Sample records for cathepsins

  1. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Jun; Tan; Zheng-Ke; Peng; Jin-Ping; Lu; Fa-Qing; Tang


    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

  2. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii


    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.


    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and n...

  3. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii (United States)

    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.


    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and nutrient acquisition.. Here, we review the key features and roles of T. gondii cathepsins and discuss the therapeutic potential for specific inhibitor development. PMID:21660658

  4. Role of cathepsin A and cathepsin C in the regulation of glycosidase activity

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    Anna Justyna Milewska


    Full Text Available Increased tissue activity of cathepsin A and cathepsin C can be observed in many pathological conditions. It is associated with an enhanced degradation of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, and results in their decreased tissue content. Cathepsin C releases the glycosidases from complexes formed with cathepsin A, and reinstates their activity. In this review a current state of knowledge is presented concerning the regulation of selected glycosidases activity by cathepsin A (EC and C (EC

  5. Cathepsins of lepidopteran insects: Aspects and prospects. (United States)

    Saikhedkar, Nidhi; Summanwar, Aarohi; Joshi, Rakesh; Giri, Ashok


    Molecular understanding of lepidopteran physiology has revealed that proteases consist of one of the central regulatory/reacting system for insect growth and survival. Among the various proteases, cathepsins are the most crucial cellular proteases, which play vital roles during insect development. In the present review, we have discussed various aspects of the lepidopteran insect cathepsins, emphasizing their roles in processes like development, growth, metamorphosis, apoptosis and immunity. Cathepsins are categorized into different types on the basis of their sequence diversification, leading to variation in structure and catalytic function. Cathepsins exhibit tissue and stage specific expression pattern which is fine-tuned by a delicate balance of expression, compartmentalization, zymogen activation, inhibition by protein inhibitors and degradation. The indispensability of cathepsins as cellular proteases in the above mentioned processes proposes them as novel targets for designing effective and specific insect controlling strategies.

  6. Cathepsin B gene disruption induced Leishmania donovani proteome remodeling implies cathepsin B role in secretome regulation.

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    Teklu Kuru Gerbaba

    Full Text Available Leishmania cysteine proteases are potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. To study the role of cathepsin B cysteine protease, we have generated and characterized cathepsin B null mutant L. donovani parasites. L. donovani cathepsin B null mutants grow normally in culture, but they show significantly attenuated virulence inside macrophages. Quantitative proteome profiling of wild type and null mutant parasites indicates cathepsin B disruption induced remodeling of L. donovani proteome. We identified 83 modulated proteins, of which 65 are decreased and 18 are increased in the null mutant parasites, and 66% (55/83 of the modulated proteins are L. donovani secreted proteins. Proteins involved in oxidation-reduction (trypanothione reductase, peroxidoxins, tryparedoxin, cytochromes and translation (ribosomal proteins are among those decreased in the null mutant parasites, and most of these proteins belong to the same complex network of proteins. Our results imply virulence role of cathepsin B via regulation of Leishmania secreted proteins.

  7. New method to discriminate between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts from fish muscle based on a simple acidification procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch


    A new and simple method to distinguish between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts of herring (Clupea harengus) muscle has been established. An acid treatment of crude extracts (exposed to pH 3 for 5 min) activated a latent form of cathepsin L and inactivated cathepsin B. Furthermore......). Cathepsin B activity is measured in neutral extract using the specific cathepsin B substrate Z-Arg-Arg-MCA and cathepsin L activity is measured in acid-treated extract with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA as substrate. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074, did not inhibit the Z-Arg-Arg-MCA significantly without...

  8. Cathepsins and cystatin C in atherosclerosis and obesity. (United States)

    Lafarge, Jean-Charles; Naour, Nadia; Clément, Karine; Guerre-Millo, Michèle


    Given the increasing prevalence of human obesity worldwide, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking obesity to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our knowledge is nevertheless limited regarding molecules linking adipose tissue to downstream complications. The importance of cathepsins was brought to light in this context. Through a large scale transcriptomic analysis, our group recently identified the gene encoding cathepsin S as one of the most deregulated gene in the adipose tissue of obese subjects and positively correlated with body mass index. Other members of the cathepsin family are expressed in the adipose tissue, including cathepsin K and cathepsin L. Given their implication in atherogenesis, these proteases could participate into the well established deleterious relationship between enlarged adipose tissue and increased cardiovascular risk. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence relevant to the role of cathepsins K, L and S and their most abundant endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, in atherosclerosis and in obesity.

  9. xtraction and Characterization of Cathepsin Inhibitor from Milkfish

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    Tati Nurhayati


    Full Text Available Abstract Proteolytic enzyme is distributed acros all organism including fish. Cysteine proteases are the largest group of proteolytic enzyme. Lysosomal cathepsin, one of cysteine protease enzyme, cause softening and degradation of myofibril protein and it’s activity is regulated by endogenous inhibitors. The purposes of this study were to optimize the extraction cathepsin inhibitors from the skin, muscles, and viscera of fish, to partially purify the cathepsin inhibitors of selected sources, and to study the characteristics of the cathepsin inhibitor. The cathepsin inhibitor could be extracted from muscle fish and partially purified using ammonium sulfate of 70%. The purified cathepsin inhibitor had optimum temperature at 40°C and the optimum at pH 8. Metal ions decreased the activity of the protease inhibitor, except 1 mM of metal ion Mn2+ and Na+.

  10. Plasma levels of cathepsins L, K, and V and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes S; Wang, Jing;


    Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown.......Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown....

  11. Differential impact of cysteine cathepsins on genetic mouse models of de novo carcinogenesis: cathepsin B as emerging therapeutic target

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    Thomas eReinheckel


    Full Text Available Lysosomal cysteine cathepsins belong to a family of 11 human proteolytic enzymes. Some of them correlate with progression in a variety of cancers and therefore are considered as potential therapeutic targets. Until recently, the contribution of individual cathepsins to tumorigenesis and tumor progression remained unknown. By crossing various types of mouse cancer models with mice where specific cathepsins have been ablated, we contributed to this gap of knowledge and will summarize the results in this report. The employed models are the Rip1-Tag2 model for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, the K14-HPV16 model for squamous skin and cervical cancers, and the MMTV-PyMT model for metastasizing breast cancer, the KPC model for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and the APCmin mice developing early stages of intestinal neoplasia. All models harbor mutations in relevant tumor suppressors and/or cell-type specific expression of potent oncogenes, which initiate de novo carcinogenesis in the targeted tissues. In all these models deletion of cathepsin B led to suppression of the aggressiveness of the respective cancer phenotype. Cathepsin B may network with other proteases as it was shown for cathepsin X/Z. In contrast, deletion of cathepsin L was beneficial in the RiP1-Tag2 model, but enhanced tumorigenesis in the APCmin, and the K14-HPV16 mice. A logical consequence of these results would be to further pursue selective inhibition of cathepsin B. Moreover, it became clear that cathepsins B and S derived from cells of the tumor microenvironment support cancer growth. Strikingly, delivery of broad spectrum cysteine cathepsin inhibitors in the tumor microenvironment disrupts the permissive ecosystem of the cancer and results in impaired growth or even in regression of the tumor. In addition, combination of cysteine cathepsin inhibition and standard chemotherapy improves the therapeutic response of the latter.

  12. HIV-infected microglia mediate cathepsin B-induced neurotoxicity. (United States)

    Zenón, Frances; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel; Adiga, Radhika; Gonzalez, Mariangeline; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Langford, Dianne; Melendez, Loyda M


    HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release soluble factors that affect the homeostasis in tissue. HIV-1 can prompt metabolic encephalopathy with the addition of neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Recently, we reported that HIV-1 enhances the expression and secretion of bioactive cathepsin B in monocyte-derived macrophages, ultimately contributing to neuronal apoptosis. In this research, we asked if microglia respond to HIV infection similarly by modifying the expression, secretion, and neurotoxic potential of cathepsin B and determined the in vivo relevance of these findings. HIV-1ADA-infected human primary microglia and CHME-5 microglia cell line were assessed for expression and activity of cathepsin B, its inhibitors, cystatins B and C, and the neurotoxicity associated with these changes. Human primary neurons were exposed to supernatants from HIV-infected and uninfected microglia in the presence of cathepsin B inhibitors and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Microglial expression of cathepsin B was validated in brain tissue from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. HIV-infected microglia secreted significantly greater levels of cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C compared to uninfected cells. Increased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to supernatants from HIV-1 infected microglia at day 12 post-infection. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 and cathepsin B antibody prevented neuronal apoptosis. Increased microglia-derived cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C and caspase-3+ neurons were detected in HIVE brains compared to controls. Our results suggest that HIV-1-induced cathepsin B production in microglia contributes to neuronal apoptosis and may be an important factor in neuronal death associated with HIVE.

  13. Role of cathepsins in blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster. (United States)

    Sireesha, G V; Mason, R W; Hassanein, M; Tonack, S; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B; Seshagiri, P B


    The mammalian embryo is encased in a glycoproteinaceous coat, the zona pellucida (ZP) during preimplantation development. Prior to implantation, the blastocyst must undergo 'hatching' or ZP escape. In hamsters, there is a thinning of the ZP followed by a focal lysis and a complete dissolution of the ZP during blastocyst hatching. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated a role for cysteine proteases in the hatching phenomenon. In this study, we tested the effect of specific inhibitors of the three classes of cysteine protease on blastocyst hatching. Cystatin, an endogenous cathepsin inhibitor, blocked blastocyst hatching. Similarly, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-diazomethane, a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor, blocked hatching. Both showed dose-dependent and temporal inhibition of hatching. However, Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a synthetic caspase inhibitor, and calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, had no effect on hatching. The cathepsins were localized to blastocyst cells. Exogenous addition of cathepsins L, P or B to cultured 8-cell embryos caused a complete ZP dissolution. The expression of mRNA and protein of cathepsins L and P was observed in peri-hatching blastocysts. Cathepsins L and P were detected in trophectodermal projections and in the ZP of peri-hatching blastocysts. These data provide the first evidence that blastocyst-derived cathepsins are functionally involved as zonalytic factors in the hatching of blastocysts in the golden hamster.

  14. Caught in the act: the crystal structure of cleaved cathepsin L bound to the active site of Cathepsin L. (United States)

    Sosnowski, Piotr; Turk, Dušan


    Cathepsin L is a ubiquitously expressed papain-like cysteine protease involved in the endosomal degradation of proteins and has numerous roles in physiological and pathological processes, such as arthritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. Insight into the specificity of cathepsin L is important for elucidating its physiological roles and drug discovery. To study interactions with synthetic ligands, we prepared a presumably inactive mutant and crystallized it. Unexpectedly, the crystal structure determined at 1.4 Å revealed that the cathepsin L molecule is cleaved, with the cleaved region trapped in the active site cleft of the neighboring molecule. Hence, the catalytic mutant demonstrated low levels of catalytic activity.

  15. Transcriptome Reveals Cathepsin K in Periodontal Ligament Differentiation. (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ozaki, N; Tsushima, K; Yamaba, S; Fujihara, C; Awata, T; Sakashita, H; Kajikawa, T; Kitagaki, J; Yamashita, M; Yanagita, M; Murakami, S


    Periodontal ligaments (PDLs) play an important role in remodeling the alveolar bond and cementum. Characterization of the periodontal tissue transcriptome remains incomplete, and an improved understanding of PDL features could aid in developing new regenerative therapies. Here, we aimed to generate and analyze a large human PDL transcriptome. We obtained PDLs from orthodontic treatment patients, isolated the RNA, and used a vector-capping method to make a complementary DNA library from >20,000 clones. Our results revealed that 58% of the sequences were full length. Furthermore, our analysis showed that genes expressed at the highest frequencies included those for collagen type I, collagen type III, and proteases. We also found 5 genes whose expressions have not been previously reported in human PDL. To access which of the highly expressed genes might be important for PDL cell differentiation, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure their expression in differentiating cells. Among the genes tested, the cysteine protease cathepsin K had the highest upregulation, so we measured its relative expression in several tissues, as well as in osteoclasts, which are known to express high levels of cathepsin K. Our results revealed that PDL cells express cathepsin K at similar levels as osteoclasts, which are both expressed at higher levels than those of the other tissues tested. We also measured cathepsin K protein expression and enzyme activity during cell differentiation and found that both increased during this process. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that cathepsin K localizes to the interior of lysosomes. Last, we examined the effect of inhibiting cathepsin K during cell differentiation and found that cathepsin K inhibition stimulated calcified nodule formation and increased the levels of collagen type I and osteocalcin gene expression. Based on these results, cathepsin K seems to regulate collagen fiber accumulation during human PDL cell

  16. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates. (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua


    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability.

  17. Alterations in cathepsin L expression in lung cancers. (United States)

    Okudela, Koji; Mitsui, Hideaki; Woo, Tetsukan; Arai, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Takehisa; Matsumura, Mai; Kojima, Yoko; Umeda, Shigeaki; Tateishi, Yoko; Masuda, Munetaka; Ohashi, Kenichi


    We herein investigated the potential role of cathepsin L in lung carcinogenesis. Lung cancer cell lines and surgically resected tumors were examined for the expression of the cathepsin L protein and copy number alterations in its gene locus. Cathepsin L was stably expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells. Neoplastic cells expressed cathepsin L at various levels, whereas its expression was completely lost in most of the lung cancer cell lines (63.6%, 7/11) examined. Furthermore, expression levels were lower in a large fraction of lung tumors (69.5%, 139/200) than in bronchiolar epithelia. The expression of cathepsin L was lost in some tumors (16.0%, 32/200). In adenocarcinomas, expression levels were significantly lower in high-grade tumors than in low-grade tumors (one-way ANOVA, P L protein expression levels and the copy number of its gene locus (Spearman's rank-order correlation, P = 0.3096). Collectively, these results suggest that the down-regulated expression of cathepsin L, which is caused by an undefined mechanism other than copy number alterations, is involved in the progression of lung adenocarcinomas.

  18. Drynaria total flavonoids decrease cathepsin K expression in ovariectomized rats. (United States)

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Wan, Q Z; Li, A Q; Wang, H; Liu, K


    This study investigated the effects of Drynaria total flavonoids on cathepsin K serum concentrations and gene expression, biomechanics and bone mineral density (BMD) of the tibial shaft in ovariectomized rat models of osteoporosis, and mechanism in the prevention and cure of osteoporosis. Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. The rats in each group were subjected to gastric lavage after the model was established. The tibial shaft of the right hindlimb was obtained to measure the BMD. Serum cathepsin K concentrations were determined. The cathepsin K mRNA expression was also determined using fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The three-point bending method was performed to measure the maximum bending load of the tibial shaft. The total flavonoid and normal groups had significant differences in serum cathepsin K concentrations compared with that in the estrogen group (Ptotal flavonoid and sham-operated groups also showed significant differences in cathepsin K mRNA expression compared with that in the normal group (Ptotal flavonoid group was significantly different from that in the estrogen group (Ptotal flavonoid group elicited a better effect on BMD than that by the medium- and low-dose groups (Ptotal flavonoids inhibited the serum cathepsin K concentration and increased the maximum bending load of the tibial shaft in ovariectomized rats.

  19. Identification of interleukin-8 converting enzyme as cathepsin L. (United States)

    Ohashi, Kensaku; Naruto, Masanobu; Nakaki, Toshio; Sano, Emiko


    IL-8 is produced by various cells, and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of IL-8 displays heterogeneity among cell types. The mature form of IL-8 has 72 amino acids (72IL-8), while a precursor form (77IL-8) of IL-8 has five additional amino acids to the 72IL-8 NH(2)-terminal. However, it has been unclear how IL-8 is processed to yield the mature form. In this study, converting enzyme was purified as a single 31-kDa band on silver-stained polyacrylamide gel from 160 l of cultured fibroblast supernatant by sequential chromatography. NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed a sequence, EAPRSVDWRE, which was identified as a partial sequence of cathepsin L. Polyclonal antibodies raised against cathepsin L recognized the purified converting enzyme on Western blot. Moreover, human hepatic cathepsin L cleaved 77IL-8 between Arg(5) and Ser(6), which is the same cleavage site as the putative converting enzyme, resulting in 72IL-8 formation. These data indicate that the converting enzyme of the partially purified fraction of the human fibroblast culture supernatant was cathepsin L. Furthermore, 72IL-8 was sevenfold more potent than 77IL-8 in a neutrophil chemotaxis assay. These results show that cathepsin L is secreted from human fibroblasts in response to external stimuli and plays an important role in IL-8 processing in inflammatory sites.

  20. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro

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    Speshock Janice


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

  1. Cathepsin B antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses invasive potential of MG-63 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To study the biological effects of cathepsin B phosporothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 after transfection.Methods A 18-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide(ASODN)targeted against the cathepsin B mRNA was transfected into the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 by lipofectamine 2000.The sense and nonsense oligodeoxynucleotides to cathepsin B and blank vector were used as controls.The expression of cathepsin B mRNA was examined by RT-PCR an...

  2. Cathepsin inhibition-induced lysosomal dysfunction enhances pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis in high glucose. (United States)

    Jung, Minjeong; Lee, Jaemeun; Seo, Hye-Young; Lim, Ji Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung


    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. We previously showed that the inhibition of autophagy causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a protective mechanism for the survival of pancreatic β-cells. The current study demonstrates that treatment with inhibitors and knockdown of the lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins B and L impair autophagy, enhancing the caspase-dependent apoptosis of INS-1 cells and islets upon exposure to high concentration of glucose. Interestingly, treatment with cathepsin B and L inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of cathepsins B, D and L, as evidenced by gradual accumulation of the respective pro-forms. Of note, inhibition of aspartic cathepsins had no effect on autophagy and cell viability, suggesting the selective role of cathepsins B and L in the regulation of β-cell autophagy and apoptosis. Lysosomal localization of accumulated pro-cathepsins in the presence of cathepsin B and L inhibitors was verified via immunocytochemistry and lysosomal fractionation. Lysotracker staining indicated that cathepsin B and L inhibitors led to the formation of severely enlarged lysosomes in a time-dependent manner. The abnormal accumulation of pro-cathepsins following treatment with inhibitors of cathepsins B and L suppressed normal lysosomal degradation and the processing of lysosomal enzymes, leading to lysosomal dysfunction. Collectively, our findings suggest that cathepsin defects following the inhibition of cathepsin B and L result in lysosomal dysfunction and consequent cell death in pancreatic β-cells.

  3. Therapeutic dosing of an orally active, selective cathepsin S inhibitor suppresses disease in models of autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baugh, Mark; Black, Darcey; Westwood, Paul; Kinghorn, Emma; McGregor, Kieran; Bruin, John; Hamilton, William; Dempster, Maureen; Claxton, Christopher; Cai, Jiaqiang; Bennett, Jonathan; Long, Clive; Mckinnon, Heather; Vink, Paul; den Hoed, Leontien; Gorecka, Monika; Vora, Kalpit; Grant, Ethan; Percival, M. David; Boots, A. Mieke H.; van Lierop, Marie-Jose; Boots, Annemieke


    The purpose of the study was to examine the potential of inhibition of cathepsin S as a treatment for autoimmune diseases. A highly selective cathepsin S inhibitor, CSI-75, was shown to upregulate levels of the cathepsin S substrate, invariant chain Lip10, in vitro as well as in vivo in C57Bl/6 mice

  4. Triterpenoids as novel natural inhibitors of human cathepsin L. (United States)

    Ramalho, Suelem D; De Sousa, Lorena R F; Nebo, Liliane; Maganhi, Stella H; Caracelli, Ignez; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Lima, Maria Inês S; Alves, Marcio F M; Da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C


    Cathepsins L (catL) and B play an important role in tumor progression and have been considered promising therapeutic targets in the development of novel anticancer agents. Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation, a series of triterpenoids was identified as a new class of competitive inhibitors towards cathepsin L with affinity values in micromolar range. Among the 14 compounds evaluated, the most promising were 3-epiursolic acid (3), 3-(hydroxyimino)oleanolic acid (9), and 3-(hydroxyimino)masticadienoic acid (13) with IC50 values of 6.5, 2.4, and 2.6 μM on catL, respectively. Most of the evaluated triterpenoids do not inhibit cathepsin B. Thus, the evaluated compounds exhibit a great potential to help in the design of new inhibitors with enhanced potency and affinity towards catL. Docking studies were performed in order to gain insight on the binding mode and SAR of these compounds.

  5. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

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    T. Salman


    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  6. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  7. Cathepsin G-dependent modulation of platelet thrombus formation in vivo by blood neutrophils.

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    Nauder Faraday

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies.

  8. The identification, characterization and optimization of small molecule probes of cysteine proteases: experiences of the Penn Center for Molecular Discovery with cathepsin B and cathepsin L. (United States)

    Huryn, Donna M; Smith, Amos B


    During the pilot phase of the NIH Molecular Library Screening Network, the Penn Center for Molecular Discovery focused on a series of projects aimed at high throughput screening and the development of probes of a variety of protease targets. This review provides our medicinal chemistry experience with two such targets--cathepsin B and cathepsin L. We describe our approach for hit validation, characterization and triage that led to a critical understanding of the nature of hits from the cathepsin B project. In addition, we detail our experience at hit identification and optimization that led to the development of a novel thiocarbazate probe of cathepsin L.

  9. The development and characterization of an ELISA specifically detecting the active form of cathepsin K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karsdal, M A; Bay-Jensen, A C;


    OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin K plays essential roles in bone resorption and is intensely investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Hence an assessment of the active form of cathepsin K may provide important biological information in metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporo......OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin K plays essential roles in bone resorption and is intensely investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Hence an assessment of the active form of cathepsin K may provide important biological information in metabolic bone diseases......, such as osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis. METHODS: Presently there are no robust assays for the assessment of active cathepsin K in serum, and therefore an ELISA specifically detecting the N-terminal of the active form of cathepsin K was developed. RESULTS: The assay was technically robust, with a lowest limit...... form. Quantification of the levels of active cathepsin K in supernatants of purified human osteoclasts compared to corresponding macrophages showed a 30-fold induction (p...

  10. Posttranslational Processing and Modification of Cathepsins and Cystatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Katunuma


    Full Text Available Cathepsins are an essential protease family in all living cells. The cathepsins play an essential roles such as protein catabolism and protein synthesis. To targeting to various organella and to regulate their activity, the post translational-processing and modification play an important role Cathepsins are translated in polysome as the pre-pro-mature forms. The pre-peptide is removed cotranslationally and then translocated to Golgi-apparatus and the pro-part is removed and the mature-part is glycosylated, and the mature-part is targeted into the lysosome mediated by mannose-6-phosphate signal and the mature-part is bound with their coenzymes. The degradation of the mature-part is started by the limited proteolysis of the ordered nicked bonds to make hydrophobic peptides. The peptides are incorporated into phagosome or proteasome after ubiquitinated and are degrade into amino-acids. Cystatins are endogenous inhibitors of cathepsins. Cystatin α which is only located in skin is phosphorylated at the near C-terminus by protein kinase-C, and the phosphorylate-cystatin α is incorporated into cornified envelope and conjugated with filaggrin-fiber by transglutaminase to form the linker-fiber of skin. The cystatin α is modified by glutathione or make their dimmer, and they are inactive. Those modifications are regulated by the redox-potential by the glutathione.

  11. Cathepsin X in serum from patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizin, Tjasa; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen


    Up-regulation of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin X (Cat X) is associated with disorders of the immune system and neurodegenerative diseases, while its role in the development and progression of cancer is less understood. Enhanced secretion of pro-Cat X was observed in malignant processes...

  12. Dysregulation of macrophage-secreted cathepsin B contributes to HIV-1-linked neuronal apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eillen J Rodriguez-Franco

    Full Text Available Chronic HIV infection leads to the development of cognitive impairments, designated as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The secretion of soluble neurotoxic factors by HIV-infected macrophages plays a central role in the neuronal dysfunction and cell death associated with HAND. One potentially neurotoxic protein secreted by HIV-1 infected macrophages is cathepsin B. To explore the potential role of cathepsin B in neuronal cell death after HIV infection, we cultured HIV-1(ADA infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and assayed them for expression and activity of cathepsin B and its inhibitors, cystatins B and C. The neurotoxic activity of the secreted cathepsin B was determined by incubating cells from the neuronal cell line SK-N-SH with MDM conditioned media (MCM from HIV-1 infected cultures. We found that HIV-1 infected MDM secreted significantly higher levels of cathepsin B than did uninfected cells. Moreover, the activity of secreted cathepsin B was significantly increased in HIV-infected MDM at the peak of viral production. Incubation of neuronal cells with supernatants from HIV-infected MDM resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of apoptotic neurons, and this increase was reversed by the addition of either the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 or a monoclonal antibody to cathepsin B. In situ proximity ligation assays indicated that the increased neurotoxic activity of the cathepsin B secreted by HIV-infected MDM resulted from decreased interactions between the enzyme and its inhibitors, cystatins B and C. Furthermore, preliminary in vivo studies of human post-mortem brain tissue suggested an upregulation of cathepsin B immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and basal ganglia in individuals with HAND. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 infection upregulates cathepsin B in macrophages, increases cathepsin B activity, and reduces cystatin-cathepsin interactions, contributing to neuronal apoptosis. These findings

  13. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides. (United States)

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Beinfeld, Margery; Minokadeh, Ardalan; Zadina, James; Hook, Vivian


    Neuropeptides are essential for cell-cell communication in the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Production of active neuropeptides requires proteolytic processing of proneuropeptide precursors in secretory vesicles that produce, store, and release neuropeptides that regulate physiological functions. This review describes recent findings indicating the prominent role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for production of neuropeptides from their protein precursors. The role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production was discovered using the strategy of activity-based probes for proenkephalin-cleaving activity for identification of the enzyme protein by mass spectrometry. The novel role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for neuropeptide production has been demonstrated in vivo by cathepsin L gene knockout studies, cathepsin L gene expression in neuroendocrine cells, and notably, cathepsin L localization in neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles. Cathepsin L is involved in producing opioid neuropeptides consisting of enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin, as well as in generating the POMC-derived peptide hormones ACTH and α-MSH. In addition, NPY, CCK, and catestatin neuropeptides utilize cathepsin L for their biosynthesis. The neuropeptide-synthesizing functions of cathepsin L represent its unique activity in secretory vesicles, which contrasts with its role in lysosomes. Interesting evaluations of protease gene knockout studies in mice that lack cathepsin L compared to those lacking PC1/3 and PC2 (PC, prohormone convertase) indicate the key role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production. Therefore, dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase protease pathways participate in neuropeptide production. Significantly, the recent new findings indicate cathepsin L as a novel 'proprotein convertase' for production of neuropeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in health and disease.

  14. Interventional value of total flavonoids from Rhizoma Drynariae on Cathepsin K, a potential target of osteoporosis. (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Wu, Lian-Guo


    Osteoporosis, the sixth most common disease in the world, is bringing increasingly serious harm to people's health. Cathepsin K, which plays an important role in bone resorption, is a potential target in the treatment of osteoporosis. Total flavonoids, the active ingredients in Rhizoma Drynariae, have shown obvious, therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. In previous studies, it was presumed that the mechanism for the therapeutic effect was through inhibiting the expression of Cathepsin K. However, there are still no detailed reports on some key issues such as the specific inhibitory results of total flavonoids on Cathepsin K and the pathway of inhibition and so on. Based on previous studies on total flavonoids from Rhizoma Drynariae, the pathway for the effect of, total flavonoids inhibiting Cathepsin K and their interventional value on Cathepsin K were analyzed in this paper, so as to explore the interventional feasibility and value of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Drynariae on Cathepsin K.

  15. Inhibition Of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases By Targeting Cathepsin K (United States)


    Abbreviations: cathepsin K, CatK; osteoprotegerin, OPG; prostate cancer, PCa; parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP; zoledronic acid, ZA; Receptor...zoledronic acid (ZA) or parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) neutralizing antibody have been reported in cancer animal models to block the skeletal sites in human samples, whereas normal prostate glands were negative [40]. To confirm CatK expression in PCa, we performed

  16. Cysteine cathepsin activity suppresses osteoclastogenesis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer. (United States)

    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Rautela, Jai; Duivenvoorden, Hendrika M; Jayatilleke, Krishnath M; van der Linden, Wouter A; Verdoes, Martijn; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S


    Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activity and expression of cysteine cathepsins in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. In mice bearing highly metastatic tumors, we detected abundant cysteine cathepsin expression and activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These immature immune cells have known metastasis-promoting roles, including immunosuppression and osteoclastogenesis, and we assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to these functions. Blocking cysteine cathepsin activity with multiple small-molecule inhibitors resulted in enhanced differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts. This highlights a potential role for cysteine cathepsin activity in suppressing the fusion of osteoclast precursor cells. In support of this hypothesis, we found that expression and activity of key cysteine cathepsins were downregulated during MDSC-osteoclast differentiation. Another cysteine protease, legumain, also inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in part through modulation of cathepsin L activity. Together, these data suggest that cysteine protease inhibition is associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis, a process that has been implicated in bone metastasis.

  17. Changes of cathepsin B in human photoaging skin both in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Wei; ZHENG Yue; YE Zhang-zhang; SU Xiang-yang; WAN Miao-jian; GONG Zi-jian; XIE Xiao-yuan; LIU Wei


    Background Cathepsin B plays an important role in cell cycle, extracellular matrix changes and cutaneous tumorigenesis: whether it plays a role in photoaged skin remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of cathepsin B in skin photoaging in vivo and in vitro. Methods The expressions of cathepsin B were compared with immunohistochemical methods in solar exposed skin and solar protected skin of six healthy Chinese volunteers. The mRNA and protein expression of cathepsin B in ultraviolet light A (UVA) induced premature senescence fibroblasts in vitro were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting technique. Results Decreased expression of cathepsin B was observed in photoaged skin compared with that of the solar protected skin. In the UVA induced, premature senescence fibroblasts, a lower expression of cathepsin B was detected by Western blotting and a decreased synthesis of cathepsin B mRNA in the same cells was revealed by real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions The results demonstrated a significant negative correlation between skin photoaging and cathepsin B in vitro and in vivo. We propose that cathepsin B, besides matrix metalloproteinases and antioxidant enzymes, is involved in the process of skin photoaging in that it contributes to extracellular matrix remodelling and is a dominant protease in cellular apoptosis and senescence.

  18. Human sputum cathepsin B degrades proteoglycan, is inhibited by alpha 2-macroglobulin and is modulated by neutrophil elastase cleavage of cathepsin B precursor and cystatin C. (United States)

    Buttle, D J; Abrahamson, M; Burnett, D; Mort, J S; Barrett, A J; Dando, P M; Hill, S L


    The high-Mr alkali-stable form of cathepsin B was purified from purulent human sputum. It was shown to solubilize proteoglycan monomer entrapped in polyacrylamide at a rate comparable with that of human lysosomal cathepsin B. Like the enzyme from lysosomes, sputum cathepsin B was bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin, which inhibited its action on proteoglycan. Cystatin C in purulent sputum was shown to be the N-terminally truncated form generated by neutrophil elastase cleavage, and sputum cathepsin B was only weakly inhibited by recombinant cystatin C that had been cleaved by neutrophil elastase in vitro. Addition of neutrophil elastase to mucoid sputum led to a 5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity concomitant with a lowering in Mr of the cysteine proteinase from 40,000 to 37,000, i.e. the size of the active enzyme purified from purulent sputum. It is concluded that the high-Mr form of cathepsin B present in purulent sputum is a functional proteinase, unlike similar forms of the enzyme secreted by mammary gland in organ culture. The activity of cathepsin B in sputum is modulated by neutrophil elastase, by a combination of inhibitor inactivation and zymogen activation. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1710889

  19. Inhibition of cathepsin X reduces the strength of microglial-mediated neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Pišlar, Anja; Božić, Biljana; Zidar, Nace; Kos, Janko


    Inflammation plays a central role in the processes associated with neurodegeneration. The inflammatory response is mediated by activated microglia that release inflammatory mediators to the neuronal environment. Microglia-derived lysosomal cathepsins, including cathepsin X, are increasingly recognized as important mediators of the inflammation involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. The current study was undertaken to investigate the role of cathepsin X and its molecular target, γ-enolase, in neuroinflammation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. We determined that the exposure of activated BV2 and EOC 13.31 cells to LPS led to increased levels of cathepsin X protein and activity in the culture supernatants in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, LPS stimulation of these two cells reduced the release of active γ-enolase in a manner regulated by the cathepsin X activity. Cathepsin X inhibitor AMS36 significantly reduced LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from BV2 cells. Inhibition of cathepsin X suppressed microglial activation through the reduced caspase-3 activity, together with diminished microglial cell death and apoptosis, and also through inhibition of the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Further, SH-SY5Y treatment with culture supernatants of activated microglial cells showed that cathepsin X inhibition reduces microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results indicate that up-regulated expression and increased release and activity of microglial cathepsin X leads to microglia activation-mediated neurodegeneration. Cathepsin X inhibitor caused neuroprotection via its inhibition of the activation of microglia. Cathepsin X could thus be a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory disorders.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cathepsin B and L cysteine proteases from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). (United States)

    Whang, Ilson; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kim, Yucheol; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jehee


    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation and turn over within the lysosomal system. In the present study, full-length sequences of cathepsin B (RbCathepsin B) and L (RbCathepsin L) were identified after transcriptome sequencing of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus mixed tissue cDNA. Cathepsin B was composed of 330 amino acid residues with 36 kDa predicted molecular mass. RbCathepsin L contained 336 amino acid residues encoding for a 38 kDa predicted molecular mass protein. The sequencing analysis results showed that both cathepsin B and L contain the characteristic papain family cysteine protease signature and active sites for the eukaryotic thiol proteases of cysteine, asparagine and histidine. In addition, RbCathepsin L contained EF hand Ca(2+) binding and cathepsin propeptide inhibitor domains. The rock bream cathepsin B and L showed the highest amino acid identity of 90 and 95% to Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsin B and Lates calcarifer cathepsin L, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, cathepsin B and L exhibited a high degree of evolutionary relationship to respective cathepsin family members of the papain superfamily. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis results confirmed that the expression of cathepsin B and L genes was constitutive in all examined tissues isolated from un-induced rock bream. Moreover, activation of RbCathepsin B and L mRNA was observed in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Edwardsiella tarda challenged liver and blood cells, indicating a role of immune response in rock bream.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  2. Molecular Cloning, Sequencing and Characterization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S Gene (United States)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. Our preliminary results showed the up-regulation of cathepsin S (CTSS) transcript during the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. This prompted us to speculate that the CTSS may play a role in infection. In this re...

  3. Bone Microenvironment Modulates Expression and Activity of Cathepsin B in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Podgorski


    Full Text Available Prostate cancers metastasize to bone leading to osteolysis. Here we assessed proteolysis of DOcollagen I (a bone matrix protein and, for comparison, DO-collagen IV, by living human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. Both collagens were degraded, this degradation was reduced by inhibitors of matrix metallo, serine, cysteine proteases. Because secretion of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in human breast fibroblasts grown on collagen I gels, we analyzed cathepsin B levels and secretion in prostate cells grown on collagen I gels. Levels and secretion were increased only in DU145 cells-cells that expressed the highest baseline levels of cathepsin B. Secretion of cathepsin B was also elevated in DU145 cells grown in vitro on human bone fragments. We further investigated the effect of the bone microenvironment on cathepsin B expression and activity in vivo in a SCID-human model of prostate bone metastasis. High levels of cathepsin B protein and activity were found in DU145, PC3, LNCaP bone tumors, although the PC3 and LNCaP cells had exhibited low cathepsin B expression in vitro. Our results suggest that tumor-stromal interactions in the context of the bone microenvironment can modulate the expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B.

  4. Regulation of cathepsins S and L by cystatin F during maturation of dendritic cells. (United States)

    Magister, Spela; Obermajer, Nataša; Mirković, Bojana; Svajger, Urban; Renko, Miha; Softić, Adaleta; Romih, Rok; Colbert, Jeff D; Watts, Colin; Kos, Janko


    In dendritic cells (DCs) cysteine cathepsins play a key role in antigen processing, invariant chain (Ii) cleavage and regulation of cell adhesion after maturation stimuli. Cystatin F, a cysteine protease inhibitor, is present in DCs in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles and thus has a potential to modulate cathepsin activity. In immature DCs cystatin F colocalizes with cathepsin S. After induction of DC maturation however, it is translocated into lysosomes and colocalizes with cathepsin L. The inhibitory potential of cystatin F depends on the properties of the monomer. We showed that the full-length monomeric cystatin F was a 12-fold stronger inhibitor of cathepsin S than the N-terminally processed cystatin F, whereas no significant difference in inhibition was observed for cathepsins L, H and X. Therefore, the role of cystatin F in regulating the main cathepsin S function in DCs, i.e. the processing of Ii, may depend on the form of the monomer present in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles. On the other hand, intact and truncated monomeric cystatin F are both potent inhibitors of cathepsin L and it is likely that cystatin F could regulate its activity in maturing, adherent DCs, controlling the processing of procathepsin X, which promotes cell adhesion via activation of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) integrin receptor.

  5. Serum cathepsin H as a potential prognostic marker in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, A; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen


    Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease that may participate in tumor progression. In order to evaluate its potential as a prognostic marker, its protein levels were measured by ELISA in preoperative sera from 324 patients with colorectal cancer. The level of cathepsin H was significantly...

  6. Cysteine cathepsin activity suppresses osteoclastogenesis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edgington-Mitchell, L.E.; Rautela, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.M.; Jayatilleke, K.M.; Linden, W.A. van der; Verdoes, M.; Bogyo, M.; Parker, B.S.


    Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvi

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis. (United States)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Watabe, Shugo


    We cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis (NsCtB). Nucleotide sequence of the isolated clone encoded a preproenzyme of 328 amino acids, comprising a 15-residue putative signal peptide, a 60-residue propeptide and the 253-residue mature enzyme. The mature NsCtB was 53% identical to human cathepsin B and conserved all the structural features characteristic of cysteine protease. The presence of an occluding loop in the mature region, a unique feature of cathepsin B, suggested the shrimp protein to be cathepsin B. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of NsCtB transcripts exclusively in the hepatopancreas tissues, suggesting a possible digestive role of this enzyme. An interesting feature of NsCtB was its remarkably high negative charge in comparison with other cysteine proteases, which was predicted to effectively locate and guide the positively charged residues of a substrate into the binding cleft. We also observed a repertoire of cysteine protease activities in the acidic milieu of shrimp hepatopancreas using synthetic substrates specific to various cathepsins. The activity profile revealed cathepsin B as the single most dominant enzyme with a specific activity comparable to that attributable to combined activities of other cathepsins. This activity could be blocked by E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, but not by Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-CHN(2), a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L.

  8. The effect of cathepsin K deficiency on airway development and TGF-β1 degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saftig Paul


    Full Text Available Background Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in osteoclasts, is a major drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent findings, however, indicate that cathepsin K is also involved in non-skeletal metabolism. The development of fibrotic phenotypes in lung and skin is a concern for cathepsin K inhibitors presently evaluated in clinical trials. Cathepsin K is expressed in lung tissue and has been implicated in lung fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of cathepsin K in airway development and its effect on TGF-β1 degradation. Methods We investigated the effects of cathepsin K-deficiency on alterations in airway integrity, extracellular matrix composition, and TGF-β1 expression and degradation. Lung homogenates of wild-type and cathepsin K-deficient mice were used to evaluate their contents of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and TGF-β1. The accessibility of TGF-β1 to cathepsin K-mediated degradation was determined in vitro and lung fibroblast proliferations in wild-type and cathepsin K-deficient cells were evaluated. Results Lung airway cathepsin K expression in wild-type mice remained constant between 1 and 6 months of age and the airway integrity was maintained. In contrast, after 2 months of age, all Ctsk-/- mice demonstrated increased airway epithelium thickness by 16-28%, a lower structural airway integrity (1-2 score units lower, elevated cytokeratin expression of 12%, increased α-actin and vimentin expression by 50% and 70%, increased area of smooth muscle cells by 15%, elevated hydroxyproline and GAGs content by 20% and 25%, and increased TGF-β1 expression by 25%. TGF-β1 proved an efficient substrate of cathepsin K and TGF-β1 protein content in lung was increased by a potent cathepsin inhibitor. Lung fibroblasts from Ctsk-/- mice after TGF-β1 treatment showed increased proliferation rates, increased levels of TGF-β1 by 30%, and increased ECM secretion. Conclusion This study suggests that

  9. Expression of stathmin and cathepsin B in colorectal cancer%Stathmin及Cathepsin B在结直肠癌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正多; 张丹; 吕宏程; 张丽; 刘光; 马卉; 王刚; 张诗武


    目的:研究Stathmin和Cathepsin B在人结直肠癌组织及其转移灶中的表达差异,探讨Stathmin和Cathepsin B在结直肠癌发生发展过程中的作用及其临床病理意义。方法用免疫组织化学染色技术检测158例高分化,中分化及低分化结直肠癌患者手术切除标本及64例相应转移灶组织中Stathmin蛋白和Cathepsin B蛋白的表达情况。结果 Stathmin蛋白及Cathepsin B蛋白在结直肠癌组织及其转移灶中均高表达(分别为P<0.05及P<0.01);高分化结直肠癌样本中Stathmin蛋白及Cathepsin B蛋白在细胞膜或细胞浆阳性表达,而在低分化结直肠癌细胞核,细胞膜及细胞浆中可见二者的阳性表达。结论 Stathmin及Cathepsin B可能是判断结直肠癌患者临床病理分级的有用指标。%Objective To investigate the differential expression of Stathmin and Cathepsin B in human colorectal cancer tissues and related metastatic foci and its clinicopathological significance.Methods Immunohistochemical staining for Stathmin and Cathepsin B was performed in 158 cases of colorectal cancer tissues and related 64 cases of metastatic foci within the tissue microarray.Results Both Stathmin and Cathepsin B are upregulated in colorectal cancer and related metastatic samples( P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively ) .The location of Stathmin and Cathepsin B transferred from cytoplasm to nuclear in low differentiation colorectal cancer samples compared with high to mediate differentiation samples.Conclusion Stathmin and Cathepsin B may be valuable biomarkers for clinical differentiation of colorectal cancer.

  10. Expression of Stathmin and Cathepsin B in colorectal cancer%Stathmin及Cathepsin B在结直肠癌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正多; 张丹; 吕宏程; 张丽; 刘光; 马卉; 王刚; 张诗武


    目的:研究Stathmin和Cathepsin B在人结直肠癌组织及其转移灶中的差异表达,探讨Stathmin和Cathepsin B在结直肠癌发生发展过程中的作用及其临床病理意义。方法用免疫组织化学染色技术检测158例高分化,中分化及低分化结直肠癌患者手术切除标本及64例相应转移灶组织中Stathmin蛋白和Cathepsin B蛋白的表达情况。结果 Stathmin蛋白及Cathepsin B蛋白在结直肠癌组织及其转移灶中均高表达;高分化结直肠癌样本中Stathmin蛋白及Cathepsin B蛋白在细胞膜或细胞浆阳性表达,而在低分化结直肠癌细胞核,细胞膜及细胞浆中可见二者的阳性表达。结论Stathmin及Cathepsin B可能是判断结直肠癌患者临床病理分级的有用指标。%Objective To investigate the differential expression of Stathmin and Cathepsin B in human colorectal cancer tissues and related metastatic foci .And to discuss the clinicopathological significance of these two markers .Methods Immunohistochemical staining for Stathmin and Cathepsin B was performed in the colorectal cancer tissues of 158 cases and 64 related metastatic foci .Results Both Stathmin and Cathepsin B are upregulated in colorectal cancer and related metastatic samples .The location of Stathmin and Cathepsin B transferred from cytoplasm to nuclear in low differentiation colorectal cancer samples compared with high and mediate differentiation samples .Conclusion Stathmin and Cathepsin B might be valuable biomarkers for clinical differentiation of colorectal cancer .

  11. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D;


    studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1......,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9nM, 14.4nM, and 8.1nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were...... selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5μ...

  12. Cathepsin B modulates lysosomal biogenesis and host defense against Francisella novicida infection. (United States)

    Qi, Xiaopeng; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Karki, Rajendra; Lupfer, Christopher; Gurung, Prajwal; Neale, Geoffrey; Guy, Clifford S; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi


    Lysosomal cathepsins regulate an exquisite range of biological functions, and their deregulation is associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and degenerative diseases in humans. In this study, we identified a key cell-intrinsic role for cathepsin B as a negative feedback regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Mice and macrophages lacking cathepsin B activity had increased resistance to the cytosolic bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B down-regulated mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and prevented cleavage of the lysosomal calcium channel TRPML1. These events drove transcription of lysosomal and autophagy genes via transcription factor EB, which increased lysosomal biogenesis and activation of autophagy initiation kinase ULK1 for clearance of the bacteria. Our results identified a fundamental biological function of cathepsin B in providing a checkpoint for homeostatic maintenance of lysosome populations and basic recycling functions in the cell.

  13. Cleavage of desmin by cysteine proteases: Calpains and cathepsin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, S.; Purslow, P.P.


    The intermediate filament protein, desmin, was purified from pork longissimus dorsi and incubated with either P-calpain, m-calpain or cathepsin B. Proteolysis of desmin was followed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. After incubation of desmin with the proteases, cleavage sites on the desmin...... a sequential C-terminal degradation pattern characteristic of this dipeptylpeptidase. The substrate primary structure was not found to be essential for regulation of the proteolytic activity of the cysteine peptidases studied. However, the degradation patterns obtained imply that calpains are involved...

  14. Cysteine Cathepsins Activate ELR Chemokines and Inactivate Non-ELR Chemokines. (United States)

    Repnik, Urska; Starr, Amanda E; Overall, Christopher M; Turk, Boris


    Cysteine cathepsins are primarily lysosomal proteases involved in general protein turnover, but they also have specific proteolytic functions in antigen presentation and bone remodeling. Cathepsins are most stable at acidic pH, although growing evidence indicates that they have physiologically relevant activity also at neutral pH. Post-translational proteolytic processing of mature chemokines is a key, yet underappreciated, level of chemokine regulation. Although the role of selected serine proteases and matrix metalloproteases in chemokine processing has long been known, little has been reported about the role of cysteine cathepsins. Here we evaluated cleavage of CXC ELR (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) and non-ELR (CXCL9-12) chemokines by cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S at neutral pH by high resolution Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Whereas cathepsin B cleaved chemokines especially in the C-terminal region, cathepsins K, L, and S cleaved chemokines at the N terminus with glycosaminoglycans modulating cathepsin processing of chemokines. The functional consequences of the cleavages were determined by Ca(2+) mobilization and chemotaxis assays. We show that cysteine cathepsins inactivate and in some cases degrade non-ELR CXC chemokines CXCL9-12. In contrast, cathepsins specifically process ELR CXC chemokines CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 N-terminally to the ELR motif, thereby generating agonist forms. This study suggests that cysteine cathepsins regulate chemokine activity and thereby leukocyte recruitment during protective or pathological inflammation.

  15. Evaluation of serum cathepsin B and D in relation to clinicopathological staging of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elzbieta Skrzydlewska; Mariola Sulkowska; Andrzej Wincewicz; Mariusz Koda; Stanislaw Sulkowski


    AIM: Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix facilitates cancer invasion and promotes metastasis. The study aims at evaluation of preoperative and postoperative serum cathepsins B and D levels in correlation with selected anatomoclinical features of colorectal cancer.METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 63colorectal cancer patients before curative operation of the tumor 10 d later. Blood that was obtained from 20healthy volunteers, served as a control. The activity of cathepsin B was measured with Bz-DL-arginine-pNA as a substrate at pH 6.0, while cathepsin D activity was determined with urea-denatured hemoglobin (pH 4.0).RESULTS: The preoperative and postoperative activities of cathepsin B were significantly (P<0.00001) lower in serum of colorectal cancer patients than in control group.However, postoperative values of this protease were significantly increased in comparison with preoperative ones (P = 0.031). Activity of cathepsin D appeared to be significantly higher in colorectal cancer sera (P<0.00001)compared with controls. No statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative activity of cathepsin D were noted (P = 0.09). We revealed a strong linkage of cathepsins' levels with lymph node status and pT stage of colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: Blood serum activities of cathepsin B and D depend on the time of sampling, tumor size and lymph node involvement. Significantly, increased activity of cathepsin D could indicate a malignant condition of the large intestine. In our work, the serum postoperative decrease of cathepsin B activity appears as an obvious concomitant of local lymph node metastasis-the wellknown clinicopathological feature of poor prognosis.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin D gene from turbot Scophthalmus maximus. (United States)

    Jia, Airong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua


    Cathepsin D is a lysosomal endoproteolytic aspartic proteinase which also has been found in endosomes of macrophage. It is thought to play key roles in the developmental and physiological process of animals. The EST sequence of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) cathepsin D was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. In the present study, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of turbot cathepsin D, which contained a 91 bp 5'-UTR, a 1191 bp open reading frame encoding 396 amino acids, and a 329 bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cathepsin D consisted of a signal peptide of 18 aa, a leader peptide extending 43 aa, and a mature peptide of 335 aa. BLAST analysis revealed that turbot cathepsin D shared high similarity with other known cathepsin D, and it showed significant homology with that of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer B., 89% aa similarity). Quantitative real-time PCR (q PCR) demonstrated that the highest expression level of the turbot cathepsin D was in liver. After turbot were challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the lowest expression levels of cathepsin D in liver, spleen and head kidney were detected at 8 h. This result was different from the expression of MHCII of which the expression lever was increased upon challenge. The expression levels of cathepsin D in liver and head kidney increased gradually after 8 h and exceeded the background level after 24 h. In spleen, the expression level was reinforced after 8 h and kept at level that was higher than the original level after 12 h. The results suggested that cathepsin D might process antigens for presentation to the immune system and have synergetic effect with apoptosis pathway until 12 h after injection.

  17. Monoclonal antibody against recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin Ls of Fasciola gigantica. (United States)

    Wongwairot, Sirima; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert


    Cathepsin Ls (CatLs), the major cysteine protease secreted by Fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1H (rFgCatL1H) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H). This MoAb is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 with κ light chain isotype. The MoAb reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H, the native FgCatL1H at a molecular weight (MW) 38 to 48 kDa in the extract of whole body (WB) of metacercariae and newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) and cross-reacted with rFgCatL1 and native FgCatLs at MW 25 to 28 kDa in WB of 2- and 4-week-old juveniles, adult, and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. It did not cross-react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Fischoederius cobboldi. By immunolocalization, MoAb against rFgCatL1H reacted with the native protein in the gut of metacercariae and NEJ and also cross-reacted with CatL1 in 2- and 4-week-old juveniles and adult F. gigantica. Therefore, FgCatL1H and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of both early and late fasciolosis in ruminants and humans.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; CHEN Wei-hong; ZHENG Jian-ming; HUANG Ling


    Objective: Laminin is a major glycoprotein component of basement membrance which is an important barrier to tumor cells which must be breeched before metastatic spread can occur. Proteolytic enzymes play an important role in mediating the passage of cancer cells through the basement membrane (BM) and extracellular matrix. We compared the patterns of laminin and cathepsin D (CD) expressions in a range of benign and malignant breast lesions to better understand the process of tumor progression. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two cases of breast samples comprising 18 fibroadeomas, 22 cases of fibrocystic disease, 96 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 26 carcinomas with intraductal components were evaluated for laminin and cathepsin D expressions by immunohistochemical staining. Results: The prevalence of CD positivity in both neoplastic and stromal cell components were significantly higher in higher histological grade tumors compared to lower grades (P<0.001). Various severity of BM disruption correlated with histological grade of the carcinomas (P<0.001). There was a negative correlation between the laminin expression and CD presence. Conclusion: In the process of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, the basement membrane is disrupted by proteinase secreted by cancer cells, especially by stroma cells of cancer.

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin L in atopic dermatitis and lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A El Ashmawy


    Full Text Available Background: Cathepsin L is a member of papain superfamily. It seems to promote T-cell survival, selection maturation in the thymus and enhance the antigen presentation. Cathepsin L plays an important role in tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α induced cell death. Also it degrades the tight junction between cornedesomses in the epidermis. Elevated expression of cathepsin L has been found in many inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin L in atopic dermatitis (AD and lichen planus (LP patients in order to evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 15 patients with AD (Group I, 15 patients with LP (Group II, in addition to 10 healthy skin specimens served as controls (Group III. Punch biopsies were taken from lesional skin of the patients and controls for immunohistochemical detection of cathepsin L expression. Results: Highly significant increase was found in cathepsin L expression in AD and LP patients compared to controls [P = 0.001]. Conclusion: Cathepsin L could be implicated as an important protease in the pathogenesis of AD and LP. It could be a useful marker for assessing AD severity.

  20. Role of cathepsin B-mediated apoptosis in fulminant hepatic failure in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Zhu Yan; Wei Wang; Li-Yan Chen; Man-Ru Bi; Yan-Jie Lu; Bao-Xin Li; Bao-Shan Yang


    AIM: To investigate the pathogenic role of cathepsin B and the protective effect of a cathepsin B inhibitor (CA-074Me) in fulminant hepatic failure in mice.METHODS: LPS/D-Gal N was injected into mice of the model group to induce fulminant hepatic failure;the protected group was administered CA-074me for 30 min before LPS/D-Gal N treatment; the normal group was given isochoric physiologic saline. Liver tissue histopathology was determined with HE at 2,4, 6 and 8 h after Lps/D-Gal injection. Hepatocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL method. The expression of cathepsin B in liver tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR.RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, massive typical hepatocyte apoptosis occurred in the model group; the number of apoptotic cells reached a maximum 6 h after injection. The apoptosis index (AI) in the protected group was clearly reduced (30.4$$$$markedly increased in drug-treated mice compared with the normal group ( P < 0.01). Incubation with LPS/D-Gal N at selected time points resulted in a timedependent increase in cathepsin B activity, and reached a maximum by 8 h. The expression of cathepsin B was significantly decreased in the protected group ( P <0.01).CONCLUSION: Cathepsin B plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074me can attenuate apoptosis and liver injury.

  1. A furanquinone from Paulownia tomentosa stem for a new cathepsin K inhibitor. (United States)

    Park, Youmie; Kong, Jae Yang; Cho, Heeyeong


    In the search for novel inhibitors of cathepsin K, a new furanquinone compound, methyl 5-hydroxy-dinaphtho[1,2-2'3']furan-7,12-dione-6-carboxylate (1a), showed in vitro inhibitory activities for cathepsin K. Compound 1a was isolated originally from Paulownia tomentosa stem and its derivatives were synthesized. Furanquinone compounds (1a, 1b, 1c and 1d) were also found to be capable of inhibiting cathepsin L, which is closely related to cathepsin K. The inhibitory activity of the parent compound 1a (IC50 = 21 microm) for cathepsin K was slightly higher than those of the other three derivatives that have a methoxy (1b), propoxy (1c) or acetoxy (1d) group (IC50 = 33-66 microm) in the 5-position of compound 1a. This implies that the 5-hydroxyl functional group of 1a may have favorable effects on the reduction potential which are related to the cathepsin K inhibitory activities of furanquinone compounds. Therefore, the cathepsin K inhibitory activity of a new furanquinone compound is proposed.

  2. Cathepsin B antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses invasive potential of MG-63 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Maolin; Xiao Zengming; Li Shide; Chen Anmin


    Objective To study the biological effects of cathepsin B phosporotbioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 after transfection. Methods A 18-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) targeted against the cathepsin B mRNA was transfected into the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 by lipofectamine 2000. The sense and nonsense oligodeoxynucleotides to cathepsin B and blank vector were used as controls. The expression of cathepsin B mRNA was examined by RT-PCR and the expression of cathepsin B was examined by Western blot. The invasive capability of MG-63 cells was evaluated by the boydern chamber assay. Results The expression of cathcpsin B was obviously inhibited in antlsense oligodeoxynucleotide treated cells compared with the control cells. The number of invading MG-63 cells was significantly lower in the ASODN-treated groups than that in the control groups. Conclusion The cathepsin B ASODN significantly inhibits the expression of cathepsin B and invasive ability of MG-63 cell in osteosarcoma.

  3. Evaluation of flavonols and derivatives as human cathepsin B inhibitor. (United States)

    Ramalho, Suelem D; de Sousa, Lorena R F; Burger, Marcela C M; Lima, Maria Inês S; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C


    Cathepsin B (catB) is a cysteine protease involved in tumour progression and represents a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Among the 15 evaluated extracts from cerrado biome, Myrcia lingua Berg. (Myrtaceae) extract demonstrated to be a source of compounds with potential to inhibit catB. Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, we have found flavonols as inhibitors and also some other derivatives were obtained. From the evaluated compounds, myricetin (5) and quercetin (6) showed the most promising results with IC50 of 4.9 and 8.2 μM, respectively, and mode of inhibition as uncompetitive on catB. The results demonstrated polyhydroxylated flavonols as promising inhibitors of catB.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin O in silkworm Bombyx mori related to bacterial response. (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Su, Jingjing; Chen, Siyuan; Yu, Shuang; Tan, Juan; Xu, Man; Liang, Hanghua; Zhao, Yuzu; Chao, Huijuan; Yang, Liqun; Cui, Hongjuan


    Cathepsins are the main members of the cysteine family and play important roles in immune response in vertebrates. The Cathepsin O of Bombyx mori (BmCathepsin O) was cloned from the hemocytes by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The genomic DNA was 6131bp long with a total of six exons and five introns. Its pre-mRNA was spliced to generate two spliceosomes. By comparisons with other reported cathepsins O, it was concluded that the identity between them ranged from 29 to 39%. Expression analysis indicated that BmCathepsin O was specific-expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the 4th molting and metamorphosis stages. Immunofluorescence assay and qRT-PCR showed that BmCathepsin O was expressed in granulocytes and plasmatocytes. Interestingly, BmCathepsin O was significantly up-regulated after stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in vivo, which suggested that BmCathepsin O may be regulated by 20E. Moreover, activation of BmCathepsin O was also observed in hemocytes challenged by Escherichia coli, indicating its potential involvement in the innate immune system of silkworm, B. mori. In summary, our studies provide a new insight into the functional features of Cathepsin O.

  5. Carbon-11 labeled cathepsin K inhibitors: syntheses and preliminary in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Rodnick, Melissa E; Shao, Xia; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Scott, Peter J H; Kilbourn, Michael R


    Cathepsin K is a cysteine peptidase primarily located in osteoclasts, cells involved in normal growth and remodeling of bone but that are also responsible for bone loss in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis. In vivo imaging of cathepsin K may provide a method to assess changes in osteoclast numbers in such disease states. To that end, two high-affinity and selective cathepsin K inhibitors were radiolabeled with carbon-11. In vivo microPET imaging studies demonstrated uptake and prolonged retention of radioactivity in actively growing or remodeling bone regions (e.g., distal ulnar, carpal, distal and proximal humeral, distal femur, proximal tibia, tail vertebrae). Uptake into bone could be blocked by pre- or co-injection of unlabeled ligand, supporting a specific and saturable binding mechanism for radiotracer localization. These proof-of-concept studies indicate that radiolabeled cathepsin K inhibitors may have potential as in vivo imaging radiotracers for assessing changes of osteoclast numbers in osteolytic diseases.

  6. Evaluation of synthetic acridones and 4-quinolinones as potent inhibitors of cathepsins L and V. (United States)

    Marques, Emerson F; Bueno, Mauro A; Duarte, Patrícia D; Silva, Larissa R S P; Martinelli, Ariani M; dos Santos, Caio Y; Severino, Richele P; Brömme, Dieter; Vieira, Paulo C; Corrêa, Arlene G


    Cathepsins, also known as lysosomal cysteine peptidases, are members of the papain-like peptidase family, involved in different physiological processes. In addition, cathepsins are implicated in many pathological conditions. This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of a series of N-arylanthranilic acids, acridones, and 4-quinolinones as inhibitors of cathepsins V and L. The kinetics revealed that compounds of the classes of acridones are reversible competitive inhibitors of the target enzyme with affinities in the low micromolar range. They represent promising lead candidates for the discovery of novel competitive cathepsin inhibitors with enhanced selectivity and potency. On the other hand, 4-quinolinones were noncompetitive inhibitors and N-arylanthranilic acids were uncompetitive inhibitors.

  7. Silicon Crystals Formation Using Silicatein-Like Cathepsin of Marine Sponge Latrunculia oparinae. (United States)

    Kamenev, D G; Shkryl, Y N; Veremeichik, G N; Golotin, V A; Naryshkina, N N; Timofeeva, Y O; Kovalchuk, S N; Semiletova, I V; Bulgakov, V P


    The cDNA fragment encoding the catalytic domain of the new silicatein-like cathepsin enzyme LoCath was expressed in a strain Top10 of Escherichia coli, extracted and purified via nickel-affinity chromatography. Recombinant enzyme performed silica-polymerizing activity when mixed with water-soluble silica precursor-tetrakis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-orthosilicate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hexagonal, octahedral and β-tridimit crystals. Energy dispersion fluorescence X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that all these crystals consist of pure silicon oxide. It is the first report about the ability of marine sponge's cathepsin to polymerize silicon, as well as about the structure and composition of the silicon oxide crystal formed by recombinant cathepsin. Further study of the catalytic activity of silicatein and cathepsin will help to understand the biosilification processes in vivo, and will create basis for biotechnological use of recombinant proteins for silicon polymerization.

  8. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ferrer, Jorge M. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Yongbaek [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. David [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Bawendi, Moungi G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)


    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

  9. Cysteine cathepsin activity suppresses osteoclastogenesis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer


    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E.; Rautela, Jai; Duivenvoorden, Hendrika M.; Jayatilleke, Krishnath M.; Wouter A. van der Linden; Verdoes, Martijn; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S.


    Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activit...

  10. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Cheng, Xiang


    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown.......Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown....

  11. Profilin 1 as a target for cathepsin X activity in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Pečar Fonović

    Full Text Available Cathepsin X has been reported to be a tumor promotion factor in various types of cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms linking its activity with malignant processes are not understood. Here we present profilin 1, a known tumor suppressor, as a target for cathepsin X carboxypeptidase activity in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Profilin 1 co-localizes strongly with cathepsin X intracellularly in the perinuclear area as well as at the plasma membrane. Selective cleavage of C-terminal amino acids was demonstrated on a synthetic octapeptide representing the profilin C-terminal region, and on recombinant profilin 1. Further, intact profilin 1 binds its poly-L-proline ligand clathrin significantly better than it does the truncated one, as shown using cathepsin X specific inhibitor AMS-36 and immunoprecipitation of the profilin 1/clathrin complex. Moreover, the polymerization of actin, which depends also on the binding of poly-L-proline ligands to profilin 1, was promoted by AMS-36 treatment of cells and by siRNA cathepsin X silencing. Our results demonstrate that increased adhesion, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells depend on the inactivation of the tumor suppressive function of profilin 1 by cathepsin X. The latter is thus designated as a target for development of new antitumor strategies.

  12. Study of a Novel Antiosteoporosis Screening Model Targeted on Cathepsin K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To establish an effective assay to access the effects of natural products on cathepsin K for screening antiosteoporosis drugs. Methods To obtain the purified cathepsin K, we cloned the target fragment from the mRNA of human osteosacoma cell line MG63 and demonstrated its correctness through DNA sequencing. Cathepsin K was expressed in a high amount in E.coli after IPTG induction, and was purified to near homogenetity through resolution and column purification. The specificity of the protein was shown by Western blotting experiment. The biological activity of the components in the fermentation broth was assayed by their inhibitory effects on cathepsin K and its analog papain. Results With the inhibition of papain activity as a screen index, the fermentation samples of one thousand strains of fungi were tested and 9 strains among them showed strong inhibitory effects. The crude products of the fermentation broth were tested for their specific inhibitory effects on the purified human cathepsin K, the product of fungi 2358 shows the highest specificity against cathepsin K. Conclusions The compounds isolated from fungi 2358 show the highest biological activity and are worth further structure elucidation and function characterization.

  13. HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced Cathepsin Modulation Alters Antigen Processing and Cross-Presentation. (United States)

    Kourjian, Georgio; Rucevic, Marijana; Berberich, Matthew J; Dinter, Jens; Wambua, Daniel; Boucau, Julie; Le Gall, Sylvie


    Immune recognition by T cells relies on the presentation of pathogen-derived peptides by infected cells, but the persistence of chronic infections calls for new approaches to modulate immune recognition. Ag cross-presentation, the process by which pathogen Ags are internalized, degraded, and presented by MHC class I, is crucial to prime CD8 T cell responses. The original degradation of Ags is performed by pH-dependent endolysosomal cathepsins. In this article, we show that HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) prescribed to HIV-infected persons variably modulate cathepsin activities in human APCs, dendritic cells and macrophages, and CD4 T cells, three cell subsets infected by HIV. Two HIV PIs acted in two complementary ways on cathepsin hydrolytic activities: directly on cathepsins and indirectly on their regulators by inhibiting Akt kinase activities, reducing NADPH oxidase 2 activation, and lowering phagolysosomal reactive oxygen species production and pH, which led to enhanced cathepsin activities. HIV PIs modified endolysosomal degradation and epitope production of proteins from HIV and other pathogens in a sequence-dependent manner. They altered cross-presentation of Ags by dendritic cells to epitope-specific T cells and T cell-mediated killing. HIV PI-induced modulation of Ag processing partly changed the MHC self-peptidome displayed by primary human cells. This first identification, to our knowledge, of prescription drugs modifying the regulation of cathepsin activities and the MHC-peptidome may provide an alternate therapeutic approach to modulate immune recognition in immune disease beyond HIV.

  14. Relation of Cystatin C and Cathepsin B Expression to the Pathological Grade and Invasion of Human Gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    OBJECTIVE To explore the relation of cystatin C and cathepsin B expression to the pathological grade and invasion of human gliomas.METHODS A immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of cystatin C and cathepsin B in 57 glioma samples.RESULTS The expression of cystatin C in high-grade (Grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ )gliomas was significantly weaker than that in low-grade(Grade Ⅰ~Ⅱ, P=0.0001).On the other hand, the expression of cathepsin B in high-grade gliomas was significantly stronger than that in low-grade (P=0.0001). Cystatin C expression correlated inversely with cathepsin B expression in gliomas (P=0.01).CONCLUSION Cystatin C and cathepsin B expression is related to the pathological grade and invasion of gliomas. Combining detection of cystatin C and cathepsin B expressions might provide significant information for clinical assessment of maglignant phenotypes and invasion of gliomas.

  15. Cloning of a cDNA encoding cathepsin D from salamander, Hynobius leechii, and its expression in the limb regenerates. (United States)

    Ju, B G; Kim, W S


    Cathepsin D is a major lysosomal aspartic proteinase participating in the degradation or modification of intra- and extracellular matrix molecules, and its activity is known to increase in the process of tissue reorganization during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration. Here, we report the cloning of a salamander cathepsin D cDNA from Hynobius leechii and its expression profile in normal and retinoic acid (RA) treated limb regenerates. The gene expression of cathepsin D increased notably during the dedifferentiation stage and decreased gradually thereafter. Furthermore, RA that enhances dedifferentiation of regenerating salamander limb caused the elevation of cathepsin D expression both in terms of level and duration. These results suggest that cathepsin D plays important role(s) in the dedifferentiation process, and enhancement of cathepsin D expression might be closely related to RA-evoked pattern duplication.

  16. Contribution of cathepsins B, L and D to muscle protein profiles correlated with texture in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Morzel, M.; Hyldig, Grethe;


    Post-mortem softening of fish tissue often results in low yield and decreased product quality. In this study, proteolytic profiles of trout stored 5 days oil ice were obtained by SDS-PAGE. The link between protein hand intensities and firmness of trout fillets was examined through a correlation...... Study. In parallel, trout extracts were incubated with cathepsin B, cathepsin L and cathepsin D, alone or in combination, in order to evaluate the effect of each cathepsin on the texture-related proteins. Proteins from both myofibrillar (alpha-actinin, actin, MLC1, MLC2. and N-terminal 70 kDa MHC...... fragment) and sarcoplastic (glycogen phosphorylase, creatine kinase, and TPI) fractions correlated closely with firmness. Cathepsins D, B and L affected, respectively, 10, 9 and 4 out of the 17 protein bands correlating with firmness, and most changes induced by cathepsin D were unfavourable to firmness...

  17. Cathepsin G, a Neutrophil Protease, Induces Compact Cell-Cell Adhesion in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kudo


    Full Text Available Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted by activated neutrophils that play a role in the inflammatory response. Because neutrophils are known to be invading leukocytes in various tumors, their products may influence the characteristics of tumor cells such as the growth state, motility, and the adhesiveness between cells or the extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that cathepsin G induces cell-cell adhesion of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells resulting from the contact inhibition of cell movement on fibronectin but not on type IV collagen. Cathepsin G subsequently induced cell condensation, a very compact cell colony, resulting due to the increased strength of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cathepsin G action is protease activity-dependent and was inhibited by the presence of serine protease inhibitors. Cathepsin G promotes E-cadherin/catenin complex formation and Rap1 activation in MCF-7 cells, which reportedly regulates E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. Cathepsin G also promotes E-cadherin/protein kinase D1 (PKD1 complex formation, and Go6976, the selective PKD1 inhibitor, suppressed the cathepsin G-induced cell condensation. Our findings provide the first evidence that cathepsin G regulates E-cadherin function, suggesting that cathepsin G has a novel modulatory role against tumor cell-cell adhesion.

  18. Localization of nuclear cathepsin L and its association with disease progression and poor outcome in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sullivan, Shane


    Previous in vitro studies have identified a nuclear isoform of Cathepsin L. The aim of this study was to examine if nuclear Cathepsin L exists in vivo and examine its association with clinical, pathological and patient outcome data. Cellular localization (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and expression levels v of Cathespin L in 186 colorectal cancer cases using immunohistochemistry. The molecular weight and activity of nuclear and cytoplasmic Cathepsin L in vivo and in vitro were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Epithelial nuclear staining percentage (p = 0.04) and intensity (p = 0.006) increased with advancing tumor stage, whereas stromal cytoplasmic staining decreased (p = 0.02). Using multivariate statistical analysis, survival was inversely associated with staining intensity in the epithelial cytoplasm (p = 0.01) and stromal nuclei (p = 0.007). In different colorectal cell lines and in vivo tumors, pro- and active Cathepsin L isoforms were present in both the cytoplasm and nuclear samples, with pro-Cathepsin L at 50 kDa and active Cathepsin L at 25 kDa. Purified nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions from cell lines and tumors showed active Cathepsin L activity. The identification of nuclear Cathepsin L may play an important prognostic role in colorectal disease progression and patient outcome. Moreover, these findings suggest that altering active nuclear Cathepsin L may significantly influence disease progression.

  19. UVA causes dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L underlying lysosomal dysfunction in human dermal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T


    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.

  20. Characterization of cathepsin B gene from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection. (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Yan, Yang; Guo, Chuanyu; Qin, Qiwei


    The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B of papain family is a key regulator and signaling molecule that involves in various biological processes, such as the regulation of apoptosis and activation of virus. In the present study, cathepsin B gene (Ec-CB) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-CB cDNA was composed of 1918 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with higher identities to cathepsin B of teleosts and mammalians. Ec-CB possessed typical cathepsin B structural features including an N-terminal signal peptide, the propeptide region and the cysteine protease domain which were conserved in other cathepsin B sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ec-CB was most closely related to Lutjanus argentimaculatus. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ec-CB transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues which abundant in spleen, kidney and gill. After challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin B in E. coioides was up-regulated at 24 h post-infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-CB was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. When the fish cells (GS or FHM) were treated with the cathepsin B specific inhibitor CA-074Me, the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV was delayed, and the viral gene transcription was significantly inhibited. Additionally, SGIV-induced typical apoptosis was also inhibited by CA-074Me in FHM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the Ec-CB might play a functional role in SGIV infection.

  1. Involvement of Fenneropenaeus chinensis Cathepsin C in antiviral immunity. (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Li-Jie; Liu, Ning; Chen, An-Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing


    Cathepsin C (Cath C) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that belongs to the papain superfamily. Cath C is capable of activating many chymotrypsin-like serine proteases and is reported to be a central coordinator for the activation of many serine proteinases in immune and inflammatory cells. In this study, Cath C cDNA was cloned from Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc). The complete cDNA of Fc-Cath C in Chinese white shrimp was found to be 1445-base pairs (bp) long. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) 1356-bp long and encoded a 451-amino acid residue protein, including a 17-amino acid residue signal peptide. Real-time PCR analysis results indicated that Fc-Cath C was present in all the tissues detected and exhibited high level of transcription in the hepatopancreas. In hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills and intestine, Fc-Cath C was upregulated after stimulation by the Vibrio anguillarum and the white spot syndrome viruses (WSSVs). Replication of the WSSV increased after the injection of Fc-Cath C antiserum or knockdown Cath C by RNA interference. These results implied that Cath C might play a crucial role in the antiviral immune response of shrimp.

  2. Identification, immunolocalization, and characterization analyses of an exopeptidase of papain superfamily, (cathepsin C) from Clonorchis sinensis. (United States)

    Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Xueqing; Huang, Yan; Ren, Mengyu; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing


    Cathepsin C is an important exopeptidase of papain superfamily and plays a number of great important roles during the parasitic life cycle. The amino acid sequence of cathepsin C from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) showed 54, 53, and 49% identities to that of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing the sequences of papain superfamily of C. sinensis demonstrated that cathepsin C and cathepsin Bs came from a common ancestry. Cathepsin C of C. sinensis (Cscathepsin C) was identified as an excretory/secretory product by Western blot analysis. The results of transcriptional level and translational level of Cscathepsin C at metacercaria stage were higher than that at adult worms. Immunolocalization analysis indicated that Cscathepsin C was specifically distributed in the suckers (oral sucker and ventral sucker), eggs, vitellarium, intestines, and testis of adult worms. In the metacercaria, it was mainly detected on the cyst wall and excretory bladder. Combining with the results mentioned above, it implies that Cscathepsin C may be an essential proteolytic enzyme for proteins digestion of hosts, nutrition assimilation, and immune invasion of C. sinensis. Furthermore, it may be a potential diagnostic antigen and drug target against C. sinensis infection.

  3. FOXO3a promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of cathepsin L (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Qian; Cui, Yuehong; Wang, Yan; Li, Wei; Sun, Yihong; Liu, Tianshu


    Forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) is an important transcription factor involved in various human cancers. However, the role of FOXO3a in regulating the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells has not been clarified. Here, we report that FOXO3a overexpression promoted migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells by upregulating cathepsin L. FOXO3a knockdown suppressed migration and invasion and also downregulated cathepsin L expression in gastric cancer cells. Silencing cathepsin L in these cells suppressed FOXO3a overexpression-induced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic studies revealed that FOXO3a increased cathepsin L promoter activation, and cathepsin L overexpression repressed E-cadherin expression, causing gastric cancer cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our data reveal a previously unexplored function of FOXO3a in gastric cancer invasion by regulating proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and EMT. We suggest that FOXO3a may be of prognostic value and a potential therapeutic target in blocking tumor metastasis. PMID:27127880

  4. Prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in systemic sclerosis

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    M. Favaro


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in patients affected with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma. Methods: 115 patients affected by SSc, 55 (47,8% with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 60 (52,2% with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for cathepsin G antibodies by ELISA method. Moreover these sera were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on ethanol and formalin fixed human neutrophils. Results: By means of the ELISA method 16 (13,9% patients were found to be sera positive for anti-cathepsin G, 2 (12.5% of which showed a perinuclear fluorescence pattern (P-ANCA and 4 (25% an atypical ANCA staining, while 10 (62,5% were negative on IIF. The IIF on scleroderma sera revealed 5 (4,3% P-ANCA and 18 (15,7% atypical ANCA patterns. The anti-cathepsin G antibodies significantly prevailed in scleroderma sera (p=0.02 when their frequency was compared with that of healthy controls; while they were not significantly associated to any clinical or serological features of SSc patients. Conclusions: The anti-cathepsin G antibodies were significantly frequent in scleroderma sera; however, no clinical correlations were found. Thus, the significance of their presence in SSc still needs to be clarified.

  5. The secretion of high molecular weight cathepsin B from cultured human liver cancers.

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    Full Text Available The biochemical characteristics of cathepsin B secreted from cultured human liver cancer cells were examined. The enzyme activity of culture medium against a synthetic substrate, N-carbobenzoxy-L-arginyl-L-arginine-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide, was dependent on the addition of cysteine, and the optimal pH was found to be 6.0. No activity was observed when the enzyme source was fresh medium not used for culture. These results suggest that the enzyme released from liver cancer cells is the thiol-protease cathepsin B. The molecular weight of the enzyme with 90% of the total activity was 40,000. Two cathepsin B molecules were found in liver tissue from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; one was equivalent in size to the secreted enzyme, and a smaller one was the same as normal liver cathepsin B (27,000, which was also obtained from HCC-bearing cirrhotic liver. These results demonstrate that two molecules of cathepsin B are synthesized in liver cancer, and that the larger one is released into the surrounding tissue.

  6. TAILS N-Terminomics and Proteomics Show Protein Degradation Dominates over Proteolytic Processing by Cathepsins in Pancreatic Tumors

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    Anna Prudova


    Full Text Available Deregulated cathepsin proteolysis occurs across numerous cancers, but in vivo substrates mediating tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Applying 8-plex iTRAQ terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS, a systems-level N-terminome degradomics approach, we identified cathepsin B, H, L, S, and Z in vivo substrates and cleavage sites with the use of six different cathepsin knockout genotypes in the Rip1-Tag2 mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Among 1,935 proteins and 1,114 N termini identified by TAILS, stable proteolytic products were identified in wild-type tumors compared with one or more different cathepsin knockouts (17%–44% of 139 cleavages. This suggests a lack of compensation at the substrate level by other cathepsins. The majority of neo-N termini (56%–83% for all cathepsins was consistent with protein degradation. We validated substrates, including the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 associated with the Warburg effect, the ER chaperone GRP78, and the oncoprotein prothymosin-alpha. Thus, the identification of cathepsin substrates in tumorigenesis improves the understanding of cathepsin functions in normal physiology and cancer.

  7. Cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

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    Porntip Pinlaor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa, prosegment (95 aa, and mature protease (213 aa. BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%, Paragonimus westermani (58%, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%, and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%. Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of approximately 3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant

  8. Synthetic chalcone derivatives as inhibitors of cathepsins K and B, and their cytotoxic evaluation. (United States)

    Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Bernades, Aline; Demetrius, Giulio; Noda-Perez, Caridad; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Dos Santos, Caio Yu; da Silva, James Almada; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Mousinho, Kristiana Cerqueira


    A series of chalcone derivatives, 1-15, were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and evaluated for their cytotoxicities on tumor cell lines and also against proteolytic enzymes such as cathepsins B and K. Of the compounds synthesized, (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (12), (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (13), (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (14), and (E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (15) showed significant cytotoxicities. The most effective compound was 15, which showed high cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value lower than 1 μg/ml, and no selectivity on the tumor cells evaluated. Substituents at C(4) of ring B were found to be essential for cytotoxicity. In addition, it was also demonstrated that some of these chalcones are moderate inhibitors of cathepsin K and have no activity against cathepsin B.

  9. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

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    Manlio Palumbo


    Full Text Available Cathepsin G (CatG is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions.

  10. Distribution of chicken cathepsins B and L, cystatin and ovalbumin in extra-embryonic fluids during embryogenesis. (United States)

    Cirkvenčič, N; Narat, M; Dovč, P; Benčina, D


    1. Concentrations of chicken cathepsin B, cathepsin L, cystatin and ovalbumin were determined in the allantoic fluid, amniotic fluid and extracts of chorioallantoic membranes during days 6 to 12 of embryogenesis. 2. Similar trends for cystatin and ovalbumin were observed in the allantoic fluid with maximum concentrations of cystatin on day 7 (12 ± 4 µg/ml) and ovalbumin on day 8 (∼19 ± 2.5 µg/ml) of embryonic development. The highest concentrations of cathepsin B was found on day 7 and of cathepsin L on day 10, but were significantly lower than those of cystatin and ovalbumin. 3. In the allantoic fluid, especially on day 7, considerable proportions of cystatin and ovalbumin were phosphorylated and contained phosphorylated serine. 4. Concentrations of cathepsin B and L, cystatin and ovalbumin in the amniotic fluid were variable but were comparable to those in allantoic fluid.

  11. Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections. (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu


    Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (Prosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system.

  12. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

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    Waleska Maldonado-Aguayo

    Full Text Available Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S as well as in an aspartic protease group (D. Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii cathepsin proteases are undeveloped prominent vaccine antigens against toxoplasmosis


    Zhao, Guanghui; Zhou, Aihua; Lv, Gang; Meng, Min; Sun, Min; Bai, Yang; Han, Yali; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Huaiyu; Cong, Hua; Zhao, Qunli; Zhu, Xing-Quan; He, Shenyi


    Background Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. T. gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including cathepsin B-like (TgCPB) and cathepsin L-like (TgCPL) proteins. TgCPB is involved in ROP protein maturation and parasite invasion, whereas TgCPL contributes to proteolytic maturation of proTgM2AP and proTgMIC3. TgCPL is also associated with the residual body in the parasi...

  14. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties. (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon


    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM.

  15. Evaluation of cathepsin B activity for degrading collagen IV using a surface plasmon resonance method and circular dichroism spectroscopy. (United States)

    Shoji, Atsushi; Kabeya, Mitsutaka; Ishida, Yuuki; Yanagida, Akio; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Sugawara, Masao


    Evaluation of cathepsin B activities for degrading collagen IV and heat-denatured collagen IV (gelatin) were performed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The optimal pH of cathepsin B activity for degrading each substrate was around 4.0. The ΔRU(15 min), which is a decrease in the SPR signal at 15 min after injection of cathepsin B, was smaller for collagen IV than for heat-denatured collagen IV owing to the presence of triple-helical conformation. An unstable nature of the triple-helical conformation of collagen IV at pH 4.0 was shown by the CD study. Degrading collagen IV by cathepsin B was facilitated owing to a local unwinding of the triple-helical conformation caused by proteolytic cleavage of the non-helical region. The concentration dependence of the initial velocity for degrading collagen IV by cathepsin B at pH 4.0 was biphasic, showing that cathepsin B at low concentration exhibits exopeptidase activity, while the enzyme at high concentration exhibits endopeptidase activity. The kinetic parameters for the exopeptidase activity of cathepsin B toward collagen IV and heat-treated collagen IV were evaluated and discussed in terms of the protease mechanism.

  16. Quantitative electrochemical detection of cathepsin B activity in complex tissue lysates using enhanced AC voltammetry at carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays. (United States)

    Swisher, Luxi Z; Prior, Allan M; Shishido, Stephanie; Nguyen, Thu A; Hua, Duy H; Li, Jun


    The proteolytic activity of a cancer-related enzyme cathepsin B is measured with alternating current voltammetry (ACV) using ferrocene (Fc) labeled tetrapeptides attached to nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). This combination enables the use of high AC frequencies (~1kHz) with enhanced electrochemical signals. The specific proteolysis of the Fc-peptide by cathepsin B produces decay in the ACV peak current versus the reaction time. The exponential component of the raw data can be extracted and defined as the "extracted proteolytic signal" which allows consistent quantitative analyses using a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model. A "specificity constant" kcat/KM = (3.68 ± 0.50) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for purified cathepsin B was obtained. The detections of cathepsin B activity in different concentrations of whole lysate of human breast tissue, tissue lysate spiked with varied concentrations of cathepsin B, and the tissue lysate after immunoprecipitation showed that there is ~13.4 nM higher cathepsin B concentration in 29.1 µg mL(-1) of whole tissue lysate than the immunoprecipitated sample. The well-defined regular VACNF NEAs by e-beam lithography show a much faster kinetics for cathepsin B proteolysis with kcat/KM = 9.2 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1). These results illustrate the potential of this technique as a portable multiplex electronic system for cancer diagnosis by rapid protease profiling of serum or blood samples.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S gene (United States)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. This enzyme digests the invariant chain molecules so that antigenic peptides are able to load on the class II-associated invariant chain peptide of MHC. The complexes can subsequently be presented to the CD4 cell surface. In ...

  18. Reduction of mutant huntingtin accumulation and toxicity by lysosomal cathepsins D and B in neurons

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    Ouyang Xiaosen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease is caused by aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt protein containing more than a 36 polyQ repeat. Upregulation of macroautophagy was suggested as a neuroprotective strategy to degrade mutant huntingtin. However, macroautophagy initiation has been shown to be highly efficient in neurons whereas lysosomal activities are rate limiting. The role of the lysosomal and other proteases in Huntington is not clear. Some studies suggest that certain protease activities may contribute to toxicity whereas others are consistent with protection. These discrepancies may be due to a number of mechanisms including distinct effects of the specific intermediate digestion products of mutant huntingtin generated by different proteases. These observations suggested a critical need to investigate the consequence of upregulation of individual lysosomal enzyme in mutant huntingtin accumulation and toxicity. Results In this study, we used molecular approaches to enhance lysosomal protease activities and examined their effects on mutant huntingtin level and toxicity. We found that enhanced expression of lysosomal cathepsins D and B resulted in their increased enzymatic activities and reduced both full-length and fragmented huntingtin in transfected HEK cells. Furthermore, enhanced expression of cathepsin D or B protected against mutant huntingtin toxicity in primary neurons, and their neuroprotection is dependent on macroautophagy. Conclusions These observations demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of enhancing lysosomal cathepsins in reducing mutant huntingtin level and toxicity in transfected cells. They highlight the potential importance of neuroprotection mediated by cathepsin D or B through macroautophagy.

  19. Cathepsin B protease is required for metamorphism in silkworm,Bombyx mori

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    Gen-Hong Wang; Chun Liu; Qing-You Xia; Xing-Fu Zha; Jie Chen; Liang Jiang


    Cathepsin B belongs to lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family.Temporal and spatial expression analysis of cathepsin B of Bombyx mori (BmCtB) was carried out based on Expression Sequence Tags (ESTs) data,oligonucleotide microarray,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR.Expression of BmCtB was observed in all of the tissues and stages.Among the 10 tested tissues,the fat body and posterior silk gland are the two most enriched tissues with BmCtB.During Bombyx development,there was an expression fastigium of BmCtB during metamorphosis.RNA interference was used to suppress the expression of cathepsin B during metamorphosis.Significant developmental defective phenotypes were obtained in the RNAi treated group.The dramatically reduced expression of BmCtB was confirmed by Northern blot and quantitative real-time PCR.These evidences strongly suggest cathepsin B proteinase was predominantly involved in the metabolism process of fat body and the posterior silk gland and was critical for metamorphism and development of silkworm,Bombyx mori.

  20. Live imaging of cysteine-cathepsin activity reveals dynamics of focal inflammation, angiogenesis, and polyp growth.

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    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 30% of detectable polyps in patients regress spontaneously. One major challenge in the evaluation of effective therapy of cancer is the readout for tumor regression and favorable biological response to therapy. Inducible near infra-red (NIR fluorescent probes were utilized to visualize intestinal polyps of mice hemizygous for a novel truncation of the Adenomatous Polyposis coli (APC gene. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in live mice allowed visualization of cathepsin activity in richly vascularized benign dysplastic lesions. Using biotinylated suicide inhibitors we quantified increased activities of the Cathepsin B & Z in the polyps. More than (3/4 of the probe signal was localized in CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC and CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages infiltrating the lesions. Polyposis was attenuated through genetic ablation of cathepsin B, and suppressed by neutralization of TNFalpha in mice. In both cases, diminished probe signal was accounted for by loss of MDSC. Thus, in vivo NIR imaging of focal cathepsin activity reveals inflammatory reactions etiologically linked with cancer progression and is a suitable approach for monitoring response to therapy.

  1. Are Proteinase 3 and Cathepsin C Enzymes Related to Pathogenesis of Periodontitis?

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    Oya Türkoğlu


    Full Text Available Aim. Cathepsin C is the activator of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived proteinase 3, which contributes to inflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF proteinase 3 and cathepsin C levels in periodontal diseases. Design. Eighteen patients with chronic periodontitis (CP, 20 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP, 20 patients with gingivitis, and 18 healthy subjects were included in the study. Periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, papilla bleeding index, and plaque index were assessed in all study subjects. GCF proteinase 3 and cathepsin C levels were analyzed by ELISA. Results. GCF proteinase 3 total amount was significantly higher in diseased groups compared to control group, after adjusting age P0.05. Periodontal parameters of sampling sites were positively correlated with GCF proteinase 3 total amounts P0.05. Conclusions. Elevated levels of GCF proteinase 3 in CP, G-AgP, and gingivitis might suggest that proteinase 3 plays a role during inflammatory periodontal events in host response. However, cathepsin C in GCF does not seem to have an effect on the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  2. Action of cathepsin D on fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. (United States)

    Offermann, M K; Chlebowski, J F; Bond, J S


    Cathepsin D inactivated aldolase at pH values between 4.2 and 5.2; the chloride, sulphate or iodide, but not citrate or acetate, salts of sodium or potassium accelerated the rate of inactivation. Cathepsin D cleaved numerous peptide bonds in the C-terminus of aldolase, but the major site of cleavage in this region was Leu354-Phe355. The most prominent peptide products of hydrolysis were Phe-Ile-Ser-Asn-His-Ala-Tyr and Phe-Ile-Ser-Asn-His. Up to 20 amino acids were removed from the C-terminus of aldolase, but no further degradation of native aldolase was observed. By contrast, extensive degradation of the 40 000-Mr subunit was observed after aldolase was denatured. The cathepsin D-inactivated aldolase cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against native aldolase and had the same thermodynamic stability as native aldolase, demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residues. Furthermore, the cathepsin-modified and native forms of aldolase were both resistant to extensive proteolysis by other purified cellular proteinases and lysosomal extracts at pH values of 4.8-8.0.

  3. Isothiazolones; thiol-reactive inhibitors of cysteine protease cathepsin B and histone acetyltransferase PCAF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisastra, Rosalina; Ghizzoni, Massimo; Maarsingh, Harm; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.


    Isothiazolones and 5-chloroisothiazolones react chemoselectively with thiols by cleavage of the weak nitrogen-sulfur bond to form disulfides. They show selectivity for inhibition of the thiol-dependent cysteine protease cathepsin B and the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF)

  4. Prognostic and predictive value of cathepsin X in serum from colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vižin, Tjaša; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Wilhelmsen, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Cathepsin X is a cysteine protease involved in mechanisms of malignant progression. It is secreted from tumour cells as a proenzyme and may serve to predict the disease status and risk of death for cancer patients. In a previous, pilot, study on 77 colorectal patients we demonstrated...

  5. Cathepsin D SNP associated with increased risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

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    Sanchez-Juan Pascual


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD originally resulted from the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE material, with 163 confirmed cases in the UK to date. Many thousands are likely to have been exposed to dietary infection and so it is important (for surveillance, epidemic modelling, public health and understanding pathogenesis to identify genetic factors that may affect individual susceptibility to infection. This study looked at a polymorphism in the cathepsin D gene (refSNP ID: rs17571 previously examined in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods Blood samples taken from 110 vCJD patients were tested for the C-T base change, and genotype data were compared with published frequencies for a control population using multiple logistic regression. Results There was a significant excess of the cathepsin D polymorphism TT genotype in the vCJD cohort compared to controls. The TT genotype was found to have a 9.75 fold increase in risk of vCJD compared to the CT genotype and a 10.92 fold increase compared to the CC genotype. Conclusion This mutation event has been observed to alter the protease activity of the cathepsin D protein and has been linked to an increase in amyloid beta plaque formation in AD. vCJD neuropathology is characterised by the presence of amyloid plaques, formed from the prion protein, and therefore alterations in the amyloid processing activity of cathepsin D may affect the neuropathogenesis of this disease.

  6. Identification of a novel Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L protease containing protective epitopes within the propeptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Buys-Bergen, W.E.C.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Milligen, F.J.


    Cathepsin L (CL)-like proteases are important candidate vaccine antigens for protection against helminth infections. We previously identified an immunogenic 32 kDa protein specifically present in newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) of Fasciola hepatica. Here we show by N-terminal protein sequencing that

  7. Expression and significance of Cathepsin B and Cystatin C in human gliomas%cathepsin B和cystatin C在人脑胶质瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方凤奇; 马坚妹; 张洁; 于佩瑶


    To explore the expression and significance of cystatin C and cathepsin B in human gliomas. Methods A immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of cystatin C and cathepsin B in 57 glioma samples. Results The expression of cystatin C in high-grade (Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ) gliomas was significantly weaker than that in low-grade(Grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ). On the other hand, the expression of cathepsin B in high-grade gliomas was significantly stronger than that in low-grade (P < 0.05 ). Cystatin C expression correlated inversely with cathepsin B expression in gliomas (P = 0.01). Conclusion Cystatin C and cathepsin B expression is related to the pathological grade and invasion of gliomas. Combining detection of cystatin C and cathepsin B expressions might provide significant information for clinical assessment of maglignant phenotypes and invasion of gliomas.%目的 探讨半胱蛋白酶抑制剂C(cystatin C)和组织蛋白酶B(cathepsin B)在人脑胶质瘤组织中的表达及意义.方法 通过免疫组织化学法检测cystatin C及cathepsin B在57例不同分化程度的脑胶质瘤组织中的表达.结果 cystatin C在低分化胶质瘤( Ⅲ-Ⅳ级)中的表达低于高分化者(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级),而cathepsin B在低分化胶质瘤中的表达高于高分化者(P<0.05).cystatin C和cathepsin B在脑胶质瘤中的表达呈负相关(P=0.01).结论 cystatin C和cathepsin B的表达与人脑胶质瘤病理分级及侵袭性相关.联合检测cystatin C和cathepsin B的表达,可为脑胶质瘤的侵袭性及临床恶性程度评估提供重要信息.

  8. Crystal structure of cathepsin A, a novel target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreuder, Herman A., E-mail:; Liesum, Alexander, E-mail:; Kroll, Katja, E-mail:; Böhnisch, Britta, E-mail:; Buning, Christian, E-mail:; Ruf, Sven, E-mail:; Sadowski, Thorsten, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structures of active cathepsin A and the inactive precursor are very similar. • The only major difference is the absence of a 40 residue activation domain. • The termini of the active catalytic core are held together by a disulfide bond. • Compound 1 reacts with the catalytic Ser150, building a tetrahedral intermediate. • Compound 2 is cleaved by the enzyme and a fragment remained bound. - Abstract: The lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase cathepsin A is involved in the breakdown of peptide hormones like endothelin and bradykinin. Recent pharmacological studies with cathepsin A inhibitors in rodents showed a remarkable reduction in cardiac hypertrophy and atrial fibrillation, making cathepsin A a promising target for the treatment of heart failure. Here we describe the crystal structures of activated cathepsin A without inhibitor and with two compounds that mimic the tetrahedral intermediate and the reaction product, respectively. The structure of activated cathepsin A turned out to be very similar to the structure of the inactive precursor. The only difference was the removal of a 40 residue activation domain, partially due to proteolytic removal of the activation peptide, and partially by an order–disorder transition of the peptides flanking the removed activation peptide. The termini of the catalytic core are held together by the Cys253–Cys303 disulfide bond, just before and after the activation domain. One of the compounds we soaked in our crystals reacted covalently with the catalytic Ser150 and formed a tetrahedral intermediate. The other compound got cleaved by the enzyme and a fragment, resembling one of the natural reaction products, was found in the active site. These studies establish cathepsin A as a classical serine proteinase with a well-defined oxyanion hole. The carboxylate group of the cleavage product is bound by a hydrogen-bonding network involving one aspartate and two glutamate side chains

  9. Cathepsin D gene Expression in Stomach: Its Association with Age, Sex, and Menopausal status

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    Reza Abedi


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives :Gastric cancer is 2-4 folds higher in men than women. Sex hormones are one of the leading causes of sexual dimorphism in incidence of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to compare Cathepsin D and Caspase-7 gene expressions in the gastric tissue of normal men and women. Materials & Methods :In this cross-sectional study, gastric antrum tissue samples were collected from 21 healthy females and 21 males in the three age groups including 35, 35-50, and over 50 years. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the expressions of genes were compared between men and women via semi-quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR method. The obtained data were analyzed, using the statistical T-Test and ANOVA. Results: Statical analyses confirmed that the expression of Cathepsin D gene was significantly higher in men under 35 than those in the range of 35-50 years (p=0.04. In addition, the expression of Cathepsin D gene was significantly 10 folds in pre-menopause than post-menopause women and men (post-menopause women and men as one group (p=0.008. Furthermore, the expression of Cathepsin D gene between men and women was significant at borderline (p=0.056. Conclusion: The findings of the present research indicate that the expression of Cathepsin D is higher in pre-menopause than post-menopause women and men, and is greater in men under 35 than those in the range of 35-50 years.

  10. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo

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    Jon J. Vermeire


    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite’s resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN, Merck’s cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite’s CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN’s somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole.

  11. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of cathepsin K inhibit bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Votta, B J; Levy, M A; Badger, A; Bradbeer, J; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Thompson, S; Bossard, M J; Carr, T; Connor, J R; Tomaszek, T A; Szewczuk, L; Drake, F H; Veber, D F; Gowen, M


    We have shown previously that cathepsin K, a recently identified member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases, is expressed selectively in osteoclasts and is the predominant cysteine protease in these cells. Based upon its abundant cell type-selective expression, potent endoprotease activity at low pH and cellular localization at the bone interface, cathepsin K has been proposed to play a specialized role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we evaluated a series of peptide aldehydes and demonstrated that they are potent cathepsin K inhibitors. These compounds inhibited osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in fetal rat long bone (FRLB) organ cultures in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Selected compounds were also shown to inhibit bone resorption in a human osteoclast-mediated assay in vitro. Chz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H (in vitro enzyme inhibition Ki,app = 1.4 nM) inhibited parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated resorption in the FRLB assay with an IC-50 of 20 nM and inhibited resorption by isolated human osteoclasts cultured on bovine cortical bone slices with an IC-50 of 100 nM. In the adjuvant-arthritic (AA) rat model, in situ hybridization studies demonstrated high levels of cathepsin K expression in osteoclasts at sites of extensive bone loss in the distal tibia. Cbz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly reduced this bone loss, as well as the associated hind paw edema. In the thyroparathyriodectomized rat model, Cbz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H inhibited the increase in blood ionized calcium induced by a 6 h infusion of PTH. These data indicate that inhibitors of cathepsin K are effective at reducing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and may have therapeutic potential in diseases of excessive bone resorption such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoporosis.

  12. Synthetic cyclohexenyl chalcone natural products possess cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer cells and inhibit cysteine cathepsins in vitro. (United States)

    Deb Majumdar, Ishita; Devanabanda, Arvind; Fox, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cong, Huan; Porco, John A; Weber, Horst C


    A number of cyclohexenyl chalcone Diels-Alder natural products possess promising biological properties including strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells. Herein, we show that natural products in this class including panduratin A and nicolaioidesin C inhibit cysteine cathepsins as indicated by protease profiling assays and cell-free cathepsin L enzyme assays. Owing to the critical roles of cathepsins in the biology of human tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, these findings should pave the way for development of novel antitumor agents for use in clinical settings.

  13. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity. (United States)

    El Hage, Tatiana; Merlen, Clémence; Fabrega, Sylvie; Authier, François


    Using the in situ liver model system, we have recently shown that, after cholera toxin binding to hepatic cells, cholera toxin accumulates in a low-density endosomal compartment, and then undergoes endosomal proteolysis by the aspartic acid protease cathepsin-D [Merlen C, Fayol-Messaoudi D, Fabrega S, El Hage T, Servin A, Authier F (2005) FEBS J272, 4385-4397]. Here, we have used a subcellular fractionation approach to address the in vivo compartmentalization and cytotoxic action of cholera toxin in rat liver parenchyma. Following administration of a saturating dose of cholera toxin to rats, rapid endocytosis of both cholera toxin subunits was observed, coincident with massive internalization of both the 45 kDa and 47 kDa Gsalpha proteins. These events coincided with the endosomal recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor proteins, especially ADP-ribosylation factor-6, with a time course identical to that of toxin and the A subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha) translocation. After an initial lag phase of 30 min, these constituents were linked to NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of endogenous Gsalpha, with maximum accumulation observed at 30-60 min postinjection. Assessment of the subsequent postendosomal fate of internalized Gsalpha revealed sustained endolysosomal transfer of the two Gsalpha isoforms. Concomitantly, cholera toxin increased in vivo endosome acidification rates driven by the ATP-dependent H(+)-ATPase pump and in vitro vacuolar acidification in hepatoma HepG2 cells. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A partially inhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, the cAMP response to cholera toxin. This cathepsin D-dependent action of cholera toxin under the control of endosomal acidity was confirmed using cellular systems in which modification of the expression levels of cathepsin D, either by transfection of the cathepsin D gene or small interfering RNA, was followed by parallel changes in the cytotoxic

  14. Eimeripain, a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease, expressed throughout sporulation of the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella.

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    Anaïs Rieux

    Full Text Available The invasion and replication of Eimeria tenella in the chicken intestine is responsible for avian coccidiosis, a disease that has major economic impacts on poultry industries worldwide. E. tenella is transmitted to naïve animals via shed unsporulated oocysts that need contact with air and humidity to form the infectious sporulated oocysts, which contain the first invasive form of the parasite, the sporozoite. Cysteine proteases (CPs are major virulence factors expressed by protozoa. In this study, we show that E. tenella expresses five transcriptionally regulated genes encoding one cathepsin L, one cathepsin B and three cathepsin Cs. Biot-LC-LVG-CHN₂, a cystatin derived probe, tagged eight polypeptides in unsporulated oocysts but only one in sporulated oocysts. CP-dependant activities were found against the fluorescent substrates, Z-FR-AMC and Z-LR-AMC, throughout the sporulation process. These activities corresponded to a cathepsin B-like enzyme since they were inhibited by CA-074, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor. A 3D model of the catalytic domain of the cathepsin B-like protease, based on its sequence homology with human cathepsin B, further confirmed its classification as a papain-like protease with similar characteristics to toxopain-1 from the related apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii; we have, therefore, named the E. tenella cathepsin B, eimeripain. Following stable transfection of E. tenella sporozoites with a plasmid allowing the expression of eimeripain fused to the fluorescent protein mCherry, we demonstrated that eimeripain is detected throughout sporulation and has a punctate distribution in the bodies of extra- and intracellular parasites. Furthermore, CA-074 Me, the membrane-permeable derivative of CA-074, impairs invasion of epithelial MDBK cells by E. tenella sporozoites. This study represents the first characterization of CPs expressed by a parasite from the Eimeria genus. Moreover, it emphasizes the role of CPs in

  15. Study of Low-grade Chronic Inflammatory Markers in Men with Central Obesity: Cathepsin S was Correlated with Waist Circumference

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    Adriana Todingrante


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a prevalence increase of overweight and obesity in Indonesia. Central obesity can lead a variety of chronic diseases through the inflammatory process. There are some markers for low-grade chronic inflammatory, such as cathepsin S, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1- beta (IL-1β. To our current interest that central obesity can lead to various chronic diseases through the inflammatory process, we conducted a study to investigate correlation of Cathepsin S, hs-CRP, IL-1β in men with central obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Seventy-eight selected subjects were examined to collect anthropometric data and prepared for sample collection. Collected samples were processed for the following biochemical analyses: fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cathepsin S, hs-CRP, and IL-1β. Data distribution and variable correlation were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between waist circumference (WC and cathepsin S (p=0.030; r=0.214, hs-CRP and cathepsin S (p=0.007; r=0.276, triglyceride and IL-1β (p=0.019; r=-0.235, WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP (p=0.003; r=-0.312, WC and fasting glucose (p=0.000; r=0.380, WC and body mass index (BMI (p=0.000; r=0.708. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that cathepsin S was correlated with central obesity, suggesting that cathepsin S could be a potential inflammatory marker in central obesity in the future. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, hs-CRP, cathepsin S, IL-1β, waist circumference.

  16. Molecular and enzymatic properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase with distinct substrate specificity from northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). (United States)

    Aoki, H; Ahsan, M N; Watabe, S


    We purified a cathepsin L-like proteinase to homogeneity from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis by several chromatographic procedures. The purified proteinase showed the highest specificity for leucine residue at P2, a specificity pattern similar to cathepsins S and K whereas proline and arginine residues were not suitable as P2 substrates. However, unlike these proteinases, it accepted valine almost equally to the phenylalanine residue at P2. The shrimp cathepsin was strongly inhibited by E-64, leupeptin and antipain, while benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Tyr(t-Bu)-CHN2, a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L, remained largely ineffective. Next, we determined the primary structure of the shrimp enzyme by molecular cloning and investigated the residues constituting the S2 subsite, which is possibly involved in its unusual substrate specificity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the shrimp proteinase shared the highest identity of 65% with a cathepsin L-like proteinase from lobster, but its identity to the well-characterized mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K fell within narrower ranges of 52-55%. However, the shrimp proteinase differed from these cathepsins in some key residues including, for example, the unique occurrence of cysteine and glutamine residues at the structurally important S2 subsite. Interestingly, transcripts of this proteinase were exclusively detected in the shrimp gut coinciding with its broad pH activity and stability profiles, which is also unusual as a cysteine proteinase. These results suggest that the shrimp enzyme is homologous to mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K, but is distinct from each of these proteinases in both enzymatic and structural properties.

  17. Cysteine proteases as therapeutic targets: does selectivity matter? A systematic review of calpain and cathepsin inhibitors

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    Marton Siklos


    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases continue to provide validated targets for treatment of human diseases. In neurodegenerative disorders, multiple cysteine proteases provide targets for enzyme inhibitors, notably caspases, calpains, and cathepsins. The reactive, active-site cysteine provides specificity for many inhibitor designs over other families of proteases, such as aspartate and serine; however, a inhibitor strategies often use covalent enzyme modification, and b obtaining selectivity within families of cysteine proteases and their isozymes is problematic. This review provides a general update on strategies for cysteine protease inhibitor design and a focus on cathepsin B and calpain 1 as drug targets for neurodegenerative disorders; the latter focus providing an interesting query for the contemporary assumptions that irreversible, covalent protein modification and low selectivity are anathema to therapeutic safety and efficacy.

  18. Cysteine proteases as therapeutic targets: does selectivity matter? A systematic review of calpain and cathepsin inhibitors. (United States)

    Siklos, Marton; BenAissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R J


    Cysteine proteases continue to provide validated targets for treatment of human diseases. In neurodegenerative disorders, multiple cysteine proteases provide targets for enzyme inhibitors, notably caspases, calpains, and cathepsins. The reactive, active-site cysteine provides specificity for many inhibitor designs over other families of proteases, such as aspartate and serine; however, a) inhibitor strategies often use covalent enzyme modification, and b) obtaining selectivity within families of cysteine proteases and their isozymes is problematic. This review provides a general update on strategies for cysteine protease inhibitor design and a focus on cathepsin B and calpain 1 as drug targets for neurodegenerative disorders; the latter focus providing an interesting query for the contemporary assumptions that irreversible, covalent protein modification and low selectivity are anathema to therapeutic safety and efficacy.

  19. Eryptotic Phenotype in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Contribution of Neutrophilic Cathepsin G

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    Rukmini Govekar


    Full Text Available In pathological conditions with concurrent neutrophilia, modifications of erythrocyte membrane proteins are reported. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, a myeloproliferative disease wherein neutrophilia is accompanied by enhanced erythrophagocytosis, we report for the first time excessive cleavage of erythrocyte band 3. Distinct fragments of band 3 serve as senescent cell antigens leading to erythrophagocytosis. Using immunoproteomics, we report the identification of immunogenic 43 kDa fragment of band 3 in 68% of CML samples compared to their detection in only 38% of healthy individuals. Thus, excessive fragmentation of band 3 in CML, detected in our study, corroborated with the eryptotic phenotype. We demonstrate the role of neutrophilic cathepsin G, detected as an immunogen on erythrocyte membrane, in band 3 cleavage. Cathepsin G from serum adsorbs to the erythrocyte membrane to mediate cleavage of band 3 and therefore contribute to the eryptotic phenotype in CML.

  20. Purification and characterization of cathepsin D from herring muscle ( Clupea harengus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.B.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch


    Cathepsin D was purified and concentrated 469-fold from a homogenate of Clupea harengus muscle. The purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 38 000-39 000. It is inhibited by pepstatin and has optimal activity at pH 2.5 with hemoglobin as the substrate. The isoelectric point is at ...... myosin, actin and tropomyosin. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity


    Phipps-Yonas, Hannah; Semik, Vikki; Hastings, Karen Taraszka


    MHC class II-restricted Ag processing requires protein degradation in the endocytic pathway for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates Ag processing by reducing protein disulfide bonds in this compartment. Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) contains disulfide bonds and mediates essential steps in MHC class II-restricted processing, including proteolysis of large polypeptides and cleavage of the invariant chain. We so...

  2. Cathepsin X Cleaves Profilin 1 C-Terminal Tyr139 and Influences Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

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    Urša Pečar Fonović

    Full Text Available Cathepsin X, a cysteine carboxypeptidase, is upregulated in several types of cancer. Its molecular target in tumor cells is profilin 1, a known tumor suppressor and regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cathepsin X cleaves off the C-terminal Tyr139 of profilin 1, affecting binding of poly-L-proline ligands and, consequently, tumor cell migration and invasion. Profilin 1 with mutations at the C-terminus, transiently expressed in prostate cancer cells PC-3, showed that Tyr139 is important for proper function of profilin 1 as a tumor suppressor. Cleaving off Tyr139 prevents the binding of clathrin, a poly-L-proline ligand involved in endocytosis. More profilin 1-clathrin complexes were present in PC-3 cells when cathepsin X was inhibited by its specific inhibitor AMS36 or silenced by siRNA. As a consequence, the endocytosis of FITC-labeled dextran and transferrin conjugate was significantly increased. These results constitute the first report of the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in tumor cells through proteolytic processing of profilin 1.

  3. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis. (United States)

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M


    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific.

  4. Expression characteristics and specific antibody reactivity of diverse cathepsin F members of Paragonimus westermani. (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chung, Dong-Ll; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kim, Jin-Taek; Kong, Yoon


    Paragonimiasis, caused by the lung fluke Paragonimus, is a major food-borne helminthic disease. Differential diagnosis of paragonimiasis from tuberculosis and other infectious granulomas in the lung is a prerequisite to proper management of patients. Cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani (PwCPs) invoke specific antibody responses against patient sera, while antibody capturing activity of different PwCPs has not been comparatively analyzed. In this study, we observed the expressional regulation of 11 species of different PwCPs (PwCP1-11). We expressed recombinant PwCPs and assessed diagnostic reliability employing sera from patients with P. westermani (n=138), other trematodiases (n=80), cestodiases (n=60) and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=20), and those of normal controls (n=20). PwCPs formed a monophyletic clade into cathepsin F and showed differential expression patterns along with developmental stages of worm. Bacterially expressed recombinant PwCPs (rPwCPs) exhibited variable sensitivity of 38.4-84.5% and specificity of 87.2-100% in diagnosing homologous infection. rPwCPs recognized specific antibodies of experimental cat sera as early as 3 or 6weeks after infection. Patient sera of fascioliasis, Schistosomiasis japonicum and clonorchiasis demonstrated weak cross-reactions. Our results demonstrate that diverse PwCPs of the cathepsin F family participate in inducing specific antibody responses. Most P. westermani cathepsin F, except for PwCP2 (AAF21461), which showed negligible antibody responses, might be applicable for paragonimiasis serodiagnosis.

  5. Activity of cathepsins in rat's spleen due to experimentally induced pancreatitis. (United States)

    Maciejewski, R; Burdan, F; Madej, B; Kiś, G; Szkodziak, P; Burski, K

    The aim of this study was to establish and quantify the changes of the level of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen during experimental pancreatitis. The experiment was carried out in 115 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into three groups: intact (n = 15), injected with 0.9% NaCl solution into the common bile pancreatic duct (n = 50) and injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into this duct to induce acute pancreatitis (n = 50). After 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours rats were anaesthetised, and blood was taken for amylase determination from the heart, and the spleen was removed. Alpha-amylase level in the blood serum samples was measured by enzymatic method. Cathepsin activity was established by spectrophotometric methods using substrates which form coloured complexes when they react with these proteases. The specific free fraction activity of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen changed during the course of experiment, but there was no correlation between their activity and the intensity of pancreatitis established by serum amylase level.

  6. A homologue of cathepsin L identified in conditioned medium from Sf9 insect cells. (United States)

    Lindskog, Eva; Svensson, Ingrid; Häggström, Lena


    Gelatin zymography revealed the presence of proteolytic activity in conditioned medium (CM) from a serum-free, non-infected Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 insect cell culture. Two peptidase bands at about 49 and 39 kDa were detected and found to be proform and active form of the same enzyme. The 49-kDa form was visible on zymogram gels in samples of CM taken on days 4 and 5 of an Sf9 culture, while the 39-kDa form was seen on days 6 and 7. On basis of the inhibitor profile and substrate range, the enzyme was identified as an Sf9 homologue of cathepsin L, a papain-like cysteine peptidase. After lowering the pH of Sf9 CM to 3.5, an additional peptidase band at 22 kDa appeared. This peptidase showed the same inhibitor profile, substrate range and optimum pH (5.0) as the 39-kDa form, indicating that Sf9 cathepsin L has two active forms, at 39 and 22 kDa. Addition of the cysteine peptidase inhibitor E-64c to an Sf9 culture inhibited all proteolytic activities of Sf9 cathepsin L but did not influence the proliferation of Sf9 cells.

  7. Antifibrotic effects of curcumin are associated with overexpression of cathepsins K and L in bleomycin treated mice and human fibroblasts

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    Zhang Dongwei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and the deposition of collagens. Curcumin, a polyphenol antioxidant from the spice tumeric, has been shown to effectively counteract fibroblast proliferation and reducing inflammation and fibrotic progression in animal models of bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, there is little mechanistic insight in the biological activity of curcumin. Here, we study the effects of curcumin on the expression and activity of cathepsins which have been implicated in the development of fibrotic lung diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of curcumin administration to bleomycin stimulated C57BL/6 mice and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 on the expression of cathepsins K and L which have been implicated in matrix degradation, TGF-β1 modulation, and apoptosis. Lung tissues were evaluated for their contents of cathepsins K and L, collagen, and TGF-β1. HFL-1 cells were used to investigate the effects of curcumin and cathepsin inhibition on cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and the expression of cathepsins K and L and TGF-β1. Results Collagen deposition in lungs was decreased by 17-28% after curcumin treatment which was accompanied by increased expression levels of cathepsins L (25%-39% and K (41%-76% and a 30% decrease in TGF-β1 expression. Moreover, Tunel staining of lung tissue revealed a 33-41% increase in apoptotic cells after curcumin treatment. These in vivo data correlated well with data obtained from the human fibroblast line, HFL-1. Here, cathepsin K and L expression increased 190% and 240%, respectively, in the presence of curcumin and the expression of TGF-β1 decreased by 34%. Furthermore, curcumin significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration and increased the expression of surrogate markers of apoptosis. In contrast, these curcumin effects were partly reversed by a potent cathepsin inhibitor. Conclusion This study demonstrates that

  8. Neutrophil Cathepsin G, but Not Elastase, Induces Aggregation of MCF-7 Mammary Carcinoma Cells by a Protease Activity-Dependent Cell-Oriented Mechanism

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    Satoru Yui


    Full Text Available We previously found that a neutrophil serine protease, cathepsin G, weakens adherence to culture substrates and induces E-cadherin-dependent aggregation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through its protease activity. In this study, we examined whether aggregation is caused by degradation of adhesion molecules on the culture substrates or through an unidentified mechanism. We compared the effect of treatment with cathepsin G and other proteases, including neutrophil elastase against fibronectin- (FN- coated substrates. Cathepsin G and elastase potently degraded FN on the substrates and induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells that had been subsequently seeded onto the substrate. However, substrate-bound cathepsin G and elastase may have caused cell aggregation. After inhibiting the proteases on the culture substrates using the irreversible inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, we examined whether aggregation of MCF-7 cells was suppressed. PMSF attenuated cell aggregation on cathepsin G-treated substrates, but the effect was weak in cells pretreated with high concentrations of cathepsin G. In contrast, PMSF did not suppress cell aggregation on elastase-treated FN. Moreover, cathepsin G, but not elastase, induced aggregation on poly-L-lysine substrates which are not decomposed by these enzymes, and the action of cathepsin G was nearly completely attenuated by PMSF. These results suggest that cathepsin G induces MCF-7 aggregation through a cell-oriented mechanism.

  9. Structural Basis for Reversible and Irreversible Inhibition of Human Cathepsin L by their Respective dipeptidyl glyoxal and diazomethylketone Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Shenoy; J Sivaraman


    Cathepsin L plays a key role in many pathophysiological conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, tumor invasion and metastasis, bone resorption and remodeling. Here we report the crystal structures of two analogous dipeptidyl inhibitor complexes which inhibit human cathepsin L in reversible and irreversible modes, respectively. To-date, there are no crystal structure reports of complexes of proteases with their glyoxal inhibitors or complexes of cathepsin L and their diazomethylketone inhibitors. These two inhibitors - inhibitor 1, an {alpha}-keto-{beta}-aldehyde and inhibitor 2, a diazomethylketone, have different groups in the S1 subsite. Inhibitor 1 [Z-Phe-Tyr (OBut)-COCHO], with a Ki of 0.6 nM, is the most potent, reversible, synthetic peptidyl inhibitor of cathepsin L reported to-date. The structure of the inhibitor 1 complex was refined up to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the complex of the inhibitor 2 [Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-diazomethylketone], an irreversible inhibitor that can inactivate cathepsin L at {micro}M concentrations, was refined up to 1.76 {angstrom} resolution. These two inhibitors have substrate-like interactions with the active site cysteine (Cys25). Inhibitor 1 forms a tetrahedral hemithioacetal adduct, whereas the inhibitor 2 forms a thioester with Cys25. The inhibitor 1 {beta}-aldehyde group is shown to make a hydrogen bond with catalytic His163, whereas the ketone carbonyl oxygen of the inhibitor 2 interacts with the oxyanion hole. tert-Butyl groups of both inhibitors are found to make several non-polar contacts with S' subsite residues of cathepsin L. These studies, combined with other complex structures of cathepsin L, reveal the structural basis for their potency and selectivity.

  10. In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Cathepsin and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity Discriminates between Arthritic and Osteoarthritic Processes in Mice

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    Eline A. Vermeij


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA are serologically and clinically distinctive, but at the local level, both diseases have many molecular pathways in common. In vivo molecular imaging can unravel the local pathologic processes involved in both diseases. In this study, we investigated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and cathepsin activity during cartilage destruction, in an RA and an OA mouse model, using biophotonic imaging of substrate-based probes. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA or destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM were imaged using near-infrared fluorescent probes, activated by several cathepsins or MMPs. Fluorescence signal intensity was compared to synovial gene expression, histology, and cartilage staining of a neoepitope of aggrecan cleaved by MMPs with the amino acids DIPEN. Increased cathepsin and MMP activity was seen during CIA, whereas the DMM model only showed increased MMP activity. DIPEN expression was seen only during CIA. A possible explanation can be differences in gene expressions; MMP3 and -13, known to produce DIPEN neoepitopes, were upregulated in the CIA model, whereas MMP12, known to be involved in elastin degradation and chemokine inhibition, was upregulated in the DMM model. Thus, molecular imaging showed no cathepsin activity at the time of cartilage damage in the DMM model, whereas both cathepsins and MMPs are active in the CIA model during disease progression.

  11. Cathepsin K inhibition reduces CTXII levels and joint pain in the guinea pig model of spontaneous osteoarthritis. (United States)

    McDougall, J J; Schuelert, N; Bowyer, J


    Cathepsin K is a cysteine proteinase which is believed to contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. This brief report evaluates the effect of the novel selective cathepsin K inhibitor AZ12606133 on cartilage metabolism in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pig model of spontaneous OA. In parallel, electrophysiological studies were performed to determine whether acute and chronic treatment with the cathepsin K inhibitor could alter joint nociception. Acute treatment of OA knees with AZ12606133 had no effect on joint afferent nerve activity; however, prolonged (1 month) administration of the cathepsin K inhibitor delivered via a chronically implanted osmotic pump significantly reduced mechanosensitivity in response to both non-noxious and noxious joint movements. Urinal concentrations of the cartilage breakdown products cross-linked C-telopeptides of type II collagen (CTXII) were also reduced by chronic cathepsin K inhibition. These data suggest that prolonged AZ12606133 administration can reduce cartilage turnover and joint nociception in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pig model of spontaneous OA.

  12. In vitro killing of oral Capnocytophaga by granule fractions of human neutrophils is associated with cathepsin G activity. (United States)

    Miyasaki, K T; Bodeau, A L


    The Capnocytophaga are inhabitants of the hypoxic human gingival crevice that are normally prevented by neutrophils from causing periodontal and systemic infection. To identify potential nonoxidative bactericidal mechanisms against Capnocytophaga within human neutrophils, gel filtration chromatography was used to fractionate neutrophil granule extracts. Seven granule fractions, designated A through G, were obtained. The Capnocytophaga were most sensitive to killing by fraction D. Fraction D exhibited substantial bactericidal activity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The bactericidal activity associated with ion-exchange subfractions D8-D11, which contained primarily cathepsin G as assessed by enzymatic activity, amino acid composition, and NH2-terminal sequence. Heat-inactivation, diisopropylfluorophosphate, PMSF, and N-benzyloxycarbonylglycylleucylphenylalanyl-chloromethyl ketone inhibited bactericidal activity against Capnocytophaga sputigena but not Escherichia coli. We conclude that (a) human neutrophil cathepsin G is an important antimicrobial system against the Capnocytophaga, (b) the bactericidal activity of cathepsin G against Capnocytophaga is oxygen independent, and (c) an intact enzyme active site is involved in the killing of C. sputigena but not E. coli. We suggest that human neutrophil cathepsin G is an important antimicrobial system against certain oral bacteria and that cathepsin G kills bacteria by two distinct mechanisms.

  13. Cathepsin D Expression in Colorectal Cancer: From Proteomic Discovery through Validation Using Western Blotting, Immunohistochemistry, and Tissue Microarrays

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    Chandra Kirana


    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in surgical techniques and therapeutic treatments, survival from colorectal cancer (CRC remains disappointing with some 40–50% of newly diagnosed patients ultimately dying of metastatic disease. Current staging by light microscopy alone is not sufficiently predictive of prognosis and would benefit from additional support from biomarkers in order to stratify patients appropriately for adjuvant therapy. We have identified that cathepsin D expression was significantly greater in cells from invasive front (IF area and liver metastasis (LM than those from main tumour body (MTB. Cathepsin D expression was subsequently examined by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 119 patients with CRC. Strong expression in tumour cells at the IF did not correlate significantly with any clinico-pathological parameters examined or patient survival. However, cathepsin D expression in cells from the MTB was highly elevated in late stage CRC and showed significant correlation with subsequent distant metastasis and shorter cancer-specific survival. We also found that macrophages surrounding tumour cells stained strongly for cathepsin D but there was no significant correlation found between cathepsin D in macrophages at IF and MTB of CRC patient with the clinic-pathological parameters examined.

  14. Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Xingan; Meng, Qianqian; Wang, Peidan; Shu, Benshui; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua


    Azadirachtin as a kind of botanical insecticide has been widely used in pest control. We previously reported that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis of Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1, which involves in the up-regulation of P53 protein. However, the detailed mechanism of azadirachtin-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood in insect cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of lysosome and lysosomal protease in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. The result confirmed that azadirachtin indeed inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. The lysosomes were divided into different types as time-dependent manner, which suggested that changes of lysosomes were necessarily physiological processes in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Interestingly, we noticed that azadirachtin could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L releasing to cytosol. Z-FF-FMK (a cathepsin L inhibitor), but not CA-074me (a cathepsin B inhibitor), could effectively hinder the apoptosis induced by azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 could also be inactivated by the inhibition of cathepsin L enzymatic activity induced by Z-FF-FMK. Taken together, our findings suggest that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells in a lysosomal pathway, and cathepsin L plays a pro-apoptosis role in this process through releasing to cytosol and activating caspase-3.

  15. Circulating cathepsin-S levels correlate with GFR decline and sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels in mice and humans (United States)

    Steubl, Dominik; Kumar, Santhosh V.; Tato, Maia; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Larsson, Anders; Lind, Lars; Risérus, Ulf; Renders, Lutz; Heemann, Uwe; Carlsson, Axel C.; Ärnlöv, Johan; Anders, Hans-Joachim


    Cardiovascular complications determine morbidity/mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that progressive CKD drives the release of cathepsin-S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that promotes endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. Therefore, Cat-S, soluble tumor-necrosis-factor receptor (sTNFR) 1/2 and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured in a CKD mouse model, a German CKD-cohort (MCKD, n = 421) and two Swedish community-based cohorts (ULSAM, n = 764 and PIVUS, n = 804). Association between Cat-S and sTNFR1/2/GFR was assessed using multivariable linear regression. In the mouse model, Cat-S and sTNFR1/2 concentrations were increased following the progressive decline of GFR, showing a strong correlation between Cat-S and GFR (r = −0.746, p < 0.001) and Cat-S and sTNFR1/sTNFR2 (r = 0.837/0.916, p < 0.001, respectively). In the human cohorts, an increase of one standard deviation of estimated GFR was associated with a decrease of 1.008 ng/ml (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) −1.576–(−0.439), p < 0.001) in Cat-S levels in MCKD; in ULSAM and PIVUS, results were similar. In all three cohorts, Cat-S and sTNFR1/sTNFR2 levels were associated in multivariable linear regression (p < 0.001). In conclusion, as GFR declines Cat-S and markers of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction increase. The present data indicating that Cat-S activity increases with CKD progression suggest that Cat-S might be a therapeutic target to prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD. PMID:28240259

  16. An activity of caspase-3 and cathepsin D at the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

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    Наталія Романівна Сохор


    Full Text Available Aim of research – To define the dynamics of activity of caspase-3, cathepsin D, apoptosis of leukocytes at the different subtypes of ischemic stroke (IS in an acute period.Methods. There were examined 232 patients in an acute period of ІS: 56 (24,1%- with hemodynamic (HDS, 62 (2,.7% – with atherothrombotic (АТS, 60 (25,9% – with cardioembolic (CЕS і 54 (23,3% – with lacunar stroke (LS. There was defined the number of leukocytes at the stage of apoptosis (ANV+-cells, necrosis (PI+-cells, with an increased content of the active forms of oxygen (AFO+-cells and with lowered mitochondrial potential (Mito+-cells, activity of caspase-3 and cathepsin D.Results. It was established that at all subtypes of IS mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and necrosis of leukocytes are observed on the 1st day it were presented in increase of content of  ANV+-, PI+-, АFO+- and Mito+-cells and were the mostly apparent at ATS.   The highest activity of caspase-3 on the 1st day was noticed at LS it did not correlate with a number of cells at the stage of apoptosis and probably was connected with a predominant impact of caspase-3 on endothelium and with hyperpermeability of hematoencephalic barrier. In patients with ATS an activity of cathepsin D increased during the 1st week of disease that can indicate an activation of lysosomal way of activation of apoptosis that courses parallel to an apoptosis connected with mitochondrial dysfunction.Conclusions.  The different ways of apoptotic cellular death that depends on subtype of stroke activate in an acute period of IS

  17. Inhibition of cathepsin B by E-64 induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite.

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    Mohit Wadhawan

    Full Text Available Current available antifilarial drug strategies only eliminate the larval stages of filarial parasites. Therefore, there is an urgent need of drugs which are macrofilaricidals. Identification of molecular targets crucial for survival of parasite is a prerequisite for drug designing. Cathepsin B, a cysteine protease family member is known to play crucial role in the normal growth, digestion of nutrients, exsheathment of the helminth parasites. Therefore, we targeted this enzyme in the filarial parasite using its specific inhibitor, E-64.We have exposed the parasites to E-64 and observed their motility and viability at various time intervals. It caused marked decrease in the motility and viability of the parasites ultimately leading to their death after 8 hours. It is well known that E-64 protects the cell from apoptosis, however, it causes apoptotic effect in carcinoma cell lines. To understand the mechanism of action of E-64 on parasite survival, we have measured levels of different apoptotic markers in the treated parasites. E-64 significantly reduced the level of ced-9 and activity of tyrosine phosphatases, cytochrome c oxidase. It also activated ced-3, homolog of mammalian caspase 3 suggesting initiation of an apoptotic like event in the filarial parasites. Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated to further explore the mechanism behind the death of the parasites. There was marked decrease in the level of GSH and activity of Glutathione reductase and glutathione-s-transferase leading to increased generation of reactive oxygen species. This led to the induced oxidation of fatty acids and protein which might alter the mitochondrial membrane permeability.This study suggests that inhibition of cathepsin B by E-64 generates oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial mediated apoptotic like event in filarial parasites leading to their death. Hence, suggesting filarial cathepsin B as a potential chemotherapeutic target for lymphatic

  18. EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI PARSIAL EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM KATEPSIN DARI IKAN PATIN [Extraction and Partial Characterization of Crude Enzymes Cathepsin from Catfish

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    Muhammad Zakiyul Fikri*


    Full Text Available Decomposition of protein by enzymatic process will lead to changes in odor, texture, and appearance of fish. The enzymes that play a role in the enzymatic process is primarily proteolytic enzymes. Cathepsin is one of the proteolytic enzymes found in animal tissue that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of proteins. This study aims to extract the cathepsin, characterize the crude extract derived from catfish. The stages of this research consist of the extraction and characterization of the cathepsin from catfish. Result of the extraction was crude extract of cathepsin with activity of 0.278 U/mL. The enzyme had optimum temperature of 50°C, pH 6 and substrate concentration of 2%. The activity of the cathepsin was inhibited by metal ions of Fe3+, Cu2+, Ca2+, but increased by metal ions of Mg2+.

  19. Purification and partial characterisation of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) and its tissue distribution in body wall. (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Yong; Chang, Xian-Na; Bao, Sha-Sha; Song, Liang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Zong, Yuan; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Yu-Xin; Murata, Yoshiyuki


    A cathepsin L-like proteinase (CLP) with molecular weight of 30.9 kDa from the gut of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas, S. japonicus) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by several chromatographic procedures. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 50 °C, and showed thermostability up to 40 °C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by Zn(2+), strongly inhibited by Fe(2+) and Cu(2+), drastically reduced by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, but slightly enhanced by thiol-activating agents. The enzyme efficiently hydrolysed the specific substrate of cathepsin L, but hardly hydrolysed the specific substrates for cathepsin B, cathepsin H and cathepsin K. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the CLP was more abundant in the epidermis rather than in the dermis of S. japonicus body wall. The distribution of CLP showed positive correlation with autolysis rate. Therefore, the relationship between CLP and autolysis deserved further study.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅兰; 林晓


    Objective: To investigate cathepsin B(CB) expression in colorectal carcinoma and its relationship with microvessel density (MVD) and biological behavior. Methods: CB and MVD were detected by immunohistochemistry in 47 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Results: The expression of CB in mucinous colorectal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in no-mucinous colorectal carcinoma. There was significant difference (P<0.05). The MVD in group with positive CB was stronger than that in group with negative CB. There was also significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that CB expression has correlation with MVD, invasion and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma, especially in mucinous colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and cathepsin K contribute differently to osteoclastic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Andersen, Thomas L; Engsig, Michael T;


    is based on a model of osteoclast recruitment in primitive long bones, an assay of osteoclast invasion through collagen gel, and the effect of proteinase inhibitors/knockouts in these models. Furthermore, we mention observations indicating a role of MMPs in initiation of bone resorption. Finally, we......The best established proteolytic event of osteoclasts is bone matrix solubilization by the cysteine proteinase cathepsin K. Here, however, we draw the attention on osteoclastic activities depending on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We discuss the observations supporting that MMPs contribute...

  2. Overexpression of cathepsin f, matrix metalloproteinases 11 and 12 in cervical cancer

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    Mendoza Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. CC progression shows a continuum of neoplastic transitions until invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and cathepsins play a central role on the enhancement of tumor-induced angiogenesis, cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and connective tissue degradation. MMPs -2 and -9 expression has been widely studied in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, no other metalloproteinases or cathepsins have been yet related with the progression and/or invasion of this type of cancer. Methods Three HPV18 CC cell lines, two HPV16 CC cell lines and three HPV16 tumor CC tissues were compared with three morphologically normal, HPV negative, cervical specimens by cDNA arrays. Overexpression of selected genes was confirmed by end point semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR with densitometry. In situ hybridization and protein expression of selected genes was further studied by means of two tissue microarrays, one consisting of 10 HSIL and 15 CC and the other one of 15 normal cervical and 10 LSIL tissues. Results TIMP1, Integrins alpha 1 and 4, cadherin 2 and 11, Cathepsins F, B L2, MMP 9, 10 11 and 12 were upregulated and Cathepsin S, L, H and C, Cadherins 3 and 4, TIMP3, MMP 13, Elastase 2 and Integrin beta 8 were found to be downregulated by cDNA arrays. Endpoint RT-PCR with densitometry gave consistent results with the cDNA array findings for all three genes selected for study (CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12. In situ hybridization of all three genes confirmed overexpression in all the HSIL and CC. Two of the selected proteins were detected in LSIL, HSIL and CC by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Novel undetected CC promoting genes have been identified. Increased transcription of these genes may result in overexpression of proteins, such as CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12 which could contribute to the pathogenesis

  3. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang


    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  4. Pyrazole-based cathepsin S inhibitors with arylalkynes as P1 binding elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameriks, Michael K.; Axe, Frank U.; Bembenek, Scott D.; Edwards, James P.; Gu, Yin; Karlsson, Lars; Randal, Mike; Sun, Siquan; Thurmond, Robin L.; Zhu, Jian; (J& J-PRD); (Sunesis)


    A crystal structure of 1 bound to a Cys25Ser mutant of cathepsin S helped to elucidate the binding mode of a previously disclosed series of pyrazole-based CatS inhibitors and facilitated the design of a new class of arylalkyne analogs. Optimization of the alkyne and tetrahydropyridine portions of the pharmacophore provided potent CatS inhibitors (IC{sub 50} = 40-300 nM), and an X-ray structure of 32 revealed that the arylalkyne moiety binds in the S1 pocket of the enzyme.

  5. Displacement of the occluding loop by the parasite protein, chagasin, results in efficient inhibition of human cathepsin B. (United States)

    Redzynia, Izabela; Ljunggren, Anna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Mort, John S; Krupa, Joanne C; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz


    Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. Kinetic analysis revealed that substitution of His-110e, which anchors the loop in occluding position, results in 3-fold increased chagasin affinity (Ki for H110A cathepsin B, 0.35 nm) due to an improved association rate (kon, 5 x 10(5) m(-1)s(-1)). The structure of chagasin in complex with cathepsin B was solved in two crystal forms (1.8 and 2.67 angstroms resolution), demonstrating that the occluding loop is displaced to allow chagasin binding with its three loops, L4, L2, and L6, spanning the entire active site cleft. The occluding loop is differently displaced in the two structures, indicating a large range of movement and adoption of conformations forced by the inhibitor. The area of contact is slightly larger than in chagasin complexes with the endopeptidase, cathepsin L. However, residues important for high affinity to both enzymes are mainly found in the outer loops L4 and L6 of chagasin. The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the parasite cysteine protease and a virulence factor in Chagas disease.

  6. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

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    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  7. Cathepsin L in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides: molecular cloning and gene expression after a Vibrio anguillarum challenge. (United States)

    Liang, Jing-Zhen; Rao, Ying-Zhu; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Yang, Ting-Bao


    The orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is an important fish maricultured in many Asian countries. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of cathepsin L, an immunity related gene of fishes, was isolated from E. coioides using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It is 1,443 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,011 bp. The open reading frame encoded a preproprotein of 336 amino acids (aa), which consisted of a signal peptide of 16 aa, a proregion peptide of 98 aa and a mature peptide of 222 aa. The preproprotein contained an oxyanion hole (Gln), a catalytic triad formed by Cys, His and Asn, and the conserved ERWNIN, GNFD and GCNGG motifs, all characteristic of cathepsin L. Homology analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of E. coioides cathepsin L shared 80.1-94.8 % identity with those of reported fishes. Tissue-dependent mRNA expression analysis showed that the cathepsin L transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues of the healthy E. coioides, being highest in the liver and moderate in the heart, gonad and intestine. After Vibrio anguillarum stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin L in E. coioides was significantly increased in the skin, fin, gills, liver, blood, spleen, head kidney and intestine, with the highest observed in the spleen (10.6-fold) at 12 h post-injection and the next in blood (7.5-fold) at 8 h post-injection. These results provided initial information for further studies on the physiological and immunological roles of the cathepsin L gene in the orange-spotted grouper.

  8. Desferrioxamine (DFO) Reduces the Expression of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D in Rats Earlier Injured Brain of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage%去铁敏干预蛛网膜下腔出血后溶酶体组织蛋白酶表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾阳; 虞正权; 陈罡; 陈传新; 刘泽昊


    目的:探讨大鼠蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH,Subarachnoid Hemorrhage)早期脑损伤中溶酶体组织蛋白酶B(CathepsinB)、溶酶体组织蛋白酶D(Cathepsin D)的表达变化及去铁敏(DFO)对其的影响.方法:将24只SD大鼠随机分为四组:正常对照组(6只),SAH模型组(6只),安慰剂组(6只),DFO药物组(6只),视交叉前池注血法(APC)制作大鼠SAH模型,免疫组化分别检测CathepsinD、CathepsinB的蛋白表达,干湿法测定48 h脑含水量.结果:与正常组比较,SAH模型组大鼠48 h后CathepsinD、Cathepsin B的蛋白表达明显增强,水肿指数增高,DFO药物组大鼠48h后Cathepsin D、Cathepsin B的蛋白表达较SAH组明显减低,水肿指数减低.结论:Cathepsin D、Cathepsin B在大鼠蛛网膜下腔出血后表达增强,DFO能减少其表达并对早期脑损伤有保护作用,溶酶体可能参与了蛛网膜下腔出血早期脑损伤的过程,稳定溶酶体膜,减少Cathepsin B/D的释放可能为SAH后早期脑损伤提供新的治疗途径.%Objective: To study the expression of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D in rats early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage and the effect of desferrioxamine (DFO) on SAH. Methods: 24 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal group (n=6), placebo group (n=6), DFO group (n=6) and SAH group (n=6). SAH group was treated with pre-chiasmatic cistern (APC) autolo-gous blood injection, DFO group were treated with DFO after pre-chiasmatic cistern (APC) autologous blood injection. The expression of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with normal group, the expression level of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D increased significantly in SAH group, rather Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D reduced when treated with DFO. Conclusions: The expression of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D increased after 48 hours of subarachnoid hemorrhage, DFO could inhibit the expression of Cathepsin B and Cathepsin D and relieve early brain injury

  9. Cathepsin S-cleavable, multi-block HPMA copolymers for improved SPECT/CT imaging of pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Wenting; Jia, Yinnong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Brusnahan, Susan K; Garrison, Jered C


    This work continues our efforts to improve the diagnostic and radiotherapeutic effectiveness of nanomedicine platforms by developing approaches to reduce the non-target accumulation of these agents. Herein, we developed multi-block HPMA copolymers with backbones that are susceptible to cleavage by cathepsin S, a protease that is abundantly expressed in tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Specifically, a bis-thiol terminated HPMA telechelic copolymer containing 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Three maleimide modified linkers with different sequences, including cathepsin S degradable oligopeptide, scramble oligopeptide and oligo ethylene glycol, were subsequently synthesized and used for the extension of the HPMA copolymers by thiol-maleimide click chemistry. All multi-block HPMA copolymers could be labeled by (177)Lu with high labeling efficiency and exhibited high serum stability. In vitro cleavage studies demonstrated highly selective and efficient cathepsin S mediated cleavage of the cathepsin S-susceptible multi-block HPMA copolymer. A modified multi-block HPMA copolymer series capable of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was utilized to investigate the rate of cleavage of the multi-block HPMA copolymers in monocyte-derived macrophages. Confocal imaging and flow cytometry studies revealed substantially higher rates of cleavage for the multi-block HPMA copolymers containing the cathepsin S-susceptible linker. The efficacy of the cathepsin S-cleavable multi-block HPMA copolymer was further examined using an in vivo model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Based on the biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies, the copolymer extended with the cathepsin S susceptible linker exhibited significantly faster clearance and lower non-target retention without compromising tumor targeting. Overall, these results indicate that

  10. Cathepsin D (C224T) polymorphism in sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Ströbel, Thomas; Schuur, Maaike; Poleggi, Anna; Nocentini, Sara; Giannattasio, Claudia; Belay, Girma; Bishop, Matthew; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Gelpi, Ellen; Gal, Aniko; Bakos, Agnes; Molnar, Maria J; Heinemann, Uta; Zerr, Inga; Knight, Richard S G; Mitrova, Eva; van Duijn, Cornelia; Budka, Herbert


    Accumulation of cathepsin D immunoreactive lysosomes correlates with tissue pathology in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) brains. The C-to-T transition within exon 2 of the cathepsin D (CTSD) gene is associated with altered enzymatic activity. Possession of the TT genotype is a risk factor for variant CJD. To verify the association between the CTSD position 224T allele and the risk for and survival in sporadic and genetic CJD, we genotyped 540 sporadic, 101 genetic CJD, and 723 control individuals. Genotype data and duration of illness were compared using multiple logistic regression and Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox's regression model. The distribution of CTSD position 224 alleles was approximately the same in all groups. We observed a trend for shorter survival in sporadic CJD patients harboring the T allele at position 224 of the CTSD gene in particular in sporadic CJD patients with the prion protein gene position 129 MM genotype. We conclude that the CTSD position 224 polymorphism alone is not a significant risk or disease-modifying factor in sporadic or genetic CJD.

  11. Crystallographic, DFT and docking (cathepsin B) studies on an organotellurium(IV) compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracelli, Ignez; Maganhi, Stella H. [Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil). BioMat; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Sousa Madureira, Lucas [Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil). Lab. de Cristalografia, Estereodinamica e Modelagem Molecular; Stefani, Helio A. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Guadagnin, Rafael C. [Univ. Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema (Brazil). Inst. e Ciencias Mabientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Tiekink, Edward R.T. [Sunway Univ., Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia). Centre for Crystalline Materials


    Some biologically active organotellurium compounds exhibit inhibitory potency against cathepsin B. In this study, an alkyl derivative, viz. [CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}C(I)=C(H)](nBu)TeI{sub 2}, 1, has been structurally characterised by X-ray crystallography and shown to be coordinated within a C{sub 2}I{sub 2} donor set. When the stereochemically active lone pair of electrons is taken into account, a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry results with the iodide atoms in axial positions. Both intra- and inter-molecular Te..I interactions are also noted. If all interactions are considered, the coordination geometry is based on a Ψ-pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. An unusual feature of the structure is the curving of the functionalised C{sub 5} chain. This feature has been explored by DFT methods and shown to arise as a result of close C-H..I interactions. A docking study (cathepsin B) was performed to understand the inhibition mechanism and to compare the new results with previous observations. Notably, 1 has the same pose exhibited by analogous biologically active compounds with aryl groups. Thus, the present study suggests that (alkyl){sub 2}TeX{sub 2} compounds should also be evaluated for biological activity.

  12. Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas


    Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

  13. Safety and efficacy of the cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the OCEAN study. (United States)

    Eastell, Richard; Nagase, Shinichi; Ohyama, Michiyo; Small, Maria; Sawyer, James; Boonen, Steven; Spector, Tim; Kuwayama, Tomohiro; Deacon, Steve


    Osteoporosis occurs when there is an imbalance between resorption and formation of bone, with resorption predominating. Inhibitors of cathepsin K may rebalance this condition. This is the first efficacy study of a new cathepsin K inhibitor, ONO-5334. The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ONO-5334 in postmenopausal osteoporosis. This was a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled parallel-group study conducted in 13 centers in 6 European countries. Subjects included 285 postmenopausal women aged 55 to 75 years with osteoporosis. Subjects were randomized into one of five treatment arms: placebo; 50 mg twice daily, 100 mg once daily, or 300 mg once daily of ONO-5334; or alendronate 70 mg once weekly. Lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD values were obtained along with biochemical markers of bone turnover and standard safety assessments. All ONO-5334 doses and alendronate showed a significant increase in BMD for lumbar spine, total hip (except 100 mg once daily), and femoral neck BMD. There was little or no suppression of ONO-5334 on bone-formation markers compared with alendronate, although the suppressive effects on bone-resorption markers were similar. There were no clinically relevant safety concerns. With a significant increase in BMD, ONO-5334 also demonstrated a new mode of action as a potential agent for treating osteoporosis. Further clinical studies are warranted to investigate long-term efficacy as well as safety of ONO-5334.

  14. Efficient inhibition of cathepsin B by a secreted type 1 cystatin of Fasciola gigantica. (United States)

    Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi


    Cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus Fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. While their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. In the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in Fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with FgStefin-1 and human cystatin C, that a second type 1 cystatin of the parasite, FgStefin-2, has been evolutionary adapted to block cathepsin B. The protein, which unusually for a type 1 cystatin carries a signal peptide, is expressed from the metacercarial to adult stage and located in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract in all stages and in the prostate gland cells in adults. Both cell types may contribute to the released FgStefin-2 observed in the ES product of the parasite. Distinct isoforms of cathepsin B are essential for host tissue penetration during the early infection process and FgStefin-2 may act as key regulator, required to protect the minute juvenile from autoproteolysis. Expression in the prostate gland in the adult stage suggests an additional regulative role of cysteine protease activity in the reproductive system.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia pisiformis. (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng


    Rabbit cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, is a serious parasitic disease of rabbits. It was reported that some cysteine peptidases have potential roles in the pathogenesis of various parasitic infections. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and roles in the pathogenesis/host-invasion of cysteine peptidases, a cDNA sequence encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (TpCP) was cloned and identified from the T. pisiformis metacestodes. This sequence was 1220 bp in its length, which included a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding a 339 amino acid peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed a 28.9-88.5% similarity with cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites and mammals. The recombinant TpCP expressed in Escherichia coli did not show the proteolytic activity by zymography gel assay. However, the TpCP expressed in Pichia pastoris had typical biochemical activities that could hydrolyze rabbit immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin and fibronectin. Substrate studies indicated pronounced cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. This activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and immunohistochemistry results also indicated that TpCP was distributed as an intense positive reaction in the bladder wall. Our results gave us insights into future studies of TpCP's roles in the infection.

  16. Unnatural amino acids increase activity and specificity of synthetic substrates for human and malarial cathepsin C. (United States)

    Poreba, Marcin; Mihelic, Marko; Krai, Priscilla; Rajkovic, Jelena; Krezel, Artur; Pawelczak, Malgorzata; Klemba, Michael; Turk, Dusan; Turk, Boris; Latajka, Rafal; Drag, Marcin


    Mammalian cathepsin C is primarily responsible for the removal of N-terminal dipeptides and activation of several serine proteases in inflammatory or immune cells, while its malarial parasite ortholog dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 plays a crucial role in catabolizing the hemoglobin of its host erythrocyte. In this report, we describe the systematic substrate specificity analysis of three cathepsin C orthologs from Homo sapiens (human), Bos taurus (bovine) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria parasite). Here, we present a new approach with a tailored fluorogenic substrate library designed and synthesized to probe the S1 and S2 pocket preferences of these enzymes with both natural and a broad range of unnatural amino acids. Our approach identified very efficiently hydrolyzed substrates containing unnatural amino acids, which resulted in the design of significantly better substrates than those previously known. Additionally, in this study significant differences in terms of the structures of optimal substrates for human and malarial orthologs are important from the therapeutic point of view. These data can be also used for the design of specific inhibitors or activity-based probes.

  17. Cathepsin B-degradable, NIR-responsive nanoparticulate platform for target-specific cancer therapy (United States)

    Tarassoli, Sam P.; Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Alejandra; Pye, Hayley; Mosse, C. Alexander; Callan, John F.; MacRobert, Alexander; McHale, Anthony P.; Nomikou, Nikolitsa


    Stimuli-responsive anticancer formulations can promote drug release and activation within the target tumour, facilitate cellular uptake, as well as improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs and reduce off-target effects. In the present work, indocyanine green (ICG)-containing polyglutamate (PGA) nanoparticles were developed and characterized. Digestion of nanoparticles with cathepsin B, a matrix metalloproteinase overexpressed in the microenvironment of advanced tumours, decreased particle size and increased ICG cellular uptake. Incorporation of ICG in PGA nanoparticles provided the NIR-absorbing agent with time-dependent altered optical properties in the presence of cathepsin B. Having minimal dark toxicity, the formulation exhibited significant cytotoxicity upon NIR exposure. Combined use of the formulation with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, resulted in synergistically enhanced cytotoxicity attributed to the photo-induced release of saporin from endo/lysosomes. The results suggest that this therapeutic approach can offer significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of superficial malignancies, such as head and neck tumours.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterisation of a cathepsin L-like proteinases from the fish kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma carassii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.


    Trypanosoma carassii is a fish kinetoplastid parasite that belongs to the family Trypanosomatida. In the present study we cloned a cathepsin L-like proteinase from T. carassii. The nucleotide sequence of 1371 bp translated into a preproprotein of 456 amino acids. The preproprotein contained the oxya

  19. Construction of a plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein tagged cathepsin L and data on expression in colorectal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tamhane


    Full Text Available The endo-lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L has recently been shown to have moonlighting activities in that its unexpected nuclear localization in colorectal carcinoma cells is involved in cell cycle progression (Tamhane et al., 2015 [1]. Here, we show data on the construction and sequence of a plasmid coding for human cathepsin L tagged with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (phCL-EGFP in which the fluorescent protein is covalently attached to the C-terminus of the protease. The plasmid was used for transfection of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells, while data from non-transfected and pEGFP-N1-transfected cells is also shown. Immunoblotting data of lysates from non-transfected controls and HCT116 cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 and phCL-EGFP, showed stable expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras, while endogenous cathepsin L protein amounts exceed those of hCL-EGFP chimeras. An effect of phCL-EGFP expression on proliferation and metabolic states of HCT116 cells at 24 h post-transfection was observed.

  20. The crystal structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C) in complex with the inhibitor Gly-Phe-CHN2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Anne; Arnau, Jose; Lauritzen, C.


    hDDPI (human dipeptidyl peptidase I) is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in zymogen activation of granule-associated proteases, including granzymes A and B from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells, cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase, and mast cell tryptase and chymase...

  1. Redistribution of cathepsin B activity from the endosomal-lysosomal pathway in chick intestine within 3 min of calcium absorption. (United States)

    Nemere, I; Norman, A W


    Earlier work has suggested that calcium-containing lysosomes are involved in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-stimulated intestinal absorption of the divalent cation. In the present report immunofluorescent labelling studies on fixed frozen sections of chick intestine were undertaken to determine whether lysosomes could respond to calcium transport conditions in less than 5 min. Tissue prepared from vitamin D-deficient chicks dosed with vehicle or 1.3 nmol of 1,25(OH)2D3 15 h prior to use was immunofluorescently labelled for cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease. In the absence of calcium absorption, punctate staining was found in the region below the terminal web, and more diffusely in the cytoplasm. The intensity of staining was noticeably greater in sections from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated than control chicks. In sections prepared after 3 min of calcium absorption, cathepsin B staining was localized near the basal and lateral membranes of the epithelial cells. After 30 min of transport, the protease was found in the villus core regardless of vitamin D status; however, immunoreactivity within the epithelial cells of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chick intestine had returned to pretransport intensity, whereas that of controls had not. To further investigate the specificity of the cathepsin B antibody, the intracellular compartmentalization of the protease was determined by biochemical methods. Using dosing procedures and calcium transport times equivalent to those for the immunofluorescent studies mucosae were collected by scraping, homogenized, and subcellular fractions prepared by a combination of differential and Percoll gradient centrifugation. In the absence of calcium transport, cathepsin B-specific activity was enhanced in whole homogenates, endocytic vesicles, and a lysosomal fraction prepared from intestinal epithelium of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chicks, relative to vitamin D-deficient controls. After 3 min of calcium absorption, a profound (approximately 4-fold) decrease in

  2. The Critical Role of Proteolytic Relay through Cathepsins B and E in the Phenotypic Change of Microglia/Macrophage. (United States)

    Ni, Junjun; Wu, Zhou; Peterts, Christoph; Yamamoto, Kenji; Qing, Hong; Nakanishi, Hiroshi


    Proteinase cascades are part of the basic machinery of neuronal death pathways. Neuronal cathepsin B (CatB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, plays a critical role in neuronal death through lysosomal leakage or excessive autophagy. On the other hand, much attention has been paid to microglial CatB in neuronal death. We herein show the critical role of proteolytic relay through microglial CatB and CatE in the polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype, leading to hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in neonatal mice. HI caused extensive brain injury in neonatal wild-type mice, but not in CatB(-/-) mice. Furthermore, HI-induced polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype followed by the neuroprotective phenotype in wild-type mice. On the other hand, microglia/macrophages exhibited only the early and transient polarization in the neuroprotective phenotype in CatB(-/-) mice. CA-074Me, a specific CatB inhibitor, significantly inhibited the neuronal death of primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced by the conditioned medium from cultured microglia polarized in the neurotoxic phenotype. Furthermore, CA-074Me prevented the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cultured microglia by inhibiting autophagic inhibitor of κBα degradation following exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Rather surprisingly, CatE increased the CatB expression after HI by the liberation of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) from microglia through the proteasomal pathway. A significant increase in CatB and CatE levels was found exclusively in microglia/macrophages after HI. Thus, a proteolytic relay through the early CatE/TRAIL-dependent proteosomal and late CatB-dependent autophagic pathways for NF-κB activation may play a critical role in the polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype. Significance statement: Proteinase cascades are part of the basic

  3. Cathepsin B is involved in the heat shock induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis as well as the anti-apoptosis effect of HSP-70. (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Cheng, Bor-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Hsien


    Cathepsin B is one of the major lysosomal cysteine proteases that plays an important role in apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether Cathepsin B is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by hyperthermic injury (HI) and heat shock protein (HSP)-70 protects these cells from HI-induced apoptosis mediated by Cathepsin. HI was produced in H9C2 cells by putting them in a circulating 43 °C water bath for 120 min, whereas preinduction of HSP-70 was produced in H9C2 cells by mild heat preconditioning (or putting them in 42 °C water bath for 30 min) 8 h before the start of HI. It was found that HI caused both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. E-64-c, in addition to reducing Cathepsin B activity, significantly attenuated HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis (evidenced by increased apoptotic cell numbers, increased tuncated Bid (t-Bid), increased cytochrome C, increased caspase-9/-3, and decreased Bcl-2/Bax) in H9C2 cells. In addition, preinduction of HSP-70 by mild heat preconditioning or inhibition of HSP-70 by Tripolide significantly attenuated or exacerbated respectively both the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of pre-induction of HSP-70 by mild heat production in reducing both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity caused by HI can be significantly reduced by Triptolide preconditioning. These results indicate that Cathepsin B is involved in HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in H9C2 cells and HSP-70 protects these cells from HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through Cathepsin B pathways.

  4. Identification of putative cathepsin S in mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus and its role in antigen presentation. (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Lei; Cai, Zhong-Hua


    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a key enzyme employed in the histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigens, which are presented by processing class II-associated invariant chains and loaded antigen peptides into class II molecules. To date, little is known about the character and function of CTSS in fish. In the present study, we screened and identified a CTSS cDNA sequence from the mangrove red snapper head kidney cDNA library. The full-length CTSS cDNA contained 1339-bp nucleotide acids encoding 337 amino acids. The sequence shared high identity and similarity with other known cathepsins, especially CTSS (about 56-78% and 79-89%, respectively). Like other cathepsins, the deduced peptide consisted of regions with N-terminal signal peptides, propeptides, and mature peptides. A typical ERWNIN motif in L-like cathepsins and three conservative catalytic activity sites forming a catalytic triad active center were respectively identified in the pro-peptide and mature peptide regions of CTSS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mangrove red snapper CTSS was located in the CTSS clade belonging to the L-like cathepsin group, and evolved from the same ancestry. To further characterize the biological activity of the putative CTSS of mangrove snapper, CTSS was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 strains. Like other mammalian CTSS, the recombinant CTSS (rCTSS) had autocatalytic activation properties, can remove pro-peptides, and can release active mature peptides. Active CTSS had the ability to catalyze Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrates in acidic conditions (pH 5.0) and weak alkaline environments (pH 7.5); this activity could be blocked by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. Active CTSS can process recombinant Ii chains (invariant chains) in a stepwise manner in vitro. The results indicate that mangrove red snapper CTSS is a lysosomal cysteine protease family member with a key role in antigen processing in fish.

  5. Excessive activity of cathepsin K is associated with cartilage defects in a zebrafish model of mucolipidosis II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Petrey


    The severe pediatric disorder mucolipidosis II (ML-II; also known as I-cell disease is caused by defects in mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P biosynthesis. Patients with ML-II exhibit multiple developmental defects, including skeletal, craniofacial and joint abnormalities. To date, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these clinical manifestations are poorly understood. Taking advantage of a zebrafish model of ML-II, we previously showed that the cartilage morphogenesis defects in this model are associated with altered chondrocyte differentiation and excessive deposition of type II collagen, indicating that aspects of development that rely on proper extracellular matrix homeostasis are sensitive to decreases in Man-6-P biosynthesis. To further investigate the molecular bases for the cartilage phenotypes, we analyzed the transcript abundance of several genes in chondrocyte-enriched cell populations isolated from wild-type and ML-II zebrafish embryos. Increased levels of cathepsin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP transcripts were noted in ML-II cell populations. This increase in transcript abundance corresponded with elevated and sustained activity of several cathepsins (K, L and S and MMP-13 during early development. Unlike MMP-13, for which higher levels of protein were detected, the sustained activity of cathepsin K at later stages seemed to result from its abnormal processing and activation. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity by pharmacological or genetic means not only reduced the activity of this enzyme but led to a broad reduction in additional protease activity, significant correction of the cartilage morphogenesis phenotype and reduced type II collagen staining in ML-II embryos. Our findings suggest a central role for excessive cathepsin K activity in the developmental aspects of ML-II cartilage pathogenesis and highlight the utility of the zebrafish system to address the biochemical underpinnings of metabolic disease.

  6. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach (United States)

    Ferraro, Florencia; Merlino, Alicia; dell´Oca, Nicolás; Gil, Jorge; Tort, José F.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Cabrera, Mauricio


    Background Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections. Methodology/Principle Findings We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1). Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells. Conclusions/Significance Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34) is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues

  7. Characterization and differential expression of cathepsin L3 alleles from Fasciola hepatica. (United States)

    Zawistowska-Deniziak, A; Wasyl, K; Norbury, L J; Wesołowska, A; Bień, J; Grodzik, M; Wiśniewski, M; Bąska, P; Wędrychowicz, H


    Fasciola hepatica infections cause significant global problems in veterinary and human medicine, including causing huge losses in cattle and sheep production. F. hepatica host infection is a multistage process and flukes express papain-like cysteine proteases, termed cathepsins, which play pivotal roles in virulence through host entry, tissue migration and immune evasion. Expression of these proteases is developmentally regulated. Recent studies indicate that excystment of infective larvae is dependent on cysteine proteases and together FhCL3 and FhCB account for over 80% of total protease activity detectable in newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke. This paper focuses on members of the cathepsin L gene family, specifically those belonging to the CL3 clade. The cDNA of two novel cathepsin L3 proteases--FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 were cloned. The mRNA transcript expression levels for these enzymes were significantly different at various time points in life development stages obtained in vitro, from dormant metacercariae to NEJ 24h after excystment. Maximum expression levels were observed in NEJ immediately after excystment. In all stages examined by Real Time PCR, FhCL3-2 was expressed at a higher level compared to FhCL3-1 which was expressed only at very low levels. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis also indicated higher expression of the FhCL3-2 allele and its secretory nature. The ability of antibody responses from rats and sheep challenged with F. hepatica to recognize recombinant FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 was shown to differ. Differences were also confirmed through the use of anti-rFhCL3-1 and anti-rFhCL3-2 sera in Western blot analysis of juvenile excretory/secretory (ES) material separated by 2D electrophoresis. These results indicate analysis of relative expression of parasite virulence factors from different populations is required, as this will likely impact the effectiveness of vaccines based on these antigens.

  8. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Ferraro


    Full Text Available Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections.We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1. Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells.Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34 is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues for the development of novel agents to control

  9. Radiation Induces Cathepsin S through ROS-IFN-{gamma} Pathways: Involvement of Cellular Radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Haeng Ran; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ionizing radiation can elicit an activated phenotype that promotes rapid and persistent remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the induction of proteases and growth factors, as well as in response to chronic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the results of previously conducted cDNA microarrays and real-time RT-PCR analysis (unpublished) suggest that radiation-induced mammary tumors were specifically induced by cathepsin S (CTSS), but that dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors were not. CTSS is a lysosomal cystein protease that is synthesized as an inactive precursor (36kDa) and activated in the acidic environment of lysosomes by proteolytic cleavage of its propeptide. In this study, we further investigate the mechanism by which CTSS is induced by radiation as well as its function.

  10. Human macrophage foam cells degrade atherosclerotic plaques through cathepsin K mediated processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Register, Thomas C


    BACKGROUND: Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture.The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular......-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. Circulating levels of CTX-I were not significantly different in women...... with aortic calcifications compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution...

  11. Cathepsin B基因的沉默对香蕉穿孔线虫繁殖力的影响%RNAi Effect of Cathepsin B Gene on Reproduction of Radopholus Similis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 谢辉; 徐春玲; 李丹蕾; 张超


    [目的]通过研究cathepsin B基因对香蕉穿孔线虫(Radopholus similis)繁殖力的影响,探索cathepsin B基因的功能,为利用该基因防治香蕉穿孔线虫和植物寄生线虫组织蛋白酶的进一步研究提供科学依据.[方法]根据已知香蕉穿孔线虫cathepsin B基因(Rs-cb-1)的序列,从香蕉穿孔线虫克隆cathepsin B基因,以含有目的基因的质粒DNA为模板合成特异的双链RNA(dsRNA),采用dsRNA浸泡的方法对香蕉穿孔线虫进行RNA干扰(RNAi)试验,通过室内接种胡萝卜愈伤组织繁殖线虫的方法,研究cathepsin B基因的沉默效应对香蕉穿孔线虫繁殖力的影响.[结果]用Rs-cb-1 dsRNA浸泡12、24,48,72 h后香蕉穿孔线虫的平均繁殖倍数分别为165、93,54、53,而未经dsRNA处理的该线虫繁殖倍数均大于420;并且 Rs-cb-1dsRNA浸泡的时间不同,对应各处理之间的繁殖倍数差异显著.RT-PCR检测,经Rs-cb-1 dsRNA浸泡12 h后,目的基因在香蕉穿孔线虫的表达量明显减弱,浸泡24 h后其表达量进一步减弱,但还有微量表达,经dsRNA浸泡48、72 h后目的基因基本不表达. [结论]Rs-cb-1与香蕉穿孔线虫的繁殖力相关;Rs-cb-1 dsRNA的浸泡可以明显抑制cathepsin B基因的表达量,从而影响香蕉穿孔线虫的繁殖力,但浸泡时间不同Rs-cb-1的沉默效率也不同,沉默效率最好的干涉时间是48 h.

  12. Schistosome asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) is not essential for cathepsin B1 activation in vivo. (United States)

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Skelly, Patrick J


    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that constitute an important public health problem. Adult parasites live in the vasculature of their vertebrate hosts where they consume blood. Ingested blood proteins are degraded by a proteolytic cascade. One of the best characterized schistosome proteases is cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 or Sm31). This protein is synthesized as a large 38 kDa precursor form which is proteolytically cleaved to yield a mature, active 31 kDa enzyme. A second schistosome protease--the asparaginyl endopeptidase SmAE (also known as Sm32, or schistosome legumain), has been proposed to proteolytically convert the 38 kDa precursor SmCB1 into its mature form. Recombinant activated SmAE has been shown to trans-process SmCB1 into the mature, catalytic form in vitro. In the present study, our aim was to test the hypothesis that in vivo SmAE likewise processes SmCB1 into its active form. To do this, expression of the SmAE gene was suppressed in adult Schistosoma mansoni using RNA interference (RNAi). The results of these experiments show that, even in the absence of detectable SmAE protein, SmCB1 is fully processed and active and support the assertion that SmAE is not essential to activate SmCB1 in vivo. The data indicate that our original hypothesis is incorrect and that SmAE is not pivotal in the in vivo conversion of cathepsin B1 into its mature, active form.

  13. Disinhibition of Cathepsin C Caused by Cystatin F Deficiency Aggravates the Demyelination in a Cuprizone Model (United States)

    Liang, Junjie; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yanli; Hou, Changyi; Yang, Xiaohan; Shimizu, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Fan, Kai; Ma, Jianmei


    Although the precise mechanism underlying initial lesion development in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, CNS inflammation has long been associated with demyelination, and axonal degeneration. The activation of microglia/macrophages, which serve as innate immune cells in the CNS, is the first reaction to even minor pathologic changes in the CNS and is considered an initial pathogenic event in MS. Microglial activation accompanies a variety of gene expressions, including cystatin F (Cys F), which belongs to the cystatin superfamily and is one of the cathepsin inhibitors. In our previous study we showed that Cys F has a unique expression pattern in microglia/macrophages in the demyelination process. Specifically, the timing of Cys F induction correlated with ongoing demyelination, and the sites of Cys F expression overlapped with areas of remyelination. Cys F induction ceased in chronic demyelination when remyelination capacity was lost, suggesting that Cys F expressed by microglia/macrophages may play an important role in demyelination and/or remyelination. The functional role of Cys F in demyelinating disease of the CNS, however, is unclear. Cys F gene knockout mice were used in the current study to clarify the functional role of Cys F in the demyelination process in a cuprizone-induced demyelination animal model. We demonstrated that absence of the Cys F gene and the resulting disinhibition of cathepsin C (Cat C) aggravates the demyelination, and this finding may be related to the increased expression of the glia-derived chemokine, CXCL2, which may attract inflammatory cells to sites of myelin sheath damage. This effect was reversed by knock down of the Cat C gene. The findings gain further insight to function of Cat C in pathophysiology of MS, which may have implications for therapeutics for the prevention of neuroinflammation-involved neurological disorders in the future. PMID:28066178

  14. Identification of cathepsin K as a novel marker of adiposity in white adipose tissue. (United States)

    Chiellini, Chiara; Costa, Mario; Novelli, Silvia E; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Benzi, Luca; Bertacca, Anna; Cohen, Paul; Del Prato, Stefano; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Maffei, Margherita


    In obesity, adipocytes undergo dramatic morphological and molecular changes associated with alterations in their gene expression profile. To identify genes differentially modulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese db/db mice compared to wild type (wt) mice, we utilized RNA fingerprinting. Among the 52 candidates that we identified, we focused here on cathepsin K (ctsk), a cysteine protease, prevalently localized in lysosomes and involved in bone extracellular matrix degradation. In db/db mice, WAT ctsk mRNA was elevated 5.9-fold, as were Mitf and TFE3 (2- and 3.3-fold respectively), two transcription factors involved in ctsk induction in osteoclasts. Moreover, the level of WAT ctsk mRNA was increased in other obese models including A(y), fat, and tubby (2.8-, 3.2-, and 4.9-fold respectively) and decreased in mice undergoing weight loss. Despite the ubiquitous distribution of the ctsk transcript, we demonstrated that the obesity related increase is specific to the adipocytes. Further, in vitro experiments proved that the abundance of ctsk transcript increases upon adipose conversion of the established cell line of preadipocytes 3T3-F442A. In addition, ctsk gene expression was examined in adipose tissue of 21 lean and obese male subjects and significant correlations with BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.012) and plasma leptin levels (r = 0.54, P = 0.015) were found. In conclusion, the WAT of obese db/db mice exhibits a different expression profile from that of the wt mice, and cathepsin K can be considered a novel marker of obesity and a target for the inhibition of adipose mass growth.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU; Yun


    [1]Garcia M, Platet N, Liaudet Estradiol, et al. Biological and clinical significance of cathepsin D in breast cancer metastasis [J]. Stem Cells 1996; 14:642.[2]Johnson MD, Torri JA, Lippman ME, et al. The role of cathepsin D in the invasiveness of human breast cancer cells [J]. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 873.[3]Duffy MJ. Proteases as prognostic markers in cancer [J]. Clin Cancer Res 1996; 2:613.[4]Westley BR, May FE. Cathepsin D and breast cancer [J]. Eur J Cancer 1996; 32A:7.[5]Riley LB, Lange MK, Browne RJ, et al. Analysis of cathepsin D in human breast cancer: usefulness of the processed 31 kDa active form of the enzyme as a prognostic indicator in node-negative and node-positive patients [J]. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000; 60:173.[6]Fu XL. Histopathologic diagnosis. Chinese Common Malignant Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Rule. Breast Carcinoma Volume [M]. 2nd ed. Beijing: Beijing Medical University and Chinese Xiehe Medical University Union Publisher, 1999; 23.[7]Yang SQ. Health Statistics [M]. 3rd ed. Beijing: People Health Publisher, 1998; 131.[8]Bittl A, Nap M, Jager W, et al. Immuno-histochemical detection of P-glycoprotein on frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of normal and malignant tissues [J]. Anticancer Res 1995; 15:1007.[9]Isola J, Weitz S, Visakorpi T, et al. Cathepsin D expression detected by immunohistochemistry has independent prognostic value in axillary node-negative breast cancer [J]. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11:36.[10]Castiglioni T, Merino MJ, Elsner B, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of cathepsins D, B, and L in human breast cancer [J]. Hum Pathol 1994; 25:857.[11]Montcourrier P, Mangeat PH, Valembois C, et al. Characterization of very acidic phagosomes in breast cancer cells and their association with invasion [J]. J Cell Sci 1994; 107:238l.[12]Foekens JA, Look MP, Bolt de Vries J, et al. Cathepsin-D in primary breast cancer: prognostic evaluation involving 2810 patients [J]. Br J Cancer 1999

  16. Some observations on the subfibrillar structure of collagen fibrils as noted during treatment with NKISK and cathepsin G with mechanical agitation. (United States)

    Zhao, Tailun; Weinhold, Paul S; Lee, Nicole Y; Dahners, Laurence E


    We observed the structure of collagen fibrils in rat tail tendons after treatment with NKISK and cathepsin G. NKISK is a pentapeptide that has been previously shown to bind fibronectin, while cathepsin G is a serine protease that cleaves fibronectin but not type I collagen. In tendons treated with NKISK, fibrils were seen to extensively dissociate into smaller-diameter subfibrils. These subfibrils were homogeneous in diameter with an average diameter of 26.3 ± 5.8 nm. Similar, although less extensive, dissociation into subfibrils was found in tendons treated with cathepsin G. The average diameter of these subfibrils was 24.8 ± 4.9 nm. The ability of NKISK and cathepsin G to release subfibrils at physiological pH without harsh denaturants may enhance the study of the subfibrillar structure of collagen fibrils.

  17. Further characterization of the cathepsin L-associated protein and its gene in two species of the brine shrimp, Artemia. (United States)

    Liu, Liqian; Warner, Alden H


    The major cysteine protease in embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is a heterodimer composed of a cathepsin L-like polypeptide of 28.5 kDa and a 31.5 kDa polypeptide called the cathepsin L-associated protein or CLAP. In a previous study, CLAP was shown to be a cell adhesion protein containing two Fas I domains and two GTP/ATP binding sites known as Walker A and B motifs. Here, we have characterized CLAP and its genes to better understand the role of this protein in Artemia development. The polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the structure of the CLAP gene in two species of Artemia, the New World bisexual diploid A. franciscana and the Old World parthenogenetic tetraploid Artemia parthenogenetica. The protein coding region of the CLAP gene from each species was 99.5% identical for a protein of 332 amino acids, while the 3' non-coding region, representing nearly 45% of the gene, was only 86% identical between the two related species. However, while the CLAP gene is intronless in A. franciscana, in A. parthenogenetica the gene contained a mini-intron of 30 base pairs in the 3' non-coding region. The sequences representing the CLAP gene in A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica have been entered into the NCBI database as AY757920 and DQ100385, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that while the cathepsin L gene is expressed constitutively in Artemia franciscana embryos and young larvae, the CLAP gene is not expressed in late embryos and young larvae. In contrast, Western blots indicated that CLAP is present in developing embryos and young larvae, at least to the first larval molt, supporting results obtained previously showing CLAP's resistance to degradation by its dimeric partner, cathepsin L. At the protein level we showed that the GTP/ATP binding sites in CLAP are functional with rate constants of 0.024 and 0.022 for GTP and ATP hydrolase activity, respectively. GTP but not ATP also had a slight stimulatory effect on

  18. A cardinal role for cathepsin d in co-ordinating the host-mediated apoptosis of macrophages and killing of pneumococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A Bewley

    Full Text Available The bactericidal function of macrophages against pneumococci is enhanced by their apoptotic demise, which is controlled by the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Here, we show that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and cytosolic translocation of activated cathepsin D occur prior to activation of a mitochondrial pathway of macrophage apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or knockout of cathepsin D during pneumococcal infection blocked macrophage apoptosis. As a result of cathepsin D activation, Mcl-1 interacted with its ubiquitin ligase Mule and expression declined. Inhibition of cathepsin D had no effect on early bacterial killing but inhibited the late phase of apoptosis-associated killing of pneumococci in vitro. Mice bearing a cathepsin D(-/- hematopoietic system demonstrated reduced macrophage apoptosis in vivo, with decreased clearance of pneumococci and enhanced recruitment of neutrophils to control pulmonary infection. These findings establish an unexpected role for a cathepsin D-mediated lysosomal pathway of apoptosis in pulmonary host defense and underscore the importance of apoptosis-associated microbial killing to macrophage function.

  19. Late stage cathepsin C, CXCL13 and Ki-67 overexpression correlate with regional neuropathology in a BSE transgenic murine model. (United States)

    Vidal, E; Tortosa, R; Marco, P; Fondevila, D; Rabanal, R M; Torres, J M; Pumarola, M


    A DNA microarray-based gene expression analysis study was performed with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transgenic mice. Several genes were found to be overexpressed including the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin C, the chemokine CXCL13 and a number of genes related to cellular proliferation. The brains from terminal stage, BSE inoculated, 'bovinized', transgenic mice were subjected to immunohistochemistry with antibodies against these two proteins and Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, to assess the biological relevance of the gene expression changes. Differential expression of cathepsin C and CXCL13 proteins and increased expression of Ki-67 was observed. These changes were localized to areas of deposition of PrP(res) and spongiform change and to areas showing an astroglial and microglial response. These findings suggest that these proteins are involved in the mechanisms leading to the establishment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.

  20. Cathepsin K Deficiency Prevents the Aggravated Vascular Remodeling Response to Flow Cessation in ApoE-/- Mice


    Marjo M P C Donners; Bai, Lili; Lutgens, Suzanne P. M.; Wijnands, Erwin; Johnson, Jason; Schurgers, Leon J.; Liu, Cong-Lin; Daemen, Mat; Cleutjens, Kitty B.J.M.; Shi, Guo-Ping; BIESSEN, Erik; Heeneman, Sylvia


    Cathepsin K (catK) is a potent lysosomal cysteine protease involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and inflammatory remodeling responses. Here we have investigated the contribution of catK deficiency on carotid arterial remodeling in response to flow cessation in apoE-/- and wild type (wt) background. Ligation-induced hyperplasia is considerably aggravated in apoE-/- versus wt mice. CatK protein expression was significantly increased in neointimal lesions of apoE-/- compared with w...

  1. Regulation of split anergy in natural killer cells by inhibition of cathepsins C and H and cystatin F. (United States)

    Magister, Špela; Tseng, Han-Ching; Bui, Vickie T; Kos, Janko; Jewett, Anahid


    Freshly isolated human primary NK cells induce preferential lysis of Oral Squamous Carcinoma Stem Cells (OSCSCs) when compared to differentiated Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells (OSCCs), while anti-CD16 antibody and monocytes induce functional split anergy in primary NK cells by decreasing the cytotoxic function of NK cells and increasing the release of IFN-γ. Since NK92 cells have relatively lower levels of cytotoxicity when compared to primary NK cells, and have the ability to increase secretion of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, we used these cells as a model of NK cell anergy to identify and to study the upstream regulators of anergy. We demonstrate in this paper that the levels of truncated monomeric cystatin F, which is known to inhibit the functions of cathepsins C and H, is significantly elevated in NK92 cells and in anergized primary NK cells. Furthermore, cystatin F co-localizes with cathepsins C and H in the lysosomal/endosomal vesicles of NK cells. Accordingly, the mature forms of aminopeptidases cathepsins C and H, which regulate the activation of effector granzymes in NK cells, are significantly decreased, whereas the levels of pro-cathepsin C enzyme is increased in anergized NK cells after triggering of the CD16 receptor. In addition, the levels of granzyme B is significantly decreased in anti-CD16mAb and target cell anergized primary NK cells and NK92 cells. Our study provides the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which target cells may utilize to inhibit the cytotoxic function of NK cells.

  2. IFN-γ Regulation of Vacuolar pH, Cathepsin D Processing and Autophagy in Mammary Epithelial Cells



    In this study we examined the ability of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to regulate mammary epithelial cell growth and gene expression, with particular emphasis on two genes: Maspin (a member of serine protease inhibitor superfamily), and the lysosomal aspartyl endopeptidase cathepsin D (CatD). The protein products of these genes are critically involved in regulation of multitude of biological functions in different stages of mammary tissue development and remodeling. In addition, the expression of Mas...

  3. Functional analysis of the cathepsin-like cysteine protease genes in adult Brugia malayi using RNA interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathepsin-like enzymes have been identified as potential targets for drug or vaccine development in many parasites, as their functions appear to be essential in a variety of important biological processes within the host, such as molting, cuticle remodeling, embryogenesis, feeding and immune evasion. Functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans cathepsin L (Ce-cpl-1 and cathepsin Z (Ce-cpz-1 has established that both genes are required for early embryogenesis, with Ce-cpl-1 having a role in regulating in part the processing of yolk proteins. Ce-cpz-1 also has an important role during molting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: RNA interference assays have allowed us to verify whether the functions of the orthologous filarial genes in Brugia malayi adult female worms are similar. Treatment of B. malayi adult female worms with Bm-cpl-1, Bm-cpl-5, which belong to group Ia of the filarial cpl gene family, or Bm-cpz-1 dsRNA resulted in decreased numbers of secreted microfilariae in vitro. In addition, analysis of the intrauterine progeny of the Bm-cpl-5 or Bm-cpl Pro dsRNA- and siRNA-treated worms revealed a clear disruption in the process of embryogenesis resulting in structural abnormalities in embryos and a varied differential development of embryonic stages. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that these filarial cathepsin-like cysteine proteases are likely to be functional orthologs of the C. elegans genes. This functional conservation may thus allow for a more thorough investigation of their distinct functions and their development as potential drug targets.

  4. The 3D structure and function of digestive cathepsin L-like proteinases of Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. (United States)

    Beton, Daniela; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Farah, Chuck S; Terra, Walter R


    Cathepsin L-like proteinases (CAL) are major digestive proteinases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Procathepsin Ls 2 (pCAL2) and 3 (pCAL3) were expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, purified and activated under acidic conditions. Immunoblot analyses of different T. molitor larval tissues demonstrated that a polyclonal antibody to pCAL3 recognized pCAL3 and cathepsin L 3 (CAL3) only in the anterior two-thirds of midgut tissue and midgut luminal contents of T. molitor larvae. Furthermore, immunocytolocalization data indicated that pCAL3 occurs in secretory vesicles and microvilli in anterior midgut. Therefore CAL3, like cathepsin L 2 (CAL2), is a digestive enzyme secreted by T. molitor anterior midgut. CAL3 hydrolyses Z-FR-MCA and Z-RR-MCA (typical cathepsin substrates), whereas CAL2 hydrolyses only Z-FR-MCA. Active site mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were constructed by replacing the catalytic cysteine with serine to prevent autocatalytic processing. Recombinant pCAL2 and pCAL3 mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were prepared, crystallized and their 3D structures determined at 1.85 and 2.1 Å, respectively. While the overall structure of these enzymes is similar to other members of the papain superfamily, structural differences in the S2 subsite explain their substrate specificities. The data also supported models for CAL trafficking to lysosomes and to secretory vesicles to be discharged into midgut contents.

  5. Poly IC triggers a cathepsin D- and IPS-1-dependent pathway to enhance cytokine production and mediate dendritic cell necroptosis. (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Kawai, Taro; Tsuchida, Tetsuo; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Kumar, Himanshu; Akira, Shizuo


    RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense virus-derived RNA or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) to exert antiviral immune responses. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying the adjuvant effects of poly IC. Poly IC was taken up by dendritic cells (DCs), and it induced lysosomal destabilization, which, in turn, activated an RLR-dependent signaling pathway. Upon poly IC stimulation, cathepsin D was released into the cytoplasm from the lysosome to interact with IPS-1, an adaptor molecule for RLRs. This interaction facilitated cathepsin D cleavage of caspase 8 and the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, resulting in enhanced cytokine production. Further recruitment of the kinase RIP-1 to this complex initiated the necroptosis of a small number of DCs. HMGB1 released by dying cells enhanced IFN-β production in concert with poly IC. Collectively, these findings suggest that cathepsin D-triggered, IPS-1-dependent necroptosis is a mechanism that propagates the adjuvant efficacy of poly IC.

  6. Cathepsin B from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence analysis, tissues-specific expression and biological activity. (United States)

    Stephens, A; Rojo, L; Araujo-Bernal, S; Garcia-Carreño, F; Muhlia-Almazan, A


    Cathepsin B is a cystein proteinase scarcely studied in crustaceans. Its function has not been clearly described in shrimp species belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata, which includes the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and other species from the Penaeidae family. Studies on vertebrates suggest that these lysosomal enzymes intracellularly hydrolize protein, as other cystein proteinases. However, the expression of the gene encoding the shrimp cathepsin B in the midgut gland was affected by starvation in a similar way as other digestive proteinases which extracellularly hydrolyze food protein. In this study the white shrimp L. vannamei cathepsin B (LvCathB) cDNA was sequenced, and characterized. Its gene expression was evaluated in various shrimp tissues, and changes in the mRNA amounts were compared with those observed on other digestive proteinases from the midgut gland during starvation. By using qRT-PCR it was found that LvCathB is expressed in most shrimp tissues except in pleopods and eye stalk. Changes on LvCathB mRNA during starvation suggest that the enzyme participates during intracellular protein hydrolysis but also, after food ingestion, it participates in hydrolyzing food proteins extracellularly as confirmed by the high activity levels we found in the gastric juice and midgut gland of the white shrimp.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cathepsin B gene from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. (United States)

    Li, Xupeng; Meng, Xianhong; Kong, Jie; Luo, Kun; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Pang, Jinfei; Shi, Xiaoli


    Cathepsin B is a unique member of the cathepsin superfamily, which acts as both an endopeptidase and peptidyl-dipeptidase. To obtain a better understanding of this enzyme, we cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the muscle of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCB). FcCB contained a 996-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 331 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide and a propeptide_C1 at the N-terminal, a glutamine oxyanion hole and active site cysteine, histidine and asparagine residues. A region from residue 79 to 327 conferred the peptidase activity of FcCB. Pair-wise and multiple sequence alignment with 17 other organisms, including ten different vertebrate species, five different invertebrate species and two different plant species, indicated that the signal peptide and the propeptide_C1 at the N-terminal of FcCB were less conserved than the mature protein, except when compared with Penaeus monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicas, all of which belong to the genus Penaeus. The expression of FcCB in the hepatopancreas was higher than that in the gill. The expression of FcCB in the gill was higher than that in the muscle. A challenge test was performed to reveal the responses of FcCB in different tissues to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, which causes serious economic losses in the shrimp farming industry. The FcCB gene expressions in the ectoderm, mesoderm and entoderm were not the same prior to WSSV infection, but at 6 h after WSSV challenge, the FcCB expression in the gill, hepatopancreas and muscle was up-regulated, suggesting that FcCB might be involved in the immune response to WSSV. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the FcCB gene, involving C/T transitions, which are known as mutation hot spots. Notably, the three SNPs constituted a haplotype that can be used as an indicator of the haplotype block. The SNP genotypes of two groups of shrimps, respectively comprising 96 WSSV

  8. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

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    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Peters, Christoph [Institute fuer Molekulare Medizin und Zellforshung, Albert-Ludwings-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Uchiyama, Yasuo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ligand-Induced Flap Conformational Changes in Cathepsin-D-A Comparative Study. (United States)

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S


    The flap region in aspartic proteases is a unique structural feature to this class of enzymes, and found to have a profound impact on protein overall structure, function, and dynamics. Understanding the structure and dynamic behavior of the flap regions is crucial in the design of selective inhibitors against aspartic proteases. Cathepsin-D, an aspartic protease enzyme, has been implicated in a long list of degenerative diseases as well as breast cancer progression. Presented herein, for the first time, is a comprehensive description of the conformational flap dynamics of cathepsin-D using a comparative 50 ns "multiple" molecular dynamics simulations. Diverse collective metrics were proposed to accurately define flap dynamics. These are distance d1 between the flap tips residues (Gly79 and Met301); dihedral angle ϕ; in addition to TriCα angles Gly79-Asp33-Asp223, θ1 , and Gly79-Asp223-Met301, θ2 . The maximum distance attained throughout the simulation was 17.42 and 11.47 Å for apo and bound cathepsin-D, respectively, while the minimum distance observed was 8.75 and 6.32 Å for apo and bound cathepsin-D, respectively. The movement of the flap as well as the twist of the active pocket can properly be explained by measuring the angle, θ1 , between Gly79-Asp33-Met301 and correlating it with the distance Cα of the flap tip residues. The asymmetrical opening of the binding cavity was best described by the large shift of -6.26° to +20.94° in the dihedral angle, ϕ, corresponding to the full opening of the flap at a range of 31-33 ns. A wide-range of post-dynamic analyses was also applied in this report to supplement our findings. We believe that this report would augment current efforts in designing potent structure-based inhibitors against cathepsin-D in the treatment of breast cancer and other degenerative diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2643-2657, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans. (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Ravidà, Alessandra; Nguyen, D Linh; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P; Hokke, Cornelis H; O'Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace


    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  11. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans.

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    Andres Garcia-Campos


    Full Text Available Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3 and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3 proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1 on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139 on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description

  12. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cathepsin B in gastric carcinoma is associated with lymph node metastasis, but not with postoperative survival.

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    Roman Bandurski


    Full Text Available Degradation components of basement membrane could be crucial for tumor invasion. A key role in this process has been assigned to cysteine proteases, i.e. cathepsins and matrix metalloproteinases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin B with tumor aggressiveness expressed by lymph node metastases and survival rates in gastric carcinoma patients. Slides of 5 mum-thick serial sections from 91 patients with primary gastric carcinoma were prepared and analyzed for MMP-9 and cathepsin B expression using anti-human monoclonal antibody (NCL-MMP-9 clone; dilution 1:40 and NCL-CATH-B clone; dilution 1:40. The patients were clinically monitored for 84 months. We found no association between the expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin B in main mass of tumor and patients' gender, tumor location, Lauren's classification or histological differentiation. Also no correlation was observed between the expression of MMP-9 in main mass of tumor and depth of invasion. A strong statistically significant association was found between the expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin B in main mass of tumor and lymph node involvement (p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively. However, we observed no correlation between the expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin B in main mass of tumor and lymph node involvement or 5-year overall survival. Our results may suggest that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and cathepsin B is correlated with lymph node metastasis in advanced gastric carcinoma, but not with patients' postoperative survival.

  13. Inhibition of cathepsin K promotes osseointegration of titanium implants in ovariectomised rats (United States)

    Yi, Chun; Hao, Ke-Yi; Ma, Ting; Lin, Ye; Ge, Xi-Yuan; Zhang, Yu


    The bone mineral deficiency in osteoporosis poses a threat to the long-term outcomes of endosseous implants. The inhibitors of cathepsin K (CatK) significantly affect bone turnover, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in the patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, we hypothesised that the application of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) could increase the osseointegration of endosseous implants under osteoporotic conditions. Odanacatib (ODN), a highly selective CatKI, was chosen as the experimental drug. Sixteen rats were randomised into 4 groups: sham, ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, OVX with low-dose ODN (5 mg/kg) and OVX with high-dose ODN (30 mg/kg). Titanium implants were placed into the distal metaphysis of bilateral femurs of each OVX rat. After 8 weeks of gavaging, CatKI treatment increased the removal torque, BMD and bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Moreover, high-dose CatKI exerted a better influence than low-dose CatKI. Furthermore, CatKI treatment not only robustly suppressed CatK gene (CTSK) expression, but also moderately reduced expression of the osteoblast-related genes Runx2, Collagen-1, BSP, Osterix, OPN, SPP1 and ALP. Thus, CatKI could affect the osteoblast-related genes, although the balance of bone turnover was achieved mainly by CatK inhibition. In conclusion, CatKI prevented bone loss and aided endosseous implantation in osteoporotic conditions. PMID:28304382

  14. Detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis with cathepsin D: An immunohistochemical approach (United States)

    Kapoor, Seema; Kaur, Geet Priya; Sikka, Pranav


    Background: The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CD) has been associated with tumor progression in malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to find out any association between the CD and lymph node metastasis and to study the correlation of CD with various clinicopathological parameters to aid in assessment of its role as a prognostic indicator. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 20 OSCC samples with polyclonal antibody against CD. Positive results indicative of the presence of CD were further analyzed to determine any correlation between the CD and other clinicopathological parameters. Pearson Chi-square analyses, Spearsman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and student t test were used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Results: Patients with lymph node metastasis showed statistically significant increase in CD expression (P < 0.01). Increasing tumor size seemed to correlate with increased CD expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on its association with other clinicopathological variables, CD expression can be used for the assessment of patient survival in cases of OSCC. PMID:24932191

  15. ADAM30 Downregulates APP-Linked Defects Through Cathepsin D Activation in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Florent Letronne


    Full Text Available Although several ADAMs (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteases have been shown to contribute to the amyloid precursor protein (APP metabolism, the full spectrum of metalloproteases involved in this metabolism remains to be established. Transcriptomic analyses centred on metalloprotease genes unraveled a 50% decrease in ADAM30 expression that inversely correlates with amyloid load in Alzheimer's disease brains. Accordingly, in vitro down- or up-regulation of ADAM30 expression triggered an increase/decrease in Aβ peptides levels whereas expression of a biologically inactive ADAM30 (ADAM30mut did not affect Aβ secretion. Proteomics/cell-based experiments showed that ADAM30-dependent regulation of APP metabolism required both cathepsin D (CTSD activation and APP sorting to lysosomes. Accordingly, in Alzheimer-like transgenic mice, neuronal ADAM30 over-expression lowered Aβ42 secretion in neuron primary cultures, soluble Aβ42 and amyloid plaque load levels in the brain and concomitantly enhanced CTSD activity and finally rescued long term potentiation alterations. Our data thus indicate that lowering ADAM30 expression may favor Aβ production, thereby contributing to Alzheimer's disease development.

  16. Enhanced osteoclastogenesis by mitochondrial retrograde signaling through transcriptional activation of the cathepsin K gene (United States)

    Guha, Manti; Srinivasan, Satish; Koenigstein, Alexander; Zaidi, Mone; Avadhani, Narayan G.


    Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as an important factor in wide ranging human pathologies. We have previously defined a retrograde signaling pathway that originates from dysfunctional mitochondria (Mt-RS) and causes a global nuclear transcriptional reprograming as its endpoint. Mitochondrial dysfunction causing disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and consequent increase in cytosolic calcium [Ca2](c) activates calcineurin and the transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, CREB, and C/EBPδ. In macrophages this signaling complements receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)–induced osteoclastic differentiation. Here, we show that the Mt-RS activated transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNP A2) is induced by hypoxia in murine macrophages. We demonstrate that the cathepsin K gene (Cstk), one of the key genes upregulated during osteoclast differentiation, is transcriptionally activated by Mt-RS factors. HnRNP A2 acts as a coactivator with nuclear transcription factors, cRel, and C/EBPδ for Cstk promoter activation under hypoxic conditions. Notably, our study shows that hypoxia-induced activation of the stress target factors mediates effects similar to that of RANKL with regard to Cstk activation. We therefore suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of Mt-RS, induced by various pathophysiologic conditions, is a potential risk factor for osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. PMID:25800988

  17. Enhanced osteoclastogenesis by mitochondrial retrograde signaling through transcriptional activation of the cathepsin K gene. (United States)

    Guha, Manti; Srinivasan, Satish; Koenigstein, Alexander; Zaidi, Mone; Avadhani, Narayan G


    Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as an important factor in wide ranging human pathologies. We have previously defined a retrograde signaling pathway that originates from dysfunctional mitochondria (Mt-RS) and causes a global nuclear transcriptional reprograming as its end point. Mitochondrial dysfunction causing disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and consequent increase in cytosolic calcium [Ca(2) ](c) activates calcineurin and the transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, CREB, and C/EBPδ. In macrophages, this signaling complements receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastic differentiation. Here, we show that the Mt-RS activated transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNP A2) is induced by hypoxia in murine macrophages. We demonstrate that the cathepsin K gene (Ctsk), one of the key genes upregulated during osteoclast differentiation, is transcriptionally activated by Mt-RS factors. HnRNP A2 acts as a coactivator with nuclear transcription factors, cRel, and C/EBPδ for Ctsk promoter activation under hypoxic conditions. Notably, our study shows that hypoxia-induced activation of the stress target factors mediates effects similar to that of RANKL with regard to Ctsk activation. We therefore suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of Mt-RS, induced by various pathophysiologic conditions, is a potential risk factor for osteoclastogenesis and bone loss.

  18. Evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating cathepsin S in gastric cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Li; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Kai; Liu, Yi-Jun; Xing, Shan; Chi, Pei-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Ning; Lai, Yan-Zhen; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Ge


    To evaluate whether serum Cathepsin S (Cat S) could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC), Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum Cat S in 496 participants including healthy controls and patients with benign gastric diseases, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer. The levels of serum Cat S were significantly increased in cancer patients, especially in GC patients. The qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the overexpression of Cat S in GC cell lines and tissues. The diagnostic value of serum Cat S for GC patients from controls resulted in an AUC of 0.803 with a sensitivity of 60.7% and a specificity of 90.0%. Moreover, the levels of serum Cat S were associated with GC tumor volume, lymphoid nodal status, metastasis status, and stages. Moreover, the patients with high levels of serum Cat S had a poorer overall survival. Univariate analysis revealed Cat S expression was a prognostic factor. The knockdown of Cat S significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. This study suggested serum Cat S may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

  19. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

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    Ahn Suzie E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. Stoichiometry and heterogeneity of the pro-region chain in tetrameric human cathepsin C. (United States)

    Cigić, B; Krizaj, I; Kralj, B; Turk, V; Pain, R H


    The subunit structure and composition of mature human cathepsin C, an oligomeric cysteine proteinase, has been characterised in detail. The heavy chain, light chain and pro-region peptides are shown to be held together solely by non-covalent interactions, and to be present in equimolar ratio, suggesting an important structural role for the residual pro-region chain which is strongly bound to the enzyme. The mass of the light chain, as determined by mass spectrometry, combined with its N-terminal sequence, determines the position of cleavage from the heavy chain. Amino-acid sequencing has led to definition of the 13.5 kDa N-terminal part of the pro-region which remains in the mature enzyme, the C-terminal moiety of 10 kDa being cleaved out and lost from the pro-peptide on activation. The residual pro-region is heterogeneous, a proportion being intact and the remainder being cleaved at alternative positions 58 or 61, yielding two smaller peptides joined by disulphide bond. The proportion of cleaved form was found to vary with tissue and enzyme preparation but did not affect enzyme activity. The molecular masses of the constituent chains after deglycosylation lead to a protein mass of 158 kDa. All four potential glycosylation sites are glycosylated.

  1. Cathepsin L is required for endothelial progenitor cell-induced neovascularization

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    Urbich, Carmen; Heeschen, Christopher; Aicher, Alexandra; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Bruhl, Thomas; Hofmann, Wolf K.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Dimmeler, Stefanie


    Infusion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but not of mature endothelial cells (ECs), promotes neovascularization after ischemia. We performed a gene expression profiling of EPCs and ECs to identify genes, which might be important for the neovascularization capacity of EPCs. Intriguingly, the protease cathepsin L (CathL) was highly expressed in EPCs as opposed to ECs and is essential for matrix degradation and invasion by EPCs in vitro. CathL deficient mice showed impaired functional recovery after hind limb ischemia supporting the concept for an important role of CathL in postnatal neovascularization. Infused CathL deficient progenitor cells failed to home to sites of ischemia and to augment neovascularization. In contrast, over expression of CathL in mature ECs significantly enhanced their invasive activity and induced their neovascularization capacity in vivo. Taken together, CathL plays a crucial role for the integration of circulating EPCs into the ischemic tissue and is required for neovascularization mediated by EPCs.

  2. Detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis with cathepsin D: An immunohistochemical approach

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    Seema Kapoor


    Full Text Available Background: The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CD has been associated with tumor progression in malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The purpose of this study was to find out any association between the CD and lymph node metastasis and to study the correlation of CD with various clinicopathological parameters to aid in assessment of its role as a prognostic indicator. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 20 OSCC samples with polyclonal antibody against CD. Positive results indicative of the presence of CD were further analyzed to determine any correlation between the CD and other clinicopathological parameters. Pearson Chi-square analyses, Spearsman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and student t test were used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05. Results: Patients with lymph node metastasis showed statistically significant increase in CD expression (P < 0.01. Increasing tumor size seemed to correlate with increased CD expression (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on its association with other clinicopathological variables, CD expression can be used for the assessment of patient survival in cases of OSCC.

  3. The intrinsic microglial molecular clock controls synaptic strength via the circadian expression of cathepsin S. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Koyanagi, Satoru; Kusunose, Naoki; Okada, Ryo; Wu, Zhou; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Ukai, Kiyoharu; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Ohdo, Shigehiro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi


    Microglia are thought to play important roles in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry and the regulation of behavior. We found that the cortical microglia contain an intrinsic molecular clock and exhibit a circadian expression of cathepsin S (CatS), a microglia-specific lysosomal cysteine protease in the brain. The genetic deletion of CatS causes mice to exhibit hyperlocomotor activity and removes diurnal variations in the synaptic activity and spine density of the cortical neurons, which are significantly higher during the dark (waking) phase than the light (sleeping) phase. Furthermore, incubation with recombinant CatS significantly reduced the synaptic activity of the cortical neurons. These results suggest that CatS secreted by microglia during the dark-phase decreases the spine density of the cortical neurons by modifying the perisynaptic environment, leading to downscaling of the synaptic strength during the subsequent light-phase. Disruption of CatS therefore induces hyperlocomotor activity due to failure to downscale the synaptic strength.

  4. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1α and tumor necrosis factor α promote the expression and secretion of proteolytically active cathepsin S from human chondrocytes. (United States)

    Caglič, Dejan; Repnik, Urška; Jedeszko, Christopher; Kosec, Gregor; Miniejew, Catherine; Kindermann, Maik; Vasiljeva, Olga; Turk, Vito; Wendt, K Ulrich; Sloane, Bonnie F; Goldring, Mary B; Turk, Boris


    Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are destructive joint diseases that involve the loss of articular cartilage. Degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix is believed to occur due to imbalance between the catabolic and anabolic processes of resident chondrocytes. Previous work has suggested that various lysosomal cysteine cathepsins participate in cartilage degeneration; however, their exact roles in disease development and progression have not been elucidated. In order to study degradation processes under conditions resembling the in vivo milieu of the cartilage, we cultivated chondrocytes on a type II collagen-containing matrix. Stimulation of the cultivated chondrocytes with interleukin-1α and/or tumor necrosis factor α resulted in a time-dependent increase in cathepsin S expression and induced its secretion into the conditioned media. Using a novel bioluminescent activity-based probe, we were able to demonstrate a significant increase in proteolytic activity of cathepsin S in the conditioned media of proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated chondrocytes. For the first time, cathepsin S was demonstrated to be secreted from chondrocytes upon stimulation with the proinflammatory cytokines, and displayed proteolytic activity in culture supernatants. Its stability at neutral pH and potent proteolytic activity on extracellular matrix components mean that cathepsin S may contribute significantly to cartilage degradation and may thus be considered a potential drug target in joint diseases.

  5. The effect of catalase on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by regulating the activities of cathepsin S, L, and K. (United States)

    Tsai, Ju-Ying; Lee, Mon-Juan; Dah-Tsyr Chang, Margaret; Huang, Haimei


    Abundant clinical evidences indicate that up-regulation of several cathepsins in many human cancers is correlated with malignant progression and poor patient prognosis. In addition, a decrease in catalase activity or accumulation of hydrogen peroxide correlates with cancer metastasis. Recent studies indicate that cathepsin activation and expression can be modulated via H2O2 treatment. However, the actual relationship between catalase and cathepsins is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we found that catalase expression (or activity) was higher, while intracellular and extracellular Cat S, Cat L, and Cat K activities were lower in the non-invasive CL1-0 cells compared to the highly invasive CL1-5 cells. After CL1-0 cells were transfected with catalase-shRNA, the corresponding ROS (H2O2) level and Cat S, Cat L, or Cat K expression (or activity) was up-regulated, accompanied by an increase in cell migration and invasion. On the other hand, ROS (H2O2) level, cathepsin S, L, and K activities, cell migration and invasion were decreased in catalase-overexpressed CL1-5 cells. It is suggested that catalase may regulate cathepsin activity by controlling the production of ROS (H2O2), leading to variation in migration and invasion ability of lung cancer cells.

  6. Proteomic analysis of pycnogenol effects in RAW 264.7 macrophage reveals induction of cathepsin D expression and enhancement of phagocytosis. (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Huang, Huei-Sheng; Chou, Siao-Ping; Wu, Hung


    Pycnogenol, polyphenolic compounds extracted from the pine bark, is beneficial for human health. To understand more of its effects, the present study is to explore the protein expression pattern induced by pycnogenol in RAW 264.7 cells. Global analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that treatment with pycnogenol induces upregulation of four proteins, whose identities were revealed by mass spectrometry as cathepsin D, keratinocyte lipid-binding protein, proteasome subunit alpha type 1, and annexin IV. The pycnogenol effect displayed a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Unlike pycnogenol, N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin C had no effect on cathepsin D expression. Further studies showed that cathepsin D induction is correlated with an increase of lysosomal staining and enhancement of phagocytosis. These results reveal the novel effects of pycnogenol on protein expression and phagocytic functions and illustrate the advantage of proteomics-based strategy in unveiling the molecular basis of phytochemicals.

  7. Cathepsin D expression level affects alpha-synuclein processing, aggregation, and toxicity in vivo

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    Cullen Valerie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated SNCA gene expression and intracellular accumulation of the encoded α-synuclein (aSyn protein are associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD. To date, few enzymes have been examined for their ability to degrade aSyn. Here, we explore the effects of CTSD gene expression, which encodes the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CathD, on aSyn processing. Results Over-expression of human CTSD cDNA in dopaminergic MES23.5 cell cultures induced the marked proteolysis of exogenously expressed aSyn proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, brain extractions, Western blotting and ELISA quantification revealed evidence for reduced levels of soluble endogenous aSyn in ctsd knock-out mice. However, these CathD-deficient mice also contained elevated levels of insoluble, oligomeric aSyn species, as detected by formic acid extraction. In accordance, immunohistochemical studies of ctsd-mutant brain from mice, sheep and humans revealed selective synucleinopathy-like changes that varied slightly among the three species. These changes included intracellular aSyn accumulation and formation of ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Furthermore, using an established Drosophila model of human synucleinopathy, we observed markedly enhanced retinal toxicity in ctsd-null flies. Conclusion We conclude from these complementary investigations that: one, CathD can effectively degrade excess aSyn in dopaminergic cells; two, ctsd gene mutations result in a lysosomal storage disorder that includes microscopic and biochemical evidence of aSyn misprocessing; and three, CathD deficiency facilitates aSyn toxicity. We therefore postulate that CathD promotes 'synucleinase' activity, and that enhancing its function may lower aSyn concentrations in vivo.

  8. Cathepsin K null mice show reduced adiposity during the rapid accumulation of fat stores.

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    Marcella Funicello

    Full Text Available Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-. When the growth rate of ctsk-/- was compared to that of the wild type animals (WT, we could establish a time window (5-8 weeks of age within which ctsk-/-display significantly lower body weight and WAT size as compared to WT. Such a difference was not observable in older mice. Upon treatment with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks ctsk-/- gained significantly less weight than WT and showed reduced brown adipose tissue, liver mass and a lower percentage of body fat. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and leptin were significantly lower in HFD-fed-ctsk-/- as compared to HFD-fed WT animals. Adipocyte lipolysis rates were increased in both young and HFD-fed-ctsk-/-, as compared to WT. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity, was higher in mitochondria isolated from the WAT of HFD treated ctsk-/- as compared to WT. Together, these data indicate that ctsk ablation in mice results in reduced body fat content under conditions requiring a rapid accumulation of fat stores. This observation could be partly explained by an increased release and/or utilization of FFA and by an augmented ratio of lipolysis/lipogenesis. These results also demonstrate that under a HFD, ctsk deficiency confers a partial resistance to the development of dyslipidemia.

  9. Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells

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    Peterson, M.W.; Gruenhaupt, D.; Shasby, D.M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))


    Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. Since calcium influences cell shape and barrier function of ENDO monolayers, the current study was designed to determine if CG acted through alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis in ENDO. The role of Ca2+ in the increased permeability of ENDO monolayers to albumin after exposure to CG was studied by using ENDO monolayers cultured on polycarbonate filters. Exposure of ENDO monolayers to CG in the presence of the Ca2+-antagonist lanthanum partially prevented the increase in albumin flux, but exposure in the presence of agents that block voltage-regulated calcium channels did not block the increase in albumin flux. To monitor the effect of CG on Ca2+-flux, ENDO were labeled with {sup 45}Ca2+ and changes in Ca2+ flux were monitored by the release of {sup 45}Ca2+. From 1 to 15 minutes after exposure of ENDO to CG, there was increased release of {sup 45}Ca2+ compared with control cells. Calcium channel blocking agents did not inhibit the increased release of {sup 45}Ca2+, but lanthanum partially blocked the increase. The increased release of Ca2+ appeared to be due, at least in part, to activation of phospholipase C because there was an increase both in inositol polyphosphate species and in diglycerides after incubation of ENDO with CG. These studies support the hypothesis that CG increases the flux of calcium in ENDO, that this increase in Ca2+ flux may result from activation of phospholipase C, and that this system may be involved in the decreased barrier properties of the ENDO after CG exposure.

  10. Inhibition of bone resorption by the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib is fully reversible. (United States)

    Zhuo, Y; Gauthier, J-Y; Black, W C; Percival, M D; Duong, L T


    The cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) is currently being developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. In clinical trials, efficacy and resolution of effect of ODN treatment on bone turnover biomarkers and accrued bone mass have been demonstrated. Here, we examine the effects of continuing treatment and discontinuation of ODN versus alendronate (ALN) on osteoclast (OC) function. First, accessibility and reversible engagement of active CatK in intracellular vesicles and resorption lacunae of actively resorbing OCs were demonstrated by the selective and reversible CatK inhibitors, BODIPY-L-226 (IC50=39nM) and L-873,724 (IC50=0.5nM). Next, mature human OCs on bone slices were treated with vehicle, ODN, or ALN for 2days, followed by either continuing with the same treatment, or replacement of the inhibitors by vehicle for additional times as specified per experimental conditions. Maintaining OCs on ODN or ALN significantly reduced CTx-I release compared to vehicle controls. However, only the treatment of OCs with ODN resulted in the formation of small shallow discrete resorption pits, retention of intracellular vesicles enriched with CatK and other lysosomal enzymes, increase in 1-CTP release and number of TRAP(+) OCs. Upon discontinuation of ODN treatment, OCs rapidly resumed bone resorption activity, as demonstrated by a return of OC functional markers (CTx-I, 1-CTP), cell number and size, morphology and number of resorption pits, and vesicular secretion of CatK toward the respective vehicle levels. As expected, discontinuation of ALN did not reverse the treatment-related inhibition of OC activity in the time frame of the experiment. In summary, this study demonstrated rapid kinetics of inhibition and reversibility of the effects of ODN on OC bone resorption, that differentiated the cellular mechanism of CatK inhibition from that of the bisphosphate antiresorptive ALN.

  11. Cathepsin B Regulates Collagen Expression by Fibroblasts via Prolonging TLR2/NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li


    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are essential for tissue repair due to producing collagens, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin B (CatB is involved in promoting chronic inflammation. We herein report that CatB regulates the expression of collagens III and IV by fibroblasts in response to a TLR2 agonist, lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g. LPS. In cultured human BJ fibroblasts, mRNA expression of CatB was significantly increased, while that of collagens III and IV was significantly decreased at 24 h after challenge with P.g. LPS (1 μg/mL. The P.g. LPS-decreased collagen expression was completely inhibited by CA-074Me, the specific inhibitor of CatB. Surprisingly, expression of collagens III and IV was significantly increased in the primary fibroblasts from CatB-deficient mice after challenge with P.g. LPS. The increase of CatB was accompanied with an increase of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and a decrease of IκBα. Furthermore, the P.g. LPS-increased 8-OHdG and decreased IκBα were restored by CA-074Me. Moreover, 87% of CatB and 86% of 8-OHdG were colocalized with gingival fibroblasts of chronic periodontitis patients. The findings indicate the critical role of CatB in regulating the expression of collagens III and IV by fibroblasts via prolonging TLR2/NF-κB activation and oxidative stress. CatB-specific inhibitors may therefore improve chronic inflammation-delayed tissue repair.

  12. Monitoring pancreatic carcinogenesis by the molecular imaging of cathepsin E in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available The monitoring of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC in high-risk populations is essential. Cathepsin E (CTSE is specifically and highly expressed in PDAC and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, and its expression gradually increases along with disease progression. In this study, we first established an in situ 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA-induced rat model for PanINs and PDAC and then confirmed that tumorigenesis properties in this model were consistent with those of human PDAC in that CTSE expression gradually increased with tumor development using histology and immunohistochemistry. Then, using in vivo imaging of heterotopically implanted tumors generated from CTSE- overexpressing cells (PANC-1-CTSE in nude mice and in vitro imaging of PanINs and PDAC in DMBA-induced rats, the specificity of the synthesized CTSE-activatable probe was verified. Quantitative determination identified that the fluorescence signal ratio of pancreatic tumor to normal pancreas gradually increased in association with progressive pathological grades, with the exception of no significant difference between PanIN-II and PanIN-III grades. Finally, we monitored pancreatic carcinogenesis in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE in combination with the CTSE-activatable probe. A prospective double-blind control study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this method in diagnosing PDAC and PanINs of all grades (>82.7%. This allowed us to establish effective diagnostic criteria for CLE in PDAC and PanINs to facilitate the monitoring of PDAC in high-risk populations.

  13. Cleavage of Histone 3 by Cathepsin D in the involuting mammary gland.

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    Zhila Khalkhali-Ellis

    Full Text Available The post-lactational regression of mammary gland is a complex multi-step process designed to conserve the biological function of the gland for next pregnancy. This developmental stage is a biological intrigue with great relevance to breast cancer research, and thus has been the subject of intensive scrutiny. Multipronged studies (microarray, proteomics profiling, animal knock-out models have provided a repertoire of genes critical to involution. However, the caveat of these approaches remains in their failure to reveal post-translational modification(s, an emerging and critical aspect of gene regulation in developmental processes and mammary gland remodeling. The massive surge in the lysosomal enzymes concurrent with the onset of involution has been known for decades, and considered essential for "clearance" purposes. However, functional significance of these enzymes in diverse biological processes distinct from their proteolytic activity is just emerging. Studies from our laboratory had indicated specific post-translational modifications of the aspartyl endopeptidase Cathepsin D (CatD at distinct stages mammary gland development. This study addresses the biological significance of these modifications in the involution process, and reveals that post-translational modifications drive CatD into the nucleus to cleave Histone 3. The cleavage of Histone 3 has been associated with cellular differentiation and could be critical instigator of involution process. From functional perspective, deregulated expression and increased secretion of CatD are associated with aggressive and metastatic phenotype of breast cancer. Thus unraveling CatD's physiological functions in mammary gland development will bridge the present gap in understanding its pro-tumorigenic/metastatic functions, and assist in the generation of tailored therapeutic approaches.

  14. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications. (United States)

    Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido; Anders, Hans-Joachim


    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia-induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68(+) intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage-derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction-related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases.

  15. Detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by cathepsin B activity in nude mice.

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    Wei Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite great progress in treatment, the prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC remains poor, highlighting the importance of early detection. Although upper endoscopy can be used for the screening of esophagus, it has limited sensitivity for early stage disease. Thus, development of new diagnosis approach to improve diagnostic capabilities for early detection of ESCC is an important need. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using cathepsin B (CB as a novel imaging target for the detection of human ESCC by near-infrared optical imaging in nude mice. METHODS: Initially, we examined specimens from normal human esophageal tissue, intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, tumor in situ, ESCC and two cell lines including one human ESCC cell line (Eca-109 and one normal human esophageal epithelial cell line (HET-1A for CB expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Next, the ability of a novel CB activatable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF probe detecting CB activity presented in Eca-109 cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. We also performed in vivo imaging of tumor bearing mice injected with the CB probe and ex vivo imaging of resected tumor xenografts and visceral organs using a living imaging system. Finally, the sources of fluorescence signals in tumor tissue and CB expression in visceral organs were identified by histology. RESULTS: CB was absent in normal human esophageal mucosa, but it was overexpressed in ESCC and its precursor lesions. The novel probe for CB activity specifically detected ESCC xenografts in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: CB was highly upregulated in human ESCC and its precursor lesions. The elevated CB expression in ESCC allowed in vivo and in vitro detection of ESCC xenografts in nude mice. Our results support the usefulness of CB activity as a potential imaging target for the detection of human ESCC.

  16. Identification of mouse cathepsin K structural elements that regulate the potency of odanacatib. (United States)

    Law, Simon; Andrault, Pierre-Marie; Aguda, Adeleke H; Nguyen, Nham T; Kruglyak, Natasha; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter


    Cathepsin K (CatK) is the predominant mammalian bone-degrading protease and thus an ideal target for antiosteoporotic drug development. Rodent models of osteoporosis are preferred due to their close reflection of the human disease and their ease of handling, genetic manipulation and economic affordability. However, large differences in the potency of CatK inhibitors for the mouse/rat vs. the human protease orthologs have made it impossible to use rodent models. This is even more of a problem considering that the most advanced CatK inhibitors, including odanacatib (ODN) and balicatib, failed in human clinical trials due to side effects and rodent models are not available to investigate the mechanism of these failures. Here, we elucidated the structural elements of the potency differences between mouse and human CatK (hCatK) using ODN. We determined and compared the structures of inhibitor-free mouse CatK (mCatK), hCatK and ODN bound to hCatK. Two structural differences were identified and investigated by mutational analysis. Humanizing subsite 2 in mCatK led to a 5-fold improvement of ODN binding, whereas the replacement of Tyr61 in mCatK with Asp resulted in an hCatK with comparable ODN potency. Combining both sites further improved the inhibition of the mCatK variant. Similar results were obtained for balicatib. These findings will allow the generation of transgenic CatK mice that will facilitate the evaluation of CatK inhibitor adverse effects and to explore routes to avoid them.

  17. Autophagy and cathepsin L are involved in the antinociceptive effect of DMBC in a mouse acetic acid-writhing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei GU; Gui-zhen AO; Yong-ming ZHU; Shi-chang SUN; Qiang ZHOU; Jia-hong FAN; Katunuma NOBUHIKO


    Aim:2-(3',5'-Dimethoxybenzylidene) cyclopentanone (DMBC) is a novel synthetic compound with antinociceptive activities.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway in the antinociceptive effect of DMBC in a mouse acetic acid-writhing model.Methods:Mouse acetic acid-writhing test and hotplate test were used to assess the antinociceptive effects of DMBC,3-MA (autophagy inhibitor) and Clik148 (cathepsin L inhibitor).The drugs were administered peripherally (ip) or centrally (icv).Results:Peripheral administration of 3-MA (7.5-30 mg/kg) or Clik148 (10-80 mg/kg) produced potent antinociceptive effect in acetic acid-writhing test.Central administration of 3-MA or Clik148 (12.5-50 nmol/L) produced comparable antinociceptive effect in acetic acid-writhing test.Peripheral administration of DMBC (25-50 mg/kg) produced potent antinociceptive effects in both acetic acidwrithing and hotplate tests.Furthermore,the antinociceptive effect produced by peripheral administration of DMBC (50 mg/kg) in acetic acid-writhing test was antagonized by low doses of 3-MA (3.75 mg/kg) or Clik148 (20 mg/kg) peripherally administered,but was not affected by 3-MA or Clik148 (25 nmol/L) centrally administered.Conclusion:Activation of central autophagy and cathepsin L is involved in nociception in mice,whereas peripheral autophagy and cathepsin L contributes,at least in part,to the antinociceptive effect of DMBC in mice.

  18. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

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    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal


    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  19. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Leal, Iris J; Röger, Bianca; Schwarz, Angela; Schirmeister, Tanja; Reinheckel, Thomas; Lutz, Manfred B; Moll, Heidrun


    Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb) and L (Ctsl) play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and macrophages (BMM) from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT) and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  20. Functional expression and characterization of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B and its trans-activation by an endogenous asparaginyl endopeptidase. (United States)

    Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H; Hansell, Elizabeth; Mathieu, Mary A; Lucas, Kimberley D; Hsieh, Ivy; Greenbaum, Doron; Bogyo, Matthew; Salter, Jason P; Lim, Kee C; Franklin, Christopher; Kim, Jea-Hyoun; Caffrey, Conor R


    Peptidases are essential for the establishment and survival of the medically important parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. This helminth expresses a number of gut-associated peptidases that degrade host blood proteins, including hemoglobin, as a means of nutrition. Using irreversible affinity probes, we demonstrate that S. mansoni cathepsin B-like endopeptidase 1 (SmCB1) is the most abundant papain family cysteine peptidase in both the parasite gut and somatic extracts. SmCB1 zymogen (SmCB1pm) was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris (4-11mgl(-1)). Monospecific and immunoselected antibodies raised against SmCB1pm localized the enzyme exclusively to the gut lumen and surrounding gastrodermis of adult worms. Recombinant SmCB1pm was unable to catalyze its activation, even at low pH. However, recombinant S. mansoni asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE), another gut-associated cysteine peptidase, processed and activated SmCB1pm in trans. Consistent with the known specificity of AEs, processing occurred on the carboxyl side of an asparagine residue, two residues upstream of the start of the mature SmCB1 sequence. The remaining pro-region dipeptide was removed by rat cathepsin C (dipeptidyl-peptidase I)-an action conceivably performed by an endogenous cathepsin C in vivo. The activated recombinant SmCB1 is biochemically identical to the native enzyme with respect to dipeptidyl substrate kinetics and pH profiles. Also, the serum proteins, hemoglobin, serum albumin, IgG, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were efficiently degraded. Further, a novel application of an assay to measure the peptidyl carboxypeptidase activity of SmCB1 and other cathepsins B was developed using the synthetic substrate benzoyl-glycinyl-histidinyl-leucine (Bz-Gly-His-Leu). This study characterizes the major digestive cysteine peptidase in schistosomes and defines novel trans-processing events required to activate the SmCB1 zymogen in vitro which may facilitate the digestive process in vivo.

  1. Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients



    Abstract Background Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is a type IV genodermatosis caused by mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC), with a worldwide prevalence of 1–4 cases per million in the general population. In México, the prevalence of this syndrome is unknown, and there are few case reports. The diagnosis of twenty patients in the state of Sinaloa highlights the need to characterize this syndrome in Mexicans. Methods To understand the basis of PLS in Mexicans, the gene expression, enzymatic acti...

  2. Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients



    Background Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) is a type IV genodermatosis caused by mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC), with a worldwide prevalence of 1–4 cases per million in the general population. In México, the prevalence of this syndrome is unknown, and there are few case reports. The diagnosis of twenty patients in the state of Sinaloa highlights the need to characterize this syndrome in Mexicans. Methods To understand the basis of PLS in Mexicans, the gene expression, enzymatic activity and ...

  3. DNA structures decorated with cathepsin G/secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor stimulate IFNI production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Banas, Magdalena;


    psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that IFNI production in pDCs is stimulated by DNA structures containing the neutrophil serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) and the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), which is a controlling inhibitor of serine proteases. We also demonstrate the presence...... of neutrophil-derived DNA structures containing CatG and SLPI in lesional skin samples from psoriasis patients. These findings suggest a previously unappreciated role for CatG in psoriasis by linking CatG and its inhibitor SLPI to the IFNI-dependent regulation of immune responses by pDCs in psoriatic skin....

  4. A new dimeric dihydrochalcone and a new prenylated flavone from the bud covers of Artocarpus altilis: potent inhibitors of cathepsin K. (United States)

    Patil, Ashok D; Freyer, Alan J; Killmer, Lew; Offen, Priscilla; Taylor, Paul B; Votta, Bartholomew J; Johnson, Randall K


    A MeOH/CH(2)Cl(2) extract of the bud covers of Artocarpus altilis collected in Micronesia showed activity in a cathepsin K inhibition assay. In addition to the three known flavonoids isolated from the bud covers of this species, two new compounds have been identified whose structures were determined on the basis of spectral data. These compounds include a dimeric dihydrochalcone, cycloaltilisin 6 (2), and a new prenylated flavone, cycloaltilisin 7 (3). Novel compounds 2 and 3 have IC(50) values of 98 and 840 nM, respectively, in cathepsin inhibition.

  5. IGFBP-4 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumorigenic Effects Are Associated with Anti-Cathepsin B Activity

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    María J Moreno


    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4/IBP-4 has potent IGF-independent anti-angiogenic and antitumorigenic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that these activities are located in the IGFBP-4 C-terminal protein fragment (CIBP-4, a region containing a thyroglobulin type 1 (Tg1 domain. Proteins bearing Tg1 domains have been shown to inhibit cathepsins, lysosomal enzymes involved in basement membrane degradation and implicated in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In our studies, CIBP-4 was shown to internalize and co-localize with lysosomal-like structures in both endothelial cells (ECs and glioblastoma U87MG cells. CIBP-4 also inhibited both growth factor-induced EC tubulogenesis in Matrigel and the concomitant increases in intracellular cathepsin B (CatB activity. In vitro assays confirmed CIBP-4 capacity to block recombinant CatB activity. Biodistribution analysis of intravenously injected CIBP-4-Cy5.5 in a glioblastoma tumor xenograft model indicated targeted accumulation of CIBP-4 in tumors. Most importantly, CIBP-4 reduced tumor growth in this animal model by 60%. Pleiotropic anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities of CIBP-4 most likely underlie its observed therapeutic potential against glioblastoma.

  6. Actin-binding protein coronin 1A controls osteoclastic bone resorption by regulating lysosomal secretion of cathepsin K (United States)

    Ohmae, Saori; Noma, Naruto; Toyomoto, Masayasu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Takeiri, Masatoshi; Fuji, Hiroaki; Takemoto, Kenji; Iwaisako, Keiko; Fujita, Tomoko; Takeda, Norihiko; Kawatani, Makoto; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Asagiri, Masataka


    Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix proteins via the secretion of lysosomal enzymes. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal components are transported and fused to the bone-apposed plasma membrane, termed ruffled border membrane, remain elusive. Here, we identified coronin 1A as a negative regulator of exocytotic release of cathepsin K, one of the most important bone-degrading enzymes in osteoclasts. The modulation of coronin 1A expression did not alter osteoclast differentiation and extracellular acidification, but strongly affected the secretion of cathepsin K and osteoclast bone-resorption activity, suggesting the coronin 1A-mediated regulation of lysosomal trafficking and protease exocytosis. Further analyses suggested that coronin 1A prevented the lipidation-mediated sorting of the autophagy-related protein LC3 to the ruffled border and attenuated lysosome–plasma membrane fusion. In this process, the interactions between coronin 1A and actin were crucial. Collectively, our findings indicate that coronin 1A is a pivotal component that regulates lysosomal fusion and the secretion pathway in osteoclast-lineage cells and may provide a novel therapeutic target for bone diseases. PMID:28300073

  7. Defective adipose tissue development associated with hepatomegaly in cathepsin E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. (United States)

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Kido, Mizuho A; Hatakeyama, Junko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji


    Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase, which is predominantly distributed in immune-related and epithelial cells. However, the role of the enzyme in adipose tissues remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a mouse model of obesity. HFD-fed CatE(-/-) mice displayed reduced body weight gain and defective development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Moreover, fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice showed abnormal lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues characterized by hepatomegaly, which is probably due to defective adipose tissue development. Detailed pathological and biochemical analyses showed that hepatomegaly was accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice. In fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice, the number of macrophages infiltrating into WAT was significantly lower than in fat-induced wild-type mice. Thus, the impaired adipose tissue development in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice was probably due to reduced infiltration of macrophages and may lead to hepatomegaly accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Structural Dynamics Investigation of Human Family 1 & 2 Cystatin-Cathepsin L1 Interaction: A Comparison of Binding Modes (United States)

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana


    Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics. An overall stabilization effect is observed in all cystatins on complex formation. Complexes are mostly dominated by van der Waals interaction but the relative participation of the conserved regions varied extensively. While van der Waals contacts prevail in L1 and L2 loop, N-terminal segment chiefly acts as electrostatic interaction site. In fact the comparative dynamics study points towards the instrumental role of L1 loop in directing the total interaction profile of the complex either towards electrostatic or van der Waals contacts. The key amino acid residues surfaced via interaction energy, hydrogen bonding and solvent accessible surface area analysis for each cystatin-cathepsin L1 complex influence the mode of binding and thus control the diverse inhibitory affinity of cystatins towards cysteine proteases. PMID:27764212

  9. Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (United States)

    Piacenza, L; Acosta, D; Basmadjian, I; Dalton, J P; Carmona, C


    The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.

  10. A regulatory pathway, ecdysone-transcription factor relish-cathepsin L, is involved in insect fat body dissociation.

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    Yao Zhang

    Full Text Available Insect fat body is the organ for intermediary metabolism, comparable to vertebrate liver and adipose tissue. Larval fat body is disintegrated to individual fat body cells and then adult fat body is remodeled at the pupal stage. However, little is known about the dissociation mechanism. We find that the moth Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CL is expressed heavily in the fat body and is released from fat body cells into the extracellular matrix. The inhibitor and RNAi experiments demonstrate that Har-CL functions in the fat body dissociation in H. armigera. Further, a nuclear protein is identified to be transcription factor Har-Relish, which was found in insect immune response and specifically binds to the promoter of Har-CL gene to regulate its activity. Har-Relish also responds to the steroid hormone ecdysone. Thus, the dissociation of the larval fat body is involved in the hormone (ecdysone-transcription factor (Relish-target gene (cathepsin L regulatory pathway.

  11. Induction of immunity in sheep to Fasciola hepatica with mimotopes of cathepsin L selected from a phage display library. (United States)

    Villa-Mancera, A; Quiroz-Romero, H; Correa, D; Ibarra, F; Reyes-Pérez, M; Reyes-Vivas, H; López-Velázquez, G; Gazarian, K; Gazarian, T; Alonso, R A


    An M13 phage random 12-mers peptide library was used to screen cathepsin L mimotopes of Fasciola hepatica and to evaluate their immunogenicity in sheep. Seven clones showed positive reactivity to a rabbit anti-cathepsin L1/L2 antiserum in ELISA, and their amino acid sequences deduced by DNA sequencing were tentatively mapped on the protein. Twenty sheep were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 5 animals each, for immunization with 1x10(14) phage particles of clones 1, 20, a mixture of 7 clones and PBS, without adjuvant at the beginning, and 4 weeks later. All groups were challenged with 300 metacercariae at week 6 and slaughtered 16 weeks later. The mean worm burdens after challenge were reduced by 47.61% and 33.91% in sheep vaccinated with clones 1 and 20, respectively; no effect was observed in animals inoculated with the clone mixture. Also, a significant reduction in worm size and burden was observed for those sheep immunized with clone 1. Animals receiving clone 20, showed a significant reduction in egg output. Immunization induced a reduction of egg viability ranging from 58.92 to 82.11%. Furthermore, vaccinated animals produced clone-specific antibodies which were boosted after challenge with metacercariae of F. hepatica.

  12. Differential expression of Cathepsin S and X in the spinal cord of a rat neuropathic pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Beate


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample evidence suggests a substantial contribution of cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord to the induction and persistence of chronic neuropathic pain conditions. While for a long time, proteases were mainly considered as protein degrading enzymes, they are now receiving growing interest as signalling molecules in the pain pathology. In the present study we focused on two cathepsins, CATS and CATX, and studied their spatiotemporal expression and activity during the development and progression of neuropathic pain in the CNS of the rat 5th lumbar spinal nerve transection model (L5T. Results Immediately after the lesion, both cathepsins, CATS and CATX, were upregulated in the spinal cord. Moreover, we succeeded in measuring the activity of CATX, which was substantially increased after L5T. The differential expression of these proteins exhibited the same spatial distribution and temporal progression in the spinal cord, progressing up to the medulla oblongata in the late phase of chronic pain. The cellular distribution of CATS and CATX was, however, considerably different. Conclusion The cellular distribution and the spatio-temporal development of the altered expression of CATS and CATX suggest that these proteins are important players in the spinal mechanisms involved in chronic pain induction and maintenance.

  13. Structural Dynamics Investigation of Human Family 1 & 2 Cystatin-Cathepsin L1 Interaction: A Comparison of Binding Modes. (United States)

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana


    Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics. An overall stabilization effect is observed in all cystatins on complex formation. Complexes are mostly dominated by van der Waals interaction but the relative participation of the conserved regions varied extensively. While van der Waals contacts prevail in L1 and L2 loop, N-terminal segment chiefly acts as electrostatic interaction site. In fact the comparative dynamics study points towards the instrumental role of L1 loop in directing the total interaction profile of the complex either towards electrostatic or van der Waals contacts. The key amino acid residues surfaced via interaction energy, hydrogen bonding and solvent accessible surface area analysis for each cystatin-cathepsin L1 complex influence the mode of binding and thus control the diverse inhibitory affinity of cystatins towards cysteine proteases.

  14. Ultraviolet A Enhances Cathepsin L Expression and Activity via JNK Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (United States)

    Xu, Qing-Fang; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Jian; Xu, Xin-Ya; Gong, Zi-Jian; Huang, Yun-Fen; Lu, Chun; Maibach, Howard I; Lai, Wei


    Background: Cathepsin L (CatL) is a cysteine protease with strong matrix degradation activity that contributes to photoaging. Mannose phosphate-independent sorting pathways mediate ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced alternate trafficking of CatL. Little is known about signaling pathways involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity. This study aims to investigate whether a single UVA irradiation affects CatL expression and activity and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway is involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Methods: Primary HDFs were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation was determined by a cell counting kit. UVA-induced CatL production and activity were studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and fluorimetric assay in cell lysates collected on three consecutive days after irradiation. Time courses of UVA-activated JNK and p38MAPK signaling were examined by Western blotting. Effects of MAPK inhibitors and knockdown of Jun and Fos on UVA-induced CatL expression and activity were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and fluorimetric assay. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: UVA significantly increased CatL gene expression, protein abundance, and enzymatic activity for three consecutive days after irradiation (F = 83.11, 56.14, and 71.19, respectively; all P < 0.05). Further investigation demonstrated phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK activated by UVA. Importantly, inactivation of JNK pathway significantly decreased UVA-induced CatL expression and activity, which were not affected by p38MAPK inhibition. Moreover, knockdown of Jun and Fos significantly attenuated basal and UVA-induced CatL expression and activity. Conclusions: UVA enhances CatL production and activity in HDFs, probably by activating JNK and downstreaming AP-1. These

  15. The Clinical Significance of Cathepsin D and p53 Expression in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sheng-Jin; Kim, Jin-Man; Cho, Moon-June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Cathepsin D (CD) is a lysosomal acid proteinase that is related to malignant progression, invasion, and a poor prognosis in several tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic clinical significance of CD and p53 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with preoperative chemoradiation. Eighty-nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3/T4 or N+) were included in this study. Preoperative chemoradiation consisted of a dose of 50.4 Gy of pelvic radiation and two concurrent cycles of administration of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Surgery was performed six weeks after chemoradiation. CD and p53 expression in pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens were assessed by immunohistochemical staining using a CD and p53 monoclonal antibodies. The threshold value for a positive stain in tumor tissue and stromal cells was 1+ intensity in 10% of the tumors or stromal cells, respectively. Positive CD expression was found in 57 (64%) of the tumors and 32 (35%) of the stromal cell specimens. There was no association with CD expression of the tumor or stromal cells and patient characteristics. There was a correlation between tumor CD expression with stromal cell CD expression (p=0.01). Overexpression of p53 was not a significant prognostic factor. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were not different between tumor CD-negative and positive patient biopsy samples (69% vs. 65%, 60% vs. 61%, respectively). The 5-year OS rates in the tumor-negative/stromal cell-negative, tumor-negative/stromal cell-positive, tumor-positive/stromal cell-negative and tumor-positive/ stromal cell-positive biopsy samples were 75%, 28%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. Stromal cell staining only without positive tumor staining demonstrated the worst overall survival prognosis for patients (p=0.013). Overexpression of p53 in rectal biopsy tissue was not

  16. Ultraviolet A Enhances Cathepsin L Expression and Activity via JNK Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Fang Xu; Yue Zheng; Jian Chen; Xin-Ya Xu; Zi-Jian Gong; Yun-Fen Huang; Chun Lu


    Background:Cathepsin L (CatL) is a cysteine protease with strong matrix degradation activity that contributes to photoaging.Mannose phosphate-independent sorting pathways mediate ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced alternate trafficking of CatL.Little is known about signaling pathways involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity.This study aims to investigate whether a single UVA irradiation affects CatL expression and activity and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway is involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).Methods:Primary HDFs were exposed to UVA.Cell proliferation was determined by a cell counting kit.UVA-induced CatL production and activity were studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),Western blotting,and fluorimetric assay in cell lysates collected on three consecutive days after irradiation.Time courses of UVA-activated JNK and p38MAPK signaling were examined by Western blotting.Effects ofMAPK inhibitors and knockdown of Jun and Fos on UVA-induced CatL expression and activity were investigated by RT-PCR,Western blotting,and fluorimetric assay.Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance.Results:UVA significantly increased CatL gene expression,protein abundance,and enzymatic activity for three consecutive days after irradiation (F =83.11,56.14,and 71.19,respectively;all P < 0.05).Further investigation demonstrated phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK activated by UVA.Importantly,inactivation of JNK pathway significantly decreased UVA-induced CatL expression and activity,which were not affected by p38MAPK inhibition.Moreover,knockdown of Jun and Fos significantly attenuated basal and UVA-induced CatL expression and activity.Conclusions:UVA enhances CatL production and activity in HDFs,probably by activating JNK and downstreaming AP-1.These findings provide a new possible

  17. 创伤性深静脉血栓模型大鼠组织蛋白酶B,C基因对血管内皮细胞的作用%Effects of cathepsin B and cathepsin C gene on vascular endothelial cells in a rat model of traumatic deep venous thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚黎清; 宁亚; 赵学凌; 章玉冰; 李宏昆; 李文


    背景:骨科手术后易出现深静脉血栓形成,但目前临床上对此尚缺乏有效预测诊断手段,组织蛋白酶可能是血栓形成的有效生物标记物.目的:观察大鼠深静脉血栓形成前后组织蛋白酶B和组织蛋白酶 C在血细胞中的表达变化情况,探讨二者作为深静脉血栓形成早期诊断候选分子标志物的可行性.方法:将100只SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组和模型组,模型组采用血管钳夹股静脉+双后肢固定制动的方式建立大鼠创伤性深静脉血栓模型,根据观察时间点和血栓形成情况分为血栓形成前组、血栓形成高峰期组和血栓不形成组,提取各组血液RNA并反转录为cDNA,应用实时荧光定量PCR检测组织蛋白酶 B和组织蛋白酶 C在血细胞中的表达变化情况.结果与结论:血栓形成高峰期组大鼠血细胞中组织蛋白酶B,C 表达明显,血栓形成前组和血栓不形成组大鼠血细胞中组织蛋白酶B,C表达于正常对照组大鼠为无明显差异.提示组织蛋白酶B和组织蛋白酶C与深静脉血栓形成密切相关,可作为深静脉血栓形成早期诊断的候选分子标志物.%BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) always occurs after orthopedic surgery. At present, clinical diagnosis of DVT has been lack of an effective measuring means for a long time. Cathepsin may be an effective biological marker of DVT. OBJECTIVE: To study the expression change of cathepsin B and cathepsin C in the rat blood cells before and after DVT and to investigate the feasibility of cathepsin B and cathepsin C as candidate molecular markers for early diagnosis of DVT. METHODS: Totally 100 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10) and model group (n=90). Rat traumatic deep vein thrombosis models were established by clamping the femoral vein and fixing the bilateral hind limbs. According to observation time points and the different situations of thrombosis, rat models were

  18. Isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of cathepsin D from lizard ovary: changes in enzyme activity and mRNA expression throughout ovarian cycle. (United States)

    De Stasio, R; Borrelli, L; Kille, P; Parisi, E; Filosa, S


    During vitellogenesis, the oocytes of oviparous species accumulate in the cytoplasm a large amount of proteic nutrients synthetized in the liver. Once incorporated into the oocytes, these nutrients, especially represented by vitellogenin (VTG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), are cleaved into a characteristic set of polypeptides forming yolk platelets. We have studied the molecular mechanisms involved in yolk formation in a reptilian species Podarcis sicula, a lizard characterized by a seasonal reproductive cycle. Our results demonstrate the existence in the lizard ovary of an aspartic proteinase having a maximal activity at acidic pH and a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The full-length aspartic proteinase cDNA produced from total RNA by RT-PCR is 1,442 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 403 amino acids. A comparison of the proteic sequence with aspartic proteinases from various sources demonstrates that the lizard enzyme is a cathepsin D. Lizard ovarian cathepsin D activity is maximal in June, in coincidence with vitellogenesis and ovulation, and is especially abundant in vitellogenic follicles and in eggs. Ovarian cathepsin D activity can be enhanced during the resting period by treatment with FSH in vivo. Northern blot analysis shows that cathepsin D mRNA is exceedingly abundant during the reproductive period, and accumulates preferentially in previtellogenic oocytes.

  19. Characterisation of functional and insecticidal properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from flesh fly (Sacrophaga peregrina) involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. (United States)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Sacrophaga peregrina (flesh fly), which is involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. The protein has a potential insecticidal activity, since recombinant baculoviruses engineered to express ScathL have an enhanced ability to kill lepidoptera...

  20. Amyloid β oligomers induce interleukin-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner

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    Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Aiko; Takayasu, Kunio [Responses to Environmental Signals and Stresses, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takahara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan); Inaba, Kayo [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan)


    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared Aβ oligomer and fibril from Aβ (1–42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, Aβ oligomers but not Aβ monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1β production in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, Aβ oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. Aβ oligomer-induced IL-1β production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1β. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes Aβ oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1β. These results indicate that Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. - Highlights: • We prepared amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils with minimum contamination of Aβ oligomers. • Primary microglia (MG) produced IL-1β in response to Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils. • Only Aβ oligomers induced leakage of cathepsin B from endo/phagolysosomes. • IL-1β production in response to Aβ oligomers depended on both cathepsin B and ROS. • Crosslinking reduced the ability of the Aβ oligomers to induce IL-1β from MG.

  1. Effect of SI-591, a new class of cathepsin K inhibitor with peptidomimetic structure, on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Mizuho; Kubo, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka


    SI-591[N-[1-[[[(1S)-3-[[(3S)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-azepin-3-yl]amino]-1-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]cyclohexyl]-2-furancarboxamide] is an orally bioavailable compound that was synthesized as one of several unique peptidomimetic compounds without a basic group. This compound was found to have the ability to inhibit cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease. Cathepsin K is known to be expressed in osteoclasts and involved in bone loss processes. In this study, SI-591 was shown to inhibit the activity of various purified cathepsin molecules at nanomolar concentrations but had high selectivity for cathepsin K over other subtypes including B and L. SI-591 also decreased the level of CTX-I, a bone resorption marker, which was released from osteoclasts in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The mobilization of calcium from the bones to the blood stream is known to increase in rats fed with a low calcium diet; SI-591 inhibited this increase in serum calcium level at an oral dose of 3mg/kg. Furthermore, SI-591 significantly decreased the level of CTX-I and DPD, bone resorption markers, at oral doses of 10mg/kg or less in ovariectomized rats, while it did not affect the level of BGP, a bone formation marker. In addition, SI-591 prevented bone mineral density loss in the lumber vertebrae and femurs in ovariectomized rats. These results suggest that SI-591 inhibits bone resorption without affecting osteoblast maturation. Therefore, SI-591, a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, could be a promising agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Clinical Signiifcance of Detection of Cathepsin X and Cystatin C in the Sera of Patients with Lung Cancer%检测肺癌患者血清Cathepsin X及Cystatin C的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学德; 侯彦丽; 牛泽群; 李维; 孟夏; 张娜; 杨拴盈


    背景与目的组织蛋白酶X(Cathepsin X, Cat X)是最近发现的一种组织蛋白酶(Cathepsins, Cats)家族成员。近年来研究表明Cat X与多种恶性肿瘤发生、发展有关。本研究旨在探讨肺癌患者血清Cat X及cystatin C的表达与临床特征及预后的关系。方法采用ELISA法定量检测84例肺癌患者及36例健康对照者血清Cat X及cystatin C表达。结果肺癌患者血清Cat X和cystatin C水平明显高于健康人(P<0.01);Cat X水平与肺癌病理类型之间有相关的趋势(P=0.076)。血清cystatin C水平与肺癌TNM分期正相关(P=0.01),cystatin C/Cat X与淋巴结转移之间有相关趋势(P=0.058)。Cat X表达水平与肺癌患者总生存期(overall survival, OS)相关,高水平Cat X肺癌患者OS更短。Cox单因素回归示Cat X高表达以及TNM分期是影响肺癌预后独立因素,Cox多因素回归显示,仅TNM分期是患者预后的独立危险因素。结论肺癌患者中血清Cat X和cystatin C水平升高,检测肺癌患者Cat X和cystatin C血清水平对于指导临床肺癌诊断、评估预后有重要意义。%Background and objective Cathepsin X (Cat X) has been identiifed as a member of cathepsin family. Studies have shown that Cat X is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor development of various cancers. hTe aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the clinicopathological prognosis and the levels of Cat X and cystatin C in the serum of patients with lung cancer. Methods Blood samples were collected from 84 patients with lung cancer and 36 healthy control subjects. Cat X and cystatin C were determined by quantitative ELISA. Results Cat X and cystatin C levels were signiifcantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.01). Cat X level was correlated with the pathological types of lung cancer (P=0.076). Cystatin C was positively correlated with TNM stage (P=0.01). Furthermore

  3. Deficiency of cathepsin K prevents inflammation and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis and reveals its shared osteoimmune role. (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Zhu, Guochun; Lu, Yun; Wang, Min; Jules, Joel; Zhou, Xuedong; Chen, Wei


    Using rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis mouse models, we demonstrate that RA and periodontitis share many pathological features, such as deregulated cytokine production, increased immune-cell infiltration, increased expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and enhanced osteoclast activity and bone erosion. We reveal that genetic deletion of cathepsin K (Ctsk) caused a radical reduction in inflammation and bone erosion within RA joint capsules and periodontal lesions, a drastic decrease in immune-cell infiltration, and a significant reduction in osteoclasts, macrophages, dendritic and T-cells. Deficiency of Ctsk greatly decreased the expression of TLR-4, 5, and 9 and their downstream cytokines in periodontal gingival epithelial lesions and synovial RA lesions. Hence, Ctsk may be targeted to treat RA and periodontitis simultaneously due to its shared osteoimmune role.

  4. Loss of lysosomal ion channel transient receptor potential channel mucolipin-1 (TRPML1) leads to cathepsin B-dependent apoptosis. (United States)

    Colletti, Grace A; Miedel, Mark T; Quinn, James; Andharia, Neel; Weisz, Ora A; Kiselyov, Kirill


    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene MCOLN1, which codes for the transient receptor potential family ion channel TRPML1. MLIV has an early onset and is characterized by developmental delays, motor and cognitive deficiencies, gastric abnormalities, retinal degeneration, and corneal cloudiness. The degenerative aspects of MLIV have been attributed to cell death, whose mechanisms remain to be delineated in MLIV and in most other storage diseases. Here we report that an acute siRNA-mediated loss of TRPML1 specifically causes a leak of lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CatB) into the cytoplasm. CatB leak is associated with apoptosis, which can be prevented by CatB inhibition. Inhibition of the proapoptotic protein Bax prevents TRPML1 KD-mediated apoptosis but does not prevent cytosolic release of CatB. This is the first evidence of a mechanistic link between acute TRPML1 loss and cell death.

  5. The embryo's cystatin C and F expression functions as a protective mechanism against the maternal proteinase cathepsin S in mice. (United States)

    Baston-Buest, D M; Schanz, A; Buest, S; Fischer, J C; Kruessel, J S; Hess, A P


    A successful implantation of a mammalian embryo into the maternal endometrium depends on a highly synchronized fetal-maternal dialogue involving chemokines, growth factors, and matrix-modifying enzymes. A growing body of evidence suggests an important role for proteinases playing a role in matrix degeneration and enhancing the embryo's invasive capacity and influencing the mother's immunological status in favor of the conceptus. This study focused on the expression of cathepsin S (CTSS) and its inhibitors in the murine fetal-maternal interface as well as the detection of the cellular sources of either proteinase and inhibitors. Nested RT-PCR for detection of embryonic mRNAs, immunohistochemistry of maternal and fetal tissues in B6C3F1 mice, and FACS analysis for determination of immunocompetent cell population were applied. This study shows that the cysteine proteinase CTSS is upregulated in the stroma of the implantation site, and that pregnancy induces an influx of CTSS-positive uterine natural killer cells. Compared to maternal tissues, the CTSS inhibitors cystatin F and C, but not the proteinase itself, are expressed in blastocysts. In conclusion, CTSS underlies a hormonal regulation in the maternal tissue and therewith most likely supports the embryonic implantation. The invading embryo regulates the depth of its own invasion through the expression of the cathepsin inhibitors and furthermore, interleukin-6 to activate CTSS in maternal tissues. Additionally, the observed decrease in CD3(+) cells leads to the hypothesis that cells of the cytotoxic T-cell group are down-regulated in the decidua to support the implantation and ensure the survival of the embryo.

  6. Induction of premalignant host responses by cathepsin x/z-deficiency in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krueger

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are responsible for the induction of chronic gastric inflammation progressing to atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer. The overexpression of Cathepsin X/Z (Ctsz in H. pylori-infected mucosa and gastric cancer is mediated predominantly by an augmented migration of ctsz(-/-positive macrophages and the up-regulation of Ctsz in tumor epithelium. To explore the Ctsz-function in the context of chronic inflammation and the development of preneoplastic lesions, we used Ctsz-deficient mice in a H. pylori gastritis model. Ctsz (-/- and wild-type (wt mice were infected with H. pylori strain SS1. The mice were sacrificed at 24, 36, and 50 weeks post infection (wpi. The stomach was removed, and gastric strips were snap-frozen or embedded and stained with H&E. Tissue sections were scored for epithelial lesions and inflammation. Ki-67 and F4/80 immunostaining were used to measure epithelial cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration, respectively. The upregulation of compensating cathepsins and cytokines were confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. SS1-infected wt and ctsz (-/- mice showed strong inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia, atrophy, and cystically-dilated glands. However, at 50 wpi, ctsz (-/- mice developed significantly more severe spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM, showed enhanced epithelial proliferation, and higher levels of infiltrating macrophages. Induction of cytokines was higher and significantly prolonged in ctsz (-/- mice compared to wt. Ctsz deficiency supports H. pylori-dependent development of chronic gastritis up to metaplasia, indicating a protective, but not proteolytic, function of Ctsz in inflammatory gastric disease.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection (fascioliasis) in a human population in the Bolivian Altiplano using purified cathepsin L cysteine proteinase. (United States)

    O'Neill, S M; Parkinson, M; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Dalton, J P


    Cathepsin L1 (CL1), an immunogenic cysteine proteinase secreted by juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica, was assessed for its potential as a diagnostic agent for the serologic detection of human fascioliasis. Using ELISAs, we compared the ability of liver fluke homogenates (LFH), excretory/secretory (ES) products, and CL1 to discriminate between seropositive (infected) and seronegative (noninfected) individuals within a population of 95 patients from the Bolivian Altiplano. A high prevalence of human fascioliasis has been reported in this region. The division between the seropositive and seronegative individuals was poorly defined when LFH was used as the antigen. A greater discrimination between these populations was achieved with both ES and CL1. A K-means cluster analysis using the combined ES and CL1 ELISA data identified a cluster of seropositive individuals. Cathepsin L1 detected a subset (20) of these seropositive individuals while ES detected all 26; however, ES detected nine additional individuals that were in the seronegative cluster. The ratio of the mean absorbance readings between seropositive and seronegative individuals was markedly improved by using conjugated second antibodies to IgG4, the predominant isotype elicited by infection. In these IgG4-ELISAs, CL1 again identified fewer individuals as seropositive than did ES, but improved the discrimination between the seropositive and seronegative individuals and thus provided a more conclusive diagnosis. Sera obtained from patients infected with schistosomiasis mansoni, cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and Chagas' disease were negative in these assays, which demonstrated the specificity of the IgG4-ELISA for detecting fascioliasis. Twenty of the 95 patients (21%) were seropositive for fascioliasis by the CL1 IgG4-ELISA, confirming the earlier reports of the high prevalence of disease in this region. A standardized diagnostic test for human fascioliasis, based on an ELISA that detects IgG4 responses to CL1

  8. Downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induces apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramarao Malla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most commonly diagnosed primary brain tumor and is characterized by invasive and infiltrative behavior. uPAR and cathepsin B are known to be overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and are strongly correlated with invasive cancer phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we observed that simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induces upregulation of some pro-apoptotic genes and suppression of anti-apoptotic genes in human glioma cells. uPAR and cathepsin B (pCU-downregulated cells exhibited decreases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also observed that the broad caspase inhibitor, Z-Asp-2, 6-dichlorobenzoylmethylketone rescued pCU-induced apoptosis in U251 cells but not in 5310 cells. Immunoblot analysis of caspase-9 immunoprecipitates for Apaf-1 showed that uPAR and cathepsin B knockdown activated apoptosome complex formation in U251 cells. Downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B also retarded nuclear translocation and interfered with DNA binding activity of CREB in both U251 and 5310 cells. Further western blotting analysis demonstrated that downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B significantly decreased expression of the signaling molecules p-PDGFR-β, p-PI3K and p-Akt. An increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells, increased Bax expression, and decreased Bcl-2 expression in nude mice brain tumor sections and brain tissue lysates confirm our in vitro results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, RNAi-mediated downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B initiates caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in U251 cells and caspase-independent mitochondrial apoptosis in 5310 cells. Thus, targeting uPAR and cathepsin B-mediated signaling using siRNA may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gliomas.

  9. 棉铃虫组织蛋白酶B组织分布与合成部位的研究%Distribution and Biosynthesis Sites of Cathepsin B in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夏莲; 赵小凡; 王金星


    The distribution and biosynthesis sites of cathepsin B in Helicoverpa armigera through the developing stages were studied by means of Immunoblot and Northern Blot.The results of Immunoblot showed that cathepsin B existed in ovary,female and male adult fat body.The mRNA in larval fat body,female pupal fat body,male adult fat body,female adult fat body and ovary were detected using Northern Blot.This indicated that cathepsin B mRNA could be transcribed in these tissues.However there was no cathepsin B mRNA in larval epidermis and larval mid-gut as also no distribution of this proteinase.Furthermore,we detected mRNA transcription in larval fat body,female pupal fat body using Northern Blot,but there were no cathepsin B distributed in these two issues accordingly in Immunoblot.This indicated that the mRNA in these two tissues could not be translated into cathepsin B,and there might be some kind of regulation in translation level.

  10. Inhibitors of cysteine cathepsin and calpain do not prevent ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes and HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Bo; Baadsgaard, Ole; Skov, Lone


    Caspases, members of the cysteine protease family, execute UVB-induced apoptosis in several cell lines and keratinocytes. Several researchers investigating UVB-induced apoptosis have demonstrated a dose-dependent protective effect of the synthetic peptide caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. However, z......VAD-fmk displays a dose-dependent protective effect against UVB-induced apoptosis, even at doses higher than those required to block all known proapoptotic caspases. In addition, it is known that zVAD-fmk also inhibits other cysteine proteases including cathepsins and calpains, and these proteases have recently....... This was done by investigating the effect of the irreversible cysteine protease inhibitor zFA-fmk, the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me and the calpain inhibitor ALLN on the viability of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and HeLa cells. At concentrations of 10 microM and above zVAD-fmk conferred partial dose...

  11. The recombinant prepro region of TvCP4 is an inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis that inhibits trichomonal haemolysis. (United States)

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Ortega-López, Jaime; Flores-Pucheta, Claudia Ivonne; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; Arroyo, Rossana


    Trichomonas vaginalis expresses multiple proteinases, mainly of the cysteine type (CPs). A cathepsin L-like 34kDa CP, designated TvCP4, is synthesized as a 305-amino-acid precursor protein. TvCP4 contains the prepro fragment and the catalytic triad that is typical of the papain-like CP family of clan CA. The aim of this work was to determine the function of the recombinant TvCP4 prepro region (ppTvCP4r) as a specific inhibitor of CPs. We cloned, expressed, and purified the recombinant TvCP4 prepro region. The conformation of the purified and refolded ppTvCP4r polypeptide was verified by circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectra. The inhibitory effect of ppTvCP4r was tested on protease-resistant extracts from T. vaginalis using fluorogenic substrates for cathepsin L and legumain CPs. In 1-D zymograms, the inhibitory effect of ppTvCP4r on trichomonad CP proteolytic activity was observed in the ∼97, 65, 39, and 30 kDa regions. By using 2-D zymograms and mass spectrometry, several of the CPs inhibited by ppTvCP4r were identified. A clear reduction in the proteolytic activity of several cathepsin L-like protein spots (TvCP2, TvCP4, TvCP4-like, and TvCP39) was observed compared with the control zymogram. Moreover, pretreatment of live parasites with ppTvCP4r inhibited trichomonal haemolysis in a concentration dependent manner. These results confirm that the recombinant ppTvCP4 is a specific inhibitor of the proteolytic activity of cathepsin L-like T. vaginalis CPs that is useful for inhibiting virulence properties depending on clan CA papain-like CPs.

  12. ErbB2-Driven Breast Cancer Cell Invasion Depends on a Complex Signaling Network Activating Myeloid Zinc Finger-1-Dependent Cathepsin B Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bo; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Andersen, Sofie Hagel;


    signaling network activates the transcription of cathepsin B gene (CTSB) via myeloid zinc finger-1 transcription factor that binds to an ErbB2-responsive enhancer element in the first intron of CTSB. This work provides a model system for ErbB2-induced breast cancer cell invasiveness, reveals a signaling...... network that is crucial for invasion in vitro, and defines a specific role and targets for the identified serine-threonine kinases....

  13. Progress on Action of Cathepsin K in Bone Resorption%组织蛋白酶K在骨吸收中的作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 顾建红; 刘宗平


    组织蛋白酶 K(Cathepsin K,CK)是一种溶酶体半胱氨酸蛋白酶,属于番木瓜蛋白酶超家族。在破骨细胞(osteoclast,OC)介导的骨吸收过程中有效降解骨组织中的基质蛋白,在骨吸收过程中发挥重要作用。研究 CK 在骨吸收中的重要性,为治疗骨代谢疾病开辟了新的途径。论文就组织蛋白酶 K 的结构和功能及在骨吸收过程中与破骨细胞的相互作用和表达水平的调控机制进行了阐述。%Cathepsin K is one of lysosomal cysteine proteases,belongs to the papaya protease superfamily,highly expressed in the process of bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and degrade matrix proteins in bone tissue ef-fectively,plays a significant role in the process on bone resorption.Study of the importance of cathepsin k in bone resorption opened up a new approach to metabolic bone disease treatment.In this mini-review,we mainly focused on the structure and function of cathepsin K and the interaction with osteoclast,the regulation mechanisms of ex-pression levels in the process of bone resorption.

  14. Reduced cathepsins B and D cause impaired autophagic degradation that can be almost completely restored by overexpression of these two proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts. (United States)

    Tatti, Massimo; Motta, Marialetizia; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Scarpa, Susanna; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Cecconi, Francesco; Salvioli, Rosa


    Saposin (Sap) C deficiency, a rare variant form of Gaucher disease, is due to mutations in the Sap C coding region of the prosaposin (PSAP) gene. Sap C is required as an activator of the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase), which catalyzes glucosylceramide (GC) degradation. Deficit of either GCase or Sap C leads to the accumulation of undegraded GC and other lipids in lysosomes of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, we reported that Sap C mutations affecting a cysteine residue result in increased autophagy. Here, we characterized the basis for the autophagic dysfunction. We analyzed Sap C-deficient and GCase-deficient fibroblasts and observed that autophagic disturbance was only associated with lack of Sap C. By a combined fluorescence microscopy and biochemical studies, we demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts is not due to enhanced autophagosome formation but to delayed degradation of autolysosomes caused, in part, to decreased amount and reduced enzymatic activity of cathepsins B and D. On the contrary, in GCase-deficient fibroblasts, the protein level and enzymatic activity of cathepsin D were comparable with control fibroblasts, whereas those of cathepsin B were almost doubled. Moreover, the enhanced expression of both these lysosomal proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts resulted in close to functional autophagic degradation. Our data provide a novel example of altered autophagy as secondary event resulting from insufficient lysosomal function.

  15. Anthrax lethal toxin induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cytosolic cathepsin release is Nlrp1b/Nalp1b-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Averette

    Full Text Available NOD-like receptors (NLRs are a group of cytoplasmic molecules that recognize microbial invasion or 'danger signals'. Activation of NLRs can induce rapid caspase-1 dependent cell death termed pyroptosis, or a caspase-1 independent cell death termed pyronecrosis. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT, is recognized by a subset of alleles of the NLR protein Nlrp1b, resulting in pyroptotic cell death of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we show that LT induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP. The presentation of LMP requires expression of an LT-responsive allele of Nlrp1b, and is blocked by proteasome inhibitors and heat shock, both of which prevent LT-mediated pyroptosis. Further the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is released into the cell cytosol and cathepsin inhibitors block LT-mediated cell death. These data reveal a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the cellular response to bacterial pathogens and demonstrate a shared requirement for cytosolic relocalization of cathepsins in pyroptosis and pyronecrosis.

  16. Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chenhui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases. Results The predicted amino acid sequence of the cathepsin B of C. sinensis shared 63%, 52%, 50% identity with that of Schistosoma japonicum, Homo sapiens and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed that CsCB transcribed in both adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. CsCB was identified as a C. sinensis excretory/secretory product by immunoblot assay, which was consistent with immunohistochemical localization showing that CsCB was especially expressed in the intestine of C. sinensis adults. Both ELISA and western blotting analysis showed recombinant CsCB could react with human sera from clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Conclusions Our findings revealed that secreted CsCB may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for helminthiases.

  17. The protease degrading sperm histones post-fertilization in sea urchin eggs is a nuclear cathepsin L that is further required for embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Morin

    Full Text Available Proteolysis of sperm histones in the sea urchin male pronucleus is the consequence of the activation at fertilization of a maternal cysteine protease. We previously showed that this protein is required for male chromatin remodelling and for cell-cycle progression in the newly formed embryos. This enzyme is present in the nucleus of unfertilized eggs and is rapidly recruited to the male pronucleus after insemination. Interestingly, this cysteine-protease remains co-localized with chromatin during S phase of the first cell cycle, migrates to the mitotic spindle in M-phase and is re-located to the nuclei of daughter cells after cytokinesis. Here we identified the protease encoding cDNA and found a high sequence identity to cathepsin proteases of various organisms. A phylogenetical analysis clearly demonstrates that this sperm histone protease (SpHp belongs to the cathepsin L sub-type. After an initial phase of ubiquitous expression throughout cleavage stages, SpHp gene transcripts become restricted to endomesodermic territories during the blastula stage. The transcripts are localized in the invaginating endoderm during gastrulation and a gut specific pattern continues through the prism and early pluteus stages. In addition, a concomitant expression of SpHp transcripts is detected in cells of the skeletogenic lineage and in accordance a pharmacological disruption of SpHp activity prevents growth of skeletal rods. These results further document the role of this nuclear cathepsin L during development.

  18. Effect of vitamin E and human placenta cysteine peptidase inhibitor on expression of cathepsins B and L in implanted hepatoma Morris 5123 tumor model in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadeusz Sebzda; Piotr Hanczyc; Yousif Saleh; Bernice F Akinpelumi; Maciej Siewinski; Jerzy Rudnicki


    AIM: To examine the effectiveness of human placental inhibitors, by injecting vitamin E to rats with transplanted Norris-5123 hepatoma, on the expression of cathepsins B and L in tumor, liver, lung and blood sera after transplantation of Norris 5123 hepatoma.METHODS: Animals were divided into 10 groups receiving three different concentrations of vitamin E and inhibitors along or in combination and compared with negative control (healthy rats) and positive control (tumor rats). Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated with regard to survival time,tumor response and determination of the activities of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors using flurogenic substrates.RESULTS: Cathepsins B and L activities were elevated by 16-fold in comparison with negative control tissues, and their endogenous inhibitor activity decreased by 1.2-fold before treatment. In several cases, tumors completely disappeared following vitamin E plus human placental cyteine protease inhibitor (CPI) compared with controls.The number of complete tumor responses was higher when 20 m/kg vitamin E plus 400 μg of CPI was used, i.e.7/10 rats survived more than two mo. Cathepsins B and L were expressed significantly in tumor, liver, lung tissues and sera in parallel to the increasing of the endogenous inhibitor activity compared with the controls after treatment (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION: The data indicate formation of metastasis significantly reduced in treated rats, which might provide a therapeutic basis for anti-cancer therapy.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of new NIR-fluorescent probes for cathepsin B: ICT versus FRET as a turn-ON mode-of-action. (United States)

    Kisin-Finfer, Einat; Ferber, Shiran; Blau, Rachel; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron


    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the design and study of molecular imaging geared towards biological and biomedical applications. The expression or activity of specific enzymes including proteases can be monitored by cutting edge molecular imaging techniques. Cathepsin B plays key roles in tumor progression via controlled degradation of extracellular matrix. Consequently, this protease has been attracting significant attention in cancer research, and many imaging probes targeting its activity have been developed. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and evaluation of two novel near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes for detection of cathepsin B activity with different turn-ON mechanisms. One probe is based on an ICT activation mechanism of a donor-two-acceptor π-electron dye system, while the other is based on the FRET mechanism obtained by a fluorescent dye and a quencher. The two probes exhibit significant fluorescent turn-ON response upon cleavage by cathepsin B. The NIR fluorescence of the ICT probe in its OFF state was significantly lower than that of the FRET-based probe. This effect results in a higher signal-to-noise ratio and consequently increased sensitivity and better image contrast.

  20. Multiple cathepsin B isoforms in schistosomula of Trichobilharzia regenti: identification, characterisation and putative role in migration and nutrition. (United States)

    Dvorák, Jan; Delcroix, Melaine; Rossi, Andrea; Vopálenský, Václav; Pospísek, Martin; Sedinová, Miroslava; Mikes, Libor; Sajid, Mohammed; Sali, Andrej; McKerrow, James H; Horák, Petr; Caffrey, Conor R


    Among schistosomatids, Trichobilharzia regenti, displays an unusual migration through the peripheral and central nervous system prior to residence in the nasal cavity of the definitive avian host. Migration causes tissue degradation and neuromotor dysfunction both in birds and experimentally infected mice. Although schistosomula have a well-developed gut, the peptidases elaborated that might facilitate nutrition and migration are unknown. This is, in large part, due to the difficulty in isolating large numbers of migrating larvae. We have identified and characterised the major 33 kDa cathepsin B-like cysteine endopeptidase in extracts of migrating schistosomula using fluorogenic peptidyl substrates with high extinction coefficients and irreversible affinity-labels. From first strand schistosomula cDNA, degenerate PCR and Rapid Amplification of cDNA End protocols were used to identify peptidase isoforms termed TrCB1.1-TrCB1.6. Highest sequence homology is to the described Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum cathepsins B1. Two isoforms (TrCB1.5 and 1.6) encode putatively inactive enzymes as the catalytic cysteine is substituted by glycine. Two other isoforms, TrCB1.1 and 1.4, were functionally expressed as zymogens in Pichia pastoris. Specific polyclonal antibodies localised the peptidases exclusively in the gut of schistosomula and reacted with a 33kDa protein in worm extracts. TrCB1.1 zymogen was unable to catalyse its own activation, but was trans-processed and activated by S. mansoni asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE aka. S. mansoni legumain). In contrast, TrCB1.4 zymogen auto-activated, but was resistant to the action of SmAE. Both activated isoforms displayed different pH-dependent specificity profiles with peptidyl substrates. Also, both isoforms degraded myelin basic protein, the major protein component of nervous tissue, but were inefficient against hemoglobin, thus supporting the adaptation of T. regenti gut peptidases to parasitism of host nervous

  1. The Structure and Function of Cathepsin L%组织蛋白酶L的结构与功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东辉; 刘宇; 肖蓉; 李庆伟


    Cathepsin L ( CTSL) is a member of the lysosomal cysteine protease superfamily with an unique manner of synthesis and transportation. The precursor peptide of CTSL preproenzyme contains the ERF/WNIN motif and GNFD motif in the primary structure, and contains an L domain of a-helix and an R domain of p-sheet in the spatial structure. CTSL plays extremely important roles in physiological and pathological processes in human and parasitic animals. Its physiological roles are widely involved in proteolysis, antigen-presenting, T cell development, cell apoptosis, and embryonic development, etc. It is also related to the development of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and kidney diseases. In addition, CTSL plays a special role in parasitic animals. Here, we focused on the recent advances regarding this study.%组织蛋白酶L(cathepsin L,CTSL)是溶酶体半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族的主要成员,具有非常独特的合成和转运方式.CTSL前体酶原的前体肽含有ERF/WNIN模体和GNFD模体.CTSL的空间结构主要由α螺旋构成的L结构域以及由β折叠构成的R结构域组成.大量研究工作表明,CTSL在体内生理和病理过程中,以及在寄生动物中都发挥着极其重要的功能.其生理作用广泛涉及到蛋白质水解、抗原提呈、T细胞分选、细胞凋亡以及胚胎发育等方面.CTSL还与多种类型的肿瘤发生、心血管疾病以及肾病等密切相关.另外,CTSL在寄生动物中也发挥着独特的作用.本文针对CTST的最新研究进展做了简要总结及分析,并指出了相关研究的发展趋势.

  2. Collagenolytic activities of the major secreted cathepsin L peptidases involved in the virulence of the helminth pathogen, Fasciola hepatica.

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    Mark W Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The temporal expression and secretion of distinct members of a family of virulence-associated cathepsin L cysteine peptidases (FhCL correlates with the entry and migration of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica in the host. Thus, infective larvae traversing the gut wall secrete cathepsin L3 (FhCL3, liver migrating juvenile parasites secrete both FhCL1 and FhCL2 while the mature bile duct parasites, which are obligate blood feeders, secrete predominantly FhCL1 but also FhCL2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibit differences in their kinetic parameters towards a range of peptide substrates. Uniquely, FhCL2 and FhCL3 readily cleave substrates with Pro in the P2 position and peptide substrates mimicking the repeating Gly-Pro-Xaa motifs that occur within the primary sequence of collagen. FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 hydrolysed native type I and II collagen at neutral pH but while FhCL1 cleaved only non-collagenous (NC, non-Gly-X-Y domains FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibited collagenase activity by cleaving at multiple sites within the α1 and α2 triple helix regions (Col domains. Molecular simulations created for FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 complexed to various seven-residue peptides supports the idea that Trp67 and Tyr67 in the S2 subsite of the active sites of FhCL3 and FhCL2, respectively, are critical to conferring the unique collagenase-like activity to these enzymes by accommodating either Gly or Pro residues at P2 in the substrate. The data also suggests that FhCL3 accommodates hydroxyproline (Hyp-Gly at P3-P2 better than FhCL2 explaining the observed greater ability of FhCL3 to digest type I and II collagens compared to FhCL2 and why these enzymes cleave at different positions within the Col domains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies further our understanding of how this helminth parasite regulates peptidase expression to ensure infection, migration and establishment in host tissues.

  3. The importance of pH in regulating the function of the Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 cysteine protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lowther

    Full Text Available The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L cysteine proteases to invade its host, migrate through tissues and digest haemoglobin, its main source of amino acids. Here we investigated the importance of pH in regulating the activity and functions of the major cathepsin L protease FheCL1. The slightly acidic pH of the parasite gut facilitates the auto-catalytic activation of FheCL1 from its inactive proFheCL1 zymogen; this process was approximately 40-fold faster at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.0. Active mature FheCL1 is very stable at acidic and neutral conditions (the enzyme retained approximately 45% activity when incubated at 37 degrees C and pH 4.5 for 10 days and displayed a broad pH range for activity peptide substrates and the protein ovalbumin, peaking between pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. This pH profile likely reflects the need for FheCL1 to function both in the parasite gut and in the host tissues. FheCL1, however, could not cleave its natural substrate Hb in the pH range pH 5.5 and pH 7.0; digestion occurred only at pH

  4. Effects of cathepsin K on Emdogain-induced hard tissue formation by human periodontal ligament stem cells. (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Zhou, Zhi-Fei; An, Ying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Rui-Xin; Yin, Yuan; Xue, Yang; Chen, Fa-Ming


    Recent studies have shown that patients with pycnodysostosis caused by cathepsin K (CTSK) genetic mutations exhibit significantly abnormal periodontal hard tissue structure. This finding suggests that CTSK may play a role in regulating the development of alveolar bone and cementum. However, the source of CTSK in the periodontal environment and the role of CTSK in periodontal regeneration, particularly hard tissue regeneration and development, remain unclear. After the isolation, cultivation, identification, and multi-lineage induction of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), the present study used light and scanning electron microscopy, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemical assays and ectopic hard tissue formation experiments to examine CTSK expression in hPDLSCs. The results indicated that CTSK expression was significantly upregulated in hPDLSCs during Emdogain induction but underwent minimal change during osteogenic or adipogenic induction. The present study also showed that the downregulation of CTSK expression inhibited osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation and ectopic hard tissue formation of hPDLSCs. It is therefore concluded that hPDLSCs expressed CTSK and that CTSK levels were significantly upregulated during Emdogain induction. Furthermore, CTSK promoted not only the osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs but also their ability to form ectopic hard tissue. These new findings may enhance the understanding of periodontal hard tissue development and functional regeneration. However, the specific underlying mechanisms require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cathepsin B is up-regulated and mediates extracellular matrix degradation in trabecular meshwork cells following phagocytic challenge.

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    Kristine Porter

    Full Text Available Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, a tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic activity in TM cells is thought to play an important role in outflow pathway physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of chronic phagocytic stress on lysosomal function using different phagocytic ligands (E. coli, carboxylated beads, collagen I-coated beads, and pigment. Lysotracker red co-localization and electron micrographs showed the maturation of E. coli- and collagen I-coated beads-containing phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes was not observed with carboxylated beads or pigment particles. In addition, phagocytosis of E. coli and collagen I-coated beads led to increased lysosomal mass, and the specific up-regulation and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB. Higher levels of membrane-bound and secreted CTSB were also detected. Moreover, in vivo zymography showed the intralysosomal degradation of ECM components associated with active CTSB, as well as an overall increased gelatinolytic activity in phagocytically challenged TM cells. This increased gelatinolytic activity with phagocytosis was partially blocked with an intracellular CTSB inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  6. Discovery of a New Class of Cathepsin K Inhibitors in Rhizoma Drynariae as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Osteoporosis (United States)

    Qiu, Zuo-Cheng; Dong, Xiao-Li; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Wang, Xin-Luan; Wong, Ka-Chun; Wong, Man-Sau; Yao, Xin-Sheng


    Rhizoma Drynariae (RD), as one of the most common clinically used folk medicines, has been reported to exert potent anti-osteoporotic activity. The bioactive ingredients and mechanisms that account for its bone protective effects are under active investigation. Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. It has been the focus of target based drug discovery in recent years. We have identified two components in RD, Kushennol F and Sophoraflavanone G, that can potentially interact with Ctsk. Biological studies were performed to verify the effects of these compounds on Ctsk and its related bone resorption process, which include the use of in vitro fluorescence-based Ctsk enzyme assay, bone resorption pit formation assay, as well as Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the binding mode and stability of these two compounds that interact with Ctsk were determined by molecular docking and dynamics methods. The results showed that the in silico target fishing method could successfully identify two components from RD that show inhibitory effects on the bone resorption process related to protease Ctsk. PMID:27999266

  7. From laboratory to pilot plant: the solid-state process development of a highly potent cathepsin S/K inhibitor. (United States)

    Feth, Martin Philipp; Heyse, Winfried; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Olpp, Thomas; Jurascheck, Jörg; Ulrich, Joachim; Helmdach, Lydia; Petzoldt, Christine


    The solid-state development for the low dose drug molecule SAR114137, a selective and reversible inhibitor of cysteine cathepsin S/K, is reported. Six polymorphic forms as well as various solvate phases were discovered by an extensive polymorphism screening. The solid phase characterizations revealed that phase 1, from which a single crystal structure could be obtained, is the thermodynamically most stable form and therefore it was chosen for pharmaceutical development. The successful scale-up from development laboratory into pilot plant for the crystallization and drying processes is presented. Testing of different drying techniques, like agitated drying in conical or filter dryers as well as spray drying, proved them to be very promising alternatives to the conventional tray drying process and might be used during the industrialization phase of the project. The use of online analytical tools (e.g., Raman spectroscopy) for a better process understanding and as tools for process optimization is shown. Furthermore, wet milling by ultrasound was performed on laboratory scale and discussed as potential option to reach the desired particle size distribution necessary for a good content uniformity of the API in an oral formulation.

  8. P2X(7) receptor activation enhances SK3 channels- and cystein cathepsin-dependent cancer cells invasiveness. (United States)

    Jelassi, B; Chantôme, A; Alcaraz-Pérez, F; Baroja-Mazo, A; Cayuela, M L; Pelegrin, P; Surprenant, A; Roger, S


    ATP-gated P2X(7) receptors (P2X(7)R) are unusual plasma membrane ion channels that have been extensively studied in immune cells. More recently, P2X(7)R have been described as potential cancer cell biomarkers. However, mechanistic links between P2X(7)R and cancer cell processes are unknown. Here, we show, in the highly aggressive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435s, that P2X(7) receptor is highly expressed and fully functional. Its activation is responsible for the extension of neurite-like cellular prolongations, of the increase in cell migration by 35% and in cell invasion through extracellular matrix by 150%. The change in cancer cell morphology and the increased migration appeared to be due to the activation of Ca(2+)-activated SK3 potassium channels. The enhanced invasion through the extracellular matrix was related to the increase of mature forms of cysteine cathepsins in the extracellular medium, which was independent of SK3 channel activity and not associated with cell death. Pharmacological targeting of P2X(7)R in vivo was crucial for cell invasiveness in a zebrafish model of metastases. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic link between P2X(7)R functionality in cancer cells and invasiveness, a key parameter in tumour growth and in the development of metastases. They also suggest a potential therapeutic role for the newly developed P2X(7)R antagonists.

  9. Chemoproteomic Strategy to Quantitatively Monitor Transnitrosation Uncovers Functionally Relevant S-Nitrosation Sites on Cathepsin D and HADH2. (United States)

    Zhou, Yani; Wynia-Smith, Sarah L; Couvertier, Shalise M; Kalous, Kelsey S; Marletta, Michael A; Smith, Brian C; Weerapana, Eranthie


    S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is an endogenous transnitrosation donor involved in S-nitrosation of a variety of cellular proteins, thereby regulating diverse protein functions. Quantitative proteomic methods are necessary to establish which cysteine residues are most sensitive to GSNO-mediated transnitrosation. Here, a competitive cysteine-reactivity profiling strategy was implemented to quantitatively measure the sensitivity of >600 cysteine residues to transnitrosation by GSNO. This platform identified a subset of cysteine residues with a high propensity for GSNO-mediated transnitrosation. Functional characterization of previously unannotated S-nitrosation sites revealed that S-nitrosation of a cysteine residue distal to the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type 2 (HADH2) active site impaired catalytic activity. Similarly, S-nitrosation of a non-catalytic cysteine residue in the lysosomal aspartyl protease cathepsin D (CTSD) inhibited proteolytic activation. Together, these studies revealed two previously uncharacterized cysteine residues that regulate protein function, and established a chemical-proteomic platform with capabilities to determine substrate specificity of other cellular transnitrosation agents.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate Cathepsin-D (Cath-D) expression in different location and its relationship with prognosis in the axillary lymph nodes negative (ANN) breast cancer patients. Methods: Cath-D expression in 192 cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry. Depending on different parts of expression, three evaluating methods were used, compared and analysed. Results: The positive rate of Cath-D expression in ANN breast cancer with poor prognosis group and axillary nodes positive (ANP) group were significantly higher than that in ANN breast cancer with good prognosis group (x2=23.20, P0.05). Cath-D expression in stromal cells had no statistical difference among the three groups (x2=1.56, P>0.05). When the Cath-D expression in cancer and stromal cells were counted into the positive rate, it was near the same (u1=0.47, u2=1.41, P>0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that Cath-D expression is one of the powerful prognostic markers in ANN breast cancer. It's a reliable, practical, and convenient method to observe and evaluate Cath-D expression in cancer cells.

  11. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro


    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  12. Inhibition of Cathepsin B Alleviates Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Thalamus After Focal Cerebral Infarction in Adult Rats. (United States)

    Zuo, Xialin; Hou, Qinghua; Jin, Jizi; Zhan, Lixuan; Li, Xinyu; Sun, Weiwen; Lin, Kunqin; Xu, En


    Secondary degeneration in areas beyond ischemic foci can inhibit poststroke recovery. The cysteine protease Cathepsin B (CathB) regulates cell death and intracellular protein catabolism. To investigate the roles of CathB in the development of secondary degeneration in the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cerebral infarction, infarct volumes, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analyses were conducted in a distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) stroke model in adult rats. We observed marked neuron loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral thalamus after dMCAO, and the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in the VPN was significantly upregulated; glial cells were the major source of CathB. Although it had no effect on infarct volume, delayed intracerebroventricular treatment with the membrane-permeable CathB inhibitor CA-074Me suppressed the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in ipsilateral VPN and accordingly alleviated the secondary degeneration. These data indicate that CathB mediates a novel mechanism of secondary degeneration in the VPN of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cortical infarction and suggest that CathB might be a therapeutic target for the prevention of secondary degeneration in patients after stroke.

  13. Construction and evaluation of a chimeric protein made from Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase and cathepsin L1. (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, K; Sahagún-Ruiz, A; Vallecillo, A J; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Quiroz-Romero, H


    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and cathepsin L1 (CL1) are important enzymes for the pathogenesis and physiology of Fasciola hepatica. These enzymes were analysed in silico to design a chimeric protein containing the most antigenic sequences of LAP (GenBank; AAV59016.1; amino acids 192-281) and CL1 (GenBank CAC12806.1; amino acids 173-309). The cloned 681-bp chimeric fragment (rFhLAP-CL1) contains 270 bp from LAP and 411 bp from CL1, comprising three epitopes, DGRVVHLKY (amino acids 54-62) from LAP, VTGYYTVHSGSEVELKNLV (amino acids 119-137) and YQSQTCLPF (amino acids 161-169) from CL1. The ~25 kDa rFhLAP-CL1 chimeric protein was expressed from the pET15b plasmid in the Rosetta (DE3) Escherichia coli strain. The chimeric protein rFhLAP-CL1, which showed antigenic and immunogenic properties, was recognized in Western blot assays using F. hepatica-positive bovine sera, and induced strong, specific antibody responses following immunization in rabbits. The newly generated chimeric protein may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of antibodies against F. hepatica in bovine sera and as an immunogen to induce protection against bovine fasciolosis.

  14. Cathepsin L deficiency as molecular defect of furless: hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and pertubation of hair follicle cycling. (United States)

    Roth, W; Deussing, J; Botchkarev, V A; Pauly-Evers, M; Saftig, P; Hafner, A; Schmidt, P; Schmahl, W; Scherer, J; Anton-Lamprecht, I; Von Figura, K; Paus, R; Peters, C


    Lysosomal cysteine proteinases of the papain family are involved in lysosomal bulk proteolysis, major histocompatibility complex class II mediated antigen presentation, prohormone processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Cathepsin L (CTSL) is a ubiquitously expressed major representative of the papain-like family of cysteine proteinases. To investigate CTSL in vivo functions, the gene was inactivated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. CTSL-deficient mice develop periodic hair loss and epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, and hyperkeratosis. The hair loss is due to alterations of hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, dilatation of hair follicle canals, and disturbed club hair formation. Hyperproliferation of hair follicle epithelial cells and basal epidermal keratinocytes-both of ectodermal origin-are the primary characteristics underlying the mutant phenotype. Pathological inflammatory responses have been excluded as a putative cause of the skin and hair disorder. The phenotype of CTSL-deficient mice is reminiscent of the spontaneous mouse mutant furless (fs). Analyses of the ctsl gene of fs mice revealed a G149R mutation inactivating the proteinase activity. CTSL is the first lysosomal proteinase shown to be essential for epidermal homeostasis and regular hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling.

  15. Chemoproteomic profiling reveals that cathepsin D off-target activity drives ocular toxicity of β-secretase inhibitors (United States)

    Zuhl, Andrea M.; Nolan, Charles E.; Brodney, Michael A.; Niessen, Sherry; Atchison, Kevin; Houle, Christopher; Karanian, David A.; Ambroise, Claude; Brulet, Jeffrey W.; Beck, Elizabeth M.; Doran, Shawn D.; O'Neill, Brian T.; am Ende, Christopher W.; Chang, Cheng; Geoghegan, Kieran F.; West, Graham M.; Judkins, Joshua C.; Hou, Xinjun; Riddell, David R.; Johnson, Douglas S.


    Inhibition of β-secretase BACE1 is considered one of the most promising approaches for treating Alzheimer's disease. Several structurally distinct BACE1 inhibitors have been withdrawn from development after inducing ocular toxicity in animal models, but the target mediating this toxicity has not been identified. Here we use a clickable photoaffinity probe to identify cathepsin D (CatD) as a principal off-target of BACE1 inhibitors in human cells. We find that several BACE1 inhibitors blocked CatD activity in cells with much greater potency than that displayed in cell-free assays with purified protein. Through a series of exploratory toxicology studies, we show that quantifying CatD target engagement in cells with the probe is predictive of ocular toxicity in vivo. Taken together, our findings designate off-target inhibition of CatD as a principal driver of ocular toxicity for BACE1 inhibitors and more generally underscore the power of chemical proteomics for discerning mechanisms of drug action. PMID:27727204

  16. Proteolytic degradation by cathepsin D of glycated hemoglobin from diabetes patients gives rise to hemorphin-7 peptides. (United States)

    Feron, Delphine; Piot, Jean-Marie; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid


    Previous studies showed a significantly reduced level of hemorphins in the serum of diabetes patients. In order to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this anomaly, the influence of hemoglobin glycation on hemorphin generation was studied. The glycation of hemoglobin occurs in the blood of diabetes patients and this could modify its enzymatic digestion and the resulting proteolytic products. Several samples of hemoglobin were obtained from the blood of type 1 diabetes patients (n=8) and normal healthy control subjects (n=2). The glycated hemoglobin samples were classified on the basis of their HbA1c values expressed as a percentage of total hemoglobin. Four solutions of glycated hemoglobin characterized by HbA1c values of 6%, 9.1%, 10.7% and 12.1% were treated with cathepsin D and the hemorphins obtained following the proteolysis were compared to controls. It was found that hemorphins were produced whatever the level of glycation of hemoglobin and also that the degree of glycation had no effect on the quantity of hemorphins released. Thus the alteration of hemoglobin does not seem to be the essential reason for the decrease in hemorphin concentrations in the sera of diabetic patients.

  17. Immunolocalization and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. (United States)

    Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin


    In this study we have investigated the anatomic sites of expression and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The immunolocalization results revealed that native AC-cathBs were found present in the L1 and L3 larvae, female and male adults, and the AC-cathBs were localized mainly on the digestive tract of A. cantonensis and expressed at varied levels and in different patterns in the internal tissues according to their developmental stage. Consistent with the infective stage of L3 is a much more intense staining of AC-cathBs in the esophagus compared with the intestine. In contrast to L3, more abundant signals were located to the intestine of adults, suggesting that nutrition digestion likely to be the main function of the protease at this point. AC-cathBs fluorescent signals were present in excretory pore, excretory tube in lateral cords, and muscular esophagus of larvae, further supported the AC-cathB-1, -2 likely to be released by A. cantonensis as excretory/secretory products. Additionally, only the protein AC-cathB-2 was detected in the reproductive system, especially in the wall of vas deferens, uterus, and oviduct of the parasites, whether the AC-cathB-2 has some function in germ cells development and maturation need to be further characterized. Although the anatomic sites and expression patterns were different in larvae and adults and the corresponding function might not the same, AC-cathB-1 and -2 involved in the host-parasite interaction in addition to digestive function.

  18. Theoretical studies on the interaction between the nitrile-based inhibitors and the catalytic triad of Cathepsin K. (United States)

    Pitchumani Violet Mary, C; Shankar, R; Vijayakumar, S


    Computational studies on the interaction of novel inhibitor compounds with the Cathepsin K protease have been performed to study the inhibition properties of the inhibitor compounds. The quantum chemical calculations have been performed to analyze the molecular geometries, structural stability, reactivity, nature of interaction, and the charge transfer properties using B3LYP level of theory by implementing 6-311g(d,p) basis set. The calculated C-S and N-H…N bond lengths of the inhibitor-triad complexes are found to agree well with the previous literature results. The chemical reactivity of the inhibitors and catalytic triad are analyzed through frontier molecular orbital analysis and found that the inhibitors are subjected to nucleophilic attack by the catalytic triad. The nature of inhibition of the inhibitor compounds is examined using the quantum theory of Atoms in Molecules analysis and found to be partially covalent. The NBO stabilization energy for the Cys - inhibitor are found to be most stable than the other interactions. The molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the influence of dynamic of the active site on the QM results. The many body decomposition interaction energy calculated for the final results of MD simulation reveals that the dynamic of the active site induces significant changes in the interaction energy and occupancy of H-bonds plays a major role in the stabilizing the active site inhibitor interactions. The present study reveals that the inhibitor compounds can inhibit the proteolytic activity of the proteases on binding with the catalytic active site.

  19. Combined Detection of Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Acetyl Heparinase and Cathepsin L in Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xiao-xia Hu; Xing-zhi Yang; Qi Wang; Hong Cheng; Shu-mei Wang; Yan-ling Hu; Zhi-jun Yang; Li Li


    Objective:To investigate the clinic values of combining test of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9),acetyl heparinase (Hpa) and Cathepsin L (CL) in diagnosis of ovarian cancer.Methods:Serum levels of MMP-9,Hpa and CL were detected in a total of 418 cases,including 217 cases with ovarian malignant tumor,100 cases with ovarian benign tumor and 101 healthy controls,by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Their correlation with clinicopathologic feature of ovarian malignant tumor was analyzed and their diagnosis performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC).The combined diagnosis model was established by logistic regression analysis.Results:The serum levels of MMP-9,Hpa and CL were significantly higher in patients with ovarian malignant tumor than in benign tumor and healthy control,the serum levels of CL and Hpa were higher in epithelial cancer than in non-epithelial tumor,and MMP-9,Hpa and CL were elevated in low grade and advanced stage compared to high grade and early stage.The sensitivity for diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor from high to low was CL,Hpa and MMP-9,and the specificity was MMP-9,CL and Hpa.The united diagnosis model was established and showed the sensitivity and specificity of combined detection were 84.6% and 82.1%,respectively,which were significantly higher than a single tumor marker.Conclusion:Serum MMP-9,Hpa and CL were correlated with ovarian malignant tumor and the combined detection of which may be valuable for clinical diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor.

  20. Cathepsin K cleavage of SDF-1α inhibits its chemotactic activity towards glioblastoma stem-like cells. (United States)

    Hira, Vashendriya V V; Verbovšek, Urška; Breznik, Barbara; Srdič, Matic; Novinec, Marko; Kakar, Hala; Wormer, Jill; der Swaan, Britt Van; Lenarčič, Brigita; Juliano, Luiz; Mehta, Shwetal; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Lah, Tamara T


    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor patient survival that is at least partly caused by malignant and therapy-resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are protected in GSLC niches. Previously, we have shown that the chemo-attractant stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), its C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and the cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK) are localized in GSLC niches in glioblastoma. Here, we investigated whether SDF-1α is a niche factor that through its interactions with CXCR4 and/or its second receptor CXCR7 on GSLCs facilitates their homing to niches. Furthermore, we aimed to prove that SDF-1α cleavage by CatK inactivates SDF-1α and inhibits the invasion of GSLCs. We performed mass spectrometric analysis of cleavage products of SDF-1α after proteolysis by CatK. We demonstrated that CatK cleaves SDF-1α at 3 sites in the N-terminus, which is the region of SDF-1α that binds to its receptors. Confocal imaging of human GBM tissue sections confirmed co-localization of SDF-1α and CatK in GSLC niches. In accordance, 2D and 3D invasion experiments using CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs and GBM cells showed that SDF-1α had chemotactic activity whereas CatK cleavage products of SDF-1α did not. Besides, CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor inhibited invasion of CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs. In conclusion, CatK can cleave and inactivate SDF-1α. This implies that CatK activity facilitates migration of GSLCs out of niches. We propose that activation of CatK may be a promising strategy to prevent homing of GSLCs in niches and thus render these cells sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation.

  1. Profiling trait anxiety: transcriptome analysis reveals cathepsin B (Ctsb as a novel candidate gene for emotionality in mice.

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    Ludwig Czibere

    Full Text Available Behavioral endophenotypes are determined by a multitude of counteracting but precisely balanced molecular and physiological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to identify potential novel molecular targets that contribute to the multigenic trait "anxiety". We used microarrays to investigate the gene expression profiles of different brain regions within the limbic system of mice which were selectively bred for either high (HAB or low (LAB anxiety-related behavior, and also show signs of comorbid depression-like behavior. We identified and confirmed sex-independent differences in the basal expression of 13 candidate genes, using tissue from the entire brain, including coronin 7 (Coro7, cathepsin B (Ctsb, muscleblind-like 1 (Mbnl1, metallothionein 1 (Mt1, solute carrier family 25 member 17 (Slc25a17, tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2, zinc finger protein 672 (Zfp672, syntaxin 3 (Stx3, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A member 2 (Abca2, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 5 (Enpp5, high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 3 (Hmgn3 and pyruvate dehydrogenase beta (Pdhb. Additionally, we confirmed brain region-specific differences in the expression of synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4.Our identification of about 90 polymorphisms in Ctsb suggested that this gene might play a critical role in shaping our mouse model's behavioral endophenotypes. Indeed, the assessment of anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors of Ctsb knock-out mice revealed an increase in depression-like behavior in females. Altogether, our results suggest that Ctsb has significant effects on emotionality, irrespective of the tested mouse strain, making it a promising target for future pharmacotherapy.

  2. Advanced Glycation End Products Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inhibiting Cathepsin D (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ye; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Chen, Yintao; Zhang, Naijin; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian


    We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62. Immunofluorescence of p62 and acridine orange staining revealed that AGEs significantly increased the expression of p62 and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, respectively. Chloroquine (CQ) could further promote the expression of LC3 II/I and p62, increase the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and promote cell injury induced by AGEs. In addition, AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD) expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. However, overexpression of both wild-type CTSD and catalytically inactive mutant CTSD could promote the migration of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. Collectively, our study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Meanwhile, CTSD could improve the migration of AGEs-treated HUVECs regardless of its enzymatic activity. PMID:28218663

  3. Analysis of a novel cathepsin B circulating antigen and its response to drug treatment in Trichinella-infected mice. (United States)

    Zhan, Jian-hua; Yao, Jian-ping; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xu-chu; Wu, Zhong-dao; Zhou, Xing-wang


    In this paper, we cloned a novel full-length cDNA that encodes a Trichinella spiralis cathepsin B-like protease gene (TsCPB) using 3'-RACE PCR. The recombinant mature TsCPB protein (rTsCPB) was then expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that TsCPB was expressed across all development stages of the parasite but had the highest expression level during the adult stage. Furthermore, rTsCPB was detected in Trichinella excretory-secretory products with anti-rTsCPB rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Interestingly, rTsCPB was strongly recognized by the T. spiralis-infected sera in Western blotting, implying that TsCPB protein appeared in the peripheral blood of Trichinella-infected mice as circulating antigens (CAg). We then analyzed the dynamic levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibodies in T. spiralis-infected sera by using an improved double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect ELISA, respectively. The results showed that TsCPB CAg can be detected much earlier compared to antibody detection in Trichinella-infected mice. In addition, we monitored the effects of albendazole drug therapy (a dosage of 370 mg/kg body weight, twice a day) on T. spiralis-infected mice by detecting the levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibody in the sera of drug-treated mice. The results showed that the levels of CAg dramatically decreased after successful drug treatment, while the antibody level remained unchanged. Overall, the novel Trichinella antigen TsCPB could be a promising novel circulating antigen molecule for the detection of Trichinella infection and for monitoring the efficacy of drug treatment of trichinellosis.

  4. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Cathepsin C (Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase I of Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in Insect Cells

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    Gao-Feng Qiu


    Full Text Available Cathepsin C (CTSC is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Our previous study showed that CTSC precursor (zymogen is localized exclusively in cortical rods (CRs of mature oocyte in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, suggesting that CTSC might have roles on regulating release and/or formation of a jelly layer. In this study, enzymically active CTSC of the kuruma prawn was prepared by recombinant expression in the High Five insect cell line. The recombinant enzyme with a polyhistidine tag at its C-terminus was considered to be initially secreted into the culture medium as an inactive form of zymogen, because Western blot with anti-CTSC antibody detected a 51 kDa protein corresponding to CTSC precursor. After purification by affinity chromatography on nickel-iminodiacetic acid resin, the enzyme displayed three forms of 51, 31, and 30 kDa polypeptides. All of the forms can be recognized by antiserum raised against C-terminal polyhistidine tag, indicating that the 31 and 30 kDa forms were generated from 51 kDa polypeptide by removal of a portion of the N-terminus of propeptide. Following activation at pH 5.5 and 37∘C for 40 hours under native conditions, the recombinant CTSC (rCTSC exhibited increased activity against the synthetic substrate Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide and optimal pH at around 5. The purified rCTSC will be useful for further characterization of its exact physiological role on CRs release and/or formation of a jelly layer in kuruma prawn.

  5. Advanced Glycation End Products Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inhibiting Cathepsin D

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    Yuan Li


    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3 II/I and p62. Immunofluorescence of p62 and acridine orange staining revealed that AGEs significantly increased the expression of p62 and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, respectively. Chloroquine (CQ could further promote the expression of LC3 II/I and p62, increase the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and promote cell injury induced by AGEs. In addition, AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. However, overexpression of both wild-type CTSD and catalytically inactive mutant CTSD could promote the migration of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. Collectively, our study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Meanwhile, CTSD could improve the migration of AGEs-treated HUVECs regardless of its enzymatic activity.

  6. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

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    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C., E-mail:


    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  7. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae: A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

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    Taíse Fernanda da Silva Ferrara

    Full Text Available Huanglonbing (HLB is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB. DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae activates the proteinase cathepsin B to mediate the signaling activities of the NLRP3 and ASC-containing inflammasome. (United States)

    Duncan, Joseph A; Gao, Xi; Huang, Max Tze-Han; O'Connor, Brian P; Thomas, Christopher E; Willingham, Stephen B; Bergstralh, Daniel T; Jarvis, Gary A; Sparling, P Frederick; Ting, Jenny P-Y


    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted pathogen that significantly impacts female fertility, neonatal health, and transmission of HIV worldwide. N. gonorrhoeae usually causes localized inflammation of the urethra and cervix by inducing production of IL-1beta and other inflammatory cytokines. Several NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat) proteins are implicated in the formation of pro-IL-1beta-processing complexes called inflammasomes in response to pathogens. We demonstrate that NLRP3 (cryopyrin, NALP3) is the primary NLR required for IL-1beta/IL-18 secretion in response to N. gonorrhoeae in monocytes. We also show that N. gonorrhoeae infection promotes NLRP3-dependent monocytic cell death via pyronecrosis, a recently described pathway with morphological features of necrosis, including release of the strong inflammatory mediator HMBG1. Additionally, N. gonorrhoeae activates the cysteine protease cathepsin B as measured by the breakdown of a cathepsin B substrate. Inhibition of cathepsin B shows that this protease is an apical controlling step in the downstream activities of NLRP3 including IL-1beta production, pyronecrosis, and HMGB1 release. Nonpathogenic Neisseria strains (Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria flavescens) do not activate NLRP3 as robustly as N. gonorrhoeae. Conditioned medium from N. gonorrhoeae contains factors capable of initiating the NLRP3-mediated signaling events. Isolated N. gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide, a known virulence factor from this bacterium that is elaborated from the bacterium in the form of outer membrane blebs, activates both NLRP3-induced IL-1beta secretion and pyronecrosis. Our findings indicate that activation of NLRP3-mediated inflammatory response pathways is an important venue associated with host response and pathogenesis of N. gonorrhoeae.

  9. Characterization of the entire cystatin gene family in barley and their target cathepsin L-like cysteine-proteases, partners in the hordein mobilization during seed germination. (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel


    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds.

  10. New Natural Inhibitors of Human Cathepsin B%组织蛋白酶B的新型天然抑制剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾锐锐; 曾广智; 谭宁华; 周志宏; 张颖君


    组织蛋白酶B是木瓜蛋白酶类半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族的重要成员,它与人类多种疾病相关,尤其是在恶性肿瘤的侵袭转移过程中扮演了重要角色.通过随机筛选,发现了五个对组织蛋白酶B具有较好抑制活性的天然化合物prodelphinidin B-23'-O-gallate(1),prodelphinidin B-2(2),ImJcyarddin B-2(3),puexin A(4)和(-)epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(5),其IC50值分别为0.58,0.44,0.76,2.07和0.96umol/L.这五个抑制剂为黄烷醇类化合物,均为组织蛋白酶B的新型天然抑制剂.%Cathepsin B is an important member of the papain-like cysteine proteases. It has been implicated in the patholo-gy of many human diseaes, especially in the invading and metastasis of most malignant tumors. With random screening, five natural compounds, prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate(1),prodelphinidin B-2(2), procyanidin B-2(3),puerin A(4) and (-) epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(5), were found to shouw potent cathepsin B inhibitory activity with IC50s of 0.58,0.44,0.76,2.07and 0.96μmol/L, respectively. Inhibitors1-5 are found with chemotype of flavanols, which are new natural inhibitors of cathepsin B.

  11. Selective Cathepsin S Inhibition with MIV-247 Attenuates Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances the Antiallodynic Effects of Gabapentin and Pregabalin in a Mouse Model of Neuropathic Pain. (United States)

    Hewitt, Ellen; Pitcher, Thomas; Rizoska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Henderson, Ian; Sahlberg, Britt-Louise; Grabowska, Urszula; Classon, Björn; Edenius, Charlotte; Malcangio, Marzia; Lindström, Erik


    Cathepsin S inhibitors attenuate mechanical allodynia in preclinical neuropathic pain models. The current study evaluated the effects when combining the selective cathepsin S inhibitor MIV-247 with gabapentin or pregabalin in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Mice were rendered neuropathic by partial sciatic nerve ligation. MIV-247, gabapentin, or pregabalin were administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey hairs. Neurobehavioral side effects were evaluated by assessing beam walking. MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin concentrations in various tissues were measured. Oral administration of MIV-247 (100-200 µmol/kg) dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia by up to approximately 50% reversal when given as a single dose or when given twice daily for 5 days. No behavioral deficits were observed at any dose of MIV-247 tested. Gabapentin (58-350 µmol/kg) and pregabalin (63-377 µmol/kg) also inhibited mechanical allodynia with virtually complete reversal at the highest doses tested. The minimum effective dose of MIV-247 (100 µmol/kg) in combination with the minimum effective dose of pregabalin (75 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (146 µmol/kg) resulted in enhanced antiallodynic efficacy without augmenting side effects. A subeffective dose of MIV-247 (50 µmol/kg) in combination with a subeffective dose of pregabalin (38 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (73 µmol/kg) also resulted in substantial efficacy. Plasma levels of MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin were similar when given in combination as to when given alone. Cathepsin S inhibition with MIV-247 exerts significant antiallodynic efficacy alone, and also enhances the effect of gabapentin and pregabalin without increasing side effects or inducing pharmacokinetic interactions.

  12. Sub-lethal oxidative stress induces lysosome biogenesis via a lysosomal membrane permeabilization-cathepsin-caspase 3-transcription factor EB-dependent pathway. (United States)

    Leow, San Min; Chua, Shu Xian Serene; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Shen, Liang; Luo, Le; Clement, Marie-Veronique


    Here we provide evidence to link sub-lethal oxidative stress to lysosomal biogenesis. Exposure of cells to sub-lethal concentrations of exogenously added hydrogen peroxide resulted in cytosol to nuclear translocation of the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), the master controller of lysosome biogenesis and function. Nuclear translocation of TFEB was dependent upon the activation of a cathepsin-caspase 3 signaling pathway, downstream of a lysosomal membrane permeabilization and accompanied by a significant increase in lysosome numbers as well as induction of TFEB dependent lysosome-associated genes expression such as Ctsl, Lamp2 and its spliced variant Lamp2a, Neu1and Ctsb and Sqstm1 and Atg9b. The effects of sub-lethal oxidative stress on lysosomal gene expression and biogenesis were rescued upon gene silencing of caspase 3 and TFEB. Notably, caspase 3 activation was not associated with phenotypic hallmarks of apoptosis, evidenced by the absence of caspase 3 substrate cleavage, such as PARP, Lamin A/C or gelsolin. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time an unexpected and non-canonical role of a cathepsin-caspase 3 axis in the nuclear translocation of TFEB leading to lysosomes biogenesis under conditions of sub-lethal oxidative stress.

  13. Binding mode of CA074, a specific irreversible inhibitor, to bovine cathepsin B as determined by X-ray crystal analysis of the complex. (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Hara, T; Tomoo, K; Ishida, T; Fujii, T; Hata, Y; Murata, M; Kitamura, K


    The binding mode of CA074 [N-(L-3-trans-propylcarbamoyl-oxirane-2-carbonyl)-L-isoleucyl-L-pr oline], a specific irreversible inhibitor, to bovine spleen cathepsin B was elucidated by X-ray crystal structure analysis of the complex at 2.2 A resolution (conventional R=0.185). Inconsistently with our model used for the development of CA074, the L-isoleucyl-L-proline and propylcarbamoyl moieties are located at the S' and S subsites, respectively. This unexpected binding is primarily due to (i) similar extended chain conformations (due to the same S configurations) at the oxirane C2 and C3 atoms of CA074 and (ii) the just fit formation of double hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl oxygens of L-proline and the imidazole nitrogens of His-110 and His-111 residues (these residues are missing in papain, the tertiary structure of which was used for the design of CA074). The oxirane C3 atom possessing the P' substituent is covalently bound to the Cys-29 Sgamma atom (C3-Sgamma=1.79 A) and the S configuration is maintained. The present result will provide useful information for characterizing the substrate-specificity of cathepsin B.

  14. Cystein cathepsin and Hsp90 activities determine the balance between apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in caspase-compromised U937 cells. (United States)

    Imre, Gergely; Dunai, Zsuzsanna; Petak, Istvan; Mihalik, Rudolf


    Caspase-inhibited cells induced to die may exhibit the traits of either apoptosis or necrosis or both, simultaneously. However, mechanisms regulating the commitment to these distinct forms of cell death are barely identified. We found that staurosporine induced both apoptotic and necrotic traits in U937 cells exposed to the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone. Morphology and flow cytometry revealed that individual cells exhibited either apoptotic or necrotic traits, but not the mixed phenotype. Inhibition of cathepsin activity by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone rendered caspase-compromised cells resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, but switched the cell death form to necrosis. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) chaperon activity by geldanamycin conferred resistance to necrosis in caspase-compromised cells but switched the cell death form to apoptosis. Combination of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and geldanamycin halted the onset of both forms of cell death by saving mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and preventing acidic volume (lysosomes) loss. These effects of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and/or geldanamycin on cell death were restricted to caspase-inhibited cells exposed to staurosporine but influenced neither only the staurosporine-provoked apoptosis nor hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-generated necrosis. Our results demonstrate that the staurosporine-induced death pathway bifurcates in caspase-compromised cells and commitment to apoptotic or necrotic phenotypes depends on cathepsin protease or Hsp90 chaperon activities.

  15. The Feasibility of Enzyme Targeted Activation for Amino Acid/Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine; Cathepsin D as a Potential Targeted Enzyme

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    Gordon L. Amidon


    Full Text Available The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5¢-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0–105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5¢-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enyzmes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs.

  16. The C-terminal subunit of artificially truncated human cathepsin B mediates its nuclear targeting and contributes to cell viability

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    Dallner Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing variants of human cathepsinB primary transcripts (CB(-2,3 result in an expression product product which lacks the signal peptide and parts of the propeptide. This naturally truncated Δ51CB is thus unable to follow the regular CB processing and sorting pathway. It is addressed to the mitochondria through an activated N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal instead. Although Δ51CB is supposed to be devoid of the typical CB enzymatic activity, it might play a role in malignancies and trigger cell death/apoptosis independent from the function of the regular enzyme. Cytoplasmic presence of the mature CB might occur as a result of lysosomal damage. Results We investigated such "aberrant" proteins by artificial CB-GFP chimeras covering various sequence parts in respect to their enzymatic activity, their localization in different cell types, and the effects on the cell viability. Unlike the entire full length CB form, the artificial single chain form was not processed and did not reveal typical enzymatic CB activity during transient overexpression in large cell lung carcinoma cells. Δ51CB was found predominantly in mitochondria. In contrast, the shorter artificial CB constructs localized in the cytoplasm, inside the cell nucleus, and in the midbodies of dividing cells. Bleaching experiments revealed both mobile and immobile fractions of these constructs in the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of artificially truncated CB variants led to disintegration of nuclei, followed by cell death. Conclusion We propose that cell death associated with CB is not necessarily triggered by its regular enzymatic activity but alternatively by a yet unknown activity profile of truncated CB. Cytoplasmic CB might be able to enter the cell nucleus. According to a mutational analysis, the part of CB that mediates its nuclear import is a signal patch within its heavy chain domain. The results suggest that besides the N-terminal signal peptide also

  17. Proteolytic degradation of glutamate decarboxylase mediates disinhibition of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells in cathepsin D-deficient mice. (United States)

    Shimizu, Tokiko; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Yamada, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Ukai, Kiyoharu; Koike, Masato; Mine, Kazunori; von Figura, Kurt; Peters, Christoph; Saftig, Paul; Fukuda, Takaichi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi


    Although of clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism of seizure in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). In the present study, we have attempted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the seizure of cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) mice that show a novel type of lysosomal storage disease with a phenotype resembling late infantile NCL. In hippocampal slices prepared from CD-/- mice at post-natal day (P)24, spontaneous burst discharges were recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells. At P24, the mean amplitude of IPSPs after stimulation of the mossy fibres was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice, which was substantiated by the decreased level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in the hippocampus measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At this stage, activated microglia were found to accumulate in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice. However, there was no significant change in the numerical density of GABAergic interneurons in the CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice at P24, estimated by counting the number of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive somata. In the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice at P24, some GABAergic interneurons displayed extremely high somatic granular immunoreactivites for GAD67, suggesting the lysosomal accumulation of GAD67. GAD67 levels in axon terminals abutting on to perisomatic regions of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells was not significantly changed in CD-/- mice even at P24, whereas the total protein levels of GAD67 in both the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice after P24 were significantly decreased as a result of degradation. Furthermore, the recombinant human GAD65/67 was rapidly digested by the lysosomal fraction prepared from the whole brain of wild-type and CD-/- mice. These observations strongly suggest that the reduction of GABA contents, presumably because of lysosomal degradation of GAD67 and lysosomal accumulation of its degraded forms

  18. Hormonal-receptor positive breast cancer: IL-6 augments invasion and lymph node metastasis via stimulating cathepsin B expression

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    Sherif A. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Hormonal-receptor positive (HRP breast cancer patients with positive metastatic axillary lymph nodes are characterized by poor prognosis and increased mortality rate. The mechanisms by which cancer cells invade lymph nodes have not yet been fully explored. Several studies have shown that expression of IL-6 and the proteolytic enzyme cathepsin B (CTSB was associated with breast cancer poor prognosis. In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of recombinant human IL-6 on the invasiveness capacity of HRP breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was tested using an in vitro invasion chamber assay. The impact of IL-6 on expression and activity of CTSB was also investigated. IL-6 treatment promoted the invasiveness potential of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells displayed elevated CTSB expression and activity associated with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin protein levels upon IL-6 stimulation. To validate these results in vivo, the level of expression of IL-6 and CTSB in the carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer patients with positive and negative axillary metastatic lymph nodes (pLNs and nLNs was assessed. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining data showed that expression of IL-6 and CTSB was higher in carcinoma tissues in HRP-breast cancer with pLNs than those with nLNs patients. ELISA results showed carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer with pLNs exhibited significantly elevated IL-6 protein levels by approximately 2.8-fold compared with those with nLNs patients (P < 0.05. Interestingly, a significantly positive correlation between IL-6 and CTSB expression was detected in clinical samples of HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs (r = 0.78, P < 0.01. Collectively, this study suggests that IL-6-induced CTSB may play a role in lymph node metastasis, and that may possess future therapeutic implications for HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs. Further studies are necessary to fully

  19. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption.

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    Zhong-Yuan Ren

    Full Text Available The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK, abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices.Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10-100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed

  20. Dissecting the active site of the collagenolytic cathepsin L3 protease of the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica.

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    Ileana Corvo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A family of secreted cathepsin L proteases with differential activities is essential for host colonization and survival in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica. While the blood feeding adult secretes predominantly FheCL1, an enzyme with a strong preference for Leu at the S2 pocket of the active site, the infective stage produces FheCL3, a unique enzyme with collagenolytic activity that favours Pro at P2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a novel unbiased multiplex substrate profiling and mass spectrometry methodology (MSP-MS, we compared the preferences of FheCL1 and FheCL3 along the complete active site cleft and confirm that while the S2 imposes the greatest influence on substrate selectivity, preferences can be indicated on other active site subsites. Notably, we discovered that the activity of FheCL1 and FheCL3 enzymes is very different, sharing only 50% of the cleavage sites, supporting the idea of functional specialization. We generated variants of FheCL1 and FheCL3 with S2 and S3 residues by mutagenesis and evaluated their substrate specificity using positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL. Besides the rare P2 Pro preference, FheCL3 showed a distinctive specificity at the S3 pocket, accommodating preferentially the small Gly residue. Both P2 Pro and P3 Gly preferences were strongly reduced when Trp67 of FheCL3 was replaced by Leu, rendering the enzyme incapable of digesting collagen. In contrast, the inverse Leu67Trp substitution in FheCL1 only slightly reduced its Leu preference and improved Pro acceptance in P2, but greatly increased accommodation of Gly at S3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data reveal the significance of S2 and S3 interactions in substrate binding emphasizing the role for residue 67 in modulating both sites, providing a plausible explanation for the FheCL3 collagenolytic activity essential to host invasion. The unique specificity of FheCL3 could be exploited in the design of

  1. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs. (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia


    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.

  2. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis]. (United States)

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko


    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  3. Association of polymorphisms in calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit, calpastatin, and cathepsin D genes with meat quality traits in double-muscled Piemontese cattle. (United States)

    Ribeca, Cinzia; Bonfatti, Valentina; Cecchinato, Alessio; Albera, Andrea; Maretto, Fabio; Gallo, Luigi; Carnier, Paolo


    Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), and cathepsin D (CTSD) genes were analyzed in a large sample of Piemontese cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate allele and genotype frequencies of these SNPs and to investigate associations of CAPN1, CAST, and CTSD gene variants with meat quality traits. Minor allele frequencies ranged from 30 to 48%. The presence of the A allele at CAPN530 increased yellowness and drip loss. The CAST282 G allele was associated with an increased drip loss compared to the C allele, and the CAST2959 A allele decreased redness compared to the G allele.

  4. Human macrophages infected with a high burden of ESAT-6-expressing M. tuberculosis undergo caspase-1- and cathepsin B-independent necrosis.

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    Amanda Welin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infects lung macrophages, which instead of killing the pathogen can be manipulated by the bacilli, creating an environment suitable for intracellular replication and spread to adjacent cells. The role of host cell death during Mtb infection is debated because the bacilli have been shown to be both anti-apoptotic, keeping the host cell alive to avoid the antimicrobial effects of apoptosis, and pro-necrotic, killing the host macrophage to allow infection of neighboring cells. Since mycobacteria activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, we investigated whether Mtb could induce one of the recently described inflammasome-linked cell death modes pyroptosis and pyronecrosis. These are mediated through caspase-1 and cathepsin-B, respectively. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent (H37Rv Mtb at a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1 or 10. The higher MOI resulted in strongly enhanced release of IL-1β, while a low MOI gave no IL-1β response. The infected macrophages were collected and cell viability in terms of the integrity of DNA, mitochondria and the plasma membrane was determined. We found that infection with H37Rv at MOI 10, but not MOI 1, over two days led to extensive DNA fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and HMGB1 release. Although we observed plasma membrane permeabilization and IL-1β release from infected cells, the cell death induced by Mtb was not dependent on caspase-1 or cathepsin B. It was, however, dependent on mycobacterial expression of ESAT-6. We conclude that as virulent Mtb reaches a threshold number of bacilli inside the human macrophage, ESAT-6-dependent necrosis occurs, activating caspase-1 in the process.

  5. Assessment of cathepsin D and L-like proteinases of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), as potential vaccine antigens. (United States)

    Bartley, Kathryn; Huntley, John F; Wright, Harry W; Nath, Mintu; Nisbet, Alasdair J


    Vaccination is a feasible strategy for controlling the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. A cDNA library enriched for genes upregulated after feeding was created to identify potential vaccine antigens. From this library, a gene (Dg-CatD-1) encoding a 383 amino acid protein (Dg-CatD-1) with homology to cathepsin D lysosomal aspartyl proteinases was identified as a potential vaccine candidate. A second gene (Dg-CatL-1) encoding a 341 amino acid protein (Dg-CatL-1) with homology to cathepsin L cysteine proteinases was also selected for further study. IgY obtained from naturally infested hens failed to detect Dg-CatD-1 suggesting that it is a concealed antigen. Conversely, Dg-CatL-1 was detected by IgY derived from natural-infestation, indicating that infested hens are exposed to Dg-CatL-1. Mortality rates 120 h after mites had been fed anti-Dg-CatD-1 were significantly higher than those fed control IgY (PF<0·01). In a survival analysis, fitting a proportional hazards model to the time of death of mites, anti-Dg-CatD-1 and anti-Dg-CatL-1 IgY had 4·42 and 2·13 times higher risks of dying compared with controls (PF<0·05). Dg-CatD-1 and L-1 both have potential as vaccine antigens as part of a multi-component vaccine and have the potential to be improved as vaccine antigens using alternative expression systems.

  6. Internalization of exogenous cystatin F supresses cysteine proteases and induces the accumulation of single-chain cathepsin L by multiple mechanisms. (United States)

    Colbert, Jeff D; Matthews, Stephen P; Kos, Janko; Watts, Colin


    Cystatin F is an unusual member of the cystatin family of protease inhibitors, which is made as an inactive dimer and becomes activated by proteolysis in the endo/lysosome pathway of the immune cells that produce it. However a proportion is secreted and can be taken up and activated by other cells. We show here that cystatin F acquired in this way induces a dramatic accumulation of the single-chain form of cathepsin L (CatL). Cystatin F was observed in the same cellular compartments as CatL and was tightly complexed with CatL as determined by co-precipitation studies. The observed accumulation of single-chain CatL was partly due to cystatin F-mediated inhibition of the putative single-chain to two-chain CatL convertase AEP/legumain and partly to general suppression of cathepsin activity. Thus, cystatin F stabilizes CatL leading to the dramatic accumulation of an inactive complex composed either of the single-chain or two-chain form depending on the capacity of cystatin F to inhibit AEP. Cross-transfer of cystatin F from one cell to another may therefore attenuate potentially harmful effects of excessive CatL activity while paradoxically, inducing accumulation of CatL protein. Finally, we confirmed earlier data (Beers, C., Honey, K., Fink, S., Forbush, K., and Rudensky, A. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 197, 169-179) showing a loss of CatL activity, but not of CatL protein, in macrophages activated with IFNγ. However, we found equivalent loss of CatL activity in wild type and cystatin F-null macrophages suggesting that an inhibitory activity other than cystatin F quenches CatL activity in activated macrophages.

  7. Upregulation of cathepsin W-expressing T cells is specific for autoimmune atrophic gastritis compared to other types of chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doerthe Kuester; Michael Vieth; Ulrich Peitz; Stefan Kahl; Manfred Stolte; Albert Roessner; Ekkehard Weber; Peter Malfertheiner; Thomas Wex


    AIM: To investigate a pathophysiological role of cathepsin W (CatW), a putative thiol-dependent cysteine protease,which is specifically expressed in cytotoxic lymphocytes,in different types of chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa.METHODS: Gastric and duodenal biopsies of patients with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-associated active gastritis ( Hp,n = 19), chemically induced reactive gastritis (CG, n = 17),autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AIG, n = 20), lymphocytic corpus gastritis (LG, n = 29), celiac disease (CD, n = 10),and corresponding controls (n = 24) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CatW and CD45. Furthermore, immunohistochemical double staining with anti-CD3 and anti-cathepsin was performed for the samples of AIG.RESULTS: Median values of CatW-expressing cells among CD45-positive immune cells were between 2% and 6% for normal gastric mucosa, CG, and LG, whereas the corresponding value was significantly increased for AIG (24.7%, P<0.001) and significantly decreased for HP (0.7%, P<0.05). Double staining with anti-CD3 and antiCatW antibodies revealed that >90% of CatW-expressing cells in gastric mucosa of AIG were T cells. Duodenal mucosa had significantly more CatW/CD45-positive cells than normal gastric mucosa (median: 17.8% vs 2%, P<0.01).The corresponding proportion of CatW/CD45-positive cells was decreased in CD compared to duodenal mucosa (median: 2.1% vs 17.8%, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The opposite findings regarding the presence of CatW-positive cells in AIG (increase) and CD (decrease) reflects the different cellular composition of immune cells involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  8. Chemical evidence for the pH-dependent control of ion-pair geometry in cathepsin B. Benzofuroxan as a reactivity probe sensitive to differences in the mutual disposition of the thiolate and imidazolium components of cysteine proteinase catalytic sites. (United States)

    Willenbrock, F; Brocklehurst, K


    Benzofuroxan reacts with the catalytic-site thiol group of cathepsin B (EC to produce stoichiometric amount of the chromophoric reduction product, o-benzoquinone dioxime. In a study of the pH-dependence of the kinetics of this reaction, most data were collected for the bovine spleen enzyme, but the more limited data collected for the rat liver enzyme were closely similar both in the magnitude of the values of the second-order rate constants (k) and in the shape of the pH-k profile. In acidic and weakly alkaline media, the reaction is faster than the reactions of benzofuroxan with some other cysteine proteinases. For example, in the pH region around 5-6, the reaction of cathepsin B is about 10 times faster than that of papain, 15 times faster than that of stem bromelain and 6 times faster than that of ficin. The pH-dependence of k for the reaction of cathepsin B with benzofuroxan was determined in the pH range 2.7-8.3. In marked contrast with the analogous reactions of papain, ficin and stem bromelain [reported by Shipton & Brocklehurst (1977) Biochem. J. 167, 799-810], the pH-k profile for the cathepsin B reaction contains a sigmoidal component with pKa 5.2 in which k increases with decrease in pH. This modulation of the reactivity of the catalytic-site -S-/-ImH+ ion-pair state of cathepsin B (produced by protonic dissociation from -SH/-ImH+ with pKa approx. 3) towards a small, rigid, electrophilic reagent, in a reaction that appears to involve both components of the ion-pair for efficient reaction, suggests that the state of ionization of a group associated with a molecular pKa of approx. 5 may control ion-pair geometry. This might account for the remarkable finding [reported by Willenbrock & Brocklehurst (1984) Biochem. J. 222, 805-814] that, although the ion-pair appears to be generated in cathepsin B as the pH is increased across pKa 3.4, catalytic competence is not generated until the pH is increased across pKa 5-6.

  9. 香蕉穿孔线虫组织蛋白酶B基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of cathepsin B gene of Radopholus similis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹蕾; 李宇; 谢辉; 徐春玲; 黄欣


    为了获得香蕉穿孔线虫的组织蛋白酶B基因,分析该基因的序列、结构及其功能,为进一步研究植物寄生线虫组织蛋白酶的功能及其在线虫防治中的应用提供科学依据.我们应用SMART技术构建了香蕉穿孔线虫cDNA文库;采用SL法,克隆得到香蕉穿孔线虫组织蛋白酶B基因全长cDNA,通过测序获得1 257 bp全长序列,命名为Rs-cb-1 (GenBank:GU360972),该基因cDNA全长序列包括1 071 bp的完整ORF,编码356个氨基酸,蛋白质相对分子质量为41 400.对该基因的序列结构及其编码的蛋白2级结构和三维结构与功能进行分析和预测结果表明,Rs-cb-1序列与其他寄生虫的组织蛋白酶B基因序列相比,该基因与秀丽小杆线虫组织蛋白酶B基因的亲缘关系最近;其编码蛋白主要为细胞外分泌蛋白,定位于微体(过氧化物酶体)、内质网膜和内质网管腔上,约有25个氨基酸跨膜区段位于蛋白质的C端,其表面电荷呈明显的极性分布;另外,通过同源建模获得该蛋白的三维结构预测图,这些结构与已报道的组织蛋白酶B生物学功能相符.本研究分离克隆得到的Rs-cb-1,是首个分离克隆得到的香蕉穿孔线虫组织蛋白酶B基因,从而为该线虫组织蛋白酶的进一步研究奠定了基础.%The banana burrowing nematode,Radopholus similis,is a migratory endoparasite plant nematode and severely harms many tropical and subtropical crops.It is the most important invasive species to banana worldwide,and is listed as a quarantine pest in many countries.Nematicide have been used as the main approach to control R.similis.However,due to the high toxicity,nematicide has led to many environmental problems.Now,gene targeting has become a new sustainable strategy to control plant nematode.Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease,and it occurs in a wide range of parasitic and free-living nematodes.It has been demonstrated that cathepsin B plays a very important role in

  10. Neutral and ionic platinum compounds containing a cyclometallated chiral primary amine: synthesis, antitumor activity, DNA interaction and topoisomerase I-cathepsin B inhibition. (United States)

    Albert, Joan; Bosque, Ramon; Crespo, Margarita; Granell, Jaume; López, Concepción; Martín, Raquel; González, Asensio; Jayaraman, Anusha; Quirante, Josefina; Calvis, Carme; Badía, Josefa; Baldomà, Laura; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Cascante, Marta; Messeguer, Ramon


    The synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of neutral and cationic platinum derivatives of chiral 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine are reported, namely cycloplatinated neutral complexes [PtCl{(R or S)-NH(2)CH(CH(3))C(10)H(6)}(L)] [L = SOMe(2) ( 1-R or 1-S ), L = PPh(3) (2-R or 2-S), L = P(4-FC(6)H(4))(3) (3-R), L = P(CH(2))(3)N(3)(CH(2))(3) (4-R)], cycloplatinated cationic complexes [Pt{(R)-NH(2)CH(CH(3))C(10)H(6)}{L}]Cl [L = Ph(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PPh(2) (5-R), L = (C(6)F(5))(2)PCH(2)CH(2)P(C(6)F(5))(2) (6-R)] and the Pt(ii) coordination compound trans-[PtCl(2){(R)-NH(2)CH(CH(3))C(10)H(6)}(2)] (7-R). The X-ray molecular structure of 7-R is reported. The cytotoxic activity against a panel of human adenocarcinoma cell lines (A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast, and HCT-116 colon), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, DNA interaction, topoisomerase I and cathepsin B inhibition, and Pt cell uptake of the studied compounds are presented. Remarkable cytotoxicity was observed for most of the synthesized Pt(ii) compounds regardless of (i) the absolute configuration R or S, and (ii) the coordinated/cyclometallated (neutral or cationic) nature of the complexes. The most potent compound 2-R (IC(50) = 270 nM) showed a 148-fold increase in potency with regard to cisplatin in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Preliminary biological results point out to different biomolecular targets for the investigated compounds. Neutral cyclometallated complexes 1-R and 2-R, modify the DNA migration as cisplatin, cationic platinacycle 5-R was able to inhibit topoisomerase I-promoted DNA supercoiling, and Pt(ii) coordination compound 7-R turned out to be the most potent inhibitor of cathepsin B. Induction of G-1 phase ( 2-R and 5-R ), and S and G-2 phases (6-R) arrests are related to the antiproliferative activity of some representative compounds upon A-549 cells. Induction of apoptosis is also observed for 2-R and 6-R.

  11. 短蛸自溶中组织蛋白酶L样蛋白酶的活性及分布变化%Changes in Activity and Distribution of Cathepsin L-Like Proteases in Autolytic Octopus (Octopus ocellatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓旺; 宗媛; 林竹一; 李冬梅; 周大勇


    The contents of water‐soluble total proteins and collagen proteins ,as well as the activities of endogenous total proteases and cathepsin L‐like proteases were determined in arm muscle of the autolytic octopus induced by ultraviolet (UV ) . Results showed that the octopus became insensitive after UV irradiation .The body of octopus became softened ,and mucoid degeneration took place in epidermis and subcutaneous tissue .The changes in external appearance indicated that autolysis took place .Along with autolysis ,the contents of water‐soluble total proteins and collagen proteins were found to be increased , indicating degradation of structural proteins .At the same time ,the activities of endogenous total proteases and cathepsin L‐like proteases tissue were increased in tissues in wnit mass .The distribution of cathepsin L‐like proteases in arm muscle of the autolytic octopus was in homogeneous . The stained spots of cathepsin L‐like proteases were dense in myocardial trabeculation ,but were relatively sparse in muscle fibers .Along with the progress of autolysis ,the stained spots of cathepsin L‐like proteases were scattered and eventually disappeared ,indicating the dispersion of cathepsin L‐like proteases in tissue .The findings indicated that the endogenous proteases , cathepsin L‐like proteases as representive , took part in the autolysis of octopus .%采用紫外线照射诱导短蛸自溶,检测腕部肌肉组织可溶性蛋白及可溶性胶原蛋白含量变化,监测内源总蛋白酶及内源组织蛋白酶L样蛋白酶活性变化,并应用免疫组织化学法揭示组织蛋白酶L样蛋白酶的组织分布变化。结果显示,短蛸经紫外线照射后,状态迟钝,机体瘫软,表皮及皮下组织发生黏液化,表明发生自溶。随着自溶时间的延长,可溶性总蛋白及可溶性胶原蛋白含量逐渐增加,表明结构蛋白发生降解;单位质量组织的内源蛋白酶总活力及组织蛋

  12. Distribution of Cathepsin K in Late Stage of Tooth Germ Development and Its Function in Degrading Enamel Matrix Proteins in Mouse. (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Fen; Wang, Wei-Guang; Jiang, Xin; Wen, Xuan; Hu, Kai-Jin; Xue, Yang


    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of cysteine proteinase family, and is predominantly expressed in osteoclastsfor degradationof bone matrix proteins. Given the similarity in physical properties of bone and dental mineralized tissues, including enamel, dentin and cementum, CTSK is likely to take part in mineralization process during odontogenesis. On the other hand, patients with pycnodysostosis caused by mutations of the CTSK gene displayedmultipledental abnormalities, such as hypoplasia of the enamel, obliterated pulp chambers, hypercementosis and periodontal disease. Thereforeitis necessary to study the metabolic role of CTSK in tooth matrix proteins. In this study, BALB/c mice at embryonic day 18 (E18), post-natal day 1 (P1), P5, P10 and P20 were used (5 mice at each time point)for systematic analyses of CTSK expression in the late stage of tooth germ development. We found that CTSK was abundantly expressed in the ameloblasts during secretory and maturation stages (P5 and P10) by immunohistochemistry stainings.During dentinogenesis, the staining was also intense in the mineralization stage (P5 and P10),but not detectable in the early stage of dentin formation (P1) and after tooth eruption (P20).Furthermore, through zymography and digestion test in vitro, CTSK was proved to be capable of hydrolyzing Emdogain and also cleaving Amelogenininto multiple products. Our resultsshed lights on revealing new functions of CTSK and pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis in oral tissues.

  13. Cytosol cathepsin-D content and proliferative activity of human breast cancer. The Comitato Italiano per il Controllo di Qualita del Laboratorio in Oncologia. (United States)

    Paradiso, A; Mangia, A; Correale, M; Abbate, I; Ferri, G; Piffanelli, A; Catozzi, L; Amadori, D; Riccobon, A; De Lena, M


    Mitogenic properties have been demonstrated in vitro for the lysosomal acidic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D). We investigated possible relationships between cath-D cytosol cell content and tumor proliferative activity in a series of 129 operable breast cancer patients. For total cytosol cath-D evaluation, a solid phase two-site immunoradiometric assay was utilized on tumor cell cytosol obtained for hormone receptor assay (DCC method). The percentage of S-phase cells was analyzed by 3H-thymidine autoradiographic assay. Median 3H-thymidine Labeling Index (3H-Tdr-LI) of the series was 2.7%; median cath-D content resulted 57 pmol/mg of protein cytosol and was significantly higher in node-positive with respect to the node-negative subgroup (p < 0.03). When classified in low, intermediate or high tumor cath-D content and slow or fast proliferative activity (cut-off: median values of the series), no significant agreement was found between the two variables. Statistical analysis, however, showed that a significant inverse correlation existed in node positive tumors between cath-D and 3H-Tdr-LI values which was even more evident in N-positive high estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cases (coefficient of correlation = 0.6828; p = 0.0001). Cytosol cath-D content cannot be generally proposed as a direct marker of proliferative activity for operable breast cancer.

  14. A replacement of the active-site aspartic acid residue 293 in mouse cathepsin D affects its intracellular stability, processing and transport in HEK-293 cells. (United States)

    Partanen, Sanna; Storch, Stephan; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Hasilik, Andrej; Tyynelä, Jaana; Braulke, Thomas


    The substitution of an active-site aspartic acid residue by asparagine in the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CTSD) results in a loss of enzyme activity and severe cerebrocortical atrophy in a novel form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in sheep [Tyynelä, Sohar, Sleat, Gin, Donnelly, Baumann, Haltia and Lobel (2000) EMBO J. 19, 2786-2792]. In the present study we have introduced the corresponding mutation by replacing aspartic acid residue 293 with asparagine (D293N) into the mouse CTSD cDNA to analyse its effect on synthesis, transport and stability in transfected HEK-293 cells. The complete inactivation of mutant D293N mouse CTSD was confirmed by a newly developed fluorimetric quantification system. Moreover, in the heterologous overexpression systems used, mutant D293N mouse CTSD was apparently unstable and proteolytically modified during early steps of the secretory pathway, resulting in a loss of mass by about 1 kDa. In the affected sheep, the endogenous mutant enzyme was stable but also showed the shift in its molecular mass. In HEK-293 cells, the transport of the mutant D293N mouse CTSD to the lysosome was delayed and associated with a low secretion rate compared with wild-type CTSD. These data suggest that the mutation may result in a conformational change which affects stability, processing and transport of the enzyme. PMID:12350228

  15. Comparative assessment of ELISAs using recombinant saposin-like protein 2 and recombinant cathepsin L-1 from Fasciola hepatica for the serodiagnosis of human Fasciolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gottstein


    Full Text Available Two recombinant Fasciola hepatica antigens, saposin-like protein-2 (recSAP2 and cathepsin L-1 (recCL1, were assessed individually and in combination in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the specific serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis in areas of low endemicity as encountered in Central Europe. Antibody detection was conducted using ProteinA/ProteinG (PAG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Test characteristics as well as agreement with results from an ELISA using excretory-secretory products (FhES from adult stage liver flukes was assessed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis, specificity, sensitivity, Youdens J and overall accuracy. Cross-reactivity was assessed using three different groups of serum samples from healthy individuals (n=20, patients with other parasitic infections (n=87 and patients with malignancies (n=121. The best combined diagnostic results for recombinant antigens were obtained using the recSAP2-ELISA (87% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% overall accuracy employing the threshold (cut-off to discriminate between positive and negative reactions that maximized Youdens J. The findings showed that recSAP2-ELISA can be used for the routine serodiagnosis of chronic fasciolosis in clinical laboratories; the use of the PAG-conjugate offers the opportunity to employ, for example, rabbit hyperimmune serum for the standardization of positive controls.

  16. Dichloroacetate induces protective autophagy in LoVo cells: involvement of cathepsin D/thioredoxin-like protein 1 and Akt-mTOR-mediated signaling. (United States)

    Gong, F; Peng, X; Sang, Y; Qiu, M; Luo, C; He, Z; Zhao, X; Tong, A


    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), and recently it has been shown as a promising nontoxic antineoplastic agent. In this study, we demonstrated that DCA could induce autophagy in LoVo cells, which were confirmed by the formation of autophagosomes, appearance of punctate patterns of LC3 immunoreactivity and activation of autophagy associated proteins. Moreover, autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Atg7 siRNA treatment can significantly enhance DCA-induced apoptosis. To determine the underlying mechanism of DCA-induced autophagy, target identification using drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) coupled with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis were utilized to profile differentially expressed proteins between control and DCA-treated LoVo cells. As a result, Cathepsin D (CTSD) and thioredoxin-like protein 1 (TXNL1) were identified with significant alterations compared with control. Further study indicated that DCA treatment significantly promoted abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. On the other hand, DCA-triggered autophagy could be attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrated that the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, a major negative regulator of autophagy, was suppressed by DCA treatment. To our knowledge, it was the first study to show that DCA induced protective autophagy in LoVo cells, and the potential mechanisms were involved in ROS imbalance and Akt-mTOR signaling pathway suppression.

  17. NMR characterization and conformational analysis of a potent papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitor with different behaviour in polar and apolar media (United States)

    Rotondo, Archimede; Ettari, Roberta; Zappalà, Maria; De Micheli, Carlo; Rotondo, Enrico


    We recently reported the synthesis, of a potent papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitor, as new lead compound for the development of new drugs that can be used as antiprotozoal agents. The investigation of its conformational profile is crucial for the in-depth understanding of its biological behaviour. Our careful NMR analysis has been based on the complete and total assignment of 1H, 13C, 15N and 19F signals of the molecule in both CDCl3 and CD3OH, which could reproduce in some way a scenario of polar and not polar phases into the biological environment. In this way it has been unveiled a different behaviour of the molecule in polar and apolar media. In CDCl3 it is possible to define stable conformational arrangements on the basis of the detected through space contacts, whereas, in CD3OH a greater conformational freedom is envisaged: (a) by the overlap of any of the CH2 diastereotopic resonances (unable to distinguish asymmetric molecular sides because of the free rotation about the single bonded chains), (b) by the less definite measured vicinities not consistent with just one conformation and (c) by the evident loss or switching of key intramolecular hydrogen interactions.

  18. Cathepsin-D, a key protease in breast cancer, is up-regulated in obese mouse and human adipose tissue, and controls adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Masson

    Full Text Available The aspartic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D is overexpressed by human epithelial breast cancer cells and is closely correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The adipocyte is one of the most prominent cell types in the tumor-microenvironment of breast cancer, and clinical studies have shown that obesity increases the incidence of breast cancer. Here, we provide the first evidence that cath-D expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue from obese human beings, as well as in adipocytes from the obese C57BI6/J mouse. Cath-D expression is also increased during human and mouse adipocyte differentiation. We show that cath-D silencing in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes leads to lipid-depleted cells after adipogenesis induction, and inhibits of the expression of PPARγ, HSL and aP2 adipocyte differentiation markers. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the key role of cath-D in the control of adipogenesis, and suggest that cath-D may be a novel target in obesity.

  19. Distribution of Cathepsin K in Late Stage of Tooth Germ Development and Its Function in Degrading Enamel Matrix Proteins in Mouse (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Fen; Wang, Wei-Guang; Jiang, Xin; Wen, Xuan; Hu, Kai-Jin; Xue, Yang


    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of cysteine proteinase family, and is predominantly expressed in osteoclastsfor degradationof bone matrix proteins. Given the similarity in physical properties of bone and dental mineralized tissues, including enamel, dentin and cementum, CTSK is likely to take part in mineralization process during odontogenesis. On the other hand, patients with pycnodysostosis caused by mutations of the CTSK gene displayedmultipledental abnormalities, such as hypoplasia of the enamel, obliterated pulp chambers, hypercementosis and periodontal disease. Thereforeitis necessary to study the metabolic role of CTSK in tooth matrix proteins. In this study, BALB/c mice at embryonic day 18 (E18), post-natal day 1 (P1), P5, P10 and P20 were used (5 mice at each time point)for systematic analyses of CTSK expression in the late stage of tooth germ development. We found that CTSK was abundantly expressed in the ameloblasts during secretory and maturation stages (P5 and P10) by immunohistochemistry stainings.During dentinogenesis, the staining was also intense in the mineralization stage (P5 and P10),but not detectable in the early stage of dentin formation (P1) and after tooth eruption (P20).Furthermore, through zymography and digestion test in vitro, CTSK was proved to be capable of hydrolyzing Emdogain and also cleaving Amelogenininto multiple products. Our resultsshed lights on revealing new functions of CTSK and pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis in oral tissues. PMID:28095448

  20. 小眼畸形转录因子和c-Met及组织蛋白酶-K在黑色素病变中的表达及意义%Expressions and significances of microphthalmia transcription factor, c-Met and cathepsin-K in malignant melanoma and nevi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良; 张正祥; 吴波; 缪国良; 饶秋


    目的 探讨小眼畸形转录因子(microphthalmia transcription factor,MITF)、e-Met和组织蛋白酶-K (cathepsin-K)在恶性黑色素瘤、痣和非典型性痣中的表达及意义.方法 32例恶性黑色素瘤(恶黑组)、13例普通痣患者(普通痣组)和6例非典型性痣患者(非典型痣组)的组织标本,采用免疫组织化学法检测3组组织中MITF、c-Met和cathepsin-K的表达情况.结果 MITF、c-Met表达于黑色素细胞的细胞核和细胞质,cathepsin-K表达于细胞质和细胞膜;MITF、c-Met和cathepsin-K阳性表达率恶黑组分别为93.8%、90.6%和93.8%,普通痣组分别为92.3%、92.3%和100.0%,非典型痣组分别为100.0%、100.0%和100.0%,3组间比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);恶黑组MITF((卅))、c-Met((卅))及cathepsin-K((卅))阳性率高于普通痣组和非典型痣组(P<0.05);恶黑组转移者MITF、c-Met及cathepsin-K阳性率明显高于非转移者(P<0.05),结节性恶性黑色素瘤者MITF、c-Met及cathepsin-K阳性率高于表浅扩散性恶性黑色素瘤者(P<0.05);恶黑组转移者MITF、c-Met及cathepsin-K阳性率均为100%,高于HMB-45阳性率(75.0%)(P<0.05).结论 MITF、c-Met及cathepsin-K对恶性黑色素瘤的诊断及评估其进展和生物学行为有重要价值.

  1. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  2. Using a Caesalpinia echinata Lam. protease inhibitor as a tool for studying the roles of neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3 in pulmonary edema. (United States)

    Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Neuhof, Christiane; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Nunes, Viviane Abreu; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Neuhof, Heinz; Araújo, Mariana da Silva


    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by neutrophil infiltration and the release of proteases, mainly elastase (NE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which can be controlled by specific endogenous inhibitors. However, inhibitors of these proteases have been isolated from different sources, including plants. For this study, CeEI, or Caesalpinia echinata elastase inhibitor, was purified from C. echinata (Brazil-wood) seeds after acetone fractionation, followed by ion exchange and reversed phase chromatographic steps. Characterization with SDS-PAGE, stability assays, amino acid sequencing and alignment with other protein sequences confirmed that CeEI is a member of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Like other members of this family, CeEI is a 20 kDa monomeric protein; it is stable within a large pH and temperature range, with four cysteine residues forming two disulfide bridges, conserved amino acid residues and leucine-isoleucine residues in the reactive site. CeEI was able to inhibit NE and Cat G at a nanomolar range (with K(i)s of 1.9 and 3.6 nM, respectively) and inhibited PR3 within a micromolar range (K(i) 3.7 μM), leading to hydrolysis of specific synthetic substrates. In a lung edema model, CeEI reduced the lung weight and pulmonary artery pressure until 180 min after the injection of zymosan-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In experiments performed in the presence of a Cat G and PR3, but not an NE inhibitor, lung edema was reduced only until 150 min and pulmonary artery pressure was similar to that of the control. These results confirm that NE action is crucial to edema establishment and progression. Additionally, CeEI appears to be a useful tool for studying the physiology of pulmonary edema and provides a template for molecular engineering and drug design for ALI therapy.

  3. Towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.

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    Russell M Morphew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: fasciola hepatica, along with Fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. Pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. The dominant components of these excretory-secretory (ES products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin L (Cat L protease family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: the sub-proteome of Cat L proteases from adult F. hepatica ES products derived from in vitro culture and in vivo from ovine host bile were compared by 2-DE. The individual Cat L proteases were identified by tandem mass spectrometry with the support of an in-house translated liver fluke EST database. The study reveals plasticity within the CL1 clade of Cat L proteases; highlighted by the identification of a novel isoform and CL1 sub-clade, resulting in a new Cat L phylogenetic analysis including representatives from other adult Cat L phylogenetic clades. Additionally, for the first time, mass spectrometry was shown to be sufficiently sensitive to reveal single amino acid polymorphisms in a resolved 2-DE protein spot derived from pooled population samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: we have investigated the sub-proteome at the population level of a vaccine target family using the Cat L proteases from F. hepatica as a case study. We have confirmed that F. hepatica exhibits more plasticity in the expression of the secreted CL1 clade of Cat L proteases at the protein level than previously realised. We recommend that superfamily based vaccine discovery programmes should screen parasite populations from different host populations and, if required, different host species via sub-proteomic assay in order to confirm the relative expression at the protein level prior to the vaccine development phase.

  4. Nuclear cathepsin D enhances TRPS1 transcriptional repressor function to regulate cell cycle progression and transformation in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Derocq, Danielle; Laurent-Matha, Valérie; Montcourrier, Philippe; Sebti, Salwa; Orsetti, Béatrice; Theillet, Charles; Gongora, Céline; Pattingre, Sophie; Ibing, Eva; Roger, Pascal; Linares, Laetitia K; Reinheckel, Thomas; Meurice, Guillaume; Kaiser, Frank J; Gespach, Christian; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle


    The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (Cath-D) is overproduced in breast cancer cells (BCC) and supports tumor growth and metastasis formation. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby Cath-D is accumulated in the nucleus of ERα-positive (ER+) BCC. We identified TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome 1), a repressor of GATA-mediated transcription, and BAT3 (Scythe/BAG6), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling chaperone protein, as new Cath-D-interacting nuclear proteins. Cath-D binds to BAT3 in ER+ BCC and they partially co-localize at the surface of lysosomes and in the nucleus. BAT3 silencing inhibits Cath-D accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that Cath-D nuclear targeting is controlled by BAT3. Fully mature Cath-D also binds to full-length TRPS1 and they co-localize in the nucleus of ER+ BCC where they are associated with chromatin. Using the LexA-VP16 fusion co-activator reporter assay, we then show that Cath-D acts as a transcriptional repressor, independently of its catalytic activity. Moreover, microarray analysis of BCC in which Cath-D and/or TRPS1 expression were silenced indicated that Cath-D enhances TRPS1-mediated repression of several TRPS1-regulated genes implicated in carcinogenesis, including PTHrP, a canonical TRPS1 gene target. In addition, co-silencing of TRPS1 and Cath-D in BCC affects the transcription of cell cycle, proliferation and transformation genes, and impairs cell cycle progression and soft agar colony formation. These findings indicate that Cath-D acts as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor of TRPS1 to regulate ER+ BCC proliferation and transformation in a non-proteolytic manner.

  5. Optical Imaging with a Cathepsin B Activated Probe for the Enhanced Detection of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma by Dual Channel Fluorescent Upper GI Endoscopy

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    Peiman Habibollahi, Jose-Luiz Figueiredo, Pedram Heidari, Austin M Dulak, Yu Imamura, Adam J. Bass, Shuji Ogino, Andrew T Chan, Umar Mahmood


    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains poor highlighting the importance of early detection. Although white light (WL upper endoscopy can be used for screening of the esophagus, it has limited sensitivity for early stage disease. Thus, development of new imaging technology to improve the diagnostic capabilities of upper GI endoscopy for early detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma is an important unmet need. The goal of this study was to develop a method for the detection of malignant lesions in the esophagus using WL upper endoscopy combined with near infrared (NIR imaging with a protease activatable probe (Prosense750 selective for cathepsin B (CTSB. An orthotopic murine model for distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was generated through the implantation of OE-33 and OE-19 human esophageal adenocarcinoma lines in immunocompromised mice. The mice were imaged simultaneously for WL and NIR signal using a custom-built dual channel upper GI endoscope. The presence of tumor was confirmed by histology and target to background ratios (TBR were compared for both WL and NIR imaging. NIR imaging with ProSense750 significantly improved upon the TBRs of esophageal tumor foci, with a TBR of 3.64±0.14 and 4.50±0.11 for the OE-33 and OE-19 tumors respectively, compared to 0.88±0.04 and 0.81±0.02 TBR for WL imaging. The combination of protease probes with novel imaging devices has the potential to improve esophageal tumor detection by fluorescently highlighting neoplastic regions.

  6. 线虫脂肪沉积中组织蛋白酶 B 的表达及功能研究%Study of expression and function of Cathepsin B in the process of fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽娟; 鲍斌


    In this paper ,Caenorhabditis elegans (C .elegans) were fed with high concentration glucose and cholesterol diet ,and it was demonstrated that the fat storage increased dramatically by oil red O staining .In order to study the role of Cathepsin B Protease homologous genes in the fat storage process of C .elegans ,their expression was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymer-ase chain reaction (RT-PCR) .The cp r-3 was proposed as a critical gene homologous to Cathepsin B Protease ,and then the effect of selected critical genes on the fat storage in C .elegans was studied by RNAi technology .The results show that the altered expression of Cathepsin B Protease homologous genes maybe a result of the changed fat storage in C .elegans . However ,there is no change of fat storage when cp r-3 is knocked down by RNAi .In consequence ,homologous genes of Cathepsin B Protease do not directly regulate the fat storage ,but may participate in the physiological and patholog-ical processes after the increase of fat storage .%文章利用高糖/高胆固醇饮食诱导了线虫,油红 O 染色结果表明线虫脂肪沉积显著增加。为了研究组织蛋白酶 B 在诱导线虫过程中的作用,利用实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction , PCR)研究了组织蛋白酶 B 同源基因的表达。选取其中的关键基因利用 RNA 干扰(RNA interference ,RNAi)技术,研究其在线虫脂肪沉积中的作用。结果表明:在线虫脂肪沉积改变后,组织蛋白酶 B 同源基因表达随之改变;而利用 RNA 干扰组织蛋白酶 B 关键基因 cp r-3的表达,线虫的脂肪沉积未受影响。因此,组织蛋白酶 B 同源基因可能参与线虫脂肪沉积改变后的生理变化,而未直接参与线虫脂肪沉积的调控。

  7. Self Organizing Map-Based Classification of Cathepsin k and S Inhibitors with Different Selectivity Profiles Using Different Structural Molecular Fingerprints: Design and Application for Discovery of Novel Hits. (United States)

    Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; Zayed, Mohamed F; Abadleh, Mohammed M


    The main step in a successful drug discovery pipeline is the identification of small potent compounds that selectively bind to the target of interest with high affinity. However, there is still a shortage of efficient and accurate computational methods with powerful capability to study and hence predict compound selectivity properties. In this work, we propose an affordable machine learning method to perform compound selectivity classification and prediction. For this purpose, we have collected compounds with reported activity and built a selectivity database formed of 153 cathepsin K and S inhibitors that are considered of medicinal interest. This database has three compound sets, two K/S and S/K selective ones and one non-selective KS one. We have subjected this database to the selectivity classification tool 'Emergent Self-Organizing Maps' for exploring its capability to differentiate selective cathepsin inhibitors for one target over the other. The method exhibited good clustering performance for selective ligands with high accuracy (up to 100 %). Among the possibilites, BAPs and MACCS molecular structural fingerprints were used for such a classification. The results exhibited the ability of the method for structure-selectivity relationship interpretation and selectivity markers were identified for the design of further novel inhibitors with high activity and target selectivity.

  8. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui


    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection.

  9. 2-Chlorovinyl tellurium dihalides, (p-tol)Te[C(H)=C(Cl)Ph]X{sub 2} for X = Cl, Br and I: variable coordination environments, supramolecular structures and docking studies in cathepsin B

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    Caracelli, Ignez, E-mail: ignez@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Maganhi, Stella H., E-mail: julio@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cristalografia, Estereodinamica e Modelagem Molecular; Stefani, Helio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Farmacia; Guadagnin, Rafael [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Unifesp/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Tiekink, Edward R.T., E-mail: [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry


    Crystallography shows that the Te atom in each of (p-tol)Te[C(H)=C(Cl)Ph]X{sub 2}, for X = Cl (1), Br (2) and I (3), is within a distorted {Psi}-pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. An E configuration for the vinyl group in (1) precludes the formation of an intramolecular Te...Cl interaction so that an intramolecular Te{pi} interaction is found instead. The coordination environment features a linear Cl-Te-Cl arrangement with the pentagonal plane defined by the two C atoms of the organic substituents, an intermolecular TeCl contact, a Te{pi} interaction and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. In the X = Br (2) and I (3) structures, similar coordination geometries are found but the Te{pi} contact is replaced by an intramolecular TeCl contact owing to the adoption of a Z configuration about the vinyl bond. The differences in structure are readily explained in terms of electronic effects. Docking studies of cathepsin B with (1')-(3'), i.e. 1-3 less one Te-bound halide, show efficient binding through the agency of covalent Te-S{sub Cys29} bonds with stabilization afforded by a combination of N-H{pi}, C-H{pi} and Cl{sub vinyl} H interactions. These results comparable favorably with known inhibitors of cathepsin B suggesting the title compounds have potential biological activity. (author)

  10. The Prognostic Significance of a Combined Determination of Cathepsin D and Estrogen Receptors in Breast Carcinomas with Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Niu; Xue Yang; Yu Fan; Ajuan Lü; Tieju Liu; Xilin Fu


    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cathepsin D (Cath-D) and estrogen receptor (ER)expression in breast cancer tissue and to explore the prognostic significance of their combined determination in breast carcinoma patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the results relating to patient follow-up analyzed.RESULTS The overall 5-year disease-free survival rate (DFS) was 60.9% (84/138) in the series. The positive rate of Cath-D expression in the tumor cells was 55.07% and the positive ER staining was 51.4%. A definite significant negative correlation was found between the positive rates for Cath-D and ER (r=-0.294, P=0.001) The Cath-D expression for the cases in clinical Stage Ⅱ, ≥10 positive-node and recurrence or distant metastasis, was higher than that those cases in clinical Stage Ⅱ with fewer node-metastasis and with 5 year DFS (χ2=13.926, P=0.000;χ2=13.070, P=0.001; χ2=10.545, P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference of Cath-D expression between 2 groups of patients with different ages or among the different histopathologic types of the nonspecific invasive carcinoma. In the combined examination of Cath-D and ER, the cases that were ER (+) and Cath-D (-) had the highest 5-year DFS compared to other situations. In contrast, the cases that were reversed in expression, ie, ER(-) and Cath-D(+), had a lower 5-year DFS.There was a significant difference between the 2 conditions (χ2=18.675,P=0.000).CONCLUSION A combined determination and analysis of Cath-D and ER expression may be more useful to establish a prognosis than the biological characteristics of carcinomas with positive lymph nodes.

  11. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

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    Sajid Mohammed


    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  12. Complementary LC-MS/MS-Based N-Glycan, N-Glycopeptide, and Intact N-Glycoprotein Profiling Reveals Unconventional Asn71-Glycosylation of Human Neutrophil Cathepsin G

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    Ian Loke


    Full Text Available Neutrophil cathepsin G (nCG is a central serine protease in the human innate immune system, but the importance of its N-glycosylation remains largely undescribed. To facilitate such investigations, we here use complementary LC-MS/MS-based N-glycan, N-glycopeptide, and intact glycoprotein profiling to accurately establish the micro- and macro-heterogeneity of nCG from healthy individuals. The fully occupied Asn71 carried unconventional N-glycosylation consisting of truncated chitobiose core (GlcNAcβ: 55.2%; Fucα1,6GlcNAcβ: 22.7%, paucimannosidic N-glycans (Manβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,4GlcNAcβ: 10.6%; Manβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,4(Fucα1,6GlcNAcβ: 7.9%; Manα1,6Manβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,4GlcNAcβ: 3.7%, trace level of Manα1,6Manβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,4(Fucα1,6GlcNAcβ, and trace levels of monoantennary α2,6- and α2,3-sialylated complex N-glycans. High-resolution/mass accuracy LC-MS profiling of intact nCG confirmed the Asn71-glycoprofile and identified two C-terminal truncation variants at Arg243 (57.8% and Ser244 (42.2%, both displaying oxidation of solvent-accessible Met152. Asn71 appeared proximal (~19 Å to the active site of nCG, but due to the truncated nature of Asn71-glycans (~5–17 Å we questioned their direct modulation of the proteolytic activity of the protein. This work highlights the continued requirement of using complementary technologies to accurately profile even relatively simple glycoproteins and illustrates important challenges associated with the analysis of unconventional protein N-glycosylation. Importantly, this study now facilitates investigation of the functional role of nCG Asn71-glycosylation.

  13. An oral cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 inhibits N-terminal and C-terminal collagen crosslinks in serum and urine at similar plasma concentrations in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Chihiro


    Relationships between the plasma concentration of a cathepsin K inhibitor (ONO-5334) and inhibition of bone resorption markers N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in serum and urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine were examined in 10 postmenopausal women. The subjects received slow-release tablets of 100mg ONO-5534 under fasted or fed conditions in a study with a crossover design. Inhibition of serum NTX and CTX levels and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 were monitored at 0, 24, 48 and 168 h after dosing. Changes in urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine levels in second morning urine were evaluated on 0, 1, 2 and 7 days after dosing. Data were analyzed using sigmoid maximal drug effect (Emax) models. The maximal inhibition, estimated Emax values, were -31.8% for serum NTX, -53.1% for serum CTX, -67.2% for urinary NTX/creatinine, and -95.2% for urinary CTX/creatinine. The estimated half maximal effective plasma concentrations (EC50) of ONO-5334 and confidence intervals were 1.79 (1.01 to 3.16) ng/mL for serum NTX, 2.07 (1.63 to 2.62) ng/mL for serum CTX, 1.85 (1.30 to 2.61) ng/mL for urinary NTX/creatinine, and 1.98 (0.94 to 3.76) ng/mL for urinary CTX/creatinine. EC50 values for the four crosslinks did not significantly differ, as indicated by the overlapping 95% confidence intervals. The highest signal-to-noise ratio was achieved with serum CTX, and was 2-fold higher than that on serum NTX. Inhibition for serum NTX and CTX, and urinary NTX/creatinine and CTX/creatinine by ONO-5334 were all correlated with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.55 to 0.80. In conclusion, data of ONO-5334 slow-releasing tablets in postmenopausal women were well fitted in Emax model. In all measured telopeptides, the maximal inhibition was obtained at urinary CTX/creatinine level, but serum CTX had the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Inhibition for all measured telopeptides by ONO-5334 were all correlated. The estimated half

  14. Effects of 16-month treatment with the cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 on bone markers, mineral density, strength and histomorphometry in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ochi, Yasuo; Mori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuaki; Nakanishi, Yasutomo; Tanaka, Makoto; Bruce, Mark; Deacon, Steve; Kawabata, Kazuhito


    We examined the effects of ONO-5334, a cathepsin K inhibitor, on bone markers, BMD, strength and histomorphometry in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ONO-5334 (1.2, 6 and 30mg/kg/day, p.o.), alendronate (0.05mg/kg/2weeks, i.v.), or vehicle was administered to OVX monkeys (all groups N=20) for 16months. A concurrent Sham group (N=20) was also treated with vehicle for 16months. OVX significantly increased bone resorption and formation markers and decreased BMD in lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, proximal tibia and distal radius. Alendronate suppressed these parameters to a level similar to that in the Sham-operated monkeys. ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg decreased bone resorption markers to a level roughly half of that in the Sham group, while keeping bone formation markers level above that in the Sham monkeys. Changes in DXA BMD confirmed that ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg increased BMD to a level greater than that in the Sham group in all examined sites. In the proximal tibia, in vivo pQCT analysis showed that ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg suppressed trabecular BMD loss to the sham level. However, ONO-5334 increased cortical BMD, cortical area and cortical thickness to a level greater than that in the Sham group, suggesting that ONO-5334 improves both cortical BMD and cortical geometry. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that ONO-5334 suppressed bone formation rate (BFR) at osteonal site in the midshaft femur but did not influence OVX-induced increase in BFR at either the periosteal or endocortical surfaces. Unlike alendronate, ONO-5334 increased osteoclasts surface (Oc.S/BS) and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatise 5b (TRAP5b) activity, highlighting the difference in the mode of action between these two drugs. Our results suggest that ONO-5334 has therapeutic potential not only in vertebral bones, but also in non-vertebral bones.

  15. Cathepsin E is a marker of gastric differentiation and signet-ring cell carcinoma of stomach: a novel suggestion on gastric tumorigenesis.

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    Maki Konno-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC presents various histological features, though the mechanism underlying its diversity is seldom elucidated. It is mainly classified into well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1, moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por, signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig, mucinous adenocarcinoma (muc, and papillary adenocarcinoma (pap. By screening, we found cathepsin E (CTSE expresses universally in sig-type, occasionally in por-type, and rarely in tub1/tub2-type GC cell lines. In surgically-resected specimens, CTSE was immunostained in 50/51 sig-type (98.0%, 3/10 tub1-type (30.0%, 7/18 tub2-type (38.9%, 15/26 por-type (57.7%, 4/10 pap-type (40.0%, and 0/3 muc-type (0.0% GC. In endoscopically-resected specimens, 6/7 sig-type (85.7%, 7/52 tub1-type (13.7%, 5/12 tub2-type (41.7%, 2/7 pap-type (28.6% GC and 0/6 adenoma (0.0% expressed CTSE. For non-malignant tissues, CTSE is universally expressed in normal fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach, but hardly in other digestive organs. In the precancerous intestinal metaplasia of stomach, CTSE is mostly observed in mixed gastric-and-intestinal type and deficient in solely-intestinal type. CTSE expression is positively correlated with gastric marker MUC5AC (p<0.0001 and negatively correlated with intestinal marker MUC2 (p = 0.0019. For sig-type GC, in both tumors and background mucosa, expression of MUC5AC and CTSE is high whereas that of MUC2 is low, indicating that sig-type GC reflects the features of background mucosa. For gastric adenoma and tub1/tub2-type GC, more undifferentiated tumors tend to show higher expression of CTSE with MUC5AC and lower expression of MUC2 in tumors, but they tend to present lower expression of CTSE, MUC5AC and MUC2 in background mucosa. These suggest that more malignant gastric adenocarcinoma with stronger gastric and weaker intestinal properties tend to arise from background mucosa with

  16. Chemical constituents of the stem bark of Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) and evaluation of their cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against cathepsins B and K; Constituintes quimicos das cascas do caule de Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) e avaliacao das atividades citotoxica e inibitoria frente as catepsinas B e K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas de; Silva, Jame' s A. da; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Costa, Maisa Borges; Santos, Mirley Luciene dos; Menezes, Antonio Carlos Severo, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Sbardelotto, Aline Borba; Pessoa, Claudia do O; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia


    A new flavonoid, catechin-3-O-(3{sup -}O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside, along with known compounds, catechin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside and 1-butyl-D-fructofuranoside, has been isolated from the stem bark of V. thyrsoidea. These compounds were assayed for inhibition of protease activity (cathepsins B and K) and against cancer cell lines. Catechin-3-O-(3{sup -}O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside showed moderate inhibitory activity (IC{sub 50} = 62.02 µM) against cathepsin B while 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside was the most potent against a strain of CNS (SF-295) and human leukemia (HL-60) with IC{sub 50} = 36.80 μM and IC{sub 50} = 25.37 μM, respectively (author)

  17. The Expression and Significance of Lysosome Cathepsin D in the Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease%大鼠阿尔茨海默病模型中溶酶体组织蛋白酶D的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海龙; 李文; 贾阳


    目的:观察阿尔茨海默病(AD)大鼠皮质神经元中溶酶体蛋白酶Cathepsin D的表达。方法采用β-淀粉样肽(Aβ)大鼠海马注射制作AD动物模型,用免疫组织化学染色和Western-blot印迹法检测大鼠颞底皮层Cathepsin D的表达。Y迷宫检测大鼠空间辨别性能和学习记忆能力。TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡情况。结果Aβ脑池内灌注造成Aβ沉积的AD模型在行为学和病理学改变上一定程度地模拟了AD。免疫组化和Werstern-bolt检测均显示实验组Cathepsin D阳性神经元数量较假手术组和正常组明显增加(P<0.05)。TUNEL法检测显示AD大鼠颞底皮层神经元凋亡与正常组和假手术组相比显著升高(P<0.05)。结论Cathepsin D在AD大鼠皮层脑组织中表达升高,可能参与了神经元凋亡等病理过程。%Objective To observe the Alzheimer’s disease(AD) rat cortical neurons in lysosome protease Cathepsin D expression.Methods Using amyloid-beta peptide(Aβ) animal model of rat hippocampal injection production AD with immunohistochemical staining and Western blot imprinting method to detect the expression of Cathepsin D end of temporal cortex in rats,and Y maze to test spatial discrimination performance and the ability of learning and memory in rats.TUNEL method to detect apoptosis.Results Caused A beta deposition pool A beta brain perfusion of AD model on behavioural and pathology change part to simulate the AD.Immunohistochemical and Werstern-bolt test showed that the experimental group,Cathepsin D positive neuron numbers significantly increased compared with control group and normal group(P<0.05).TUNEL method showed that the bottom of the AD rats with temporal cortex neuron apoptosis signiifcantly increased compared with normal group and control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Cathepsin D expression increased in brain tissue in AD rats cortex,may participate in the pathological process of neurons apoptosis.

  18. Cathepsin G Induces Cell Aggregation of Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via a 2-Step Mechanism: Catalytic Site-Independent Binding to the Cell Surface and Enzymatic Activity-Dependent Induction of the Cell Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyo Morimoto-Kamata


    Full Text Available Neutrophils often invade various tumor tissues and affect tumor progression and metastasis. Cathepsin G (CG is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils. Previously, we have shown that CG induces the formation of E-cadherin-mediated multicellular spheroids of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether CG required its enzymatic activity to induce MCF-7 cell aggregation. The cell aggregation-inducing activity of CG was inhibited by pretreatment of CG with the serine protease inhibitors chymostatin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. In addition, an enzymatically inactive S195G (chymotrypsinogen numbering CG did not induce cell aggregation. Furthermore, CG specifically bound to the cell surface of MCF-7 cells via a catalytic site-independent mechanism because the binding was not affected by pretreatment of CG with serine protease inhibitors, and cell surface binding was also detected with S195G CG. Therefore, we propose that the CG-induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells occurs via a 2-step process, in which CG binds to the cell surface, independently of its catalytic site, and then induces cell aggregation, which is dependent on its enzymatic activity.

  19. 重组人CREG蛋白与溶酶体组织蛋白酶和M6P/IGFⅡR的相互作用%Interactions between the recombinant human CREG protein and cathepsins and M6P/IGFIIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸣宇; 闫承慧; 田孝祥; 李洋; 韩雅玲


    BACKGROUND:It has been found that cel ular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a lysosomal protein binding directly to the mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGFIIR) and depends on the interaction with M6P receptors for efficient delivery to lysosomes OBJECTIVE:To study the interactions between the exogenous CREG protein and cathepsins and M6P/IGFIIR and to confirm the effect of CREG protein on expression and distribution of M6P/IGFIIR. METHODS:Double-stained immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation were applied to observe the interactions between the exogenous CREG protein and cathepsin B, cathepsin L and M6P/IGFIIR. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, the effect of CREG on expression and distribution of M6P/IGFIIR were studied by western blot assay and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Double-stained immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed the direct interactions between the exogenous CREG protein and cathepsin B, cathepsin L and M6P/IGFIIR. It was verified that CREG plays a critical role not in the expression but in the distribution of M6P/IGFIIR using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches. These findings provide evidence that exogenous CREG protein is located in lysosomes and has interactions with cathepsins and M6P/IGFIIR, also CREG plays a critical role in the distribution of M6P/IGFIIR.%背景:以往研究证实,CREG是一种与M6P/IGFⅡR直接结合的溶酶体蛋白,并依赖于与M6P受体的相互作用有效转运至溶酶体。  目的:分析外源性CREG蛋白与溶酶体组织蛋白酶和M6P/IGFⅡR的相互作用关系及其对M6P/IGFⅡR表达变化及细胞内定位的影响。  方法:应用细胞免疫荧光双染和免疫共沉淀方法,观察外源性 CREG 蛋白与溶酶体组织蛋白酶和 M6P/IGFⅡR的相互作用关系,并应用gain-of-function和loss-of-function模型,通过Western blot和细胞

  20. S1 subsite specificity of a recombinant cysteine proteinase, CPB, of Leishmania mexicana compared with cruzain, human cathepsin L and papain using substrates containing non-natural basic amino acids. (United States)

    Alves, L C; Melo, R L; Sanderson, S J; Mottram, J C; Coombs, G H; Caliendo, G; Santagada, V; Juliano, L; Juliano, M A


    We have explored the substrate specificity of a recombinant cysteine proteinase of Leishmania mexicana (CPB2.8 Delta CTE) in order to obtain data that will enable us to design specific inhibitors of the enzyme. Previously we have shown that the enzyme has high activity towards substrates with a basic group at the P1 position [Hilaire, P.M.S., Alves, L.C., Sanderson, S.J., Mottram, J.C., Juliano, M.A., Juliano, L., Coombs, G.H. & Meldal M. (2000) Chem. Biochem. 1, 115--122], but we have also observed high affinity for peptides with hydrophobic residues at this position. In order to have substrates containing both features, we synthesized one series of internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from the sequence ortho-amino-benzoyl-FRSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine, and substituted the Arg at the P1 position with the following non-natural basic amino acids: 4-aminomethyl-phenylalanine (Amf), 4-guanidine-phenylalanine (Gnf), 4-aminomethyl-N-isopropyl-phenylalanine (Iaf), 3-pyridyl-alanine (Pya), 4-piperidinyl-alanine (Ppa), 4-aminomethyl-cyclohexyl-alanine (Ama), and 4-aminocyclohexyl-alanine (Aca). For comparison, the series derived from ortho-amino-benzoyl-FRSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine was also assayed with cruzain (the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi), human cathepsin L and papain. The peptides ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAmfSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine (k(cat)/K(m) = 12,000 mM(-1) x s(-1)) and ortho-amino-benzoyl-FIafSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine (k(cat)/K(m) = 27,000 mM(-1) x s(-1)) were the best substrates for CPB2.8 Delta CTE. In contrast, ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAmaSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine and ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAcaSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine were very resistant and inhibited this enzyme with K(i) values of 23 nM and 30 nM, respectively. Cruzain hydrolyzed quite well the substrates in this series with Amf, Ppa and Aca, whereas the peptide with Ama was resistant and

  1. Expression of cathepsin D in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: an immunohistochemical study including correlations with extracellular matrix components, CD44, p53, Rb, c-erbB-2 and the proliferation indices. (United States)

    Ioachim, Elli; Charchanti, Antonia; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Athanassiou, Evangelia; Bafa, Maria; Agnantis, Niki J


    The immunohistochemical Cathepsin D (CD) expression of tumor and stromal cells was investigated in a series of 77 urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder with the intention to evaluate its prognostic significance and its contribution to the metastatic potential of bladder cancer. CD expression (clone D13A) was correlated with the expression of extracellular matrix components (collagen type IV, laminin, fibronectin), CD44, p53, pRb, proliferation indices (PCNA and MIB1) as well as with other conventional clininopathological features. CD expression (> 10% of positive tumor cells) was observed in 77.9% of the carcinomas. Stromal CD expression was detected in all cases. Linear collagen type IV and laminin deposit at the tumor-stroma border (in > 25% of the BM) was found in 26% and 57.6% of the cases, respectively. The CD of cancer cells (CCCD) was inversely-correlated with the CD of the stromal cells (p = 0.039), tumor grade (p = 0.0028), tumor stage (p = 0.0046), p53 protein (p = 0.05) and positively-correlated with CD44 (p = 0.002) and pRb (p = 0.05). The stromal cells CD (SCCD) showed a statistically significant positive correlation with tumor grade (p < 0.0001) and stage (p = 0.0001), and the proliferation indices PCNA and MIB1 (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). These data suggest that both CD of tumor and stromal cells could play important roles in the expansion of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  2. Targeting the Nuclear Cathepsin L CCAAT Displacement Protein/Cut Homeobox Transcription Factor-Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells with the Z-FY-CHO Inhibitor. (United States)

    Burton, Liza J; Dougan, Jodi; Jones, Jasmine; Smith, Bethany N; Randle, Diandra; Henderson, Veronica; Odero-Marah, Valerie A


    The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tumor migration and invasion by downregulating epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and upregulating mesenchymal markers such as vimentin. Cathepsin L (Cat L) is a cysteine protease that can proteolytically activate CCAAT displacement protein/cut homeobox transcription factor (CUX1). We hypothesized that nuclear Cat L may promote EMT via CUX1 and that this could be antagonized with the Cat L-specific inhibitor Z-FY-CHO. Mesenchymal prostate (ARCaP-M and ARCaP-E overexpressing Snail) and breast (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 overexpressing Snail) cancer cells expressed lower E-cadherin activity, higher Snail, vimentin, and Cat L activity, and a p110/p90 active CUX1 form, compared to epithelial prostate (ARCaP-E and ARCaP-Neo) and breast (MCF-7 and MCF-7 Neo) cancer cells. There was increased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter in mesenchymal cells compared to epithelial prostate and breast cells. Treatment of mesenchymal cells with the Cat L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO led to nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of Cat L, decreased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter, reversed EMT, and decreased cell migration/invasion. Overall, our novel data suggest that a positive feedback loop between Snail-nuclear Cat L-CUX1 drives EMT, which can be antagonized by Z-FY-CHO. Therefore, Z-FY-CHO may be an important therapeutic tool to antagonize EMT and cancer progression.

  3. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.


    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  4. Aumento de linfocitos T regulatorios en los ganglios linfoides de ratones mutantes para catepsina L Increase of regulatory T cells in the lymph node of cathepsin L mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camicia


    Full Text Available Las células T regulatorias CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (Treg han sido implicadas en el rechazo al trasplante de órganos alogeneicos, en cáncer, infecciones y enfermedades autoinmunes. Así, su modulación posee un enorme potencial para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la catepsina L (CTSL sobre la homeostasis de las células Treg. Los ratones CTSLnkt/nkt -mutantes para CTSLpresentaron una reducción en el número de células Treg en el timo. Contrariamente, en los ganglios linfáticos el número de células Treg y su frecuencia dentro de la población CD4+ se incrementaron. La ausencia de actividad de CTSL en las células CD4+ de los ganglios linfoides -y no en su entorno- incrementó su tasa de proliferación. Las células Treg y las T CD4+ convencionales (CD4+CD25-Foxp3- de los ratones mutantes mostraron aumentos similares en su tasa de proliferación, sugiriendo que la proliferación contribuye al incremento en el número de células Treg, pero el aumento en su frecuencia no derivaría exclusivamente del incremento en su proliferación. Por otra parte, no se observó una disminución en los niveles de apoptosis de células Treg. Teniendo en cuenta que la producción diaria de timocitos CD4+ está disminuida en los ratones CTSLnkt/nkt, estos resultados sugieren que el incremento de células Treg en los ganglios linfoides de estos mutantes no derivaría de una mayor exportación tímica, y permiten hipotetizar que la ausencia de actividad de CTSL favorecería la adquisición del fenotipo CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ a partir de células CD4+CD25-Foxp3- en la periferia.Regulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg have been implicated in different pathologies including cancer, infections and autoimmune diseases and in the rejection of allogeneic organ transplantation. Thus, modulation of Treg activity has a great potential in the treatment of these pathologies. Herein, we evaluated the influence of cathepsin L (CTSL on Treg

  5. 组织蛋白酶B在膀胱移行细胞癌中的表达及意义%Expression of Cathepsin B in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma Tissues and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石涛; 高艳; 郭永连


    Objective To investigate the expression of cathepsin B (CB) in the bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and the relation between it with the invasion of TCC. Methods Forty samples of TCC including 23 of grade I and 17 grade Ⅱto Ⅲ were studied. Among them, 25 were superficial type (Tis Ta, T1), and 15 were invasion type (T2-4). Another 10 normal samples were designated as the control group. Immunohistochemical staining of CB in TCC and normal tissues was carried out by the streptavidin-biotin method. Results There were no apparent coloring in the normal bladder tissue ground substance. In TCC tissues, CB could dye the cells and a portion of ground substance. CB was positive in part of the capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and in peritumoral vascular endothelial cells, the positive expression of CB was enhanced. Positive diffusion staining existed in high grade and high stage cancers. The proportions of CB staining cells for grade Ⅰ cancer tissues, gradeⅡ -Ⅲ cancer tissues, TCC superficial type of tissues, TCC invasion type of tissues and normal tissues were respectively 10.53% ± 3.76%, 21.52% ± 3.58%, 11.32% ± 2.69%, 20.57% ± 3.25%, and 0.11% ± 0.18%. The mean value of cells of CB staining was significantly higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.01). The mean value of positive CB staining in grade II - IE cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in grade I cancer tissues (P < 0.01). The mean value of posive CB staining in stage T2-4 cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in superficial stage Tls-1 cancer tissues (P < 0.01). Conclusion CB should become a important marker to determine TCC development and its prognosis.%目的 探讨组织蛋白酶B(CB)在膀胱移行细胞癌(TCC)中的表达以及其与TCC浸润的关系.方法 取TCC标本40例,TCC分级Ⅰ级23例,Ⅱ~Ⅲ级17例;表浅型TCC(Tts,Ta,T1期)25例,浸润型TCC(T2~4期)15例.另取10例正常膀胱组织作为对照.用

  6. 扶桑绵粉蚧组织蛋白酶B基因的克隆、原核表达和不同发育阶段表达分析%Molecular cloning, prokaryotic expression and expression at different developmental stages of cathepsin B gene in mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley ( Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅; 董章勇; 宾淑英; 廖泓之; 林进添


    昆虫组织蛋白酶B在昆虫代谢过程中发挥重要作用.本研究利用RACE技术克隆了扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley组织蛋白酶B基因的开放阅读框(ORF)序列,命名为PsCb(GenBank登录号:JQ727999).生物信息学分析表明,该基因的开放阅读框包含927 bp的片段,编码308个氨基酸.多序列比对表明,该基因编码的蛋白在N端变异较大,在C端保守性高.组织蛋白酶B基因的系统进化树结果表明扶桑绵粉蚧组织蛋白酶独自成为一支.原核表达电泳检测到一条大约35 kDa的目的条带,与预测的蛋白分子量相符.组织蛋白酶B基因在扶桑绵粉蚧各个虫态均有表达,卵期表达量相对较低,2龄若虫期达到最高峰,然后下降.本研究为进一步研究该基因的功能并开发出组织蛋白酶抑制剂,从而研制出扶桑绵粉蚧杀卵剂和胚胎发育抑制剂等提供理论依据.%Cathepsin B plays an important role in insect metabolism. In this study, cathepsin B gene was cloned from mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and named as PsCb ( GenBank accession no. JQ727999 ). This cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) which is 927 bp in length encoding 308 amino acids. Homology analysis shows that the N-terminal sequence of PsCB has larger variation, while the C-terminal sequence is conserved. Phylogenetic tree shows that PsCB is separated with other branches. Prokaryotic protein expression test showed the expressed product has the MW of 35 kDa, nearly equal to the predicted. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that PsCb mRNA was expressed in various developmental stages of P. Solenopsis. The expression level was relatively lower at the egg stage, reached a peak at the 2nd instar nymph and then declined. Our study provides a theoretical basis for further study of the gene function, the development of cathepsin inhibitors as ovicides and inhibitors of embryonic development of P. Solenopsis.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国堂; 徐静


    目的:探究蜂毒素与沉默组织蛋白酶S(CTSS)对于MHCC97H细胞增殖、凋亡的影响。方法:通过制备的沉默CTSS的MHCC97-H细胞株(沉默CTSS的细胞株用PLVT1150表示,正常表CTSS的细胞株用PLVT8表示),使用不同浓度蜂毒素干预2组细胞30min,后流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,重复三次。制作沉默CTSS的MHCC97-H裸鼠皮下荷瘤模型,使用80μg/(kg*day)蜂毒素干预,对照组予以PBS代替。观察裸鼠移植肿瘤生长的状况,记录肿瘤生长情况。免疫组化检测caspase3,cleved-caspase3在裸鼠荷瘤模型中的表达。结果:用流式细胞仪检测各组凋亡率,PLVT1150细胞凋亡率依次为18.87%、36.72%、52.98%,PLVT8凋亡率依次为4.27%、15.32%、28.86%,进行两两比较,P<0.05。比较裸鼠皮下移植瘤发现第1组(PLVT1150+PBS)与第2组(PLVT1150+蜂毒素)比较、第3组(P L V T8+P B S)与第4组(P L V T8+蜂毒素)比较,裸鼠荷瘤体积在第14天出现统计学差异;第2组与第4组比较在第22天出现统计学差异;第1组与第4组比较,在第31天出现统计学差异。在裸鼠肿瘤组织切片的免疫组化实验中检测到4组Caspase-3阳性表达率依次为40%、20%、80%、40%,进行灰度值比较:1组与2组相比,P<0.05;3组与4组相比,P<0.05. Cleved-caspase-3阳性表达率分别为40%,80%,20%,60%,灰度值比较:1组与2组相比,P<0.05;3组与4组相比,P<0.05。结论:沉默C T S S促进MHCC97-H细胞凋亡,蜂毒素与沉默CTSS引起的MHCC97-H细胞凋亡有协同作用,蜂毒素有可能为肝细胞癌生物学治疗的新研究方向。%Objective Inquiry the influences of melittin and silence Cathepsin S (CTSS) to MHCC97H cell for cell proliferation and apoptosis.Methods Prepared by the silence CTSS MHCC97H cell lines(Silence CTSS cell lines marked PLVT1150, normal cell lines wich expressing CTSS marked PLVT8),Using different concentrations

  8. The regulation of Cathepsin B on cell apoptosis induced by SAHA in breast cancer cell line MCF-7%组织蛋白酶B在SAHA诱导乳腺癌MCF-7细胞凋亡过程中的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 周伟强


    Aim To clarify the regulation role of ca-thepsin B ( Cat B ) in cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by SAHA in ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7.Methods MTT was used to screen the optimal concentration and treatment time of SAHA . The expression levels of related proteins were deter-mined by ELISA , and the morphological changes were observed through time-lapse live cell imaging acquisi-tion.Cell viability and apoptosis assay in MCF-7 cells were assessed by Muse Cell Analyzer with SAHA and /or Cystatin C treatment .Results MTT assay showed that the anti-tumor efficacy of SAHA was significant . The optimal concentration and treatment time were 10μmol・ L-1 and 24 h respectively . ELISA assay showed that SAHA could induce expression of Cat B in MCF-7 cells.Real-time live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that the combination treatment of Cystatin C and SAHA significantly resumed the inhibitory effect caused by SAHA alone .Cytology test showed that SA-HA alone obviously depressed the cell viability and in-duced apoptosis . However , the effect was reversed with the combination of Cystatin C .Conclusion Cat B plays an important role in apoptosis induced by SAHA in ER +breast cancer cells MCF-7.%目的:阐明组织蛋白酶B(cathepsin B, Cat B)在SA-HA诱导的乳腺癌雌激素受体阳性细胞系MCF-7细胞凋亡中的调控作用。方法采用 MTT法检测SAHA对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞生长状况的影响;应用ELISA方法测定SAHA作用于MCF-7细胞后相关蛋白表达变化的情况;通过BioSta-tionIM活细胞工作站实时收集各种处理因素对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞增殖干预的形态学影响;并通过自动细胞分析仪Muse Cell Analyzer分析SAHA对MCF-7细胞活力和细胞凋亡的影响。结果 SAHA能明显抑制乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖,其最佳作用浓度为10μmol・ L-1,最佳作用时间为24 h。ELISA结果表明,SAHA能诱导乳腺癌MCF-7细胞中Cat B的表达。实时

  9. Reduction of cathepsin B inhibits proliferation of xenografted human esophageal carcinoma cell line EC9706 in nude mice and the related molecular mechanism study%下调组织蛋白酶B对人食管鳞癌EC9706细胞裸鼠移植瘤的抑制作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯天平; 赵景志; 尹磊; 陈奎生; 李晟磊


    目的:研究下调组织蛋白酶B(cathepsin B,CB)对人食管鳞癌EC9706细胞裸鼠移植瘤的抑制作用并探讨其体内抗肿瘤机制.方法:建立裸鼠荷瘤模型,利用CB siRNA和对照siRNA注射荷瘤裸鼠,监测肿瘤生长变化,采用RT-PCR及Western blot法检测治疗前后瘤体内CB及黏附分子Syndecan-1表达的变化.结果:成功构建了CB siRNA转染荷瘤裸鼠模型.与对照siRNA组和空白对照组相比,CB siRNA组荷瘤裸鼠肿瘤体积下降,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(F=483.992,P<0.05).转染CB siRNA后,CB蛋白及mRNA表达均显著下调,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(F=733.255及932.681,均P<0.01),Syndecan-1蛋白及mRNA表达则均显著升高,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(F=404.234及1 509.951,均P<0.01).结论:CB siRNA可以有效抑制人食管鳞癌EC9706细胞裸鼠移植瘤的生长,并下调CB的表达和上调Syndecan-1的表达,本研究为食管鳞癌的分子治疗提供了一定的理论依据.%Objective To investigate the effect of cathepsin B (CB) reduction on tumor growth of xenografted human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line EC9706 in nude mice and to explore the related molecular mechanism. Methods The xenografted tumor model was established, and the CB siRNA and control siRNA was injected into the xenografted nude mice, respectively. The tumor growth was determined. RT-PCR and Western blot assay were performed to detect CB and Syndecan-1 expressions in tumor tissue. Results After CB siRNA injection, the tumor volume was decreased significantly in the CB siRNA group compared with that in the control siRNA group or the blank control group, respectively (F = 483.992, P < 0.05). The CB mRNA and protein expression was lower in the CB siRNA group than that in the control siRNA group or the blank control group, respectively, and there was significant difference among the three groups (F = 733.255 and 932.681, both P < 0.01). Furthermore, Syndecan-1 m

  10. Role of Cathepsin C During Breast Cancer Metastasis (United States)


    considering the fact that monocyte mobilization from bone marrow is impaired by genetic loss of CSF1, but unaltered following pharmacologic or immunologic... echnologies ) was used to capture whole-slide digital images with a 20X objective. Slides were dearrayed to visualize individual cores, using Spectrum

  11. Role Of Cathepsin C During Breast Cancer Metastasis (United States)


    47. [110] Tupin E, Kinjo Y, Kronenberg M. The unique role of natural killer T cells in the response to microorganisms. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007;5:405...Brossay L, Kronenberg M. Immunization with alpha-galactosylcer- amide polarizes CD1-reactive NK T cells towards Th2 cytokine synthesis. Eur J Immunol...1999;29:2014–25. [120] Fujii S, Shimizu K, Kronenberg M, Steinman RM. Prolonged IFN-gamma- producing NKT response induced with alpha-galactosylceramide

  12. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B (United States)


    SA by an Elisa assay which is a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique, also described by others 28- 30. Samples were added to a micro...prostate cancer continues. Eur Urol 2008;53(4):689-690. 10. Bostwick DG, Burke HB , Djakiew D, Euling S, Ho SM, Landolph J, Morrison H, Sonawane B...Heydon K, Hammond ME, Grignon DJ, Roach M, 3rd, Wolkov HB , Sandler HM, Shipley WU, Pollack A. Ki-67 staining index predicts distant metastasis and

  13. Reduction of mutant huntingtin accumulation and toxicity by lysosomal cathepsins D and B in neurons


    Ouyang Xiaosen; Liang Qiuli; Schneider Lonnie; Zhang Jianhua


    Abstract Background Huntington's disease is caused by aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein containing more than a 36 polyQ repeat. Upregulation of macroautophagy was suggested as a neuroprotective strategy to degrade mutant huntingtin. However, macroautophagy initiation has been shown to be highly efficient in neurons whereas lysosomal activities are rate limiting. The role of the lysosomal and other proteases in Huntington is not clear. Some studies suggest that certain protease a...

  14. The Role of Stromally Produced Cathepsin D in Promoting Prostate Tumorigenesis (United States)


    progression.#Cancer#Res.#2007;67(17):8188Q97. 3.# Harman#SM,#Metter#EJ,#Tobin#JD,#Pearson#J,# Blackman#MR.!Longitudinal# effects #of#aging#on#serum# total...Risbridger#G,#Wang#H,# Youn18g#P,#Kurita#T,#Wang#YZ,#Lubahn#D,# et#al.!Evidence#that#epithelial#and# mesenchymal# estrogen#receptorQalpha#mediates# effects ...Skalli# O,# Welbourne# T,# Cardelli# JA.!Na+/H+# exchangers# and#RhoA# regulate# acidic# extracellular#pHQinduced# lysosome #trafYicking#in#prostate

  15. Expression Pattern of Lysosomal Protective Protein/Cathepsin A: Implications for the analysis of hnman galactosialidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Rottier (Robbert)


    textabstractThe lysosome represents a well characterized, membrane-contained intracellular digestive system. Iu this important organelle a battery of lysosomal hydro lases and accessory proteins work in concert on the step-wise conversion of macromolecular substrates into small biological building b

  16. Cathepsin D is involved in the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced apoptosis of astrocytes. (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Yang, Lin; Tian, Hongyan; Ma, Qiang


    The lysosome and its associated protein cathe-psin D (Cat D) play critical roles in the pathological process of secondary damage following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the roles of Cat D in I/R-exposed astrocytesremain unclear. In this study, we determined the roles of Cat D in the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced apoptosis of astrocytes as well as the underlying mechanisms. We found that OGD/R markedly increased cell apoptosis and the production of inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and FasL in a reperfusion time‑dependent manner and their elevation peaked at 24 h after reperfusion. Moreover, the cytosolic Cat D level and Cat D activity was significantly upregulated in response to OGD/R exposure. Furthermore, OGD/R exposure gradually disrupted the innate acidic conditions of the lysosome. Exogenous TNF-α and FasL administration elevated cytosolic Cat D levels and cell apoptosis whereas TNFR1 and Fas inhibition significantly reversed these effects induced by OGD/R. Cat D overexpression enhanced cell apoptosis and the levels of apoptogenic proteins, including Bax and caspase-3, whereas Cat D siRNA transfection had an inhibitory effect on cell apoptosis and the expression of proapoptotic proteins. In addition, we observed that Cat D upregulation disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the production of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, OGD/R injury induced the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and FasL which promoted lysosomal dysfunction and Cat D leakage into the cytoplasm. This eventually resulted in caspase‑dependent apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss and oxidative stress in astrocytes.

  17. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae resists extracellular human neutrophil elastase- and cathepsin G-mediated killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, D. van der; Bootsma, H.J.; Burghout, P.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Hermans, P.W.M.; Flier, M. van der


    Although the Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide capsule is an important virulence factor, ~ 15% of carriage isolates are nonencapsulated. Nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae are a cause of mucosal infections. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils kill S. pneumoniae predominately through neutroph

  18. Plasma Cathepsin D Levels : A Novel Tool to Predict Pediatric Hepatic Infl ammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; Houben, Tom; Hendrikx, Tim; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Adriaanse, Marlou P.; Buurman, Wim A.; Hofker, Marten H.; Mosca, Antonella; Lindsey, Patrick J.; Alisi, Anna; Liccardo, Daniela; Panera, Nadia; Koek, Ger H.; Nobili, Valerio; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit


    OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe form of a hepatic condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH is histologically characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and ballooning, and eventually coupled with fibrosis that, in turn, may pr

  19. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase and cysteine cathepsin activity in dentin hybrid layer by gelatin zymography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Mahalaxmi


    Conclusion: Etch and rinse adhesive activated MMPs and CCs within the hybrid layer that remained active till 7th day and no gelatinolytic activity was found on 21st day and MMPs are more active compared to CCs and MMP-2.

  20. The Role of Stromally Produced Cathepsin D in Promoting Prostate Tumorigenesis (United States)


    and prostatic neoplasia, Prostate 24, 67–78 (1994). 29. L. Pylkkänen, S. Mäkelä, R. Santti, Animal models for the preneoplastic lesions of the...growths overall which dis- played solid epithelial cord structures surrounded by a muscular stroma. IHC staining displayed minimal expression of CathD in

  1. Development of a chitinase and v-cathepsin negative bacmid for improved integrity of secreted recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Salcedo, A.M.; Wafula, P.O.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.


    The application of the baculovirus-in sect cell expression system for the production of integral membrane and secreted proteins is often more troublesome than for cytoplasmic proteins. One protein expressed at low levels in insect cells is the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67. Theileri

  2. In vitro killing of oral Capnocytophaga by granule fractions of human neutrophils is associated with cathepsin G activity.


    Miyasaki, K T; Bodeau, A L


    The Capnocytophaga are inhabitants of the hypoxic human gingival crevice that are normally prevented by neutrophils from causing periodontal and systemic infection. To identify potential nonoxidative bactericidal mechanisms against Capnocytophaga within human neutrophils, gel filtration chromatography was used to fractionate neutrophil granule extracts. Seven granule fractions, designated A through G, were obtained. The Capnocytophaga were most sensitive to killing by fraction D. Fraction D e...

  3. Simultaneous human papilloma virus type 16 E7 and cdk inhibitor p21 expression induces apoptosis and cathepsin B activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaznelson, Dorte Wissing; Bruun, Silas; Monrad, Astrid;


    and induction of cell death. We have used the osteosarcoma cell line U2OS cells provided with E7 and the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (cip1/waf1) under inducible control, as a model system for the analysis of E7-mediated apoptosis. Our data shows that simultaneous expression of E7 and p21 proteins induces cell death...

  4. Preliminary research on the pathological role of cathepsin-B in subcutaneous heteroplastic pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chong; SUN Jia-bang; LIU Da-chuan; CUI Ye-qing; LIU Shuang; SUN Hai-chen


    Background Cathespin-B (cath-B) is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the disease course of invasion in many types of cancer. Cath-B expression in subcutaneous heteroplastic pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice has not been studied. We investigated the role of cath-B in a model of heteroplastic pancreatic carcinoma in BALB/c nude mice.Methods Thirty-two six-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were equally divided into four groups. PANC-1 cells were inoculated subcutaneously in the left axillary region. Besides volume, weight of subcutaneous tumor, and change in body weight, cath-B expression in each group was measured by immunohistochemical staining, PCR and Western blotting. Its relationship to microvessel density (MVD), CD44v6, and placenta growth factor (PLGF) was also examined. CA-074Me,a specific inhibitor of cath-B, was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at different stages of tumor growth in group B and C.Gemcitabine (GEM), was also injected (i.p.) in group D to compare anti-tumor efficacy with CA-074Me.Results Expression of cath-B at different levels was related to tumor growth, MVD, and PLGF expression. In group A (control group), cath-B expression was enhanced more than that seen in other groups. CA-074Me clearly inhibited cath-B expression and tumor growth in group B. There was no difference between group C and D with respect to anti-tumor effect.Conclusions Cath-B correlates with the growth and angiogenesis of tumors, but not with the adhesion induced by CD44v6. CA-074Me clearly inhibited cath-B expression and demonstrated an anti-neoplastic and anti-angiogenesis effect.

  5. Isolation and molecular characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease cDNAs from Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, A.G.J.; Jongsma, M.A.


    Cysteine proteases are predominant in thrips guts (TGs) and, therefore, a suitable target for selecting effective protease inhibitors against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We report the isolation of four full-length cysteine protease cDNA clones from thrips in a two-step PCR ap

  6. Heparin modulates the endopeptidase activity of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner A S Judice

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease B is considered crucial for the survival and infectivity of the Leishmania in its human host. Several microorganism pathogens bind to the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans chains of proteoglycans at host-cell surface to promote their attachment and internalization. Here, we have investigated the influence of heparin upon Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease rCPB2.8 activity.THE DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THAT THE PRESENCE OF HEPARIN AFFECTS ALL STEPS OF THE ENZYME REACTION: (i it decreases 3.5-fold the k 1 and 4.0-fold the k -1, (ii it affects the acyl-enzyme accumulation with pronounced decrease in k 2 (2.7-fold, and also decrease in k 3 (3.5-fold. The large values of ΔG  =  12 kJ/mol for the association and dissociation steps indicate substantial structural strains linked to the formation/dissociation of the ES complex in the presence of heparin, which underscore a conformational change that prevents the diffusion of substrate in the rCPB2.8 active site. Binding to heparin also significantly decreases the α-helix content of the rCPB2.8 and perturbs the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the enzyme. The data strongly suggest that heparin is altering the ionization of catalytic (Cys(25-S(-/(His(163-Im(+ H ion pair of the rCPB2.8. Moreover, the interaction of heparin with the N-terminal pro-region of rCPB2.8 significantly decreased its inhibitory activity against the mature enzyme.Taken together, depending on their concentration, heparin-like glycosaminoglycans can either stimulate or antagonize the activity of cysteine protease B enzymes during parasite infection, suggesting that this glycoconjugate can anchor parasite cysteine protease at host cell surface.

  7. Eimeripain, a Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Protease, Expressed throughout Sporulation of the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella


    Anaïs Rieux; Simon Gras; Fabien Lecaille; Alisson Niepceron; Marilyn Katrib; Smith, Nicholas C.; Gilles Lalmanach; Fabien Brossier


    The invasion and replication of Eimeria tenella in the chicken intestine is responsible for avian coccidiosis, a disease that has major economic impacts on poultry industries worldwide. E. tenella is transmitted to naïve animals via shed unsporulated oocysts that need contact with air and humidity to form the infectious sporulated oocysts, which contain the first invasive form of the parasite, the sporozoite. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are major virulence factors expressed by protozoa. In this ...

  8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1 is involved in host gut penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ying


    Full Text Available Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine.

  9. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  10. Cathepsin B mediates caspase-independent cell death induced by microtubule stabilizing agents in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broker, L.E.; Huisman, C.; Span, SW; Rodriguez, J.A.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Giaccone, G.


    We have previously reported that the microtubule stabilizing agents (MSAs) paclitaxel, epothilone B and discodermolide induce caspase-independent cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here we present two lines of evidence indicating a central role for the lysosomal protease catheps

  11. Treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal IgG antibody against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis-prone pigs reduces cathepsin S in coronary lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bo; Al-Mashhadi, Ahmed Ludvigsen; von Wachenfeldt, Karin;


    BACKGROUND: Immunization with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) reduces atherosclerosis in rodents. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against oxLDL will reduce the burden or composition of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic minipigs. METHODS AND ...

  12. New approach for osteoporosis treatment: cathepsin K inhibitor, Odanacatib%组织蛋白酶K抑制剂Odanacatib的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔敏; 于灵芝



  13. Investigation of two novel biochemical markers of inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase and cathepsin generated fragments of C-reactive protein, in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Schett, Georg; Zhang, Chen;


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. Current markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are reflecting the production of an acute phase reactant rather than tissue specific inflammation, but the use of CRP as a diagnostic...

  14. Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of cathepsin V and cathepsin L by a reactive site that is distinct from the legumain-binding site. A novel clue for the role of cystatin M/E in epidermal cornification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, T.; Hitomi, K.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Jongh, G.J. de; Yamamoto, K.; Nishi, K.; Watts, C.; Reinheckel, T.; Schalkwijk, J.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.


    Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of the asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain, and we have previously reported that both proteins are likely to be involved in the regulation of stratum corneum formation in skin. Although cystatin M/E contains a predicted binding site for papain-like cysteine p

  15. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available usion domain chain (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I exclusion domain chain); Dipeptidyl-pept...) (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I) (DPP-I) (DPPI) (Cathepsin C) (Cathepsin J) (Dipeptidyl transferase) [Contains: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 1 excl

  16. UniProt search blastx result: AK289073 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion domain chain (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I exclusion domain chain); Dipeptidyl-peptid...(Dipeptidyl-peptidase I) (DPP-I) (DPPI) (Cathepsin C) (Cathepsin J) (Dipeptidyl transferase) [Contains: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 1 exclus

  17. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion domain chain (Dipeptidyl-peptidase I exclusion domain chain); Dipeptidyl-peptid...(Dipeptidyl-peptidase I) (DPP-I) (DPPI) (Cathepsin C) (Cathepsin J) (Dipeptidyl transferase) [Contains: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 1 exclus

  18. Erosive arthritis in a patient with pycnodysostosis: An experiment of nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainola, M.; Valleala, H.; Nykänen, P.; Risteli, J.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Konttinen, Y.T.


    Objective. The excellent poster painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is the most famous patient with cathepsin K-deficient pycnodysostosis. Cathepsin K is believed to play a major role in osteoclast-driven bone resorption. In this study we explored the role of cathepsin K in bone resorption in a patien

  19. Kathepsinen en lysosomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jan Maurits Willem


    SUMMARY Cathepsin B and cathepsin C (EC are enzymes from bovine spleen which were originally defined by their ability to split certain synthetic substrates of trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Purified preparations of cathepsin B hydrolyze at low pH peptide bonds formed by carboxyl gr

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFB452 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hymeniacidon perlevis cathepsin L ... 97 1e-19 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor cathepsin ... 94 2e-19 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor cathepsin-L-like ... 94 2e-19 BC074718_1(

  1. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cathepsin S-like cysteine proteinase genes of Radopholus similis%相似穿孔线虫S型半胱氨酸蛋白酶基因克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春花; 肖罗; 茆振川; 陈国华; 杨宇红; 谢丙炎


    根据不同种类线虫编码半胱氨酸蛋白酶的保守序列及植物寄生性线虫的半胱氨酸蛋白酶氨基酸密码子的偏好设计简并引物,通过RACE技术,首次从相似穿孔线虫(Radopholus similis)中克隆得到一个编码S型半胱氨酸蛋白酶基因的cDNA全长,命名为Rs-CPS(GenBank登录号EU659125).Rs-CPS基因全长为1112 bp,编码314个氨基酸,分子量为34.69 ku.分析结果显示:Rs-CPS氨基酸序列具有半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族典型的Cys-His-Asn三联体酶催化活性中心,而且N端有1个17个氨基酸残基组成的信号肽.

  2. A Comparative Study on Cathepsin K Expression between the Diabetes and Normal Rats with Implantation%组织蛋白酶K在糖尿病大鼠种植体周围的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车道闯; 郭杰


    目的 探讨糖尿病对动物体内植人种植体的影响.方法 建立糖尿病大鼠实验动物模型.将40只大鼠分为正常对照组、正常种植组、糖尿病组、糖尿病种植组,每组10只.种植后1周、2周分次处死动物,每组每次各处死5只.采用免疫组化和实时定量PCR检测种植体周围骨组织中组织蛋白酶K(Cath K)表达.结果 40只大鼠均健康存活,种植体无松动.Cath K在种植体周围骨组织中的免疫组化结果显示,糖尿病组大鼠皮质骨孔隙明显多于正常组.1周和2周时,正常种植组和糖尿病种植组与正常对照组的种植体周围骨组织Cath K表达比较,差异均有统计学意义;糖尿病种植组与糖尿病组比较,差异也有统计学意义.结论 糖尿病者的骨质疏松化倾向可能与糖尿病种植修复较正常者失败率高有关,通过上调Cath K表达可引起种植体周围骨吸收.

  3. Development of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeting a neo-epitope generated by cathepsin-mediated turnover of type III collagen and its application in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Daniel Guldager Kring; Sand, Jannie Marie Bülow; Karsdal, Morten Asser


    fragments (C3C) was developed for assessment in serum and plasma. The assay was biologically validated in serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serological levels of C3C were significantly elevated in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0006). Levels of C3...

  4. Infection of XC cells by MLVs and Ebola virus is endosome-dependent but acidification-independent. (United States)

    Kamiyama, Haruka; Kakoki, Katsura; Yoshii, Hiroaki; Iwao, Masatomo; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kubo, Yoshinao


    Inhibitors of endosome acidification or cathepsin proteases attenuated infections mediated by envelope proteins of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and Ebola virus, as well as ecotropic, amphotropic, polytropic, and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), indicating that infections by these viruses occur through acidic endosomes and require cathepsin proteases in the susceptible cells such as TE671 cells. However, as previously shown, the endosome acidification inhibitors did not inhibit these viral infections in XC cells. It is generally accepted that the ecotropic MLV infection in XC cells occurs at the plasma membrane. Because cathepsin proteases are activated by low pH in acidic endosomes, the acidification inhibitors may inhibit the viral infections by suppressing cathepsin protease activation. The acidification inhibitors attenuated the activities of cathepsin proteases B and L in TE671 cells, but not in XC cells. Processing of cathepsin protease L was suppressed by the acidification inhibitor in NIH3T3 cells, but again not in XC cells. These results indicate that cathepsin proteases are activated without endosome acidification in XC cells. Treatment with an endocytosis inhibitor or knockdown of dynamin 2 expression by siRNAs suppressed MLV infections in all examined cells including XC cells. Furthermore, endosomal cathepsin proteases were required for these viral infections in XC cells as other susceptible cells. These results suggest that infections of XC cells by the MLVs and Ebola virus occur through endosomes and pH-independent cathepsin activation induces pH-independent infection in XC cells.

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSE387 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ocara canis cathepsin Z1 prepro... 115 7e-25 T29872( T29872 )hypothetical protein F...some... 162 5e-39 U30877_1( U30877 |pid:none) Urechis caupo cathepsin B-like proteas... 117 3e-25 AF143817_1( AF143817 |pid:none) Tox

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16593-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 212286 |pid:none) Fundulus heteroclitus cathepsin L ... 216 1e-58 AF410883_1( AF410883 |pid:none) Franklin...370 ) RecName: Full=Cathepsin S; EC=; Flags... 215 5e-58 AF410881_1( AF410881 |pid:none) Franklinie

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13202-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6_1( EF428206 |pid:none) Ixodes ricinus cathepsin B-like cy... 153 1e-35 Tuberaphis coreana catB gene for c... 70 2e-10 EU128750_1( EU128750 |pid:none) Ixodes ricinus cathepsin

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13537-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 5e-20 EU128750_1( EU128750 |pid:none) Ixodes ricinus cathepsin C precurs... 75 8e-20 AB117976_1( AB117976 ...stegopteryx spinocephala catB mRN... 70 3e-19 EF428206_1( EF428206 |pid:none) Ixodes ricinus cathepsin B-lik

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHB751 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us clone WHM... 115 5e-25 ( O93428 ) RecName: Full=Cathepsin D; EC=; Flags:... 115 6e-25 AF454831_1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apri...ona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 114 1e-24 BT043515_1(

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHD888 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apriona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 321 3e-86 EF000001_1...-like... 327 4e-88 DQ131585_1( DQ131585 |pid:none) Opisthorchis viverrini cathepsin D... 322 2e-86 AF454831_

  11. Dicty_cDB: SFJ208 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apriona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 181 2e-90 AB078420_...D-like... 194 3e-97 EF000001_1( EF000001 |pid:none) Fasciola hepatica cathepsin D-like... 188 7e-95 AF454831

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSD459 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 2e-32 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor cathepsin L-like ... 139 7e-32 BC075887_1( BC075887... |pid:none) Danio rerio cathepsin L.1, mRNA (c... 138 9e-32 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFA703 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 887_1( BC075887 |pid:none) Danio rerio cathepsin L.1, mRNA (c... 115 3e-25 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio... molitor cathepsin L-like ... 114 8e-25 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSM529 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available frischii digestive cyste... 152 4e-36 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio mo...litor cathepsin-L-like ... 149 4e-35 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor cathepsin L-like ... 1

  15. Digestive proteases in bodies and faeces of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. (United States)

    Santamaría, María E; González-Cabrera, Joel; Martínez, Manuel; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Díaz, Lsabel; Ortego, Félix


    Digestive proteases of the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae have been characterised by comparing their activity in body and faecal extracts. Aspartyl, cathepsin B- and L-like and legumain activities were detected in both mite bodies and faeces, with a specific activity of aspartyl and cathepsin L-like proteases about 5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in mite faeces than in bodies. In general, all these activities were maintained independently of the host plant where the mites were reared (bean, tomato or maize). Remarkably, this is the first report in a phytophagous mite of legumain-like activity, which was characterised for its ability to hydrolyse the specific substrate Z-VAN-AMC, its activation by DTT and inhibition by IAA but not by E-64. Gel free nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS proteomic analysis of mite faeces resulted in the identification of four cathepsins L and one aspartyl protease (from a total of the 29 cathepsins L, 27 cathepsins B, 19 legumains and two aspartyl protease genes identified the genome of this species). Gene expression analysis reveals that four cathepsins L and the aspartyl protease identified in the mite faeces, but also two cathepsins B and two legumains that were not detected in the faeces, were expressed at high levels in the spider mite feeding stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) relative to embryos. Taken together, these results indicate a digestive role for cysteine and aspartyl proteases in T. urticae. The expression of the cathepsins B and L, legumains and aspartyl protease genes analysed in our study increased in female adults after feeding on Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the HvCPI-6 cystatin, that specifically targets cathepsins B and L, or the CMe trypsin inhibitor that targets serine proteases. This unspecific response suggests that in addition to compensation for inhibitor-targeted enzymes, the increase in the expression of digestive proteases in T. urticae may act as a first barrier against ingested plant defensive

  16. The research of neurospecific proteins and lysosomal peptidehydrolases in frontal neocortex during forming conditioned reaction of active avoiding of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyatkin O. K.


    Full Text Available Dynamics of the activity of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM and lysosomal cysteine cathepsins B, L, H was researched in frontal neocortex of rat brain during forming a conditioned reaction of active avoiding. The quantitative estimation of NCAM content in the neocortex membrane fraction was carried on by ELISA in 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after starting animals’ training. The dynamics correlation between the NCAM content increasing and cysteine cathepsins activity was obtained, especially for aminopeptidase cathepsin H during the process of memory engram forming in frontal neocortex of rat brain.

  17. Involvement of the endosomal-lysosomal system correlates with regional pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Gábor G; Gelpi, Ellen; Ströbel, Thomas;


    these with the severity of neuropathologic changes. In regions with mild pathology and scant abnormal prion protein (PrP) deposition, neurons showed an increased volume of Rab5-immunopositive early endosomes. In contrast, neurons in regions with prominent pathology had an increased volume of cathepsin D- or B......-immunoreactive lysosomes. The intraneuronal distribution of cathepsin D and B diverges between Purkinje cells and frontal cortical neurons in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brains. We demonstrated focal intra- and perineuronal colocalization of cathepsin D and PrP. Our results indicate that effects in the ELS...

  18. Effect of Cystatin C on Cathepsin S and extracellular matrix in human arterial smooth muscle cells%胱抑素C对人动脉平滑肌细胞中组织蛋白酶S和细胞外基质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 杜贻萌; 董兆强; 刘玉胜; 鹿庆华


    目的 研究胱抑素C(CysC)对人动脉平滑肌细胞(ASMC)中组织蛋白酶S(CatS)和细胞外基质的影响.方法 以正常ASMC为空白对照组,RT-PCR及Western-blot法测定CysC高表达质粒转染(CysC高表达组)及小干扰RNA(siRNA)分别干扰CysC(干扰组)0、12、24、48、72 h后CarS的表达;ELISA法测定空白对照组、CysC高表达24h组和48h组、干扰48 h组和72h组中Ⅰ型胶原、层黏连蛋白(LN)和纤连蛋白(FN)的含量.结果 与空白对照组比较,CysC高表达组中CatS的表达较少,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);随干扰时间延长,干扰组中CatS的表达明显增强(P<0.01);Ⅰ型胶原含量在各组虽有轻微增加或减少,但差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);LN和FN含量在CysC高表达24h组和48h组均有不同程度增加,LN含量在干扰72h组明显减少,FN含量在干扰48 h组和72 h组明显减少(P均<0.05).结论 正常ASMC中CatS表达极少;CysC和CatS在ASMC中的表达呈负相关;CysC和CatS的平衡关系对层黏连蛋白和纤连蛋白均有不同程度的影响,但对Ⅰ型胶原的影响不明显.

  19. siRNA inhibits expression of Cystatin C in human vascular smooth muscle cells and effects expression of Cathepsin S%RNA干扰沉默人血管平滑肌细胞胱抑素C基因表达及对组织蛋白酶S表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉胜; 鹿庆华; 王群; 蒋卫东; 盛林; 杜贻萌; 郝林; 王光允


    目的 研究小干扰RNA(siRNA)对胱抑素C(CysC)基因表达的抑制作用及对组织蛋白酶S(CatS)表达的影响.方法 利用Ambion公司设计合成的以CysC为靶标的siRNA,通过脂质体转染人血管平滑肌细胞(VSMC),以未转染siRNA细胞和转染无关siRNA细胞为对照,采用RT-PCR和Western blot分别检测CysC在mRNA水平和蛋白水平的改变.选取抑制效率最高siRNA转染VSMC,以空白对照组、无关干扰组和CysC高表达组为对照,采用RT-PCR法和Western blot分别检测CatS在mRNA水平和蛋白水平的改变.结果 转染24h后,siRNA组CysC mRNA和蛋白表达均被有效抑制,与空白对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中,siRNA2的抑制效率最高.CatS的mRNA及蛋白表达水平在siRNA组均有明显升高,与其他三组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 体外转录合成的siRNA可有效抑制人VSMC中CysC的表达,并对CatS基因表达有一定影响.

  20. 肝片形吸虫重组组织蛋白酶L的免疫反应性和免疫原性分析%Immunoreactivity and Immunogenicity Analysis of the Recombinant Cathepsin L-like Protease of Fasciola hepatica in SD Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉旭华; 闻晓波; 王春仁; 李晓娟; 魏晓曼


    目的 分析肝片形吸虫(Fasciola hepatica)重组组织蛋白酶L(CatL)的免疫反应性,以及对SD大鼠的免疫原性. 方法 诱导含重组原核表达质粒pET30a-FhCatL的大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3)宿主菌表达,SDS-PAGE分析表达产物,以感染肝片形吸虫山羊血清为一抗,蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)分析其免疫反应性.20只SD大鼠随机均分为重组蛋白免疫组和佐剂对照组,免疫组大鼠皮下注射纯化的重组FhCatL,200μg/(只·次),共免疫3次,每次间隔3周;对照组用等量PBS与佐剂混合后注射.于第2次和末次免疫前,以及末次免疫后3、6和9周尾静脉采血,分离血清.利用间接ELISA法检测免疫大鼠血清IgG抗体水平,噻唑蓝比色法(MTT法)检测脾淋巴细胞增殖情况.结果 经纯化获得重组FhCatL蛋白,相对分子质量(Mr)约42 000.Western blotting分析结果表明,纯化重组蛋白能被感染肝片形吸虫的山羊血清识别.重组FhCatL蛋白免疫SD大鼠后可诱导产生特异性IgG抗体,随着免疫时间的延长抗体水平逐渐升高,于末次免疫后3周抗体效价达到峰值(1∶102400),明显高于对照组(1∶1 000).免疫组脾淋巴细胞刺激指数为2.176±0.047,显著高于对照组(1.171±0.032)(P<0.05). 结论 重组FhCatL蛋白具有较好的免疫反应性和免疫原性.

  1. Cloning and Sequencing of Cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) Gene cDNA of Fasciola hepatica%肝片吸虫组织蛋白酶L1基因cDNA序列的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧; 李海云



  2. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.


    , cathepsin B, disulfide-isomerase A3 precursor, cell-division cycle 48, and five distinct heat shock proteins), amino acid metabolism, urea cycle and methylation/folate pathways (methionine adenosyltransferase I α, phenylalanine hydroxylase, mitochondrial agmatinase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, 3...

  3. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of organoselenium(IV) compounds and their evaluation as cysteine protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovan, Leandro; Andrade, Leandro H., E-mail: leandroh@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Alves, Marcio F.M.; Juliano, Luiz; Cunha, Rodrigo L.O.R, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Unifesp/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Broemme, Dieter [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Dentistry


    A series of organoselenium dihalides (organoselenanes) was synthesized from organoselenides using a chemoenzymatic approach. The organoselenanes have variations in their stereochemistry and in the halogen atom bonded to the selenium atom. Because of the unique selenium-thiol chemistry displayed by several organoselenium compounds, the organoselenanes were evaluated as new potential inhibitors of cysteine proteases (cathepsins S and V). By the analysis of the second-order rate constants of the inhibition of cathepsin S and V, it was possible to conclude that organoselenanes inhibited the cathepsin S faster than cathepsin V. It was observed higher inhibitory potencies for the dibromo organoselenanes derivatives than the dichloro analogues. In addition, the present data suggest the use of hypervalent selenium compounds as novel motifs for cysteine proteases inhibitors. (author)

  4. Disease: H00425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lerosis and short stature. Recent findings suggest a more expanded role for cathepsins in human biology...p periodic hair loss. Recent findings suggest a more expanded role for cathepsins in human biology. These ro...u Rev Biochem 60:257-80 (1991) PMID:15647514 (Description) Winchester B Lysosomal metabolism of glycoproteins. Glycobiology... 15:1R-15R (2005) PMID:9074757 Chapman HA, Riese RJ, Shi GP Emerging roles for cysteine proteases in human biology

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSM471 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 140 2e-32 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor cathepsin-L-like .....( AY336797 |pid:none) Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides hae... 143 4e-33 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tene...brio molitor cathepsin L-like ... 141 2e-32 DQ000609_1( DQ000609 |pid:none) Globode

  6. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae). (United States)

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor


    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes.

  7. 天冬氨酸/半胱氨酸组织蛋白酶在光老化成纤维细胞中的表达变化%Expressions of aspartic proteinase and cysteine proteinase in photoaged fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖维; 郑跃; 陆春; 万苗坚; 谢淑霞; 许庆芳; 关蕾; 叶张章; 易金玲


    Objective To investigate the expression changes of aspartic proteinase (cathepsin D) and cysteine proteinase (cathepsin K) in photoaged fibroblasts. Methods The senescence of human fibroblasts was induced via culture in the presence of 8-methoxypsralen (MOP) of 50 mg/L in darkness for 24 hours followed by irradiation with UVA of 80 kJ/m~2. Then, aged fibroblasts were confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were carried out to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of cathepsin D and cathepsin K in photoaged and normal control fibroblasts, respectively. Results Western blot showed a significant difference between photoaged and control fibroblasts in the grey scale of cathepsin D and cathepsin K (3.25 ± 0.33 vs 14.18 ± 2.25, f = 30.61, P < 0.01; 2.39 ± 0.66 vs 29.38 ± 4.62, t = 12.63, P< 0.01). The △Ct values for cathepsin D and cathepsin K mRNA were 2.79 ± 0.17 and -0.92 ± 0.06, respectively, in photoaged fibroblasts, significantly lower than those in the control fibroblasts (4.54 ± 0.34, 2.57 ± 0.13, t = 20.78, 28.50, respectively, both P < 0.01). According to the value of 2~(-△△Ct), the expression of cathepsin D and cathepsin K mRNA decreased 0.24 ± 0.021 and 0.09 ± 0.005 folds, respectively, in photoaged fibroblasts compared with the control fibroblasts. Conclusion The expression of cathepsin D and cathepsin K is decreased in photoaged fibroblasts.%目的 探讨天冬氨酸组织蛋白酶(cathepsin D)及半胱氨酸组织蛋白酶(cathepsin K)在光老化成纤维细胞中的表达变化.方法 培养原代人皮肤成纤维细胞,在50 mg/L的8-甲氧沙林(8-MOP)培养基中避光孵育24 h后,用80 kJ/m~2 UVA照射,体外诱导培养细胞光老化.衰老相关-β-半乳糖苷酶(SA-β-Gal)染色证明老化诱导成功.Western印迹及实时定量RT-PCR对比检测光老化成纤维细胞及正常成纤维细胞eathepsin K和cathepsin D蛋白及基因表达.结果 Western印

  8. Analysis of the Proteolytic Processing of ABCA3: Identification of Cleavage Site and Involved Proteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hofmann

    Full Text Available ABCA3 is a lipid transporter in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene cause respiratory distress syndrome in new-borns and childhood interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved by an as yet unknown protease, a process believed to regulate ABCA3 activity.The exact site where ABCA3 is cleaved was localized using mass spectrometry (MS. Proteases involved in ABCA3 processing were identified using small molecule inhibitors and siRNA mediated gene knockdown. Results were verified by in vitro digestion of a synthetic peptide substrate mimicking ABCA3's cleavage region, followed by MS analysis.We found that cleavage of ABCA3 occurs after Lys174 which is located in the proteins' first luminal loop. Inhibition of cathepsin L and, to a lesser extent, cathepsin B resulted in attenuation of ABCA3 cleavage. Both enzymes showed activity against the ABCA3 peptide in vitro with cathepsin L being more active.We show here that, like some other proteins of the lysosomal membrane, ABCA3 is a substrate of cathepsin L. Therefore, cathepsin L may represent a potential target to therapeutically influence ABCA3 activity in ABCA3-associated lung disease.

  9. An immunohistochemical study and review of potential markers of human intestinal M cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NACS Wong


    Full Text Available M cells are found in intestinal follicle associated epithelium. Studies into the physiological and pathological roles of human M cells have been hampered by the lack of well-substantiated, specific markers for these cells. A critical literature review suggests the following molecules may potentially serve as such markers: CK7, FcaR (CD89, S100, CD1a, CD21, CD23, sialyl Lewis A, and cathepsin E. Normal ileum, appendix and colorectum were studied using paraffinembedded, formalin-fixed tissue and immunohistochemistry for these 8 markers. Cathepsin E immunohistochemistry was also performed on cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenoma, colorectal hyperplastic/metaplastic polyp, lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, pseudomembranous colitis and active ulcerative colitis. Of the 8 markers tested, only cathepsin E appeared to be specific to follicle associated epithelium (expressed by cells with and without M cell morphology and follicular crypt epithelium; this specificity was limited to the colorectum. Focal epithelial expression of cathepsin E was seen in adenocarcinoma, adenoma, hyperplastic/metaplastic polyp, ulcerative colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. In conclusion, cathepsin E is a specific marker of normal colorectal follicle associated epithelium and follicular crypt epithelium though is not specific to M cells within these compartments. None of the other 7 markers studied is exclusively expressed by human M cells.

  10. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  11. Regulatory elements within the prodomain of Falcipain-2, a cysteine protease of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C Pandey

    Full Text Available Falcipain-2, a papain family cysteine protease of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, plays a key role in parasite hydrolysis of hemoglobin and is a potential chemotherapeutic target. As with many proteases, falcipain-2 is synthesized as a zymogen, and the prodomain inhibits activity of the mature enzyme. To investigate the mechanism of regulation of falcipain-2 by its prodomain, we expressed constructs encoding different portions of the prodomain and tested their ability to inhibit recombinant mature falcipain-2. We identified a C-terminal segment (Leu(155-Asp(243 of the prodomain, including two motifs (ERFNIN and GNFD that are conserved in cathepsin L sub-family papain family proteases, as the mediator of prodomain inhibitory activity. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the prodomain including the C-terminal segment, but not constructs lacking this segment, was rich in secondary structure, suggesting that the segment plays a crucial role in protein folding. The falcipain-2 prodomain also efficiently inhibited other papain family proteases, including cathepsin K, cathepsin L, cathepsin B, and cruzain, but it did not inhibit cathepsin C or tested proteases of other classes. A structural model of pro-falcipain-2 was constructed by homology modeling based on crystallographic structures of mature falcipain-2, procathepsin K, procathepsin L, and procaricain, offering insights into the nature of the interaction between the prodomain and mature domain of falcipain-2 as well as into the broad specificity of inhibitory activity of the falcipain-2 prodomain.

  12. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M


    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, from bufo melanostictus. (United States)

    Liu, Wa; Ji, Senlin; Zhang, A-Mei; Han, Qinqin; Feng, Yue; Song, Yuzhu


    Cystatins are efficient inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases, and they serve various important physiological functions. In this study, a novel cystatin, Cystatin-X, was cloned from a cDNA library of the skin of Bufo melanostictus. The single nonglycosylated polypeptide chain of Cystatin-X consisted of 102 amino acid residues, including seven cysteines. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Cystatin-X can be grouped with family 1 cystatins. It contains cystatin-conserved motifs known to interact with the active site of cysteine proteinases. Recombinant Cystatin-X expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited obvious inhibitory activity against cathepsin B. rCystatin-X at a concentration of 8 µM inhibited nearly 80% of cathepsin B activity within 15 s, and about 90% of cathepsin B activity within 15 min. The Cystatin-X identified in this study can play an important role in host immunity and in the medical effect of B. melanostictus.

  14. Molecular pathology in vulnerable carotid plaques: correlation with [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Borgwardt, L;


    before carotid endarterectomy. Plaque mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18), the macrophage-specific marker CD68 and the two proteinases, Cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS......: Consistent up-regulation of CD68 (3.8-fold+/-0.9; mean+/-standard error), Cathepsin K (2.1-fold+/-0.5), MMP-9 (122-fold+/-65) and IL-18 (3.4-fold+/-0.7) were found in the plaques, compared to reference-artery specimens. The FDG uptake by plaques was strongly correlated with CD68 gene expression (r=0.71, P=0.......02). Any correlations with Cathepsin K, MMP-9 or IL-18 gene expression were weaker. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET uptake in carotid plaques is correlated to gene expression of CD68 and other molecular markers of inflammation and vulnerability Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  15. [Lysosomal proteinasen and peptidasen in serum of children with inflammatory diseases (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Appel, W; Huth, E; Herrmann, H


    In the serum of 43 children the activities of proteinases and peptidases by mean of 41 substrates have been determined in order to get knowledge of overall activities and differentiation of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes. Proteinases, cathepsins A, B, C and D, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, dipeptidases, tripeptidases and aminoacidarylamidases have been checked. The enzyme pattern of the serum of a collective of 15 healthy children or those without serious clinical signs is demonstrated, also the alterations and differentiations in the serum of children with leucemia, pneumonia, inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, other inflammatory diseases and common diseases. Leucyl-glycyl-glycyltripeptidase, glycyl-glycyl-glycyltripeptidase, a proteosterase, carboxypeptidase A, a neutrale proteinase and basic proteinase (cathepsin B) and cathepsin C are increased. A distinct elevation has been found only in children with leucemia and pneumonia.

  16. Organelle-Specific Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Living Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Chrisler, William B.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.


    A multimodal acidic organelle targeting activity-based probe was developed for analysis of subcellular native enzymatic activity of cells by fluorescent microscopy and mass spectrometry. A cathepsin reactive warhead was conjugated to an acidotropic amine, and a clickable alkyne for appendage of AlexaFluor 488 or biotin reporter tags. This probe accumulated in punctate vesicles surrounded by LAMP1, a lysosome marker, as observed by Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) in J774 mouse macrophage cells. Biotin conjugation, affinity purification, and analysis of in vivo labeled J774 by mass spectrometry showed that the probe was very selective for Cathepsins B and Z, two lysosomal cysteine proteases. Analysis of starvation induced autophagy, which is an increase in cell component catabolism involving lysosomes, showed a large increase in tagged protein number and an increase in cathepsin activity. Organelle targeting activity-based probes and subsequent analysis of resident proteins by mass spectrometry is enabled by tuning the physicochemical properties of the probe.

  17. Factors influencing the measurement of lysosomal enzymes activity in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Persichetti

    Full Text Available Measurements of the activities of lysosomal enzymes in cerebrospinal fluid have recently been proposed as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. To define the operating procedures useful for ensuring the reliability of these measurements, we analyzed several pre-analytical factors that may influence the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase, α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase, β-galactosidase, α-fucosidase, β-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D and cathepsin E in cerebrospinal fluid. Lysosomal enzyme activities were measured by well-established fluorimetric assays in a consecutive series of patients (n = 28 with different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease. The precision, pre-storage and storage conditions, and freeze/thaw cycles were evaluated. All of the assays showed within- and between-run variabilities below 10%. At -20°C, only cathepsin D was stable up to 40 weeks. At -80°C, the cathepsin D, cathepsin E, and β-mannosidase activities did not change significantly up to 40 weeks, while β-glucocerebrosidase activity was stable up to 32 weeks. The β-galactosidase and α-fucosidase activities significantly increased (+54.9±38.08% after 4 weeks and +88.94±36.19% after 16 weeks, respectively. Up to four freeze/thaw cycles did not significantly affect the activities of cathepsins D and E. The β-glucocerebrosidase activity showed a slight decrease (-14.6% after two freeze/thaw cycles. The measurement of lysosomal enzyme activities in cerebrospinal fluid is reliable and reproducible if pre-analytical factors are accurately taken into consideration. Therefore, the analytical recommendations that ensue from this study may contribute to the establishment of actual values for the activities of cerebrospinal fluid lysosomal enzymes as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Calciurn/lysosome pathway in the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells induced by Wuxing soup%五行汤经钙离子/溶酶体途径介导的SGC-7901细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫非; 胡晶莹; 甘愉; 赵仰星; 朱明洁; 赵新泰; 段友容


    Objective To explore the mechanism of calcium/lysosome pathway in the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells induced by Wuxing soup. Methods The integrity of lysosome membrane was detected by acridine orange (AO) staining,the key proteins in apoptotic pathway were tested by Western blot, and the effect of inhibitors on cell apoptotic rate and survival rate was analyzed by Annexin V-binding ELISA and CCK-8, respectively. Results The leakage of lysosome membrane was observed by AO staining. The lysosome associated apoptotic protein Cathepsin D and Cathepsin B were released into cytosol. The inhibitors of Cathepsin B, L and S exerted protection in the survival of SGC-7901 under Wuxing soup treatment in a dose-dependent manner. However, the inhibitor of Cathepsin D had no effects on apoptosis.Conclusion Wuxing soup could induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis through calcium mediated and lysosome involved caspase-independent pathway.%目的 探索五行汤经钙离子/溶酶体途径介导的SGC-7901细胞凋亡机制.方法 吖啶橙染色检测溶酶体膜完整性,胞浆蛋白免疫印迹法检测凋亡途径蛋白变化,Annexin V结合实验和CCK-8法检测不同抑制剂对细胞凋亡和存活的影响.结果 凋亡细胞的溶酶体膜渗漏,溶酶休释放蛋白酶Cathepsin D和Cathepsin B至胞浆.天冬氨酸蛋白酶Cathepsin D抑制剂对五行汤诱导的细胞凋亡无影响;半胱氨酸蛋白酶Cathepsin B、L、S抑制荆可明显减少细胞凋亡(P<0.05),且对细胞的保护作用呈浓度依赖性.结论 五行汤经钙离子/溶酶体途径介导SGC-7901细胞凋亡.

  19. Effect of altering local protein fluctuations using artificial intelligence (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko


    The fluctuations in Arg111, a significantly fluctuating residue in cathepsin K, were locally regulated by modifying Arg111 to Gly111. The binding properties of 15 dipeptides in the modified protein were analyzed by molecular simulations, and modeled as decision trees using artificial intelligence. The decision tree of the modified protein significantly differed from that of unmodified cathepsin K, and the Arg-to-Gly modification exerted a remarkable effect on the peptide binding properties. By locally regulating the fluctuations of a protein, we may greatly alter the original functions of the protein, enabling novel applications in several fields.

  20. Enzyme-responsive doxorubicin release from dendrimer nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ


    Full Text Available Sang Joon Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Hyung-Kyu Park,3 Dae Hwan Kang,2,4 Jong-Suk Oh,3 Sam-Gyu Lee,5 Hyun Chul Lee31Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 2Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, 5Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Since cancer cells are normally over-expressed cathepsin B, we synthesized dendrimer-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG-doxorubicin (DOX conjugates using a cathepsin B-cleavable peptide for anticancer drug targeting.Methods: Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide was conjugated with the carboxylic acid end groups of a dendrimer, which was then conjugated with MPEG amine and doxorubicin by aid of carbodiimide chemistry (abbreviated as DendGDP. Dendrimer-MPEG-DOX conjugates without Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide linkage was also synthesized for comparison (DendDP. Nanoparticles were then prepared using a dialysis procedure.Results: The synthesized DendGDP was confirmed with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DendDP and DendGDP nanoparticles had a small particle size of less than 200 nm and had a spherical morphology. DendGDP had cathepsin B-sensitive drug release properties while DendDP did not show cathepsin B sensitivity. Further, DendGDP had improved anticancer activity when compared with doxorubicin or DendDP in an in vivo CT26 tumor xenograft model, ie, the volume of the CT26 tumor xenograft was significantly inhibited when compared with xenografts treated with doxorubicin or DendDP nanoparticles. The DendGDP nanoparticles were found to be relatively concentrated in the tumor tissue and

  1. Identification of Plakortide E from the Caribbean Sponge Plakortis halichondroides as a Trypanocidal Protease Inhibitor using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Oli


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report new protease inhibitory activity of plakortide E towards cathepsins and cathepsin-like parasitic proteases. We further report on its anti-parasitic activity against Trypanosoma brucei with an IC50 value of 5 μM and without cytotoxic effects against J774.1 macrophages at 100 μM concentration. Plakortide E was isolated from the sponge Plakortis halichondroides using enzyme assay-guided fractionation and identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic studies confirmed plakortide E as a non-competitive, slowly-binding, reversible inhibitor of rhodesain.

  2. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K;


    (+),K(+),2Cl(-)-cotransporter (NKCC1) to RVI. Hypertonic stress induced caspase-3 activity in WEHI cells and iMEFs, an effect potentiated by Hsp70 in WEHI cells but inhibited by Hsp70 in iMEFs. Osmotic shrinkage-induced PCD was associated with Hsp70-inhibitable cysteine cathepsin release in i......MEFs and attenuated by caspase and cathepsin inhibitors in WEHI cells. Treatment with TNF-alpha or the NHE1 inhibitor 5'-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA) reduced the viability of WEHI cells further under isotonic and mildly, but not severely, hypertonic conditions. Thus, it is concluded that shrinkage...

  3. A primitive enzyme for a primitive cell: the protease required for excystation of Giardia. (United States)

    Ward, W; Alvarado, L; Rawlings, N D; Engel, J C; Franklin, C; McKerrow, J H


    Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are one of the earliest lineages of eukaryotic cells. To initiate infection, trophozoites emerge from a cyst in the host. Excystation is blocked by specific cysteine protease inhibitors. Using a biotinylated inhibitor, the target protease was identified and its corresponding gene cloned. The protease was localized to vesicles that release their contents just prior to excystation. The Giardia protease is the earliest known branch of the cathepsin B family. Its phylogeny confirms that the cathepsin B lineage evolved in primitive eukaryotic cells, prior to the divergence of plant and animal kingdoms, and underscores the diversity of cellular functions that this enzyme family facilitates.

  4. Dual-Modality Activity-Based Probes as Molecular Imaging Agents for Vascular Inflammation. (United States)

    Withana, Nimali P; Saito, Toshinobu; Ma, Xiaowei; Garland, Megan; Liu, Changhao; Kosuge, Hisanori; Amsallem, Myriam; Verdoes, Martijn; Ofori, Leslie O; Fischbein, Michael; Arakawa, Mamoru; Cheng, Zhen; McConnell, Michael V; Bogyo, Matthew


    Macrophages are cellular mediators of vascular inflammation and are involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. These immune cells secrete proteases such as matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins that contribute to disease formation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that activity-based probes (ABPs) targeting cysteine cathepsins can be used in murine models of atherosclerosis to noninvasively image activated macrophage populations using both optical and PET/CT methods. The probes can also be used to topically label human carotid plaques demonstrating similar specific labeling of activated macrophage populations.

  5. Chemical tools for the study of proteolytic activities associated with antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swieten, Paul Franciscus van


    The synthesis of different tools to study protease activities are presented. Irreversible inhibitors of the proteasome or cathepsins were equipped with reporter groups and other functionalities to generate probes to study these proteases under different conditions. A two step labeling strategy allow

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFF419 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n, complete cds. 72 2e-20 3 X02407 |X02407.1 D.discoideum mRNA for cysteine proteinase 1. 90 6e-14 1 AJ496197 |AJ496197.1 Myzus persi...cae mRNA for putative cathepsin L (catL gene). 48 1e-07

  7. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death in LAMP2-deficient iPSCs-derived cerebral cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Yiu Law


    Our results from cellular fractionation and inhibitor blockade experiments further revealed that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in the LAMP2-deficient cortical neurons was caused by increased abundance of cytosolic cathepsin L. These results suggest the involvement of lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the LAMP2 deficiency associated neural injury.

  8. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;


    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  9. Kathepsine C : Een allosterisch enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jeannette


    In chapter I an introduction into allosteric systems is given. In chapter II is a detailed method is described for the applica of Gly-Phe--p. nitroanilide (GPNA) as a substrate for the activity assay of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin C. It is an allosteric which is activated by Cl-, Br-, 1-, CNS-, N

  10. NSP4 Is Stored in Azurophil Granules and Released by Activated Neutrophils as Active Endoprotease with Restricted Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Natascha C; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Larsen, Maria Torp


    Whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3 have been known as granule-associated serine proteases of neutrophils for decades, a fourth member, called neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4), was just recently described and provisionally characterized. In this study, we identified NSP4...

  11. How Body Affects Brain. (United States)

    Suzuki, Wendy A


    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSD253 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 1.6 1 AI078878 |AI078878.1 Tc-EST-013 (3' read) Toxocara canis infective larva cDNA library Toxocara canis...6 1 M16039 |M16039.1 Dictyostelium discoideum pst-cath gene encoding pst-cathepsin, complete cds. 44 1.6 1 U53172 |U53172.1 Toxocara

  13. SwissProt search result: AK112005 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112005 006-202-F10 (P20718) Granzyme H precursor (EC 3.4.21.-) (Cytotoxic T-lymph...ocyte proteinase) (Cathepsin G-like 2) (CTSGL2) (CCP-X) (Cytotoxic serine protease C) (CSP-C) GRAH_HUMAN 5e-16 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK112119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112119 006-303-H09 (P20718) Granzyme H precursor (EC 3.4.21.-) (Cytotoxic T-lymph...ocyte proteinase) (Cathepsin G-like 2) (CTSGL2) (CCP-X) (Cytotoxic serine protease C) (CSP-C) GRAH_HUMAN 2e-16 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK061101 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061101 006-207-A12 (P20718) Granzyme H precursor (EC 3.4.21.-) (Cytotoxic T-lymph...ocyte proteinase) (Cathepsin G-like 2) (CTSGL2) (CCP-X) (Cytotoxic serine protease C) (CSP-C) GRAH_HUMAN 3e-14 ...

  16. Activation of proteinase 3 contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, Erik J.M.; Mirea, Andreea Manuela; Tack, Cees J.; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B.; Diepen, van Janna A.; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H.; Pham, Christine Tn; Netea, Mihai G.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A.B.


    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to proces

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05477-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 881_1( AF410881 |pid:none) Frankliniella occidentalis cystein... 39 0.076 EF53013..... 39 0.076 AF412313_1( AF412313 |pid:none) Haemonchus contortus cathepsin L c... 39 0.076 AF410883_1( AF410883 |pid:none) Franklin

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16296-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.... 172 3e-47 AF410883_1( AF410883 |pid:none) Frankliniell... marrow macrophag... 171 3e-47 AF410881_1( AF410881 |pid:none) Frankliniella occidentalis cystein... 170 4e-

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 670 |pid:none) Pandalus borealis PbCtL mRNA for c... 54 2e-06 FJ807676_1( FJ80767..... 54 1e-06 AY220615_1( AY220615 |pid:none) Hydra vulgaris cathepsin L precurs... 54 2e-06 AB091670_1( AB091

  20. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas;


    metalloproteinase (MMP), and protease. Atherosclerotic plaques are primarily composed of the protein type I and III collagen, and smaller quantities of elastin and proteoglycans. Macrophages secrete an array of proteases, including MMPs, cathepsins, and aggrecanases, with the ability to degrade most...

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0882 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1( FJ772427 |pid:none) Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsi... 50 2e-05 AX497240_1( AX497240 |pid:none) Sequen...S00081 ;A25654;A26818;B25654)cathepsin L (EC - c... 50 2e-05 FJ772427_

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1665 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n L m... 54 2e-06 KHCHL( S00081 ;A25654;A26818;B25654)cathepsin L (EC - c... 53 3e-06 FJ772427_1( FJ772427 |pid:none) Lutj...anus argentimaculatus cathepsi... 53 3e-06 AY126275_28(

  3. Expression of a barley cystatin gene in maize enhances resistance against phytophagous mites by altering their cysteine-proteases. (United States)

    Carrillo, Laura; Martinez, Manuel; Ramessar, Koreen; Cambra, Inés; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Díaz, Isabel


    Phytocystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases from plants putatively involved in plant defence based on their capability of inhibit heterologous enzymes. We have previously characterised the whole cystatin gene family members from barley (HvCPI-1 to HvCPI-13). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of barley cystatins on two phytophagous spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and Brevipalpus chilensis. The determination of proteolytic activity profile in both mite species showed the presence of the cysteine-proteases, putative targets of cystatins, among other enzymatic activities. All barley cystatins, except HvCPI-1 and HvCPI-7, inhibited in vitro mite cathepsin L- and/or cathepsin B-like activities, HvCPI-6 being the strongest inhibitor for both mite species. Transgenic maize plants expressing HvCPI-6 protein were generated and the functional integrity of the cystatin transgene was confirmed by in vitro inhibitory effect observed against T. urticae and B. chilensis protein extracts. Feeding experiments impaired on transgenic lines performed with T. urticae impaired mite development and reproductive performance. Besides, a significant reduction of cathepsin L-like and/or cathepsin B-like activities was observed when the spider mite fed on maize plants expressing HvCPI-6 cystatin. These findings reveal the potential of barley cystatins as acaricide proteins to protect plants against two important mite pests.

  4. Structural characterization of thyroglobulin type-1 domains of equistatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galesa, K.; Pain, R.; Jongsma, M.A.; Turk, V.; Lenarci, B.


    Equistatin is a protein composed of three thyroglobulin type-1 domains. It inhibits papain-like cysteine proteinases and the aspartic proteinase, cathepsin D. To determine the structural basis for this inhibition we cloned and expressed the separated domains (eq d-1, eq d-2, eq d-3) in Pichia pastor

  5. Effect of Recombinant alpha1-Antitrypsin Fc-Fused (AAT-Fc)Protein on the Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y.; Hong, K.; Hong, J.; Bae, S.; Choi, J.; Jhun, H.; Kwak, A.; Kim, E.; Jo, S.; Dinarello, C.A.; Kim, S.


    alpha1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor family that impedes the enzymatic activity of serine proteinases, including human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and neutrophil proteinase 3. Here, we expressed recombinant AAT by fusing the intact AAT gene to the constant reg

  6. AcEST: DK952021 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P09648|CATL1_CHICK Cathepsin L1 (Fragments) OS=Gallus gallus ... 176 1e-43 sp|P60994|ERVB_TABDI Ervatamin-B OS=Taberna...r GN=C... 169 2e-41 sp|P83654|ERVC_TABDI Ervatamin-C OS=Tabernaemontana divaricata P... 168 2e-41 >sp|P43297

  7. Hypoxia enhances the antiglioma cytotoxicity of B10, a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fischer

    Full Text Available B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet staining, clonogenicity assays, propidium iodide uptake and LDH release assays. Cell death was examined using an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1, a cathepsin inhibitor (CA074-Me and a short-hairpin RNA targeting cathepsin B. Hypoxia substantially enhanced B10-induced cell death. This effect was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and thus dependent on hypoxia-induced lysosomal acidification. Cathepsin B appeared to mediate cell death because either the inhibitor CA074-Me or cathepsin B gene silencing rescued glioma cells from B10 toxicity under hypoxia. B10 is a novel antitumor agent with substantially enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia conferred by increased lysosomal cell death pathway activation. Given the importance of hypoxia for therapy resistance, malignant progression, and as a result of antiangiogenic therapies, B10 might be a promising strategy for hypoxic tumors like malignant glioma.

  8. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per;

    responsible for these aggregations (Fig.2). Furthermore HP treatment caused an increase in cathepsin activity (Fig.3), probably due to disruption of the lysosomal membrane and leakage of enzymes, which subsequently affected the myofibrillar protein degradation pattern (Fig.4). Conclusion: HP treatment affects...

  9. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate the release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and soluble IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor from MCF7 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Confort, C; Rochefort, H; Vignon, F


    The growth of hormone-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cells is controlled by steroid hormones and growth factors. By metabolic labeling of cells grown in steroid- and growth factor-stripped serum conditions, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) increase by approximately 5-fold the release of several proteins including cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and soluble forms of the multifunctional IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. Two soluble forms of IGF-II/M6P receptors were detected, one major (approximately 260 kilodaltons) and one minor (approximately 85 kilodaltons) that probably represents a proteolytic fragment of the larger soluble molecule. IGFs increased receptor release in a dose-dependent fashion with 50-60% of newly synthesized receptor released at 5-10 nM IGFs. The release of IGF-II/M6P receptors correlated with the levels of secreted cathepsin D in different human breast cancer cells or in rats stable transfectants that are constitutively expressing variable levels of human cathepsin D. IGFs had a stronger effect on IGF-II/M6P receptor release, whereas estradiol treatment preferentially enhanced the release of protease and antiprotease. We thus demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, IGFs not only act as strong mitogens but also regulate release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, IGF-II/M6P-soluble receptor, and cathepsin D; three proteins that potentially regulate cell proliferation and/or invasion.

  10. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Spine Fusion (United States)


    7: Degradation profiles of cathepsin K-sensitive GPSG hydrogels. Hydrogel droplets (3 μl) were polymerized in each micro-cuvette and swelled...Multilayer microfluidic PEGDA hydrogels”, Biomaterials, 31:5491-7, 2010. PMID: 20447685. 26. Moon, J.J., Saik, J.E., Poché, R.A., Leslie-Barbick, J.E., Lee

  11. Dietary factors impact on the association between CTSS variants and obesity related traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooton, Henri; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Holst, Claus;


    Cathepsin S, a protein coded by the CTSS gene, is implicated in adipose tissue biology--this protein enhances adipose tissue development. Our hypothesis is that common variants in CTSS play a role in body weight regulation and in the development of obesity and that these effects are influenced...... by dietary factors--increased by high protein, glycemic index and energy diets....

  12. ABT-737, a Bcl-2 Selective Inhibitor, and Chloroquine Synergistically Kill Renal Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Yin, Pei; Jia, Jinpeng; Li, Jijun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yiyan; Chen, Fengkun


    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in the kidney in the world, and the 5-year overall survival for patients remains poor due to the lack of effective treatment strategies. Although ABT-737, as a Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor, has recently emerged as a novel cancer therapeutic reagent, apoptosis induced by ABT-737 is often blocked in several types of cancer cells. This study investigated whether the combination of the small-molecule BH3 mimetic ABT-737 and the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine was an effective strategy for treating renal cancer cells. We found that the combination of ABT-737 and chloroquine synergistically decreased cell viability when compared to treatment with either single reagent. Cell apoptosis induced by a combined treatment was markedly inhibited by the caspase inhibitors z-DEVD-FMK and z-VAD-FMK. It was also inhibited by cathepsin inhibitor E-64 and CTSI (cathepsin inhibitor), which suggested that apoptosis was dependent on the cascade of caspase activation and cathepsins released from lysosomes. Furthermore, we found that ABT-737 could increase the cell level of ROS, which triggers cathepsin-mediated cell death and augments the role of chloroquine in cell death. So the combination of ABT-737 and chloroquine was an effective strategy for the treatment of renal cancer cells, and this combined strategy may widen the therapeutic window of ABT-737 and chloroquine as well as enhance the clinical efficacy of synergistic drug combinations.

  13. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AB13 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 EST209292 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCC16 5' end simi...lar to cathepsin L, mRNA sequence. 42 3e-04 2 AI975022 |AI975022.1 EST269616 Schistosoma mansoni female, Phil LoVerde/Joe

  14. Imaging Sites of Inhibition of Proteolysis in Pathomimetic Human Breast Cancer Cultures by Light-Activated Ruthenium Compound. (United States)

    Ramalho, Suelem D; Sharma, Rajgopal; White, Jessica K; Aggarwal, Neha; Chalasani, Anita; Sameni, Mansoureh; Moin, Kamiar; Vieira, Paulo C; Turro, Claudia; Kodanko, Jeremy J; Sloane, Bonnie F


    The cysteine protease cathepsin B has been causally linked to progression and metastasis of breast cancers. We demonstrate inhibition by a dipeptidyl nitrile inhibitor (compound 1) of cathepsin B activity and also of pericellular degradation of dye-quenched collagen IV by living breast cancer cells. To image, localize and quantify collagen IV degradation in real-time we used 3D pathomimetic breast cancer models designed to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of breast cancers. We further report the synthesis and characterization of a caged version of compound 1, [Ru(bpy)2(1)2](BF4)2 (compound 2), which can be photoactivated with visible light. Upon light activation, compound 2, like compound 1, inhibited cathepsin B activity and pericellular collagen IV degradation by the 3D pathomimetic models of living breast cancer cells, without causing toxicity. We suggest that caged inhibitor 2 is a prototype for cathepsin B inhibitors that can control both the site and timing of inhibition in cancer.

  15. Enzymatic, sensory and microbiological changes in marinated vacuum packedhigh pressure treated pork tenderloins during cold storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Grossi, Alberto

    Introduction The purpose was to investigate the: • activity of cathepsins • sensory properties • growth of specific spoilage organisms in marinated, vaccumpacked high pressure processed (HPP) tenderloins during 12 weeks of storage at 2 °C. Methods Tenderloins (5% brine-gain containing 10% Na...

  16. Characterisation of cysteine proteinases responsible for digestive proteolysis in guts of larval Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) by expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bown, D.P.; Wilkinson, H.S.; Jongsma, M.A.; Gatehouse, J.A.


    Cysteine proteinases are the major class of enzymes responsible for digestive proteolysis in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), a serious pest of maize. A larval gut extract hydrolysed typical cathepsin substrates, such as Z-phe-arg-AMC and Z-arg-arg-AMC, and hydrolysis was inhibited by Z

  17. EST Table: BP120057 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP120057 ceN-1674 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0004197(cysteine-type endopeptidase activity)|...P_973607.2| PREDICTED: similar to cathepsin F-like cysteine protease [Tribolium castaneum] BP120057 ceN- ...

  18. Hormonal and cholinergic influences on pancreatic lysosomal and digestive enzymes in rats. (United States)

    Evander, A; Ihse, I; Lundquist, I


    Hormonal and cholinergic influences on lysosomal and digestive enzyme activities in pancreatic tissue were studied in normal adult rats. Hormonal stimulation by the cholecystokinin analogue, caerulein, induced a marked enhancement of the activities of cathepsin D and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in pancreatic tissue, whereas the activities of amylase and lipase tended to decrease. Acid phosphatase activity was not affected. Further, caerulein was found to induce a significant increase of cathepsin D output in bile-pancreatic juice. This output largely parallelled that of amylase. Cholinergic stimulation by the muscarinic agonist carbachol, at a dose level giving the same output of amylase as caerulein, did not affect pancreatic activities of cathepsin D and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. Further, cholinergic stimulation induced an increase of amylase activity and a slight decrease of acid phosphatase activity in pancreatic tissue. Lipase activity was not affected. No apparent effect on cathepsin D output in bile-pancreatic juice was encountered after cholinergic stimulation. The activities of neither the digestive nor the lysosomal enzymes were influenced by the administration of secretin. The results suggest a possible lysosomal involvement in caerulein-induced secretion and/or inactivation of pancreatic digestive enzymes, whereas cholinergic stimulation seems to act through different mechanisms.

  19. Fasciola hepatica procathepsin L3 protein expressed by a baculovirus recombinant can partly protect rats against fasciolosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reszka, N.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Harmsen, M.M.; Bree, de J.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.


    Fasciola hepatica juveniles express immunodominant cathepsin L proteins, which are mainly found in their immature, procathepsin form. A gene encoding such a procathepsin L (FheCL3) was expressed by a baculovirus recombinant and by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The glycosylated FheCL3 proteins obtained b

  20. Dicty_cDB: CFH502 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( EF154432 |pid:none) Leptinotarsa decemlineata clone In... 41 0.014 L25130_1( L25130 |pid:none) Trypanoso...chromoso... 82 6e-15 EF538805_1( EF538805 |pid:none) Trypanoplasma borreli cathepsin L ... 42 0.006 EF154432

  1. U.S. Army Battlefield Exercise and Combat Related Spinal Cord Injury Research: Neuroprotection and Repair After Spinal Cord Injury. Addendum (United States)


    cathepsin B induces neuronal apoptosis. J. Neurochem., 76, 1475–1484. Pearse DD, Chatzipanteli K, Marcillo AE, Bunge MB, Dietrich WD. Comparison of iNOS...Pereira FC, Stolyarova A, Barakat DJ, Bunge MB. Inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha by antisense targeting produces immunophenotypical and

  2. Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Typical Biomarkers for Periodontitis Using a Magnetic Nanoparticle Biosensor. (United States)

    Wignarajah, Shayalini; Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Bizzarro, Sergio; Bikker, Floris J; Kaman, Wendy E; Zourob, Mohammed


    Periodontitis is a chronic disease which affects at least 10% of the population. If untreated, periodontitis can lead to teeth loss. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests are limited in their sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a novel multiplex hand-held colorimetric diagnostic biosensor, using two typical inflammatory salivary biomarkers, Human Neutrophil Elastase (HNE) and Cathepsin-G, was constructed as proof of concept to potentially detect periodontitis. The biosensing method was based on the measurement of proteolytic activity using specific proteases probes. These probes consist of specific proteases substrates covalently bound to a magnetic bead from one end and to the gold sensor surface by the other end. When intact, this renders the golden sensor black. Upon proteolysis, the cleaved magnetic beads will be attracted by an external magnet revealing the golden color of the sensor surface observable by the naked eye. The biosensor was capable of specific and quantitative detection of HNE and Cathepsin-G in solution and in spiked saliva samples with a lower detection limit of 1 pg/mL and 100 fg/mL for HNE and Cathepsin-G, respectively. Examination of periodontitis patients' sample and a healthy control showed the potential of the multiplex biosensor to detect the presence of HNE and Cathepsin-G activity in situ. This approach is anticipated to be a useful biochip array amenable to low-cost point-of-care devices.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a basic Cysteine-like protease (Cathespsin L1) expressed in the gut of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus is an important pest that causes extensive damage to citrus in the USA. Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) library from the digestive tract of larvae and adult D. abbreviatus identified cathepsins as major putative digestive enzymes. One class, sharing amino acid seque...

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFM562 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apriona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 200 7e-50 WHM... 201 2e-50 FJ654712_1( FJ654712 |pid:none) Chrysomela tremulae aspartic prote... 201 3e-50 AF454831

  5. Dicty_cDB: VFH475 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apriona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 141 4e-32 EF070454_1( EF070454 |pid:none) Maco...2_1( AB106552 |pid:none) Todarodes pacificus tpaD mRNA for ... 144 6e-33 AF454831

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFI451 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1( AF454831 |pid:none) Apriona germari cathepsin D mRNA, ... 181 1e-84 FJ168036_1( FJ168036 |pid:none) Fasci...prote... 199 6e-86 FJ654712_1( FJ654712 |pid:none) Chrysomela tremulae aspartic prote... 183 3e-85 AF454831_

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFB263 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 138 9e-32 AY336797_1( AY336797 |pid:none) Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides hae... 137 1e-31 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio... molitor cathepsin L-like ... 135 4e-31 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio mo

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLB479 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 55 9e-37 DQ280314_1( DQ280314 |pid:none) Hymeniacidon perlevis cathepsin L ... 140 2e-32 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio...hepsin L.1, mRNA (c... 138 9e-32 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLE742 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides hae... 140 3e-32 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio... molitor cathepsin L-like ... 139 7e-32 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor c

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSD803 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5e-36 BC074718_1( BC074718 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis MGC69486 protei... 138 1e-31 AY207373_1( AY207373 |pid:none) Tenebrio... molitor cathepsin L-like ... 136 3e-31 AY332271_1( AY332271 |pid:none) Tenebrio molitor

  11. Insecticidal Activity of a Basement Membrane-Degrading Protease against Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (United States)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease derived from the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina that functions in basement membrane (BM) remodeling during insect development. A recombinant baculovirus expressing ScathL (AcMLF9.ScathL) kills larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, signific...

  12. Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor Is Reduced in -Synuclein Overexpressing Models of Parkinsons Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matrone, Carmela; Dzamko, Nicolas; Madsen, Peder;


    risk of neurodegeneration. Defects in cathepsin D (CD) processing and α-synuclein degradation causing its accumulation in lysosomes are particularly relevant for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanism by which alterations in CD maturation and α-synuclein degradation leads...

  13. 绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%The establishment of fluorescent quantitative PCR method for the detection of the tenderness related gene expression in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅娟; 高爱武; 杨金丽; 王海荣; 侯先志; 考桂兰; 苗海明


    Objective: To establish a method which is used to detect the gene expression of sheep calpain family genes(Calpainl, Calpain2, P94, CAST) and cathepsin family genes(Cathepsin B, Cathepsin D, Cathepsin L). Method: Gene sequences from NCBI is used to design primers using DNAman software. The amplified fragments were detected by T-A clone detection to ensure the specificity and integring of the PCR products. Then the primers were used to check the expression of target genes by real time PCR. Result: Real-time PCR optimum cycle parameters for predegenerated 94 %, 4 min. 94 %, 58 ℃, 45 s, 72 ℃, 1 min. After 40 cycles 72 %, 5 min. Conclusion: A method of real time PCR established successfully and can be used for the detection of mRNA expression of tenderness related genes in sheep.%目的:建立检测绵羊钙蛋白酶家族几种基因(Calpain1、Calpain2、P94、CAST)和组织蛋白酶家族几种基因(Cathepsin B、Cathepsin D、Cathepsin L)mRNA表达量的方法。方法:在NCBI中查找出基因序列,根据引物设计原则利用DNAman软件设计引物。经T-A克隆检测引物扩增片段正确,再将其用于实时荧光定量PCR(Real-time PCR)。结果:Real-time PCR最适循环参数为预变性94℃4 min,94℃30 s,58℃45 s,72℃1 min,经过40个循环后72℃5 min延伸。结论:成功地建立了检测绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量的实时荧光定量PCR方法。该方法灵敏度高,特异性强,准确可靠。完全适用于绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量检测。

  14. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity (United States)

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B.; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine


    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion. PMID:27561012

  15. Huntingtin cleavage product A forms in neurons and is reduced by gamma-secretase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betschart Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mutation in Huntington's disease is a polyglutamine expansion near the N-terminus of huntingtin. Huntingtin expressed in immortalized neurons is cleaved near the N-terminus to form N-terminal polypeptides known as cleavage products A and B (cpA and cpB. CpA and cpB with polyglutamine expansion form inclusions in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. The formation of cpA and cpB in primary neurons has not been established and the proteases involved in the formation of these fragments are unknown. Results Delivery of htt cDNA into the mouse striatum using adeno-associated virus or into primary cortical neurons using lentivirus generated cpA and cpB, indicating that neurons in brain and in vitro can form these fragments. A screen of small molecule protease inhibitors introduced to clonal striatal X57 cells and HeLa cells identified compounds that reduced levels of cpA and are inhibitors of the aspartyl proteases cathepsin D and cathepsin E. The most effective compound, P1-N031, is a transition state mimetic for aspartyl proteases. By western blot analysis, cathepsin D was easily detected in clonal striatal X57 cells, mouse brain and primary neurons, whereas cathepsin E was only detectible in clonal striatal X57 cells. In primary neurons, levels of cleavage product A were not changed by the same compounds that were effective in clonal striatal cells or by mRNA silencing to partially reduce levels of cathepsin D. Instead, treating primary neurons with compounds that are known to inhibit gamma secretase activity either indirectly (Imatinib mesylate, Gleevec or selectively (LY-411,575 or DAPT reduced levels of cpA. LY-411,575 or DAPT also increased survival of primary neurons expressing endogenous full-length mutant huntingtin. Conclusion We show that cpA and cpB are produced from a larger huntingtin fragment in vivo in mouse brain and in primary neuron cultures. The aspartyl protease involved in forming cpA has cathepsin

  16. Bupivacaine can enhance lysosomal activity in mouse muscle myoblasts%布比卡因增强小鼠成肌细胞溶酶体的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊静薇; 毛雨; 李荣荣; 丁正年


    Objective To investigate the effects of bupivacaine on lysosomal abundance and activity in mouse muscle myoblasts.Methods Mouse myoblasts C2C12 was randomly divided into control group (without any treatment) and bupivacaine group (treated with bupivacaine 600 μ mol/L for 6 h).After then,the changes of lysosomal pH was assessed by LysoSensor pH indicator.The content of lysosomes was detected by LysoTracker probe.The expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and Cathepsin B was detected by Western blot analysis.The activity of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes Cathepsin B was determined by MagicRed assay kit.Results Bupivacaine did not affect lysosomal pH.However,compared with the controls,lysosomal abundance was significantly increased 15.15% following bupivacaine treatment(P<0.01).Moreover,protein expression levels of LAMP-1 and Cathepsin B were significantly upregulated 36.41% and 35.29% respetctively by bupivacaine (P<0.01).Furthermore,the activity of Cathepsin B was significantly increased 23.74% by bupivacaine(P<0.01).Conclusions Bupivacaine increased lysosomal content and enhance lysosomal activity in mouse muscle myoblasts.%目的 探讨局部麻醉药布比卡因对小鼠成肌细胞溶酶体的影响. 方法 将体外培养的小鼠成肌细胞C2C12分为2组.对照组:不加任何药物;布比卡因组:以600μmol/L布比卡因刺激细胞6h.实验结束后,用LysoSensor探针评价溶酶体腔pH,用LysoTrackor探针检测溶酶体含量,用蛋白免疫印迹法检测溶酶体相关膜蛋白-1(LAMP-1)和溶酶体蛋白水解酶Cathepsin B的表达水平,并以MagicRed染色法测定Cathepsin B的活性.结果 布比卡因对溶酶体腔pH没有影响.但是,与对照组相比,布比卡因组溶酶体含量增加15.15% (P<0.01),LAMP-1与Cathepsin B表达量分别增加36.41%、35.29% (P<0.01),Cathepsin B活性增加23.74%(P<0.01).结论 布比卡因能增加小鼠成肌细胞溶酶体含量,增强溶酶体活性.

  17. Lysosomal cell death mechanisms in aging. (United States)

    Gómez-Sintes, Raquel; Ledesma, María Dolores; Boya, Patricia


    Lysosomes are degradative organelles essential for cell homeostasis that regulate a variety of processes, from calcium signaling and nutrient responses to autophagic degradation of intracellular components. Lysosomal cell death is mediated by the lethal effects of cathepsins, which are released into the cytoplasm following lysosomal damage. This process of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin release is observed in several physiopathological conditions and plays a role in tissue remodeling, the immune response to intracellular pathogens and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences indicate that aging strongly influences lysosomal activity by altering the physical and chemical properties of these organelles, rendering them more sensitive to stress. In this review we focus on how aging alters lysosomal function and increases cell sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lysosomal cell death, both in physiological conditions and age-related pathologies.

  18. Possible role of proteases in preconditioning of brain cells to pathological conditions. (United States)

    Yakovlev, A A; Gulyaeva, N V


    Preconditioning (PC) is one of the most effective strategies to reduce the severity of cell damage, in particular of nervous tissue cells. Although PC mechanisms are studied insufficiently, it is clear that proteases are involved in them, but their role has yet been not studied in detail. In this work, some mechanisms of a potential recruiting of proteases in PC are considered. Our attention is mainly focused on the protease families of caspases and cathepsins and on protease receptors. We present evidence that just these proteins are involved in the PC of brain cells. A hypothesis is proposed that secreted cathepsin B is involved in the realization of PC through activation of PAR2 receptor.

  19. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress (United States)

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.


    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  20. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Henriksen, Kim; Sørensen, Mette G;


    Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results...... in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose...... dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We...

  1. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  2. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. (United States)

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong


    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  3. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins. (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S


    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  4. Odanacatib: an emerging novel treatment alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Schultz, Thomas C; Valenzano, Jonathan P; Verzella, Jessica L; Umland, Elena M


    Odanacatib represents a novel treatment option in the approach of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis experience a disturbance in bone remodeling wherein bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease found primarily in osteoclasts that plays a major role in the breakdown of bone via its collagenase properties. Targeting a new area of pathophysiology, odanacatib inhibits cathepsin K to reduce bone resorption while preserving bone formation. Phase II and III trials have shown efficacy in increasing bone mineral density in the target treatment group. Overall, safety studies have found odanacatib to be well-tolerated and comparable to placebo; however, some imbalances in adverse events have been observed in the Phase III trials. Current and future studies will analyze the long-term ability of odanacatib in preventing bone fracture.

  5. Constituintes químicos das cascas do caule de Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae e avaliação das atividades citotóxica e inibitória frente as catepsinas B e K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ramos Freitas de Sousa


    Full Text Available A new flavonoid, catechin-3-O-(3"-O-trans-cinnamoyl-α-rhamnopyranoside, along with known compounds, catechin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside and 1-butyl-D-fructofuranoside, has been isolated from the stem bark of V. thyrsoidea. These compounds were assayed for inhibition of protease activity (cathepsins B and K and against cancer cell lines. Catechin-3-O-(3"-O-trans-cinnamoyl-α-rhamnopyranoside showed moderate inhibitory activity (IC50 = 62.02 µM against cathepsin B while 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside was the most potent against a strain of CNS (SF-295 and human leukemia (HL-60 with IC50 = 36.80 µM and IC50 = 25.37 µM, respectively.

  6. Dicty_cDB: [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFC138 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15456-1 VFC138P (Link... to Original site) VFC138F 411 VFC138Z 440 VFC138P 851 - - Show VFC138 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFC138 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15456-1 Original site URL http://dict...ducing significant alignments: (bits) Value N Y16962 |Y16962.1 Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA for cathepsin D.... 815 0.0 4 AJ243946 |AJ243946.1 Dictyostelium discoideum ctsD gene for cathepsin D, exons 1 to 2. 815 0.0 5

  7. Dicty_cDB: [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFC144 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15456-1 VFC144P (Link... to Original site) VFC144F 458 VFC144Z 557 VFC144P 1015 - - Show VFC144 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFC144 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15456-1 Original site URL http://dict...g significant alignments: (bits) Value N Y16962 |Y16962.1 Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA for cathepsin D. 926... 0.0 7 AJ243946 |AJ243946.1 Dictyostelium discoideum ctsD gene for cathepsin D, exons 1 to 2. 926 0.0 8 CB26

  8. Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patient reveals species-dependent requirements for neutrophil defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole E.; Clemmensen, Stine N; Dahl, Sara L


    Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) results from mutations that inactivate cysteine protease cathepsin C (CTSC), which processes a variety of serine proteases considered essential for antimicrobial defense. Despite serine protease-deficient immune cell populations, PLS patients do not exhibit marked...... localize to azurophil granules, including the major serine proteases, elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3, were absent. Accordingly, neutrophils from this patient were incapable of producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to ROS and were unable to process endogenous cathelicidin h......CAP-18 into the antibacterial peptide LL-37 in response to ionomycin. In immature myeloid cells from patient bone marrow, biosynthesis of CTSC and neutrophil serine proteases appeared normal along with initial processing and sorting to cellular storage. In contrast, these proteins were completely absent...

  9. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline structures via cell surface contact. (United States)

    Hari, Aswin; Zhang, Yifei; Tu, Zhongyuan; Detampel, Pascal; Stenner, Melanie; Ganguly, Anutosh; Shi, Yan


    Crystalline structures activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the production of IL-1β, however, the molecular interactions responsible for NLRP3 activation are not fully understood. Cathepsin B release from the ruptured phagolysosome and potassium ion efflux have been suggested to be critical for this activation. Here, we report that Cathepsin B redistribution was not a crucial event in crystal-induced IL-1β production. Silica and monosodium urate crystal-treated macrophages with undisturbed lysosomes demonstrated strong co-localization of ASC and Caspase-1, indicative of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Importantly, we provided evidence to suggest that macrophage cell membrane binding to immobilized crystals was sufficient to induce IL-1β release, and this activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was inhibited by blocking potassium efflux. Therefore, this work reveals additional complexity in crystalline structure-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome regulations.

  10. Relationship between meat toughness and properties of connective tissue from cows and young bulls heat treated at low temperatures for prolonged times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line; Ertbjerg, Per; Løje, Hanne


    of beef was investigated and the relationship to properties of connective tissue was examined. Measurements of toughness, collagen solubility, cathepsin activity and protein denaturation of beef semitendinosus heated at temperatures between 53. °C and 63. °C for up to 19 1/2. h were conducted. The results...... of the connective tissue, caused partly by denaturation or conformational changes of the proteins and/or by solubilization of collagen. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  11. Impact of high glucose and AGEs on cultured kidney-derived cells. Effects on cell viability, lysosomal enzymes and effectors of cell signaling pathways. (United States)

    Peres, Giovani B; Schor, Nestor; Michelacci, Yara M


    We have previously reported decreased expression and activities of lysosomal cathepsins B and L in diabetic kidney. Relevant morphological changes were observed in proximal tubules, suggesting that these cells are implicated in the early stages of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms that lead to these changes. The effects of high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on cell viability, lysosomal enzymes and other effectors of cell signaling of cultured kidney cells were studied. HG increased viable mesangial cells (ihMC) in 48 h, while epithelial tubular cells were not affected (LLC-PK1 and MDCK). In contrast, the number of viable cells was markedly decreased, for all cell lines, by AGE-BSA. Concerning lysosomal enzymes, the main cysteine-protease expressed by these cells was cathepsin B, and its concentration was much higher in epithelial than in mesangial cells. Exposure to HG had no effect on the cathepsin B activity, but AGE-BSA caused a marked decrease in LLC-PK1, and increased the enzyme activities in the other cell lines. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) was increased by AGE-BSA in all cell lines, suggesting oxidative stress, and Western blotting has shown that, among the investigated proteins, cathepsin B, mTOR and transcription factor EB (TFEB) were the most significantly affected by exposure to AGE-BSA. As mTOR induces anabolism and inhibits autophagy, and TFEB is a master transcription factor for lysosomal enzymes, it is possible that this pathway plays a role in the inhibition of lysosomal enzymes in proximal tubule cells.

  12. Endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation associated with lysosomal destabilization during coronary arteritis. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Xiang; Boini, Krishna M; Pitzer, Ashley L; Gulbins, Erich; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan


    Inflammasomes play a critical role in the development of vascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms activating the inflammasome in endothelial cells and the relevance of this inflammasome activation is far from clear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which an Nlrp3 inflammasome is activated to result in endothelial dysfunction during coronary arteritis by Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) cell wall fragments (LCWE) in a mouse model for Kawasaki disease. Endothelial dysfunction associated with increased vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) expression and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion was observed during coronary arteritis in mice treated with LCWE. Accompanied with these changes, the inflammasome activation was also shown in coronary arterial endothelium, which was characterized by a marked increase in caspase-1 activity and IL-1β production. In cultured endothelial cells, LCWE induced Nlrp3 inflammasome formation, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production, which were blocked by Nlrp3 gene silencing or lysosome membrane stabilizing agents such as colchicine, dexamethasone, and ceramide. However, a potassium channel blocker glibenclamide or an oxygen free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine had no effects on LCWE-induced inflammasome activation. LCWE also increased endothelial cell lysosomal membrane permeability and triggered lysosomal cathepsin B release into cytosol. Silencing cathepsin B blocked LCWE-induced Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in endothelial cells. In vivo, treatment of mice with cathepsin B inhibitor also abolished LCWE-induced inflammasome activation in coronary arterial endothelium. It is concluded that LCWE enhanced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and consequent release of lysosomal cathepsin B, resulting in activation of the endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome, which may contribute to the development of coronary arteritis.

  13. Tumor-Host Interaction in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis (United States)


    immortalized osteoblasts. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES • Thesis , entitled “PDGF expression by breast cancer cells, and its role in regulating osteolytic...investigation of microenvironmental regulation of genes, including (MMP-11 and cathepsin K) in breast cancer that may impact the progression of bone...C, Fan D, O’Brian CA, et al. Modulation of doxorubicin sensitivity and level of p-glycoprotein expression in human colon carcinoma cells by ectopic

  14. Molecular physiology of digestion in arachnida: functional and comparative-evolutionary approaches.


    Felipe Jun Fuzita


    Spiders and scorpions are efficient predators arachnid (PA) consuming preys larger than themselves. Few studies reported, molecularly, the digestion in PA. This work describes a biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the midgut and midgut glands (MMG) and digestive juice (DJ) from Nephilengys cruentata and Tityus serrulatus MMG. Cathepsin L, B, D and F, legumain, trypsin, astacin, carbohydrases and lipases were identified by these approaches. Peptide isomerase and ctenitoxins, ...

  15. Proteases inhibition assessment on PC12 and NGF treated cells after oxygen and glucose deprivation reveals a distinct role for aspartyl proteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis Kritis

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a severe stressful condition and induces cell death leading to neuronal loss both to the developing and adult nervous system. Central theme to cellular death is the activation of different classes of proteases such as caspases calpains and cathepsins. In the present study we investigated the involvement of these proteases, in the hypoxia-induced PC12 cell death. Rat PC12 is a model cell line for experimentation relevant to the nervous system and several protocols have been developed for either lethal hypoxia (oxygen and glucose deprivation OGD or ischemic preconditioning (IPS. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF treated PC12 differentiate to a sympathetic phenotype, expressing neurites and excitability. Lethal hypoxia was established by exposing undifferentiated and NGF-treated PC12 cells to a mixture of N(2/CO(2 (93:5% in DMEM depleted of glucose and sodium pyruvate for 16 h. The involvement of caspases, calpains and lysosomal cathepsins D and E to the cell death induced by lethal OGD was investigated employing protease specific inhibitors such as z-VAD-fmk for the caspases, MDL28170 for the calpains and pepstatin A for the cathepsins D and E. Our findings show that pepstatin A provides statistically significant protection from cell death of both naive and NGF treated PC12 cells exposed to lethal OGD. We propose that apart from the established processes of apoptosis and necrosis that are integral components of lethal OGD, the activation of cathepsins D and E launches additional cell death pathways in which these proteases are key partners.

  16. Haim Munk syndrome: report of two siblings of northern India treated with acitretin. (United States)

    Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp


    Haim Munk Syndrome (HMS) is the allelic mutation of exon 6 codon in cathepsin C gene. Here, we present two cases of same family with HMS having all the cardinal features of HMS which includes palmo plantar keratoderma and periodontitis along with arachnodactyly, acroosteolysis, onychogryphosis, and marked osteopenia on hand wrist radiographs. Both the siblings were treated with cotrimoxazole, acetretin and topical keratolytics and followed up over a period of one year, showed remarkable improvement in palmo plantar keratoderma and periodontitis.

  17. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, G.B. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Juliano, M.A. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, J.A.K.; Michelacci, Y.M. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old), while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10{sup th} or the 30{sup th} day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA) of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10{sup th}, but not on the 30{sup th} day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30{sup th} day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease). There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15456-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AY509871_1( AY509871 |pid:none) Odocoileus virginianus pregnancy-a... 130 4e-41 AY373029_1( AY373029 | Bos primigenius prochymosin mRNA, comp... 137 8e-39 AY509868_1( AY509868 |pid:none) Odocoileus cathepsin D mRNA, par... 89 5e-16 AY509874_1( AY509874 |pid:none) Odocoileus virginianus pregnancy-a... 6

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13965-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15 3e-24 AY277628_1( AY277628 |pid:none) Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L mRNA... 115 3e-24 AF410881_1( AF410881 |pid:none) Franklin...N357489_8( FN357489 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni genome sequenc... 112 2e-23 AF410883_1( AF410883 |pid:none) Franklin

  20. Protective Effects of Ginger ( Extract against Diabetes-Induced Heart Abnormality in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh


    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic cardiomyopathy is an important causal factor in morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients, and currently, no effective means are available to reverse its pathological progress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on apolipoproteins (apo A and B, hyperhomocysteinemia, cathepsin G and leptin changes, as well as cardiac fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo.MethodsTwenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: control, non-treated diabetic, and ginger extract-treated diabetic groups. The ginger extract-treated diabetic group received a 50 mg daily dose of ginger extract intragastrically for 6 weeks.ResultsThe results revealed concurrent significant increases in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine (Hcy, cathepsin G and apoB levels and decreases in apoA and leptin levels in the non-treated diabetic group compared to the control group. Moreover, heart structural changes, including fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation, were observed in non-treated diabetic rats compared to the control rats. Significant amelioration of changes in the heart structure together with restoration of the elevated levels of Hcy and CRP, leptin, cathepsin G, and apoA and B were found in the ginger extract-treated diabetic group compared to the non-treated diabetic group.ConclusionThe findings indicated that ginger extract significantly reduces heart structural abnormalities in diabetic rats and that these effects might be associated with improvements in serum apo, leptin, cathepsin G, and Hcy levels and with the antioxidant properties of ginger extract.