart and or the digestive tract and several scintigraphic exams may be helpful in the evaluation of such cases (gated blood pool, heart perfusions tests, pharyngeal transit tests, gastric emptying tests, intestinal transit tests, hepato-biliary scintigraphy, among others). Scintigraphy should be more largely used in the functional evaluation of organs and systems of patients affected y tropical diseases. It is a powerful tool to evaluate both the extent of disease and the efficacy of therapy. (author)

  13. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J P; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J T; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Timothy R; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K, Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Leal, Miguel E; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R; Morandi, Paulo S; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R; Primack, Richard B; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W; Thomas, Sean C; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-17

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  14. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; de Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Catheter Complicated by Persistent Phrenic Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Koogler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old male presented for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA in the beach chair position. A preoperative interscalene nerve catheter was placed under direct ultrasound-guidance utilizing a posterior in-plane approach. On POD 2, the catheter was removed. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient reported worsening dyspnea with a subsequent chest X-ray demonstrating an elevated right hemidiaphragm. Pulmonary function testing revealed worsening deficit from presurgical values consistent with phrenic nerve palsy. The patient decided to continue conservative management and declined further invasive testing or treatment. He was followed for one year postoperatively with moderate improvement of his exertional dyspnea over that period of time. The close proximity of the phrenic nerve to the brachial plexus in combination with its frequent anatomical variation can lead to unintentional mechanical trauma, intraneural injection, or chemical injury during performance of ISB. The only previously identified risk factor for PPNP is cervical degenerative disc disease. Although PPNP has been reported following TSA in the beach chair position without the presence of a nerve block, it is typically presumed as a complication of the interscalene block. Previously published case reports and case series of PPNP complicating ISBs all describe nerve blocks performed with either paresthesia technique or localization with nerve stimulation. We report a case of a patient experiencing PPNP following an ultrasound-guided placement of an interscalene nerve catheter.

  16. Mechanism of prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Maynar, M.; Hulbert, J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 60 patients have undergone prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheters at our institution. The follow-up of these patients has ranged from more than 3 years to not less than 6 months. The preliminary results have been excellent, with a success rate of 75% in patients with predominant lateral lobe hypertrophy. This success rate drops to 25% in patients with predominant middle lobe hypertrophy. In previous communications the authors have proposed that the mechanism of prostatic urethral relief of obstruction is due to stretching of the prostatic capsule, tissue compression, and possible subsequent atrophy, as suggested by findings of transrectal US, MR imaging, voiding and retrograde urethrography, and urinary flow studies. Recent clinical information that has led to further animal research has shown that in addition to the previously supposed mechanism of action, separation of the prostatic lobes occurs by splitting of the anterior and posterior commissures of the prostatic gland tissue. This separation of the prostatic lobes is therefore the goal of the procedure. As more experience is gained, the already high success rate can probably be improved

  17. Pulsatile flow in ventricular catheters for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Á.; Galarza, M.; Thomale, U.; Schuhmann, M. U.; Valero, J.; Amigó, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    The obstruction of ventricular catheters (VCs) is a major problem in the standard treatment of hydrocephalus, the flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) being one important factor thereof. As a first approach to this problem, some of the authors studied previously the CSF flow through VCs under time-independent boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics in three-dimensional models. This allowed us to derive a few basic principles which led to designs with improved flow patterns regarding the obstruction problem. However, the flow of the CSF has actually a pulsatile nature because of the heart beating and blood flow. To address this fact, here we extend our previous computational study to models with oscillatory boundary conditions. The new results will be compared with the results for constant flows and discussed. It turns out that the corrections due to the pulsatility of the CSF are quantitatively small, which reinforces our previous findings and conclusions. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  18. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, pSMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was -1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD -0.37; pSMD, -1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Open Versus Laparoscopic Placement of a Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter and Outcomes: The CAPD I Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laanen, Jorinde H H; Cornelis, Tom; Mees, Barend M; Litjens, Elisabeth J; van Loon, Magda M; Tordoir, Jan H M; Peppelenbosch, Arnoud G

    2018-01-01

    To determine the best operation technique, open versus laparoscopic, for insertion of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter with regard to clinical success. Clinical success was defined as an adequate function of the catheter 2 - 4 weeks after insertion. All patients with end-stage renal disease who were suitable for PD and gave informed consent were randomized for either open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. A previous laparotomy was not considered an exclusion criterion. Laparoscopic placement had the advantage of pre-peritoneal tunneling, the possibility for adhesiolysis, and placement of the catheter under direct vision. Catheter fixation techniques, omentopexy, or other adjunct procedures were not performed. Other measured parameters were in-hospital morbidity and mortality and post-operative infections. Between 2010 and 2016, 95 patients were randomized to this study protocol. After exclusion of 5 patients for various reasons, 44 patients received an open procedure and 46 patients a laparoscopic procedure. Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, current hemodialysis, severe heart failure, and previous an abdominal operation were not significantly different between the groups. However, in the open surgery group, fewer patients had a previous median laparotomy compared with the laparoscopic group (6 vs 16 patients; p = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in mean operation time (36 ± 24 vs 38 ± 15 minutes) and hospital stay (2.1 ± 2.7 vs 3.1 ± 7.3 days) between the groups. In the open surgery group 77% of the patients had an adequate functioning catheter 2 - 4 weeks after insertion compared with 70% of patients in the laparoscopic group ( p = not significant [NS]). In the open surgery group there was 1 post-operative death (2%) compared with none in the laparoscopic group ( p = NS). The morbidity in both groups was low and not significantly different. In the open surgery group, 2 patients had an exit-site infection and 1 patient

  20. Local Intravascular Drug Delivery: In Vitro Comparison of Three Catheter Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, Heiko; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Calmer, Christian; Klose, Klaus Jochen

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare different catheter systems for local drug delivery with respect to the penetration depth of a biotin marker solution delivered into the vessel wall. Methods: Post-mortem carotid arteries from pigs were locally infused with a biotin solution using three different catheter systems. With all catheters (microporous balloon catheter, hydrogel-coated balloon catheter, and spiral balloon catheter) we used the same pressure of 405 kPa (4 atm) and infusion times of 60, 90, and 300 sec. After infusion the arteries were histologically prepared and stained using a biotin-specific method. With a light microscope an observer, blinded to the catheter type, scored the amount of biotin within the vessel wall, measured as staining intensity, and the penetration depth of the biotin. Results: Delivery with the hydrogel-coated balloon catheter was limited to the intima and the innermost parts of the media. The spiral balloon and microporous balloon catheter showed both a deeper penetration and a larger amount of delivered biotin compared with the hydrogel catheter, with a slightly deeper penetration using the microporous catheter. The penetration depth showed a correlation with infusion time for the spiral balloon and microporous catheters, but not for the hydrogel-coated catheter. Conclusion: Different catheter designs lead to different patterns of local drug delivery. The differences in penetration depth and amount of the substance delivered to the vessel wall should be known and might be useful for targeting specific areas within the vessel wall

  1. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  2. 1997 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Separate bulletins are issued for the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean. TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION ALERT - Defines a specific area when synoptic, satellite, or other germane data indicate development of a significant tropical cyclone (TC...

  3. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Recording of ventricular pressure by conventional catheter manometer systems. Efficiency of several combinations of conventional catheters, modern transducers and catheter-flush systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellige, G

    1976-01-01

    The experimentally in vitro determined dynamic response characteristics of 38 catheter manometer systems were uniform in the worst case to 5 c.p.s. and optimally to 26 c.p.s. Accordingly, some systems are only satisfactory for ordinary pressure recording in cardiac rest, while better systems record dp/dt correct up to moderate inotropic stimulation of the heart. In the frequency range of uniform response (amplitude error less +/- 5%) the phase distortion is also negligible. In clinical application the investigator is often restricted to special type of cardiac catheter. In this case a low compliant transducer yields superior results. In all examined systems the combination with MSD 10 transducers is best, whereas the combination with P 23 Db transducers leads to minimal results. An inadequate system for recording ventricular pressure pulses leads in most cases to overestimations of dp/dtmax. The use of low frequency pass filters to attenuate higher frequency artefacts is, under clinical conditions, not suitable for extending the range of uniform frequency response. The dynamic response of 14 catheter manometer systems with two types of continuous self flush units was determined. The use of the P 37 flush unit in combination with small internal diameter catheters leads to serious error in ordinary pressure recording, due to amplitude distortion of the lower harmonics. The frequency response characteristics of the combination of an Intraflow flush system and MSD 10 transducer was similar to the non-flushing P 23 Db transducer feature.

  5. Tropical varieties, maps and gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a relatively new field of mathematics that studies the tropicalization map: a map that assigns a certain type of polyhedral complex, called a tropical variety, to an embedded algebraic variety. In a sense, it translates algebraic geometric statements into combinatorial ones. An

  6. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Cmdr. David Gray; National Weather Service 5. Cooperation with the Naval Environmental Pacific Region for the startup of 24-hour operatiois at Ponape...0.1 27.7 TOTAL CASES 3 1 1 4 12 27 54 56 30 25 7 1 221 * (GRAY, 1979) TABLE 4-3 ANNUAL VARIATION C SOTR MUSHER TROPICAL CYCLOUZ BY O(EN BASIN SOUTH

  7. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  8. [Tropical sprue (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, C; Chapoy, P; Aubry, P

    1981-01-01

    Tropical sprue is a disease of the small intestine characterized by a malabsorption syndrome with a subtotal or partial mucosal atrophy. It is observed in Asia and Central America. It appears to be rare in Africa but its real frequency is unknown as small bowel biopsys are not routinely done. Bacterial overgrowth as well as giardiasis may be trigger factors of the disease the pathogenesis of which is still incompletely understood. The disease beginning as chronic diarrhea is later on characterized by an aphtoïd stomatitis and a macrocytic anemia. Treatment with antibiotics and folic acid is efficient and has a diagnostic value. If treatment is started lately, vitamin B 12 is then also necessary. In any intestinal syndrome observed in tropical areas without an ascertained etiologic diagnosis, peroral biopsie of the small intestine is requested. However, with the use of pediatric endoscope it will be possible to appreciate the respective incidence of tropical sprue and asymptomatic tropical sprue in Africa South of the Sahara.

  9. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  10. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest. The track is a combination of a bauxite /dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...bridges crossing 11 creeks. The track site is located in a private concession used mainly for gold mining ; however, logging operations are active in the

  11. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  12. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25 μg of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 ± 7.61 hours versus 18.40 ± 8.02 hours (p<0.01. The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley’s catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour.

  13. Fantoni’s Tracheostomy using Catheter High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Török

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown previously that conventional ventilation delivered through a long cuffed endotracheal tube is associated with a high flow-resistance and frequent perioperative complications. Aim: We attempted to supersede the conventional ventilation by high-frequency jet ventilation through a catheter (HFJV-C and assess safety of the procedure. Material and methods: Using a translaryngeal tracheostomy kit, we performed a translaryngeal (Fantoni tracheostomy (TLT. Subsequently, we introduced a special 2-way prototype ventilatory catheter into the trachea via the TLT under bronchoscopic control. Satisfactory HFJV-C ventilation through the catheter was achieved in 218 patients. Results: There were no significant adverse effects on vital signs observed in the cohort during the study. The pH, SpO2, PaO2, and PaCO2 did not change significantly following the HFJV-C. The intrinsic PEEPi measured in trachea did not exceed 4—5 cm H2O during its application, which was significantly less than during the classical ventilation via the endotracheal tube fluctuating between 12 and 17 cm H2O. No serious medical complications occurred. Conclusion: The HFJV during Fantoni’s tracheostomy using the catheter HFJV-C proved to be a safe and effective method of lung ventilation at the intensive care unit. Key words: Translaryngeal tracheostomy, HFJV via catheter.

  14. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  15. Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis and related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji-Zavareh, M; Ghorbani, R

    2007-08-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis is a common and significant problem in clinical practice. This study aims to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and to evaluate some important related factors. 300 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of hospitals in Semnan, Iran from April 2003 to February 2004 were prospectively studied. Variables evaluated were age, gender, site and size of catheter, type of insertion and underlying conditions (diabetes mellitus, trauma, infectious disease and burns). Phlebitis was defined when at least four criteria were fulfilled (erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth, induration, palpable cord and swelling). Any patient who was discharged or their catheter removed before three days were excluded. Phlebitis occurred in 26 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 21- 31 percent) of patients. There was no significant relationship between age, catheter bore size, trauma and phlebitis. Related risk factors were gender (odds-ratio [OR] 1.50, 95 percent CI 1.01-2.22), site (OR 3.25, 95 percent CI 2.26-4.67) and type of insertion (OR 2.04, 95 percent CI 1.36-3.05) of catheter, diabetes mellitus (OR 7.78, 95 percent CI 4.59-13.21), infectious disease (OR 6.21, 95 percent CI 4.27-9.03) and burns (OR 3.96, 95 percent CI 3.26-4.82). Phlebitis is still an important and ongoing problem in medical practice. In patients with diabetes mellitus and infectious diseases, more attention is needed.

  16. NURSING CARE IN PATIENTS NEONATES WITH PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL CATHETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacilda Oliveira Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter is a long flexible catheter which is inserted through a peripheral vein, progresses through a needle introducer until the final portion of the vena cava, acquiring characteristics of a central catheter. Objective: To point out the main theoretical and scientific ideas that demonstrate the reliability, competence and ability of nurses to perform the PICC. Methodology: Systematic review of articles, which were found by searching the database scientific journals and bibliographies area. Results: The success of integration depends on the patient assessment and choice of venous access where the catheter will be positioned, and its tip should be in the middle third of the superior vena cava, or the middle third of the inferior vena cava. In neonates, which are used more frequently, proper positioning of the catheter is through nursing care in making the dressing, and the first 24 hours it should be compressive. Ideally, the PICC remains in the vein for periods longer than seven days or until the end of treatment, thus decreasing invasive procedures. Conclusion: According to the Federal Board of Nursing (COFEN, it is lawful for the insertion of PICC nurses, provided it has undergone professional training.

  17. Spontaneous rotation of the monorail-type guide extension support catheter during advancement of a curved guiding catheter: the potential hazard of twisting with the coronary guidewire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sho; Takahashi, Akihiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Taniguchi, Norimasa; Hata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Shunsuke

    2017-11-20

    The extension support guiding catheter has been used to perform complex percutaneous coronary intervention to increase back-up support for the guiding catheter or to ensure deep intubation for device delivery. However, because of its monorail design, advancement of the stent into the distal extension tubing segment is sometimes problematic. Although this problem is considered due to simple collision of the stent, operators have observed tangling between a monorail extension catheter and coronary guidewire in some patients. To examine movement of the collar of the extension guide catheter during advancement of the guiding catheter, we set up an in vitro model in which the guiding catheter had two curves. Rotation of the extension guide catheter was examined by both fluoroscopic imaging and movement of the hub of the proximal end of the catheter. During advancement in the first curve, the collar moved toward the outer side of the curve of the guiding catheter as the operator pushed the shaft of the extension guiding catheter, which overrode the guidewire. After crossing the first curve, the collar moved again to the outer side of the second curve (the inner side of the first curve) of the mother catheter, and then, another clockwise rotation was observed in the proximal hub. Consequently, the collar and tubing portion of the extension guide catheter rotated 360° around the coronary guidewire, and the monorail extension catheter and guidewire became tangled. There is a potential risk of unintentional twisting with the guidewire during advancement into the curved guiding catheter because of its monorail design.

  18. Tropical myeloneuropathies: the hidden endemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C; Spencer, P S; Schoenberg, B S

    1985-08-01

    Tropical myeloneuropathies include tropical ataxic neuropathy and tropical spastic paraparesis. These disorders occur in geographic isolates in several developing countries and are associated with malnutrition, cyanide intoxication from cassava consumption, tropical malabsorption (TM), vegetarian diets, and lathyrism. TM-malnutrition was a probable cause of myeloneuropathies among Far East prisoners of war in World War II. Clusters of unknown etiology occur in India, Africa, the Seychelles, several Caribbean islands, Jamaica, and Colombia. Treponemal infection (yaws) could be an etiologic factor in the last two. Tropical myeloneuropathies, a serious health problem, are multifactorial conditions that provide unsurpassed opportunities for international cooperation and neurologic research.

  19. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  20. Outcome of tunneled infusion catheters inserted via the right internal jugular vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Yoo, Wi Kang; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    To assess the outcome of tunneled central venous catheter placement via the right internal jugular vein. Between June 2001 and May 2002, 670 consecutive Hickman catheters were placed in 654 patients via the right internal jugular vein. The procedural complications arising and follow-up data obtained from May to July 2002 were evaluated. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 99.9% (669/670). Procedural complications were limited to eight cases (1.2%), including three pneumothoraces, one early migration of the catheter, one clinically unimportant air embolism, one catheter injury, one catheter kinking and one primary malpositioning in the azygos vein. Catheter dwelling time ranged from 1 to 407 (mean 107.1) days. During the follow-up period, 416 catheter were removed for various reasons: treatment had ended (n=334), patients declined treatment or their drug regimen was changed (n=16), late complications arose (n=53), or other circumstances intervened (n=13). Late complications included 44 cases of catheter-related infection (6.6%), five of catheter migration (0.7%), two of catheter occlusion (0.3%), one of thrombophlebitis (0.15%), and one of catheter-related right atrial thrombosis (0.15%). Only one instance of symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis was noted, namely the one case of thrombophlebitis. Because the incidence of subsequent symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis is lower, the preferred route for tunneled central venous catheter placement is the right internal jugular vein

  1. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical shallow lake: driving forces on a diel scale Distribuição vertical de grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em um lago tropical raso: forças direcionadoras em escala nictemeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gomes Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study analyzed the vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in two diel cycles in a warm monomictic shallow tropical lake; METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton communities was performed at intervals of 3 hours over 24 hours in vertical profiles, in the stratification (February and circulation (July periods; RESULTS: The high thermal stability and the partial atelomixis favored the coexistence of functional groups that are sensitive to destratification, N A and F, composed by desmids and Chlorophyceae coccoids, and groups S2 and Lo, which persisted during the circulation, and were composed by filamentous cyanobacteria which do not fix N2 and dinoflagellates, respectively. The discontinuity in the vertical distribution of the functional groups, with dominance of N A and F in the epilimnion and R and Lo in the metalimnion and hypolimnion, was characteristic of the stratification, and differences between the daytime and nighttime periods were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of 80% of the biomass of the NA group during the mixing period indicates the influence of thermal stability and partial atelomixis as determinant factors in the compartmentalization of functional groups, restricting daytime vertical migration (DVM and loss by sedimentation during the stratification period.OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição vertical dos grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em dois ciclos nictemerais em um lago tropical monomítico raso; MÉTODOS: As amostragens das variáveis abióticas, comunidades fitoplanctônica e zooplanctônica foram realizadas a intervalos de 3 horas ao longo de 24 horas em perfis verticais, nos períodos de estratificação (fevereiro e de circulação (julho; RESULTADOS: A elevada estabilidade térmica e a atelomixia parcial favoreceram a coexistência de grupos funcionais sensíveis a desestratificação N A e F, compostos por desmidias e clorofícias cocoides e

  2. Balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoping; Yu Juming; Zhong Weixing; Zhu Ming; Wu Yeming; Shi Chengren

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and effect of balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children. Methods: 9 cases had an anastomotic stenosis after surgical correction of esophageal atresia; 11 cases of esophageal stenosis due to ingestion of caustics; one case had an lower esophageal stenosis after Nissen surgery and one case after gastro-esophagoplasty. Age ranged from 17 days to 7 years. Each case had a barium esophagram before balloon dilation. The balloon size varied from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Results: 21 cases were successful after dilation of balloon catheter. There were no esophageal perforation and complications. The satisfactory results maintained from six months to thirty months. Conclusions: Balloon catheter dilation is a simple, safe and reliable method for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures in children as the first choice

  3. Penile gangrene following condom catheter urinary drainage : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Gupta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available External urine collecting devices have been a boon to patients of urinary incontinence since their invention in late 90s. They have replaced the need for uncomfortable indwelling catheters in these patients. As safe as they may be, ghastly complications have occurred infrequently, mostly due to their inappropriate application. Such penile and urethral complications add to the morbidity of the patients significantly. They can be easily avoided by following few simple steps of catheter care, thus emphasizing the need to aware clinicians and health care workers about the correct application methods. Here we discuss a case of 60 year old male who developed penile skin necrosis and urethral fistula due to chronic use of condom catheter.

  4. Bacterial Biofilms and Catheters: A Key to Understanding Bacterial Strategies in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Curtis Nickel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major technological improvements in catheter drainage systems, the indwelling Foley catheter remains the most common cause of nosocomial infection in medical practice. By approaching this common complicated urinary tract infection from the perspective of the biofilm strategy bacteria appear to use to overcome obstacles to produce bacteriuria, one appreciates a new understanding of these infections. An adherent biofilm of bacteria in their secretory products ascends the luminal and external surface of the catheter and drainage system from a contaminated drainage spigot or urethral meatus into the bladder. If the intraluminal route of bacterial ascent is delayed by strict sterile closed drainage or addition of internal modifications to the system, the extraluminal or urethral route assumes greater importance in the development of bacteriuria, but takes significantly longer. Bacterial growth within these thick coherent biofilms confers a large measure of relative resistance to antibiotics even though the individual bacterium remains sensitive, thus accounting for the failure of antibiotic therapy. With disruption of the protective mucous layer of the bladder by mechanical irritation, the bacteria colonizing the catheter can adhere to the bladder’s mucosal surface and cause infection. An appreciation of the role of bacterial biofilms in these infections should suggest future directions for research that may ultimately reduce the risk of catheter-associated infection.

  5. Hydrophilic-coated catheter appreciation study in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Andréanne; Cloutier, Jonathan; Lebel, Sylvie; Hamel, Micheline; Lamontagne, Pascale; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the paper was to compare the satisfaction of hydrophilic-coated catheters (HC) (SpeediCath, Coloplast Canada, Mississauga, ON) versus uncoated catheters in a pediatric neurogenic bladder population, in order to identify a target group for HC. The main hypothesis was that our patients, with regard to their limitations, might have difficulties using the HC. Material and methods: A comparative prospective study was initiated in one pediatric rehabilitation centre. Out of the 39 patients who tried the HC during a routine clinic visit, 31 patients/parents accepted to participate in a 1-week trial and to answer a satisfaction questionnaire. Their medical records were reviewed for age, neurological disease, intellectual deficit, impaired dexterity and method of catheterization (Mitrofanoff/urethra). Results: Thirty of the 31 patients answered the satisfaction questionnaire. The median age for the 30 patients was 13.5 years (range 6–20 years). Of these patients, 19 were females (63%), 26 performed self-catheterization (87%), and 6 had Mitrofanoff (20%). Ten children (33%) would be ready to proceed with HC and all 10 children would receive catheterization by the urethra. Of these, 9 were females (90%), 8 used compact-HC (80%) and all were self-sufficient. Patients using compact-HC would continue with this catheter. In the patient comments, males catheterizing per-urethra and patients using a continent stoma requiring long catheters had problems with the excess of lubricant. Conclusion: Most children preferred their usual uncoated catheter and would not change for HC. Female patients catheterizing per-urethra with a compact-HC seem to benefit most from this catheter. PMID:21749816

  6. Mesozooplankton structure and functioning in the western tropical South Pacific along the 20° parallel south during the OUTPACE survey (February-April 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, François; Pagano, Marc; Guilloux, Loïc; Donoso, Katty; Valdés, Valentina; Hunt, Brian P. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results on the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of mesozooplankton in the western tropical South Pacific along the 20 °S south visited during austral summer (February-April 2015). By contributing to the interdisciplinary OUTPACE (Oligotrophy to UlTra-oligotrophy PACific Experiment) project (Moutin et al., 2017), the specific aims of this study dedicated to mesozooplankton observations were (1) to document the responses of zooplankton in terms of species diversity, density and biomass along the transect, and (2) to characterize the trophic pathways from primary production to large mesozooplanktonic organisms. Along a West-East transect of 4000 km from New Caledonia to the French Polynesia, 15 short-duration stations (SD-1 to SD-15, 8 hours each) dedicated to a large-scale description, and three long-duration stations (LD-A to LD-C, 5days each), respectively positioned (1) in offshore northern waters of New Caledonia, (2) near Niue Island, and (3) in the subtropical Pacific gyre near the Cook Islands, were sampled with a Bongo Net with 120 μm mesh size net for quantifying mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, community taxonomy and size structure, and size fractionated content of δ15N. Subsequently, the contribution of Diazotroph Derived Nitrogen (DDN (%) to zooplankton δ15N (ZDDN) values at each station was calculated, as well as an estimation of zooplankton carbon demand and grazing impact and of zooplankton excretion rates. The mesozooplankton community showed a general decreasing trend in abundance and biomass from West to East, with a clear drop in the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the subtropical Pacific gyre (LD-C, SD-14 and SD-15). Higher abundance and biomass corresponded to higher primary production of more or less ephemeral blooms linked to complex mesoscale circulation in the Coral Sea and between the longitudes 170-180 °W. Copepods were the most abundant group (68 to 86 % of total abundance), slightly

  7. [Delayed (tension) pneumothorax after placement of a central venous catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E C; van der Vliet, J A

    1999-09-11

    Laborious attempts at introducing a central venous catheter for parenteral nutrition in two women, aged 36 and 62 years, were followed by shortness of breath after 32 and 10 hours, respectively. This symptom was due to a (tension) pneumothorax not visible on earlier roentgenograms. Thoracic drainage led to recovery. In all patients with a central venous catheter an undetected delayed pneumothorax can be present. Urgent chest X-ray examination should be performed in all patients with acute respiratory symptoms. Patients undergoing elective intubation with positive pressure breathing should be examined carefully, since they are at risk of developing a late (tension) pneumothorax.

  8. Spontaneous migration of central venous catheter tip following extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Prabaharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of the tip of central venous catheters is not an uncommon event and the mechanism for this is not clear. Increased intrathoracic pressure due to coughing, sneezing or weight lifting, changing the body position or physical movements such as abduction or adduction of the arms is thought to be the cause of such migration. We present here a case of a patient with a port catheter tip that migrated from the left subclavian to the superior vene cava following extubation.

  9. Central Venous Catheter-related Fungemia Caused by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Fabio; Letizia Faneschi, Maria; Braione, Adele; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection due to Rhodotorula glutinis is extremely rare and mostly associated with underlying immunosuppression or cancer. Vascular access devices provide the necessary surfaces for biofilm formation and are currently responsible for a significant percentage of human infections. In this work, we describe a rare case of central venous catheter-related Rhodotorula glutinis fungemia in a female patient with acute myelogenous leukemia in remission. The timely removal of central venous catheter was an essential element for overcoming this CVC-related Rhodotorula fungemia.

  10. CT imaging of complications of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroff, G.S.; Guirguis, M.S.; Ferguson, E.C.; Oldham, S.A.A.; Kantharia, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    The complication rate following radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation is low (<5%). Complications include pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, pulmonary vein stenosis, oesophageal ulceration or perforation, atrio-oesophageal fistula formation, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, phrenic nerve injury, haematoma at the puncture site, and femoral arteriovenous fistula. Among available imaging tools, computed tomography (CT) can be very useful in diagnosing complications of the procedure, particularly in the subacute and delayed stages after ablation. This review illustrates CT imaging of several of the common and uncommon complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A Halton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI. Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the bundle, or that alternative strategies are available to prevent CR-BSI. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a bundle to prevent CR-BSI in Australian intensive care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the bundle relative to remaining with current practice (a non-bundled approach to catheter care and uncoated catheters, or use of antimicrobial catheters. We assumed the bundle reduced relative risk of CR-BSI to 0.34. Given uncertainty about the cost of the bundle, threshold analyses were used to determine the maximum cost at which the bundle remained cost-effective relative to the other approaches to infection control. Sensitivity analyses explored how this threshold alters under different assumptions about the economic value placed on bed-days and health benefits gained by preventing infection. If clinicians are prepared to use antimicrobial catheters, the bundle is cost-effective if national 18-month implementation costs are below $1.1 million. If antimicrobial catheters are not an option the bundle must cost less than $4.3 million. If decision makers are only interested in obtaining cash-savings for the unit, and place no economic value on either the bed-days or the health benefits gained through preventing infection, these cost thresholds are reduced by two-thirds. CONCLUSIONS: A catheter care bundle has the potential to be cost-effective in the Australian intensive care setting. Rather than anticipating cash-savings from this intervention, decision

  12. Evaluation of the safety of latrogenic lntestinal perforation during placement of percutaneous drainage catheter in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyung; Park, Ga Young; Shin, Hong Sub; Kim, In Sub; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of transgression of the bowel during intraperitoneal percutaneous catheter placement in an animal model. Eight 8-F straight catheters were percutaneously inserted into the small and large bowel of eight rabbits. In four animals, the catheters were left in place until autopsy, whereas in the remaining four, the catheters were withdrawn five days after insertion. Autopsy was performed in all animals ten days after catheter placement, and gross and microscopic examination was carried out. Transgressing the bowel during intraperitoneal percutaneous catheter placement did not contribute to any clinically significant complications. At autopsy, there was no bowel leakage, peritonitis, or abscess, although peritoneal adhesions were found around the catheter tract. Although further study is warranted, our study with an animal model indicated that transgression of the intestine during percutaneous placement of an intraabdominal catheter did not produce significant complications

  13. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy

  14. Radiologic interventional retrieval of retained central venous catheter fragment in prematurity: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Byeong Ho

    2007-01-01

    The fracture of a central venous catheter is a rare but potentially serious complication. Moreover, removal of the broken catheter pieces is considerably challenging, especially for premature infants. We report 3 case studies of the percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of broken catheter parts in 3 premature infants. We confirmed the location of the catheter fragments via a DSA venogram with diluted contrast media. Using the minimum amount of contrast, and extreme caution, we made certain no contrast-induced nephrotoxicity of air embolism occurred during catheter manipulation. In addition, when the broken fragment was curled or attached to the cardiac wall, we used a hook-shaped catheter to facilitate the capturing of the catheter with a loopsnare. This report demonstrates the feasibility of removing a retained catheter fragment in a premature infant using a percutaneous transcatheter approach

  15. Evaluation of the safety of latrogenic lntestinal perforation during placement of percutaneous drainage catheter in rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyung; Park, Ga Young; Shin, Hong Sub; Kim, In Sub; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the safety of transgression of the bowel during intraperitoneal percutaneous catheter placement in an animal model. Eight 8-F straight catheters were percutaneously inserted into the small and large bowel of eight rabbits. In four animals, the catheters were left in place until autopsy, whereas in the remaining four, the catheters were withdrawn five days after insertion. Autopsy was performed in all animals ten days after catheter placement, and gross and microscopic examination was carried out. Transgressing the bowel during intraperitoneal percutaneous catheter placement did not contribute to any clinically significant complications. At autopsy, there was no bowel leakage, peritonitis, or abscess, although peritoneal adhesions were found around the catheter tract. Although further study is warranted, our study with an animal model indicated that transgression of the intestine during percutaneous placement of an intraabdominal catheter did not produce significant complications.

  16. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  17. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving t...

  18. A prospective interventional study to examine the effect of a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter on the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, P Hy; Wong, C Wy; Lai, C Kc; Siu, H K; Tsang, D Nc; Yeung, K Y; Ip, D Km; Tam, P Kh

    2017-06-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is a major hospital-acquired infection. This study aimed to analyse the effect of a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter on the occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. This was a 1-year prospective study conducted at a single centre in Hong Kong. Adult patients with an indwelling urinary catheter for longer than 24 hours were recruited. The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients with a conventional latex Foley catheter without hydrogel was compared with that in patients with a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter. The most recent definition of urinary tract infection was based on the latest surveillance definition of the National Healthcare Safety Network managed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 306 patients were recruited with a similar ratio between males and females. The mean (standard deviation) age was 81.1 (10.5) years. The total numbers of catheter-days were 4352 and 7474 in the silver-coated and conventional groups, respectively. The incidences of catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1000 catheter-days were 6.4 and 9.4, respectively (P=0.095). There was a 31% reduction in the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1000 catheter-days in the silver-coated group. Escherichia coli was the most commonly involved pathogen (36.7%) of all cases. Subgroup analysis revealed that the protective effect of silver-coated catheter was more pronounced in long-term users as well as female patients with a respective 48% (P=0.027) and 42% (P=0.108) reduction in incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. The mean catheterisation time per person was the longest in patients using a silver-coated catheter (17.0 days) compared with those using a conventional (10.8 days) or both types of catheter (13.6 days) [P=0.01]. Silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheters appear to be effective in preventing catheter

  19. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  20. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  1. Metagenomic insights into effects of spent engine oil perturbation on the microbial community composition and function in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Sunday O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Suleiman, Aisha; Mustapha, Raheemat

    2017-03-01

    Analyzing the microbial community structure and functions become imperative for ecological processes. To understand the impact of spent engine oil (SEO) contamination on microbial community structure of an agricultural soil, soil microcosms designated 1S (agricultural soil) and AB1 (agricultural soil polluted with SEO) were set up. Metagenomic DNA extracted from the soil microcosms and sequenced using Miseq Illumina sequencing were analyzed for their taxonomic and functional properties. Taxonomic profiling of the two microcosms by MG-RAST revealed the dominance of Actinobacteria (23.36%) and Proteobacteria (52.46%) phyla in 1S and AB1 with preponderance of Streptomyces (12.83%) and Gemmatimonas (10.20%) in 1S and Geodermatophilus (26.24%), Burkholderia (15.40%), and Pseudomonas (12.72%) in AB1, respectively. Our results showed that soil microbial diversity significantly decreased in AB1. Further assignment of the metagenomic reads to MG-RAST, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) of proteins, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GhostKOALA, and NCBI's CDD hits revealed diverse metabolic potentials of the autochthonous microbial community. It also revealed the adaptation of the community to various environmental stressors such as hydrocarbon hydrophobicity, heavy metal toxicity, oxidative stress, nutrient starvation, and C/N/P imbalance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effect of SEO perturbation on soil microbial communities through Illumina sequencing. The results indicated that SEO contamination significantly affects soil microbial community structure and functions leading to massive loss of nonhydrocarbon degrading indigenous microbiota and enrichment of hydrocarbonoclastic organisms such as members of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  2. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  3. Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the são paulo zoo park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Farage Martins

    Full Text Available Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders.

  4. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  5. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial...

  6. Placing of tunneled central venous catheters prior to induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Frydenberg, Morten

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) are inevitable in children with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of CVC-related complications in children with ALL in relation to timing of catheter placement and type of catheter. PROCEDURE: All...

  7. Peripherally inserted central catheters in infants and children - indications, techniques, complications and clinical recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, B; Classen, V; Walther-Larsen, S

    2013-01-01

    of perioperative complications. Assisted visualisation, preferably with ultrasound, yields high rates of insertion success. With good catheter care, rates of mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are low and compare favourably with those of traditional central venous catheters. Even in the case...... of occlusion or infection, fibrinolytics and antibiotic locks often allow the catheter to be retained....

  8. Percutaneous transvenous retrieval of CVP catheter emboli in S. V. C.-A case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Lee, Deock Hee; Kim, Hong; Kim, Ok Bae

    1987-01-01

    The increasing use of the indwelling venous catheters and cardiovascular catheters has led to many iatrogenic complications. One of the most serious complications is catheter embolization, caused by inadvertent fracture of a fragment of catheter remaining within cardiovascular systems. In the catheter embolization, there are serious consequence such as thromboembolism, sepsis, cardiac arrhythmia and others. Fisher and Ferreyro (1978) reported a 71% incidence of serious morbidity or death following to intravascular foreign bodies in patients without removal. The authors experienced a case of retained central venous pressure monitoring catheter (CVP catheter) fragment extending from superior vena cava to hepatic segment of inferior vena cava. CVP catheter wa introduced into right subclavian venous route for hyperalimentation, because of poor general condition for operation of afferent loop syndrome following to resection of the gastric carcinoma with Billoth II operation (5 years age). On attempting removal of CVP catheter on recovery from afferent loop syndrome, a large portion of the CVP catheter was cut off in S.V.C. Percutaneous puncture of right femoral vein with Seldinger technique was done and 9F introducer sheath was indwelled. The helical basket of Dotter intravascular retriever set was advance through the sheath up to retained CVP catheter, and it was grasped. The retrieved CVP catheter fragment showed several tiny blood clots on surface. The patient was uneventfully recovered and was discharged asymptomatic on second day of the procedure.

  9. High dose urokinase for restoration of patency of occluded permanent central venous catheters in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, L; Lifschitz, M; Plaksin, J; Grenader, T; Slotki, I

    2010-10-01

    Catheter thrombosis is common and results in inadequate dialysis treatment and, frequently, in catheter loss. Since dialysis treatment runs on a strict schedule, occluded catheters need to be restored in a timely and cost effective manner. We present a new shortened protocol of urokinase infusion that allows hemodialysis to be performed within 90 minutes. To chronic hemodialysis patients, who developed complete catheter occlusion, urokinase was infused simultaneously through both lumens of the catheter (125,000 units to each lumen) over 90 minutes. Technical success was defined as restoring blood pump speed to at least 250 ml/min. We determined the average time from catheter placement to first clot event (primary patency PP), recurrent clot event after urokinase treatment (secondary patency SP), catheter salvage rate and cause for removal. 37 catheters developed total thrombosis and urokinase was used to restore patency one or more times (total 47 treatments). Catheter salvage rate was 97 %. The average time of PP was 152 ± 56 days (7 - 784 days). Nine patients (30%) developed recurrent occlusion and the average time of SP was 64 ± 34 days (2 - 364 days). One catheter was removed because of dysfunction due to thrombosis. Other catheters were removed due to infection, fistula maturation or fell out spontaneously. Hemodialysis was performed immediately after treatment with blood speed of 250 ml/min in all patients. Our protocol is highly effective, short, and allows to restore patency of totally occluded central venous catheters with minimal disruption of the dialysis session.

  10. Incidence of phlebitis associated with the use of peripheral IV catheter and following catheter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Peixoto, Cibelle Grassmann; May, Tássia Amanda

    2016-08-08

    to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and its association with risk factors when using peripheral IV catheters (PIC) and following their removal - (post-infusion phlebitis) in hospitalized adults. a cohort study of 171 patients using PIC, totaling 361 punctures. Sociodemographic variables and variables associated with the catheter were collected. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were performed. average patient age was 56.96 and 51.5% of the sample population was male. The incidence of phlebitis was 1.25% while using PIC, and 1.38% post-infusion. The incidence of phlebitis while using PIC was associated with the length of time the catheter remained in place, whereas post-infusion phlebitis was associated with puncture in the forearm. Ceftriaxone, Clarithromycin and Oxacillin are associated with post-infusion phlebitis. this study made it possible to investigate the association between risk factors and phlebitis during catheter use and following its removal. The frequency of post-infusion phlebitis was larger than the incidence of phlebitis with the catheter in place, with Phlebitis Grade III and II being the most frequently found in each of these situations, respectively. Aspects related to post-infusion phlebitis can be explained, given the limited number of studies addressing this theme from this perspective. investigar a incidência de flebites e a associação de fatores de risco com a sua ocorrência durante o uso e após a retirada do cateter intravenoso periférico - CIP (Flebite pós-infusão) em adultos hospitalizados. estudo de coorte com 171 pacientes com CIP, totalizando 361 punções. Foram coletadas variáveis sociodemográficas e relacionadas ao cateter. Análise estatística descritiva e analítica. dos pacientes, 51,5% eram homens e a média de idade foi de 56,96 anos. A incidência de flebites durante o uso do CIP foi de 1,25% e a pós-infusão foi de 1,38%. Associou-se à flebite durante o uso do CIP ao tempo de permanência do

  11. Using Plant Functional Traits and Phylogenies to Understand Patterns of Plant Community Assembly in a Seasonal Tropical Forest in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manichanh Satdichanh

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18°14'-18°32'N; 102°38'- 102°59'E, Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest on sandier soil with low pH, as these are the conditions least favorable to plant growth. We surveyed eleven 0.25 ha (50x50 m plots for all trees above 10 cm dbh (1221 individual trees, including 47 families, 70 genera and 123 species and sampled soils in each plot. For each species in the community, we measured 11 commonly studied plant functional traits covering both the leaf and wood economic spectrum traits and we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree for 115 of the species in the community using rbcL and matK sequences downloaded from Genebank (other species were not available. Finally we compared the distribution of trait values and species at two scales (among plots and 10x10m subplots to examine trait and phylogenetic community structures. Although there was strong evidence that an underlying soil gradient was determining patterns of species composition at the site, our results did not support the hypothesis that the environmental filtering dominated community assembly processes

  12. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    Full Text Available Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae, the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research

  13. Ultrasonic Guided Insertion of Central Venous Catheter in Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: ultrasound is licensed for application of regional blocks and insertion of vascular access. We aimed to compare ultrasonic guided (USG) and anatomical landmark technique (ALT) for insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) as regard success rate and rate of complications in infants and children.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients with Catheter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of COPD in CAD patients. Methods: A cross sectional study that included consecutive adults with catheter diagnosed CAD recruited from two cardiac centers. Patients completed a COPD diagnosis validated questionnaire and performed spirometry using an electronic spirometer. COPD was diagnosed if patient score placed ...

  15. Minimizing Hemodialysis Catheter Dysfunction: An Ounce of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmy Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of tunneled catheter (TC patency is critical for the provision of adequate hemodialysis in patients who are TC-dependent. TC dysfunction results in the need for costly and inconvenient interventions, and reduced quality of life. Since the introduction of TCs in the late 1980s, heparin catheter lock has been the standard prophylactic regimen for the prevention of TC dysfunction. More recently, alternative catheter locking agents have emerged, and in some cases have shown to be superior to heparin lock with respect to improving TC patency and reducing TC-associated infections. These include citrate, tissue plasminogen activator, and a novel agent containing sodium citrate, methylene blue, methylparaben, and propylparaben. In addition, prophylaxis using oral anticoagulants/antiplatelet agents, including warfarin, aspirin, ticlodipine, as well as the use of modified heparin-coated catheters have also been studied for the prevention of TC dysfunction with variable results. The use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents as primary or secondary prevention of TC dysfunction must be weighed against their potential adverse effects, and should be individualized for each patient.

  16. EVALUATION OF A NEW CATHETER FOR ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUIT, JA; SCHEPEL, SJ; BIJLEVELD, CMA; KLEIBEUKER, JH

    A new catheter, provided with an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor as a pH sensor and incorporating a reference electrode, was evaluated for esophageal pH recording. The pH-sensitivity was 54 mV/pH in vitro, with a linear response between pH 2 and pH 9. Clinical semi-ambulatory 24-hour

  17. Anatomical and procedural determinants of catheter-based renal denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Bergmann, Martin; Blankestijn, Peter J; Blessing, Erwin; Cremers, Bodo; Dörr, Oliver; Hering, Dagmara; Kaiser, Lukas; Nef, Holger; Noory, Elias; Schlaich, Markus; Sharif, Faisal; Sudano, Isabella; Vogel, Britta; Voskuil, Michiel; Zeller, Thomas; Tzafriri, Abraham R; Edelman, Elazer R; Lauder, Lucas; Scheller, Bruno; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) can reduce blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Less is known about the impact of renal anatomy and procedural parameters on subsequent BP response. METHODS/MATERIALS: A

  18. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, E. van der; Verkooyen, R.P.; Mintjes-de Groot, J.; Oostinga, J.; Dijk, Arie van; Hustinx, W.N.M.; Verbrugh, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Patients receiving antibiotics during bladder drainage have a lower incidence of urinary-tract infections compared with similar patients not on antibiotics. However, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a urinary catheter is opposed because of the fear of inducing resistant bacterial strains. We

  19. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Gerhard; Schamberger, Florian; Zare, Hamideh Heidari; Bröskamp, Sara Felicitas; Jocham, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters. Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly( p -xylylene). This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag + ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens' reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition. Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin's pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  20. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Franz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters.Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly(p-xylylene. This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag+ ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens’ reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition.Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin’s pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  1. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  2. Use of urethral catheters for diagnostic peritoneal lavage in blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has been reported to be a reliable diagnostic tool in assessing the need for liparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) with a diagnostic accuracy of more thin 95% when using a peritoneal lavage catheter (PLC). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic ...

  3. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical experience with the Monorail balloon catheter for coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finci, L; Meier, B; Roy, P; Steffenino, G; Rutishauser, W

    1988-01-01

    The Monorail balloon catheter is distinctly different from other current balloon catheters: the guidewire passes through the balloon itself, exits the catheter proximal to the balloon, and runs alongside its small shaft (3 French) through the guiding catheter. Monorail coronary angioplasty was attempted in 61 patients on 73 lesions with balloons from 2.0 to 3.7 mm. Angiographic success was obtained in 66 lesions (90%). For 15 lesions, balloon exchanges were needed. In three lesions, the Monorail balloon failed to cross the lesion, while a standard balloon succeeded; two lesions could not be crossed with any balloon. Vessel occlusion occurred in four patients: two had emergency surgery without infarct (one died suddenly 4 days later and one had a stroke 1 day later), one was recanalized with a standard balloon, and one had a myocardial infarct. Continuous infusion of urokinase was used until patient 3 in whom problems with the delivery system led to cardiocerebral air embolization (with complete recovery). No thrombotic complications were observed in the subsequent 58 patients with only a bolus of 10,000 U of heparin. The Monorail balloon facilitates contrast injections and balloon exchanges but appears more difficult to pass through tight lesions. Omission of the previously recommended infusion with a thrombolytic agent proved safe.

  5. Intravascular catheter-related infection – current concepts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... They have been shown to lower the risk of catheter colonisation and CRBSI in critically ill patients.42,43 The anti-infective effect is short-lived, however, as the collagen to which the silver ions are chelated is biodegradable. Other drawbacks include cost and the need for specialised training. Antiseptic hubs.

  6. Percutaneous placement of peritoneal port-catheter in oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Franco; Vigna, Paolo Della; Bonomo, Guido; Penco, Silvia; Lovati, Elena; Bellomi, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the technique of percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided placement of a peritoneal port-catheter in an interventional radiological setting. Nineteen patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis were selected for intraperitoneal port-catheter placement in order to perform intracavitary receptor-immuno- or radio-immunotherapy with Ytrium-90. All the procedures were performed percutaneously under US and fluoro guidance; the insertion site for catheters was chosen according to abdominal conditions and US findings: all devices were implanted at the lower abdominal quadrants. All patients were followed up with CT and US according to the therapy protocol. The procedure was successfully completed in 15/19 patients, in 4 being contraindicated by peritoneal adhesions. No procedure-related complications and device occlusions during therapy were observed; one catheter displaced 7 months later the placement. In our experience, this procedure was feasible, reliable and easy to perform, allowing the correct administration of the planned intracavitary therapy. Peritoneal adhesions are the main limitation of peritoneal port placement. (orig.)

  7. 21 CFR 870.1210 - Continuous flush catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous flush catheter. 870.1210 Section 870.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... that permits continuous intravascular flushing at a slow infusion rate for the purpose of eliminating...

  8. Preventing Inadvertent Placement of Foley Catheter into Prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous suprapubic trocar cystostomy (SPC) is often needed to drain the bladder when urethral catheterization either fails or is not advisable.[1] It is ... vertical or slightly tilting its tip toward umbilicus during foley placement, prevents the inadvertent migration of catheter into prostatic urethra and further complications.

  9. Catheter ablation as a treatment of atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Stephen; Saliba, Walid; Pai, Manjunath; Tchou, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Symptomatic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is typically treated by implantation of a pacemaker. An otherwise healthy AV conduction system can nevertheless develop AV block due to interference from junctional extrasystoles. When present with a high burden, these can produce debilitating symptoms from AV block despite an underlying normal AV node and His-Purkinje system properties. The purpose of this study was to describe a catheter ablation approach for alleviating symptomatic AV block due to a ventricular nodal pathway interfering with AV conduction. Common clinical monitoring techniques such as Holter and event recorders were used. Standard electrophysiological study techniques using multipolar recording and ablation catheters were utilized during procedures. A 55-year-old woman presented with highly symptomatic, high-burden second-degree AV block due to concealed and manifest junctional premature beats. Electrophysiological characteristics indicated interference of AV conduction due to a concealed ventricular nodal pathway as the cause of the AV block. The patient's AV nodal and His-Purkinje system conduction characteristics were otherwise normal. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the pathway was successful in restoring normal AV conduction and eliminating her clinical symptoms. Pathways inserting into the AV junction can interfere with AV conduction. When present at a high burden, this type of AV block can be highly symptomatic. Catheter ablation techniques can be used to alleviate this type of AV block and restore normal AV conduction. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction catheters. 884.6110 Section 884.6110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. Surgical management of Stenson's duct injury using epidural catheter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... Successful management of parotid duct injury depends on early diagnosis and appropriate intervention, failing of ... Mansarovar Dental College Hospital and Research Centre,. Kolar Road ... A 42-year-old male patient presented to maxillofacial .... catheter, catgut suture, and pediatric intravascular cannula.

  12. Anchor balloons assisted deep intubation of 5F catheters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-24

    Jul 24, 2015 ... However, cardiologists still encounter some difficult scenarios such as variant coronary artery origins, severely calcified and ... Medical University, 300, Guangzhou Road, Nanjing,. Jiangsu .... (l) The ST segment elevated while the 5F catheter was inserted into the proximal left anterior descending artery d.

  13. Steam-deformed Judkins-left guiding catheter with use of the GuideLiner catheter to deliver stents for anomalous right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kuno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous coronary intervention for anomalous right coronary artery (RCA originating from the left coronary cusp is challenging because of our current inability to coaxially engage the guiding catheter. Methods: We report a case of an 88-year-old woman with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, with an anomalous RCA origin. Using either the Judkins-Left catheter or Amplatz-Left catheter was difficult because of RCA ostium tortuosity. Thus, we used steam to deform the Judkins-Left catheter, but back-up support was insufficient to deliver the stent. Results: We used GuideLiner®, a novel pediatric catheter with rapid exchange/monorail systems, to enhance back-up support. Conclusions: We were able to successfully stent with both the deformed Judkins-Left guiding catheter and GuideLiner® for an anomalous RCA origin.

  14. Steam-deformed Judkins-left guiding catheter with use of the GuideLiner(®) catheter to deliver stents for anomalous right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiki; Fujisawa, Taishi; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Motoda, Hiroyuki; Kodaira, Masaki; Numasawa, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention for anomalous right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary cusp is challenging because of our current inability to coaxially engage the guiding catheter. We report a case of an 88-year-old woman with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, with an anomalous RCA origin. Using either the Judkins-Left catheter or Amplatz-Left catheter was difficult because of RCA ostium tortuosity. Thus, we used steam to deform the Judkins-Left catheter, but back-up support was insufficient to deliver the stent. We used GuideLiner®, a novel pediatric catheter with rapid exchange/monorail systems, to enhance back-up support. We were able to successfully stent with both the deformed Judkins-Left guiding catheter and GuideLiner® for an anomalous RCA origin.

  15. An intervention to improve the catheter associated urinary tract infection rate in a medical intensive care unit: Direct observation of catheter insertion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiczewski, Janet M; Shurpin, Kathleen M

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare associated infections from indwelling urinary catheters lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if direct observation of the urinary catheter insertion procedure, as compared to the standard process, decreased catheter utilization and urinary tract infection rates. This case control study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit. During phase I, a retrospective data review was conducted on utilsiation and urinary catheter infection rates when practitioners followed the institution's standard insertion algorithm. During phase II, an intervention of direct observation was added to the standard insertion procedure. The results demonstrated no change in utilization rates, however, CAUTI rates decreased from 2.24 to 0 per 1000 catheter days. The findings from this study may promote changes in clinical practice guidelines leading to a reduction in urinary catheter utilization and infection rates and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tropical Peatland Geomorphology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands cover many low-lying areas in the tropics. In tropical peatlands, a feedback between hydrology, landscape morphology, and carbon storage causes waterlogged organic matter to accumulate into gently mounded land forms called peat domes over thousands of years. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which peat production is balanced by loss and net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow, creating a link between peatland morphology, rainfall patterns and drainage networks. We show how landscape morphology can be used to make inferences about hydrologic processes in tropical peatlands. In particular, we show that approaches using simple storage-discharge relationships for catchments are especially well suited to tropical peatlands, allowing river forecasting based on peatland morphology in catchments with tropical peatland subcatchments.

  17. Peripheral intravenous and central catheter algorithm: a proactive quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Kerry A; Kuehn, Susan C; Moore, James E

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral intravenous (PIV) infiltrations causing tissue damage is a global issue surrounded by situations that make vascular access decisions difficult. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to develop an algorithm and assess its effectiveness in reducing PIV infiltrations in neonates. The targeted subjects were all infants in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with a PIV catheter. We completed a retrospective chart review of the electronic medical record to collect 4th quarter 2012 baseline data. Following adoption of the algorithm, we also performed a daily manual count of all PIV catheters in the 1st and 2nd quarters 2013. Daily PIV days were defined as follows: 1 patient with a PIV catheter equals 1 PIV day. An infant with 2 PIV catheters in place was counted as 2 PIV days. Our rate of infiltration or tissue damage was determined by counting the number of events and dividing by the number of PIV days. The rate of infiltration or tissue damage was reported as the number of events per 100 PIV days. The number of infiltrations and PIV catheters was collected from the electronic medical record and also verified manually by daily assessment after adoption of the algorithm. To reduce the rate of PIV infiltrations leading to grade 4 infiltration and tissue damage by at least 30% in the NICU population. Incidence of PIV infiltrations/100 catheter days. The baseline rate for total infiltrations increased slightly from 5.4 to 5.68/100 PIV days (P = .397) for the NICU. We attributed this increase to heightened awareness and better reporting. Grade 4 infiltrations decreased from 2.8 to 0.83/100 PIV catheter days (P = .00021) after the algorithm was implemented. Tissue damage also decreased from 0.68 to 0.3/100 PIV days (P = .11). Statistical analysis used the Fisher exact test and reported as statistically significant at P < .05. Our findings suggest that utilization of our standardized decision pathway was instrumental in providing guidance for

  18. Number and location of drainage catheter side holes: in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, D H; Alexander, J S; Weisman, J A; Orchard, M A; Williams, J T; D'Agostino, H B

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of number and location of catheter shaft side holes regarding drainage efficiency in an in vitro model. Three different drainage catheter models were constructed: open-ended model with no side holes (one catheter), unilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six unilateral side holes), and bilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six bilateral side holes). Catheters were inserted into a drainage output-measuring device with a constant-pressure reservoir of water. The volume of water evacuated by each of the catheters at 10-second intervals was measured. A total of five trials were performed for each catheter. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. The open-ended catheter had a mean drainage volume comparable to the unilateral model catheters with three, four, and five side holes. Unilateral model catheters had significant drainage volume increases up to three side holes; unilateral model catheters with more than three side holes had no significant improvement in drainage volume. All bilateral model catheters had significantly higher mean drainage volumes than their unilateral counterparts. There was no significant difference between the mean drainage volume with one, two, or three pairs of bilateral side holes. Further, there was no drainage improvement by adding additional bilateral side holes. The present in vitro study suggests that beyond a critical side hole number threshold, adding more distal side holes does not improve catheter drainage efficiency. These results may be used to enhance catheter design towards improving their drainage efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Part II: basic hemodynamic monitoring and the use of pulmonary artery catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Rezende, Ederlon; Mendes, Ciro Leite; Réa-Neto, Alvaro; David, Cid Marcos; Schettino, Guilherme; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Eliézer; Friedman, Gilberto; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do; Park, Marcelo; Monachini, Maristela; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine de; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Akamine, Nelson; Mello, Patrícia Veiga C; Pereira, Renata Andréa Pietro; Costa Filho, Rubens; Araújo, Sebastião; Félix Pinto, Sérgio; Ferreira, Sérgio; Mitushima, Simone Mattoso; Agareno, Sydney; Brilhante, Yuzeth Nóbrega de Assis

    2006-03-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important tools in the management of critically ill patients. Nowadays is possible to detect and analyze a great deal of physiologic data using a lot of invasive and non-invasive methods. The intensivist must be able to select and carry out the most appropriate monitoring technique according to the patient requirements and taking into account the benefit/risk ratio. Despite the fast development of non invasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring using Pulmonary Artery Catheter still is one of the basic procedures in Critical Care. The aim was to define recommendations about clinical utility of basic hemodynamic monitoring methods and the Use of Pulmonary Artery Catheter. Modified Delphi methodology was used to create and quantify the consensus between the participants. AMIB indicated a coordinator who invited more six experts in the area of monitoring and hemodynamic support to constitute the Consensus Advisory Board. Twenty-five physicians and nurses selected from different regions of the country completed the expert panel, which reviewed the pertinent bibliography listed at the MEDLINE in the period from 1996 to 2004. Recommendations were made based on 55 questions about the use of central venous pressure, invasive arterial pressure, pulmonary artery catheter and its indications in different settings. Evaluation of central venous pressure and invasive arterial pressure, besides variables obtained by the PAC allow the understanding of cardiovascular physiology that is of great value to the care of critically ill patients. However, the correct use of these tools is fundamental to achieve the benefits due to its use.

  20. Intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) endoscope with 2.2-mm diameter catheter for medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nhat Quang; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Oh, Yun-Ok; Fan, Xiao Feng; Lee, Yong Wook; Nam, Seung Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is extremely important for detection and characterization of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been used to differentiate the composition of biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The combination of these imaging techniques could provide morphological information and molecular screening to characterize abnormal tissues, which would help physicians to ensure vital therapeutic value and prognostic significance for patients before commencing therapy. In this study, integration of a high-frequency IVUS imaging catheter (45MHz, single-element, unfocused, 0.7mm in diameter) with a multi-mode optical fiber (0.6mm in core diameter, 0.22 NA), an integrated intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) imaging catheter, was developed to provide spatial and functional information on light distribution in a turbid sample. Simultaneously, IVUS imaging was co-registered to IVPA imaging to construct 3D volumetric sample images. In a phantom study, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tissue-mimicking arterial vessel phantom with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) inclusion was used to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the biological dyes, which are used in cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics. For the ex vivo study, an excised sample of pig intestine with ICG was utilized to target the biomarkers present in the gastrointestinal tumors or the atherosclerotic plaques with the proposed hybrid technique. The results indicated that IVUP endoscope with the 2.2-mm diameter catheter could be a useful tool for medical imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stabilization of a percutaneously implanted port catheter system for hepatic artery chemotherapy infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindoh, Noboru; Ozaki, Yutaka; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Yamana, Daigo; Sumi, Yukiharu; Katayama, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    A port catheter system for hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy was implanted percutaneously via the left subclavian artery in 41 patients for treatment of unresectable liver metastases. The catheter tip was inserted into the gastroduodenal artery (GDA), the end hole was occluded with a guidewire fragment, and a side-hole for infusion was positioned at the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the GDA. The GDA was embolized with steel coils around the infusion catheter tip via a transfemoral catheter. This procedure is designed to reduce the incidence of hepatic artery occlusion and infusion catheter dislocation.

  2. Constitutive innate immunity is a component of the pace-of-life syndrome in tropical birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB; Ricklefs, RE; Klasing, KC; Williams, Joseph B.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Klasing, Kirk C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relationship between one component of immune function and basal metabolic rate (BMR), an indicator of the 'pace-of-life syndrome', among 12 tropical bird species and among individuals of the tropical house wren (Troglodytes aedon), to gain insights into functional connections between

  3. Safety profile of multielectrode-phased radiofrequency pulmonary vein ablation catheter and irrigated radiofrequency catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, K; Foraita, P; Leitz, P; Güner, F; Pott, C; Lange, P S; Eckardt, L; Mönnig, G

    2016-01-01

    Silent cerebral lesions with the multielectrode-phased radiofrequency (RF) pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC(®)) have recently been investigated. However, comparative data on safety in relation to irrigated RF ablation are missing. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (58 ± 12 years, 56 female) underwent first pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (61% paroxysmal) using PVAC(®) (PVAC). Procedure data as well as in-hospital complications were compared with 300 matched patients who underwent PVI using irrigated RF (iRF). Procedure duration (148 ± 63 vs. 208 ± 70 min; P drainage n = 0 vs. n = 6] occurred more frequently using iRF. Two patients in each group developed a TIA (1.3% vs. 0.6%). Of note, four of five thromboembolic events in the PVAC group (two TIAs and three transient ST elevations during ablation) occurred when all 10 electrodes were used for ablation. Pulmonary vein isolation using PVAC as a 'one-shot-system' has a comparable complication rate but a different risk profile. Pericardial effusion and tamponade occurred more frequently using iRF, whereas thromboembolic events were more prevalent using PVAC. Occurrence of clinically relevant thromboembolic events might be reduced by avoidance of electrode 1 and 10 interaction and uninterrupted anticoagulation, whereas contact force sensing for iRF might minimize pericardial effusion. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The effect of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) valve technology on catheter occlusion rates--the 'ELeCTRiC' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Andrew J; Streater, Carmel T; Noorani, Remy; Crofts, Joanne L; Del Mundo, Aldwin B; Parker, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) are increasingly being used to provide short to medium-term central venous access. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that PICC valve technology does not influence PICC occlusion rates. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who required a PICC were randomized to one of three types of dual lumen PICC (open ended non-valved, Groshong valve, PASV valve). PICC occlusions were recorded and managed with a protocol that used urokinase. A total of 102 patients were recruited to the study. The overall risk of occlusion per catheter was 35% (95% CI 26% to 44%). The overall rate of occlusion was 76 occlusions per 1000 catheter days (95% CI 61 to 95). Presence or type of valve did not significantly influence this rate (open-ended non-valved PICC 38% of catheters, 79 occlusions per 1000 catheter days; Groshong 38% of catheters, 60 occlusions per 1000 catheter days; PASV 27% of catheters, 99 occlusions per 1000 catheter days). The dose of urokinase required to treat PICC occlusions did not significantly differ between PICC types. Valved PICCs do not appear to influence PICC occlusion rates.

  5. Percutaneous Placement of Central Venous Catheters: Comparing the Anatomical Landmark Method with the Radiologically Guided Technique for Central Venous Catheterization Through the Internal Jugular Vein in Emergent Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroglu, M.; Demir, M.; Koroglu, B.K.; Sezer, M.T.; Akhan, O.; Yildiz, H.; Yavuz, L.; Baykal, B.; Oyar, O. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Internal Medicine and Anesthesiology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the success and immediate complication rates of the anatomical landmark method (group 1) and the radiologically (combined real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy) guided technique (group 2) in the placement of central venous catheters in emergent hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively in a randomized manner. The success and immediate complication rates of radiologically guided placement of central venous access catheters through the internal jugular vein (n = 40) were compared with those of the anatomical landmark method (n 40). The success of placement, the complications, the number of passes required, and whether a single or double-wall puncture occurred were also noted and compared. Results: The groups were comparable in age and sex. The indication for catheter placement was hemodialysis access in all patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients in group 2 and unsuccessful in 1 (2.5%) patient in group 1. All catheters functioned adequately and immediately after the placement (0% initial failure rate) in group 2, but 3 catheters (7.5% initial failure rate) were non-functional just after placement in group 1. The total number of needle passes, double venous wall puncture, and complication rate were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: Percutaneous central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein can be performed by interventional radiologists with better technical success rates and lower immediate complications. In conclusion, central venous catheterization for emergent dialysis should be performed under both real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.

  6. Emergent embolization for control of massive hemorrhage from a splanchnic artery with a new coaxial catheter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, M.; Higashihara, H.; Koganemaru, F.; Ono, H.; Fujimitsu, R.; Yamasaki, S.; Toyoshima, H.; Sato, S.; Hoashi, T.; Kimura, T.

    1992-01-01

    Emergent superselective embolization with a 3.0 F (1 mm) coaxial catheter and a steerable guidewire was performed in 27 patients with massive hemorrhage from a small-caliber splanchnic artery. Eight patients had intraperitoneal hemorrhage, 3 had hemobilia, 9 had gastric hemorrhage, and 7 had intestinal hemorrhage. Out of 27 patients, 7 had hemorrhage from a splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysm. Complete cessation of bleeding was obtained in all patients initially, but in 3 patients gastric hemorrhage recurred later. Otherwise, there was no rebleeding nor any major complication such as marked infarction of tissue or misplacement of embolic materials. This coaxial catheter system was highly reliable for achieving superselective catheterization in small-caliber arteries, minimizing the volume of infarcted tissue and allowing maximal preservation of splanchnic organic function. We conclude that this system represents a major advance in interventional radiology. (orig.)

  7. Where are the tropical plants? A call for better inclusion of tropical plants in studies investigating and predicting the effects of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Feeley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical plant species are systematically underrepresented in large-scale analyses or synthesis looking at the potential effects of global climate change.  The reason being that we simply don’t know enough about the distributions and ecologies of most tropical plant species to predict their fate under climate change. This gaping hole in our knowledge is extremely worrisome given the high diversity of tropical plants, the crucial roles that they play in supporting global diversity and ecosystem function, and the elevated threats that climate change may pose to tropical species in general.  

  8. Initial experience with the Europass: a new ultra-low profile monorail balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimarino, M; Corcos, T; Favereau, X; Tamburino, C; Toussaint, M; Spaulding, C; Guérin, Y

    1994-09-01

    One of the causes for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) failure is the inability to cross the lesion with the balloon catheter after guidewire positioning. The Europass coronary angioplasty catheter is a monorail Duralyn balloon catheter developed to enhance lesion crossability and to overcome this limitation. This system was evaluated in 50 patients in which target lesions were chronic total coronary occlusions (12 cases) or stenoses that could not be reached or crossed by other new monorail balloon catheters. Overall procedural success was obtained in 49/50 patients (98%), using a single Europass balloon catheter in 46/50 patients (92%), with no in-hospital complications. Its low profile, small distal shaft, and excellent trackability allowed successful angioplasty in cases where other catheters failed. This balloon catheter represents a significant advance in angioplasty technology and can be considered as a first-choice device for a safe and expeditious single-operator procedure.

  9. Estudio comparativo entre catéteres peritoneales autoposicionantes y catéteres Tenckhoff en referencia a su desplazamiento intraperitoneal Comparative study between self-locating peritoneal catheters and Tenckhoff catheters with regard to intraperitoneal displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Salvador Lengua

    2012-09-01

    fisiología. En este estudio no se ha comparado el dolor en los dos tipos de catéteres. Se podría realizar otro estudio valorando esta variable, ya que el peso existente en la parte distal del catéter autoposicionante podría aumentar la sensación de dolor en los pacientes.The advances made in the field of accesses in peritoneal dialysis raise questions that require discernment and a possible solution. One of the most common causes of mechanical problems is omental entrapment or constipation. Other factors that can affect correct functioning of a peritoneal dialysis catheter is the existence of adhesions and/or hernias in the abdominal area. In our peritoneal dialysis unit, self-locating and non-self-locating (Tenckhoff catheters are used, and therefore we decided to carry out a study to compare the differences in their operating life. Our aim was to compare the differences concerning complications due to displacement and incorrect positioning between the two types of catheter, and also to evaluate whether obesity, prior abdominal surgery and the time the catheter is in place are variable that affect correct functioning of the catheters. The sample studied comprised patients who are currently active on the peritoneal dialysis programme in our unit. A total of 35 patients were studied. 60% had a self-locating catheter and 40% a Tenckhoff catheter. 37.4% of the patients had undergone abdominal and/or pelvic surgery. Only 28.57% were obese (with a Body Mass Index > 30 with an average weight of 72.8±18.9 Kg. The catheters were implanted using open surgery, local anaesthetic and sedation and therefore in on an ambulatory basis. Random numerical correlation was used for the choice of catheter. The Tenckhoff catheter is a silicon tube with multiple distal orifices and which can have a straight or threaded tip. It also has a Dacron cuff to prevent infections of the orifice. The self-locating catheter has the same form as a Tenckhoff catheter but with a modification. At the

  10. Accuracy of image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the BeamCath urethral catheter technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fokdal, Lars; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the accuracy of the BeamCath urethral catheter technique for prostate localization during radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients were CT scanned twice with the BeamCath catheter, and once without the catheter. The catheter contains radiopaque...

  11. Urgent need for warming experiments in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaveri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Wood, Tana E.

    2015-01-01

    Although tropical forests account for only a fraction of the planet's terrestrial surface, they exchange more carbon dioxide with the atmosphere than any other biome on Earth, and thus play a disproportionate role in the global climate. In the next 20 years, the tropics will experience unprecedented warming, yet there is exceedingly high uncertainty about their potential responses to this imminent climatic change. Here, we prioritize research approaches given both funding and logistical constraints in order to resolve major uncertainties about how tropical forests function and also to improve predictive capacity of earth system models. We investigate overall model uncertainty of tropical latitudes and explore the scientific benefits and inevitable trade-offs inherent in large-scale manipulative field experiments. With a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 analysis, we found that model variability in projected net ecosystem production was nearly 3 times greater in the tropics than for any other latitude. Through a review of the most current literature, we concluded that manipulative warming experiments are vital to accurately predict future tropical forest carbon balance, and we further recommend the establishment of a network of comparable studies spanning gradients of precipitation, edaphic qualities, plant types, and/or land use change. We provide arguments for long-term, single-factor warming experiments that incorporate warming of the most biogeochemically active ecosystem components (i.e. leaves, roots, soil microbes). Hypothesis testing of underlying mechanisms should be a priority, along with improving model parameterization and constraints. No single tropical forest is representative of all tropical forests; therefore logistical feasibility should be the most important consideration for locating large-scale manipulative experiments. Above all, we advocate for multi-faceted research programs, and we offer arguments for what we consider the most

  12. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  13. Fecal containment in bedridden patients: economic impact of 2 commercial bowel catheter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal-Vem, Areta; Poulakidas, Stathis; Barnett, Barbara; Conway, Deborah; Culver, Daniel; Ferrari, Michelle; Potenza, Bruce; Koenig, Michael; Mah, John; Majewski, Mary; Morris, Linda; Powers, Jan; Stokes, Elizabeth; Tan, Michael; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Zaletel, Cindy; Ambutas, Shirley; Casey, Kathleen; Stein, Jayne; DeSane, Mary; Berry, Kathy; Konz, Elizabeth C; Riemer, Michael R; Cullum, Malford E

    2009-05-01

    Fecal contamination is a major challenge in patients in acute/critical care settings that is associated with increased cost of care and supplies and with development of pressure ulcers, incontinence dermatitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections. To assess the economic impact of fecal containment in bedridden patients using 2 different indwelling bowel catheters and to compare infection rates between groups. A multicenter, observational study was done at 12 US sites (7 that use catheter A, 5 that use catheter B). Patients were followed from insertion of an indwelling bowel catheter system until the patient left the acute/critical care unit or until 29 days after enrollment, whichever came first. Demographic data, frequency of bedding/dressing changes, incidence of infection, and Braden scores (risk of pressure ulcers) were recorded. The study included 146 bedridden patients (76 with catheter A, 70 with catheter B) who had similar Braden scores at enrollment. The rate of bedding/dressing changes per day differed significantly between groups (1.20 for catheter A vs 1.71 for catheter B; P = .004). According to a formula that accounted for personnel resources and laundry cycle costs, catheter A cost $13.94 less per patient per day to use than did catheter B. Catheter A was less likely than was catheter B to be removed during the observational period (P = .03). Observed infection rates were low. Catheter A may be more cost-effective than catheter B because it requires fewer unscheduled linen changes per patient day.

  14. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  15. Successful Retrieval of a Dismembered Central Venous Catheter Stuck to the Right Pulmonary Artery Using a Stepwise Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in anticancer chemotherapy have resulted in an increase in the number of patients requiring a central venous port catheter, and the incidence of catheter pinch-off syndrome has been increasing. Catheter pinch-off syndrome is a rare and unusual complication. It is difficult to retrieve dislodged catheters from the pulmonary artery, especially if the catheter is stuck to the peripheral pulmonary artery. We herein describe the successful removal of a catheter stuck in the pulmonary artery with a stepwise approach. First, a pigtail catheter was used to tug the dislodged catheter in order to free the unilateral end. Then, a gooseneck snare was used to catch and pull the catheter out of the patient. The key to success is to free the end of the catheter.

  16. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  18. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  19. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  20. Role of Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in Management of Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James X; Sudheendra, Deepak; Stavropoulos, S William; Nadolski, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The treatment for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is challenging, as the use of anticoagulation alone can be insufficient for restoring venous patency and thus lead to prolongation of acute symptoms and an increased risk of chronic complications, including venous insufficiency and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). In these cases, earlier and more complete thrombus removal can ameliorate acute symptoms and reduce long-term sequelae. Endovascular therapies involving the use of pharmacologic, mechanical, and combined pharmacomechanical modalities have been developed to achieve these goals. The most frequently used of these techniques, catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), involves the infusion of a thrombolytic agent through a multiple-side-hole catheter placed within the thrombosed vein to achieve high local doses and thereby break down the clot while minimizing systemic thrombolytic agent exposure. Randomized controlled trial results have indicated decreased PTS rates and improved venous patency rates in patients treated with CDT compared with these rates in patients treated with anticoagulation. The use of newer pharmacomechanical techniques, as compared with conventional CDT, reduces procedural times and thrombolytic agent doses and is the subject of ongoing investigations. Endovascular thrombus removal techniques offer a means to improve venous valvular function and decrease the risk of debilitating long-term complications such as PTS and are a promising option for treating patients with iliofemoral DVT. (©)RSNA, 2016.