WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathartics

  1. Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Jafar

    2016-05-01

    According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function. Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili's Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor's predominance in the body. The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of "balgham" such as "Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale"Cathartic of bile such as "Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum"Cathartic of "sovda" such as "lajward stone and Armenian stone"Cathartic of "Ma'a-e-asfar" such as "Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract"Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as "Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as "Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora"Cathartic of "Ma'a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa'alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as "Cassia acutifolia" and "kharbaghe Aswad". Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma'a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma'a-e-asfar and phlegm, as well as cathartic of all triple humors for a better memorization and feasibility

  2. Oak tree selection by nesting turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Giusti; R.J. Keiffer; Shane Feirer; R.F. Keiffer

    2015-01-01

    Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) are a ubiquitous component of California’s oak woodland faunal assemblage. Though obvious, they are one of the least studied vertebrates found in our hardwood forests. This study attempts to define the role of oak trees as nesting sites for this large avian species. Verified nest trees are evaluated to determine...

  3. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    hyperphosphatemia and irreversible kidney damage owing to acute phosphate nephropathy, have been reported after use of sodium-phosphate-based products. The aim of this Review is to provide an update on the potential safety issues related to the use of osmotically acting cathartics, especially disturbances of renal...... function and water and electrolyte balance. The available evidence indicates that PEG-ELS-based products are the safest option. Magnesium-citrate-based, hypertonic products should be administered with caution to elderly individuals and patients who are prone to develop disturbances in water and electrolyte...

  4. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient cleansing of the colon before a colonoscopy or a radiological examination is essential. The osmotically acting cathartics (those given the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A06AD) currently used for this purpose comprise products based on three main substances: sodium phosphate......, combinations of polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solutions (PEG-ELS), and magnesium citrate. All these preparations give adequate cleansing results and have similar profiles in terms of the frequency and type of mild to moderate adverse effects. However, serious adverse events, such as severe...... function and water and electrolyte balance. The available evidence indicates that PEG-ELS-based products are the safest option. Magnesium-citrate-based, hypertonic products should be administered with caution to elderly individuals and patients who are prone to develop disturbances in water and electrolyte...

  5. CT colonography without cathartic preparation: positive predictive value and patient experience in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zueco Zueco, Carmen; Sobrido Sampedro, Carolina; Corroto, Juan D.; Rodriguez Fernandez, Paula; Fontanillo Fontanillo, Manuela [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo - CHUVI, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) for polyps {>=}6 mm detected at CT colonography (CTC) performed without cathartic preparation, with low-dose iodine faecal tagging regimen and to evaluate patient experience. 1920 average-risk patients underwent CTC without cathartic preparation. Faecal tagging was performed by diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium at a total dose of 60 ml (22.2 g of iodine).The standard interpretation method was primary 3D with 2D problem solving. We calculated per-patient and per-polyp PPV in relation to size and morphology. All colonic segments were evaluated for image quality (faecal tagging, amount of liquid and solid residual faeces and luminal distension). Patients completed a questionnaire before and after CTC to assess preparation and examination experience. Per-polyp PPV for detected lesions of {>=}6 mm, 6-9 mm, {>=}10 mm and {>=}30 mm were 94.3%, 93.1%, 94.7% and 98%, respectively. Per-polyp PPV, according to lesion morphology, was 94.6%, 97.3% and 85.1% for sessile, pedunculated and flat polyps, respectively. Per-patient PPV was 92.8%. Preparation without frank cathartics was reported to cause minimal discomfort by 78.9% of patients. CTC without cathartic preparation and low-dose iodine faecal tagging may yield high PPVs for lesions {>=}6 mm and is well accepted by patients. circle Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) without cathartic preparation is well accepted by patients circle Cathartic-free faecal tagging CTC yields high positive predictive values circle CTC without cathartic preparation could improve uptake of colorectal cancer screening. (orig.)

  6. Progressive region-based colon extraction for computer-aided detection and quantitative imaging in cathartic and non-cathartic CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Ryu, Yasuji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    Automated colon extraction is an important first step for applications of computer-aided detection (CADe) and quantitative imaging in computed tomographic colonography (CTC). However, previously developed colon extraction algorithms have various limitations. We developed a new fully automated progressive region-based (PRB) method to extract the complete region of colon from CTC images while minimizing the presence of extra-colonic components. The method can be used to provide the target region for CADe as well as to provide quantitative imaging information about the colon. In the method, extra-colonic components are excluded from the abdominal region by use of anatomy-based extraction methods, visible lumen regions of the colon and small bowel are decomposed into material-based subregions, a colon pathway is tracked from the anus to cecum by use of algorithms of progressively increasing complexity using anatomy-based landmarks, segmental features, and region-based tracking algorithms, and the extracted lumen region is perfected into a complete lumen by use of a discrete level-set algorithm. The method was tested with 15 challenging cathartic and non-cathartic fecaltagging CTC cases. Preliminary results indicate that the PRB method can outperform our previously developed centerline-based tracking method in colon extraction.

  7. Diagnostic performance of CT colonography with limited cathartic preparation in colorectal cancer screening; comparison with conventional colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farghally Amin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that CTC with limited cathartic bowel preparation and iodinated agents for fecal tagging can obtain high sensitivity and PPV values results for <5 mm polyps comparable to those obtained with conventional preparation with laxatives. Furthermore, this method could really improve the acceptance of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  8. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  9. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  10. Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string-pulling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Anne Margaret; Watson, Jane; Demers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To examine problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string-pulling task, which involved drawing a string up to access food. This test has been used to assess cognition in many bird species. A small piece of meat suspended by a string was attached to a perch. Two birds solved the problem without apparent trial-and-error learning; a third bird solved the problem after observing a successful bird, suggesting that this individual learned from the other vulture. The remaining birds failed to complete the task. The successful birds significantly reduced the time needed to solve the task from early trials compared to late trials, suggesting that they had learned to solve the problem and improved their technique. The successful vultures solved the problem in a novel way: they pulled the string through their beak with their tongue, and may have gathered the string in their crop until the food was in reach. In contrast, ravens, parrots and finches use a stepwise process; they pull the string up, tuck it under foot, and reach down to pull up another length. As scavengers, turkey vultures use their beak for tearing and ripping at carcasses, but possess large, flat, webbed feet that are ill-suited to pulling or grasping. The ability to solve this problem and the novel approach used by the turkey vultures in this study may be a result of the unique evolutionary pressures imposed on this scavenging species.

  11. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Whitehead, Maria A; Gasper, Grace; Meteyer, Carol U; Link, William A; Taggart, Mark A; Meharg, Andrew A; Pattee, Oliver H; Pain, Deborah J

    2008-11-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose -0.1-0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  12. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing.

  13. Effects of habitat and time of day on flock size of Turkey Vultures in Cuba (Cathartes aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural landscapes, the Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura feeds mainly on carcases of domestic animals. In spring 2017, data on 214 flocks of Turkey vultures were collected in a road survey in Cuba (in total 2384 km. Turkey Vultures were found to be common accross Cuba, but flock size varied between habitats, reaching a maximum of 43 in valleys and 31 in agricultural landscapes with domestic animal farms. Vultures were active throughout the day, but the time of day did not significantly affect flock size. This study corroborates previous studies which suggested that carrion resources located in agricultural habitats and river valleys is crucial for the continued survival of this still abundant species. Changes in Cuba’s socio-political system in the near future will likely impact agricultural practices, and this in turn will likely affect Turkey Vultures. Our study may serve as a baseline against which future population changes and flocking behaviour of Turkey Vultures can be compared.

  14. Context-specific method for detection of soft-tissue lesions in non-cathartic low-dose dual-energy CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Regge, Daniele; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    In computed tomographic colonography (CTC), orally administered fecal-tagging agents can be used to indicate residual feces and fluid that could otherwise hide or imitate lesions on CTC images of the colon. Although the use of fecal tagging improves the detection accuracy of CTC, it can introduce image artifacts that may cause lesions that are covered by fecal tagging to have a different visual appearance than those not covered by fecal tagging. This can distort the values of image-based computational features, thereby reducing the accuracy of computer-aided detection (CADe). We developed a context-specific method that performs the detection of lesions separately on lumen regions covered by air and on those covered by fecal tagging, thereby facilitating the optimization of detection parameters separately for these regions and their detected lesion candidates to improve the detection accuracy of CADe. For pilot evaluation, the method was integrated into a dual-energy CADe (DE-CADe) scheme and evaluated by use of leave-one-patient-out evaluation on 66 clinical non-cathartic low dose dual-energy CTC (DE-CTC) cases that were acquired at a low effective radiation dose and reconstructed by use of iterative image reconstruction. There were 22 colonoscopy-confirmed lesions ≥6 mm in size in 21 patients. The DE-CADe scheme detected 96% of the lesions at a median of 6 FP detections per patient. These preliminary results indicate that the use of context-specific detection can yield high detection accuracy of CADe in non-cathartic low-dose DE-CTC examinations.

  15. Avian Pox in Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    poultry farming, cattle ranching) and the movement ecology of vultures to track environmental changes and dispersal routes of birds and their pathogens. Acknowledgments. Agencia Ambiental C.A and Hawk Mountain Sanctuary provided logistic and financial support during the course of this work. Ministry of Environment of.

  16. Flapping rates of migrating and foraging Turkey Vultures Cathartes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the flapping rates of individuals from these two populations to compare flight modes and the amount of energy invested in active flight. Migrants tended to fly higher in more stable air than local birds, which often fly low over the forest canopy while searching for carrion. Overall, migrants flapped at lower rates than ...

  17. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    function and water and electrolyte balance. The available evidence indicates that PEG-ELS-based products are the safest option. Magnesium-citrate-based, hypertonic products should be administered with caution to elderly individuals and patients who are prone to develop disturbances in water and electrolyte...... balance. Sodium-phosphate-based products can occasionally cause irreversible kidney damage and should not be routinely used in bowel-cleansing procedures...

  18. Is Senna Laxative Use Associated to Cathartic Colon, Genotoxicity, or Carcinogenicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. A.; Hernández, D.; Bustamante, S.; Bachiller, I.; Rojas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides. PMID:20107583

  19. Is Senna Laxative Use Associated to Cathartic Colon, Genotoxicity, or Carcinogenicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.A.; Bustamante, S.; Hernandez, D.; Bachiller, I.; Rojas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly S and non-S articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  20. Are oral cathartics of value in optimizing the gallium scan. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, E.B.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Hall, J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal intestinal secretion of 9-15% of an administered dose of gallium-67 may prevent early detection of intra-abdominal disease. We randomized 50 patients to receive either no bowel preparation or 30 cc of milk of magnesia plus 5 cc of cascara. No significant difference was found between the two groups in frequency with which gallium interfered with readings or time to complete the study

  1. Are oral cathartics of value in optimizing the gallium scan? Concise communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, E B; Fernandez-Ulloa, M; Hall, J

    1981-05-01

    The normal intestinal secretion of 9-15% of an administered dose of gallium-67 may prevent early detection of intra-abdominal disease. We randomized 50 patients to receive either no bowel preparation or 30 cc of milk of magnesia plus 5 cc of cascara. No significant difference was found between the two groups in frequency with which gallium interfered with readings or time to complete the study.

  2. CAD for CT colonography: toward a preparation-independent scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeppi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems can be used to automatically detect and display the locations of polyps and masses in computed tomographic colonography (CTC) data for assisting radiologists' image interpretation. Rapid technical advancements over the last few years have established a fundamental CAD scheme for CTC that includes the steps of colon extraction, polyp detection, and false-positive (FP) reduction. Several CAD prototype systems have demonstrated clinically acceptable high polyp detection sensitivity with relatively few FP detections in cathartic CTC, and observer studies have demonstrated the potential benefit of such systems in improving the accuracy and consistency of radiologists' detection performance. Some CAD prototype systems have also demonstrated promising performance in reduced cathartic and non-cathartic CTC. Recent advancements suggest that CAD systems can soon be expected to provide a preparation-independent scheme that can yield consistently high detection sensitivity with moderately low FP rate not only with cathartic CTC protocols but over a wide range of cathartic, reduced cathartic, and non-cathartic CTC protocols. (orig.)

  3. Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically. PMID:3733585

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bildstein, Keith. Vol 53 (2005) - Articles Flapping rates of migrating and foraging Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura in Costa Rica Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  5. Autofictional themes, Practices and Strategies in View of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    struggle for recognition of women rights and women's autonomy within a patriarchal society. Bouraoui came to autofiction from a psychoanalytical perspective, which makes her a descendant from Doubrovsky, the inventor of the autofiction neologism. Nothomb proposes a very personal and cathartic relationship to writing ...

  6. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti

    2010-01-01

    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... is a medium sized tree which is highly ornamental when in flower, producing bright yel/ow flowers in long pendulous bunches in summer months. The bark is used in dyeing and tanning. The root bark, seeds and leaves are used as a laxative. The fruits are cathartic and are applied in rheumatism and snake-bite.

  8. Sympatric occurrence of four Cathartid vultures in the dry forests of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This photograph, taken with a cameratrap, shows four species of Cathartid vultures: Andean Condor Vultur gryphus, King. Vulture Sarcoramphus papa, Turkey. Vulture Cathartes aura and Black Vulture. Coragyps atratus, feeding together on a horse carcass in the Chaparri Ecological. Reserve in Lambayeque region, north-.

  9. Irony, Humour and Cynicism in Relation to Memory. A Contrastive Analysis between the Argentinian and the Mexican Literary Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, B.Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Making fun of traumatic experiences is a delicate issue. However, Freud has worked on the cathartic function of the joke (1905), and Andréa Lauterwein, in her edited volume Rire, Mémoire, Shoah (2009) insisted on the presence and relevance of laughter in the memory of the Shoah. In the context of

  10. A Testimonio of Critical Race Feminista Parenting: Snapshots from My Childhood and My Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Bernal, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    The author employs a testimonio to partake in the instructive and cathartic tradition of sharing experiences, mistakes, and (mis)understandings of parenting children of color. In doing so, she draws from her experiences growing up in a Mexican American family and her experiences of mothering three Brown sons as a Chicana activist-scholar. She…

  11. Poetry Goes 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    Generating excitement about poetry is often a challenge with high school patrons. While some teens have discovered the cathartic and aesthetic qualities of poetry, many have never experienced the joy of poetry. A course the author took in 2003 at The University of Georgia with Dr. JoBeth Allen, "Poetry in the Classroom," ignited a…

  12. 'There's no thing as a whole story': Storytelling and the healing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storytelling has become an acceptable intervention tool among transitional justice promoters and peace-builders because of its cathartic nature and ability to help society in transition to come to terms with a traumatic past. It has played a significant role in the area of truth finding and accountability and has been widely used ...

  13. Electronic cleansing for 24-h limited bowel preparation CT colonography using principal curvature flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravesteijn, Vincent F.; Boellaard, Thierry N.; van der Paardt, Marije P.; Serlie, Iwo W. O.; de Haan, Margriet C.; Stoker, Jaap; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Vos, Frans M.

    2013-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is one of the recommended methods for colorectal cancer screening. The subject's preparation is one of the most burdensome aspects of CTC with a cathartic bowel preparation. Tagging of the bowel content with an oral contrast medium facilitates CTC with limited bowel

  14. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients.

  15. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corvus corax in central Mexico. W.R.J. Dean, R.I. Yeaton & S.J. Milton. Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura are probably the most abundant avian scavengers in semi- arid shrublands and woodlands in central. Mexico, about two times more frequently seen than the next most common scavenger,. Common Raven Corvus corax.

  16. Yang et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(4):101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Kumar et al., 2009) For ileus, conservative therapy containing bowel rest, intubation and decompression, intravenous fluid resuscitation, antibiotics and sometimes cathartics are the main strategies of treatment. As for mechanical intestinal obstruction, surgery is warranted in patients with obstruction when conservative ...

  17. ~fowering rrrees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... is a medium sized tree which is highly ornamental when in flower, producing bright yel/ow flowers in long pendulous bunches in summer months. The bark is used in dyeing and tanning. The root bark, seeds and leaves are used as a laxative. The fruits are cathartic and are applied in rheumatism and snake-bite.

  18. Environmental Assessment of the 445th Airlift Wing Conversion from C-5 to C-17 Aircraft at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    shown a significant association between exposure to fine particles and premature 18 death from heart and lung disease . Fine particles can aggravate... heart and lung diseases and have been 19 linked to effects such as: cardiovascular symptoms; cardiac arrhythmias; heart attacks; respiratory 20...Turus migratorius), turkey vulture 32 (Cathartes aura), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), American crow 33

  19. Une Joute verbale traditionnelle de Côte d'Ivoire sur internet à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyses how the web promotes the rules of the gate-gate in form and content, with the modalities of communication specific to this new media, as well as the evolution of this genre's functions, which becomes a sign of cultural solidarity and complicity. Keywords: cathartic alliance, code switching, cultural solidarity ...

  20. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  1. American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao during the Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-20

    to 500 per day. Half of every guerrilla company was down from malaria at any time. Most types of malaria on Mindanao could be treated with quinine or...the most ’important supplies were cathartic pills, sulfathiazole, and atabrine and quinine for combatting malaria . Parsons even took pains to ensure...degrees. The largest killer was malaria . Davao received rainfall of up to 11 inches a year, making the area a breeding ground for disease. 8 The Mindanao

  2. Renal scintigraphy in the 21st Century {sup 99m} Tc-MAG{sub 3} with zero time injection of furosemide (MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0}): a fast and easy protocol, one for all indications. Part 3. Clinical experience. Congenital disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.N. [Professor of Radiology and Pediatrics, Director Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Florida (United States)

    2007-07-01

    In this work the Protocol for MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0} is presented. Patient preparation, easy (only restriction, oral hydration, no bladder cathartic). Dynamic study (iv 1-10 mCi MAG{sub 3} + 40-80 mg LASIX), simultaneous injection of furosemide: MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0}, duration of the study: 25 minutes. Tomography-SPECT (20 mCi MAG{sub 3}). No diuretic needed, duration of the study: 4 minutes. (Author)

  3. Renal scintigraphy in the 21st Century 99m Tc-MAG3 with zero time injection of furosemide (MAG3-F0): a fast and easy protocol, one for all indications. Part 3. Clinical experience. Congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfakianakis, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the Protocol for MAG 3 -F 0 is presented. Patient preparation, easy (only restriction, oral hydration, no bladder cathartic). Dynamic study (iv 1-10 mCi MAG 3 + 40-80 mg LASIX), simultaneous injection of furosemide: MAG 3 -F 0 , duration of the study: 25 minutes. Tomography-SPECT (20 mCi MAG 3 ). No diuretic needed, duration of the study: 4 minutes. (Author)

  4. The orality and the writing on child literature: theory to fairy tale time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Fortkamp Caldin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on theoretical aspects of orality and writing. It presents a historical sketch of the narrators of tales and detaches the social function performed by the reader as co-author of tales. It increases the value of fairytales as cathartic and important to the development of the child psychism. It shows the commitment and the critic vision of Brazilian contemporary fairytales. It suggests an integration of librarians and teachers at the fairytale time.

  5. Louis Vivet, un cas paradigmatique des personnalités multiples et de la méthode cathartique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Laurens

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of Louis Vivet, described by Bourru and Burot (1888, contributed to elaborate the concepts of multiple personality and cathartic method. The authors present this clinical case, the cultural context of this mental illness, and the relevant theories. The genetic analysis of Louis Vivet's iatrogenic disorder or transient mental illness (Hacking, 2002 shows how the dominant theories on identity and memory contributed to construct the symptoms observed by Bourru and Burot (1888 and validated the therapeutic methods.

  6. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (Pmetabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181

  7. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  8. American River Watershed Investigation, California, Feasibility Report. Part 1. Main Report. Part 2. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    muskrat, beaver, deer, and river otters. Bird species include herons, wood duck, black-shouldered kite , and tri-colored blackbird. Additionally, the...shoulders (for runners ). A yellow centerline stripe would be provided. Where levee top widths or major obstructions such as large trees would not...Dtatyrhchos S S S F/B KiLLdeer* Charadrius vociferus S S F/B Turkey Vutture* Cathartes aura M 0 0 F/B Btack-shoutdered Kite * Etanus caeruteus S 0 0 F/B

  9. La interpretación intelectualista de la tragedia: Una discusión critica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trueba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature of tragedy is a matter of controversy. The intelectualist vision of tragedy has gained ground in the last years. In this paper I intend to discuss on the heterodox and extreme version of the cognitivism, defended recently by Pierluigi Donini in La tragedia, senza la catarsi, which firmly rules out the emotional or cathartic function of tragic drama and asserts that “the function of tragedy is not catharsis, but its crowning or last stage: understanding”. The revision of the arguments stated by Donini will allow to enlighten some obscure points in the aristotelian theory of tragedy, particularly the place of music and entertainment in tragic drama.

  10. Inciting and etiologic agents of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J; Fekety, R; Werk, C; Ebright, J; Cudmore, M; Batts, D; Syrjamaki, C; Lukens, J

    1984-01-01

    Since 1979, 3,115 stool samples were tested for detection of Clostridium difficile and its cytotoxin; these were obtained from patients who had drug-related diarrhea. Presumed or proven colitis due to C. difficile was diagnosed in 130 patients. Drugs implicated most commonly as causing or associated with the onset of enterocolitis due to C. difficile were ampicillin (38 episodes), cephalosporins (71), clindamycin (36), and the aminoglycosides (45). The hamster model of colitis was employed to explore the role of other inducing agents. Altering the usual diet of hamsters to one with a higher protein content decreased the time to death due to C. difficile cecitis following the administration of cefazolin (10 mg). Several cathartics also were studied for their effect on the lethality of antibiotic-induced cecitis. Daily administrations of castor oil (0.5 ml per day) and vegetable oil (1.0 ml per day) improved survival against lethal doses of clindamycin. Milk of magnesia or mineral oil provided no protection. Four patients with C. difficile colitis induced by therapy with cytotoxic drugs also were identified. Methotrexate induced cecitis when administered orally and daily to hamsters, and C. difficile and its cytotoxin were identified in the hamsters' stools. Death due to methotrexate-induced cecitis was prevented by daily administration of folinic acid or vancomycin. These data demonstrate that a variety of antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, cathartics, and diet changes can induce C. difficile colitis in humans and hamsters.

  11. LANGUAGE PSYCHODYNAMIC ANALYSIS IN THE DRUG DEPENDENT PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Addictions are currently the starting point of many behaviors that border on the maladaptive and have a dynamic articulation in the patient language, the same is expressed in his words, the dynamic relationship between the origins of their addiction and inherent conflict consumption added. Dynamic analysis seeks to generate a cathartic process, in order to achieve an unleash chain reaction, significant value-content, then, is in the gorge of the word, bringing together the split of speech grounds, a point from where the reorganization of the reality principle parts, in the addict and his psycho detoxification. This is a basic research with qualitative cut, approached by Psychoanalysis epistemology and methodology principles. The paradigms leading the research are psychological determinism and phenomenological.

  12. Client perception of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy and growth groups: an empirically-based hierarchical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierick, Paul; Lietaer, Germain

    2008-04-01

    To assess group participants' perceptions of therapeutic factors, we developed an extensive questionnaire of 155 items that was administered to 489 members of 78 psychotherapy and growth groups of client-centered/experiential, psychoanalytic, behavioral, Gestalt and drama- and bodily oriented orientations. Using multivariate analyses we found a model that reveals the structure and connections of therapeutic factors as they are differentiated in the experience of the group members. Our model encompasses three hierarchical levels of abstraction: 28 Basic scales that appeared to be structured into seven main scales (Group Cohesion, Interactional Confirmation, Cathartic Self-Revelation, Self-Insight and Progress, Observational Experiences, Getting Directives, and Interactional Confrontation) and two dimensions (Relational Climate and Psychological Work). Validity for these therapeutic factors was found in their grounded content, statistically analyzed constructs, importance ratings, and correlations to intermediate outcome measures.

  13. The Enigma of Extreme Traumatism: Trauma, Exclusion and their Impact on Subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñar, Marcelo N

    2017-03-21

    My aim is to discuss the immediate effects of extreme trauma and to speculate on its long term effects. The formulations associated with the Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome generate an overly medicalized view of trauma, grossly underestimating its devastating impact. Catastrophic traumatic experience rips a hole in the representational continuity of psychic life; neither representations nor narrations are generated. Instead, a representational emptiness occurs, such that what has taken place cannot be shared or transmitted. The cathartic word becomes a robotic mocking of the interchange between human beings. There is no internalization, no ability to make the experience subjective. The resulting deep splitting in the psyche is characteristic of extreme traumatism, and its balance or perpetual working through is elaborated in this paper.

  14. Effect of alcohol on internally deposited Am-241 in the baboon: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Antonelli, R.; LoSasso, T.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of ethyl alcohol in enhancing the excretion of Am-241 from the baboon has been tested. Alcohol enhances Am-241 excretion via the fecal route by a factor of about 2.5. However, there is a corresponding increase in fecal volume, and no significant change in the concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Other cathartics tested caused increased fecal volumes with no change in amount of activity excreted leading to a decreased concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Alcohol is not as effective as DTPA in removing Am-241 from the body. Preliminary results suggest that alcohol has little or no enhancement effect on the decorporation capability of DTPA

  15. Ayahuasca versus violence--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede

    2008-05-01

    We have limited resources available for the treatment and prevention of violent behavior. The usefulness of the most commonly used medications, namely the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] agents for the above purpose is a debated issue in the psychiatric literature. The aim of this case report is to add an ethnopharmacological perspective to the management of human aggression. Particularly, attention is called to the potential prosocial effect of the Amazonian beverage, ayahuasca--a decoctum, which has been used traditionally for multiple medico-religious purposes by numerous indigenous groups of the Upper Amazon--and has been found to be useful in crisis intervention, achieving redemption, as well as eliciting cathartic feelings with moral content.

  16. [Humanities as a means of survival: the testimony of a Siberian prisoner of war in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.

  17. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  18. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

    2009-09-01

    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. D. M. P. S. effect in patient preparation before the roentgenologic abdominal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. C.; Kim, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    We have considered that N. P. O., cathartic(castor oil) enema, which had been commonly used, as methods of removal of intraluminal gas for preparation of abdominal roentgenologic study, are not complete. So we reached follow conclusion, using combination of D. M. P. S. and castor oil. In 20 patients of all observation objects, 80 patients, we used D. M. P. S. and castor oil, and were able to get scout film with good quality on over 85 percent. However, rest of films, 15 percent were never thought to be failure. We are anxious for investigation of new chemicals which are able to eliminate the intraluminal gas by liquefaction, in a similar way of which gas foaming agent make the gas by gasification

  20. ["I swear on Apollus Medicus...": the birth of medical deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccobelli, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    In the Oath, Hippocrates does not cite Dionisus at all. In Greek mythology, Apollus and Dionisus are, in some way, absolutely conflicting gods, nonetheless complementary each to the other; both are devoted to healing practices, one through his téchne founded on scientific knowledge, the other throught collective cathartic processes. The author conjectures that the exclusion of Dionisus from the medical Hippocratic scene means the birth of a medical deontology founded on the contrast between profecy and extasis, knowledge and happiness, order and change, health and disease. Balancing these cultural different aspects of therapy and cure, Bioethics could reunify the concepts of health, sickness and disease in the idea of Life, continuosly changing and developing. The curing process needs synthesis--invoking Apollus to rescover Dionisus mask.

  1. Could spirituality and religion promote stress resilience in survivors of childhood trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Koenig, Harold G

    2014-04-01

    Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes. While spirituality and religion can be related to guilt, neurotic, and psychotic disorders, they also can be powerful sources of hope, meaning, peace, comfort, and forgiveness for the self and others. This article provides an overview of religion and spirituality as they relate to the neurobiology of resilience in victims of childhood trauma.

  2. Automated image-based colon cleansing for laxative-free CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Panjwani, Neil; Fletcher, Joel G.; Summer, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting colonic polyps at noncathartic computed tomography colonography (CTC) in conjunction with an automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm. Methods: An automated colon cleansing algorithm was designed to detect and subtract tagged-stool, accounting for heterogeneity and poor tagging, to be used in conjunction with a colon CAD system. The method is locally adaptive and combines intensity, shape, and texture analysis with probabilistic optimization. CTC data from cathartic-free bowel preparation were acquired for testing and training the parameters. Patients underwent various colonic preparations with barium or Gastroview in divided doses over 48 h before scanning. No laxatives were administered and no dietary modifications were required. Cases were selected from a polyp-enriched cohort and included scans in which at least 90% of the solid stool was visually estimated to be tagged and each colonic segment was distended in either the prone or supine view. The CAD system was run comparatively with and without the stool subtraction algorithm. Results: The dataset comprised 38 CTC scans from prone and/or supine scans of 19 patients containing 44 polyps larger than 10 mm (22 unique polyps, if matched between prone and supine scans). The results are robust on fine details around folds, thin-stool linings on the colonic wall, near polyps and in large fluid/stool pools. The sensitivity of the CAD system is 70.5% per polyp at a rate of 5.75 false positives/scan without using the stool subtraction module. This detection improved significantly (p = 0.009) after automated colon cleansing on cathartic-free data to 86.4% true positive rate at 5.75 false positives/scan. Conclusions: An automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm designed to overcome the challenges of the noncathartic colon significantly improves the sensitivity of colon CAD by approximately 15%.

  3. Position statement and practice guidelines on the use of multi-dose activated charcoal in the treatment of acute poisoning. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    animal study and 2 of 4 volunteer studies did not demonstrate increased salicylate clearance with multiple-dose charcoal therapy. Data in poisoned patients are insufficient presently to recommend the use of multiple-dose charcoal therapy for salicylate poisoning. Multiple-dose activated charcoal did not increase the elimination of astemizole, chlorpropamide, doxepin, imipramine, meprobamate, methotrexate, phenytoin, sodium valproate, tobramycin, and vancomycin in experimental and/or clinical studies. Unless a patient has an intact or protected airway, the administration of multiple-dose activated charcoal is contraindicated. It should not be used in the presence of an intestinal obstruction. The need for concurrent administration of cathartics remains unproven and is not recommended. In particular, cathartics should not be administered to young children because of the propensity of laxatives to cause fluid and electrolyte imbalance. In conclusion, based on experimental and clinical studies, multiple-dose activated charcoal should be considered only if a patient has ingested a life-threatening amount of carbamazepine, dapsone, phenobarbital, quinine, or theophylline.

  4. LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Peter; Kirchner, Katharina; Passie, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    A recently published study showed the safety and efficacy of LSD-assisted psychotherapy in patients with anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. Participants of this study were included in a prospective follow-up. 12 months after finishing LSD psychotherapy, 10 participants were tested for anxiety (STAI) and participated in a semi-structured interview. A Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) was carried out on the interviews to elaborate about LSD effects and lasting psychological changes. None of the participants reported lasting adverse reactions. The significant benefits as measured with the STAI were sustained over a 12-month period. In the QCA participants consistently reported insightful, cathartic and interpersonal experiences, accompanied by a reduction in anxiety (77.8%) and a rise in quality of life (66.7%). Evaluations of subjective experiences suggest facilitated access to emotions, confrontation of previously unknown anxieties, worries, resources and intense emotional peak experiences à la Maslow as major psychological working mechanisms. The experiences created led to a restructuring of the person's emotional trust, situational understanding, habits and world view. LSD administered in a medically supervised psychotherapeutic setting can be safe and generate lasting benefits in patients with a life-threatening disease. Explanatory models for the therapeutic effects of LSD warrant further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Popular theatre and nonformal education in the Third World: Five strands of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ross

    1985-09-01

    Popular theatre is gaining increasing attention in the Third World as a tool for popular education and community organizing. It finds expression in a number of forms including drama, music dance, puppetry and poetry and is performed for — and often by — ordinary peasants and workers. Popular theatre is used as a means of bringing people together, building confidence and solidarity, stimulating discussion, exploring alternative options for action, and building a collective commitment to change: starting with people's urgent concerns and issues, it encourages reflection on these issues and possible strategies for change. Popular theatre, however, is not a unified discipline. It is used by different groups for different interests, ranging from a technocratic, message-oriented `domestication theatre' at one end of the spectrum to a process of consciousness-raising, organization-building and struggle at the other end. Five main strands of popular theatre can be distinguished: (a) the struggle for national liberation; (b) mass education and rural extension; (c) community or participatory development; (d) `conscientization' or popular education; and (e) popular education and organizing. At its best, popular theatre is not an isolated performance or a cathartic experience, but part of an ongoing process of education and organizing, aimed at overcoming oppression and dependence, and at securing basic rights.

  6. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  7. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Mc Sweeney, Sean; Mc Williams, Sebastian; O' Regan, Kevin; Kelly, Denis; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Eustace, Joseph; O' Connor, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients. Patients aged over 70 years considered at risk of complication during SPS-MC administration by a physician specialised in care of the elderly were included in this retrospective study. Biochemical parameters pre- and post-CTC and the presence of co-morbidities were recorded. Imaging findings and quality of bowel preparation at CTC were graded by consensus by two radiologists. Of the 72 patients 56% had co-morbidities that caution the use of SPS-MC. No significant changes in serum urea, sodium, potassium or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) occurred post-CTC (p > 0.10). Serum magnesium increased by 0.11 mmol/L in 14 patients (p = 0.03) without clinical sequelae. Good overall preparation was achieved in 88% of patients, allowing confident identification of signs of colonic neoplasia in 20 patients (27%). A mild increase in serum magnesium but no other significant biochemical disturbance was observed. In our group CTC with SPS-MC was safe and effective; however, we advise an alternate preparation be considered in patients with decreased renal function due to decreased magnesium clearance. (orig.)

  8. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  9. Composting Guilt: An Ecological Critique of Purification of Past Wrongdoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kellenbach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the fast growing body of literature on transitional justice (Hayner 2011, political reconciliation (Philpott 2006, Verdejo 2009, forgiveness (Amstutz 2005, apology (Celermajer 2009, guilt (Barkan 2000 repentance (Schimmel 2002, evil (Meister 2011, moral repair (Walker 2006, and cultural memory (Borneman 2011, shows that the concept of purification has so far received little attention.  But the language of purification operates in the background of diverse practices such as the exhumation and ceremonial reburial of the dead (Desbois 2009, the call for truth commissions to document wrongdoing, and reparation campaigns that apologize and offer restitution (Diner 2007. At their best, truth and reconciliation commissions create cathartic moments (Greek: katharos = pure and facilitate “performative transformations” that cleanse relations between perpetrators and victims (Cole 2010, 15. My new project, still in its early stages, asks whether the concept and ritual practice of purification can be used to enhance moral repair in individuals and to serve the restoration of social order in the aftermath of atrocity and systemic human rights abuses.

  10. The Perfect Storm: Stress, Anxiety, and Burnout in the Secondary School Music Classroom

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    John Vitale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates teacher stress, anxiety, and burnout through my experience teaching music in a suburban Toronto secondary school between 2002 and 2008. Primary data sources include a rich collection of journal entries I have written over a six-year period, which were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Hence, this study is principally rooted in reflective practice. In addition, this study is informed through autobiographical and phenomenological lenses. These other two lenses have allowed me to incorporate secondary source data (anecdotal notes, emails, text messages, and video footage that were repurposed for this study. Findings have exposed two principal thematic representations from the data, namely; (a those that directly or indirectly addressed extracurricular performances, and (b fear of failure. Reexperiencing my experience has been exceedingly therapeutic and cathartic for me, providing insight and transparency into the demanding nature of music pedagogy at the secondary school level. In addition, findings have helped me to refine and develop my current and future pedagogy as a teacher educator.

  11. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  12. Positive and negative interactions with health professionals: a qualitative investigation of the experiences of informal cancer carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Hobbs, Kim; Kirsten, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathic and informative interactions with health professionals are important for the well-being of people with cancer. However, there is a dearth of research examining the construction and experience of interactions with health professionals from the perspective of informal cancer carers. The aim of this study was to explore how cancer carers subjectively position their experiences of interactions with health professionals, in particular, their construction of experiences as positive or negative, and the perceived consequences of such interactions. Positioning theory is used to examine how the sociomedical construction of health professionals shapes carers' experiences of interactions with them. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 53 informal cancer carers across a range of cancer types and stages, analyzed using thematic decomposition. Carers positioned positive interactions as those involving health professionals who were warm and genuine, accessible and approachable, and who made carers feel accepted and comfortable. In the case of allied health professionals, the provision of a space for carers' cathartic release was also constructed positively. Negative interactions were positioned as those involving poor communication and a lack of empathy, poor or absent information provision, and absence of guidance about additional support. Positive experiences with health professionals were positioned by carers as leading to feelings of empowerment, value, and recognition, and negative interactions as leading to distress, anger, frustration, and feelings of isolation. It is important for health professionals to be supportive of carers' needs, to communicate in an empathic manner, to be approachable and accessible, and to recognize carers needs and concerns.

  13. The influence of Nietzsche on Freud's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A H; Chapman-Santana, M

    1995-02-01

    The striking analogies between the ideas of Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche, whose works were published from one to three decades before those of Freud, have been commented upon, but no previous systematic correlation of the ideas of Nietzsche and Freud has been made. The major works of Nietzsche were read, and each possible analogy to an idea later broached by Freud was correlated by a systematic review of his works. Any references to Nietzsche in Freud's writings and reported conversation were culled. Concepts of Nietzsche which are similar to those of Freud include (a) the concept of the unconscious mind; (b) the idea that repression pushes unacceptable feelings and thoughts into the unconscious and thus makes the individual emotionally more comfortable and effective; (c) the conception that repressed emotions and instinctual drives later are expressed in disguised ways (for example, hostile feelings and ideas may be expressed as altruistic sentiments and acts); (d) the concept of dreams as complex, symbolic "illusions of illusions" and dreaming itself as a cathartic process which has healthy properties; and (e) the suggestion that the projection of hostile, unconscious feelings onto others, who are then perceived as persecutors of the individual, is the basis of paranoid thinking. Some of Freud's basic terms are identical to those used by Nietzsche. Freud repeatedly stated that he had never read Nietzsche. Evidence contradicting this are his references to Nietzsche and his quotations and paraphrases of him, in causal conversation and his now published personal correspondence, as well as in his early and later writings.

  14. Il razzismo del lager nazista: il confine fra realtà e finzione nel Dio Kurt di Moravia

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    Lucia Dell'Aia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the question of racism in the Nazi concentration camp as it emerges in Moravia’s 1968 play Dio Kurt. The focus of Moravia’s play is on Oedipus, a Jew detained in a Nazi concentration camp, and Fate, personified by the camp commander, Colonel Kurt, who forces Oedipus-Saul and his family to enact in reality the Sophoclean tragedy Oedipus Rex. Through a series of barbarous machinations derived by Kurt, the boundaries between reality and fiction that characterize a work of fiction and the artistic process more generally, are surpassed. If, as Levinas maintains, in Reflections on the Philosophy of Hitlerism (1934, racism and Nazism question the very essence of humanity in man in the moment in which they ‘enslave’ being to the body, and if, as Agamben asserts in Homo sacer (1995, the concentration camp is the biopolitical space par excellence, the interpretive consequences on a reading of Moravia’s play are manifold. In Dio Kurt, the Jews are reduced to a biological state, to ‘bare life’ to use Benjamin’s term, through the manipulation of the artistic tradition that is transformed into an instrument in the annihilation of humanity precisely when it loses its status of cathartic fiction.

  15. A oralidade e a escritura na literatura infantil: referencial teórico para a hora do contoThe orality and the writing on child literature: theory to fairy tale time

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    Clarice Fortkamp Caldin

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on theoretical aspects of orality and writing. It presents a historical sketch of the narrators of tales and detaches the social function performed by the reader as co-author of tales. It increases the value of fairytales as cathartic and important to the development of the child psychism. It shows the commitment and the critic vision of Brazilian contemporary fairytales. It suggests an integration of librarians and teachers at the fairytale time.Aborda aspectos teóricos sobre a oralidade e a escritura. Apresenta um esboço histórico dos narradores de histórias e destaca seu papel social. Pressupõe o leitor como co-autor da obra literária. Valoriza os contos de fadas como catárticos e necessários ao desenvolvimento do psiquismo infantil. Mostra o compromisso com a verossimilhança e a visão crítica da brasilidade dos textos infantis contemporâneos. Sugere integração de bibliotecários e professores na Hora do Conto.

  16. One-step separation and purification of three lignans and one flavonol from Sinopodophyllum emodi by medium-pressure liquid chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Tao; Xu, Wenhua; You, Jinmao; Liu, Yongjun; Li, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Lignans and flavonols are the primary constituents of Sinopodophyllum emodi and have been used as cathartic, anthelmintic, chemotherapeutic and anti-hypertensive compounds. Although these compounds have been isolated, there have been no reports on the separation of 4'-demethyl podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin and kaempferol in one step by medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Development of an efficient method for the preparative separation and purification of three lignans and one flavonol from S. emodi. The precipitate of crude extracts was first separated by MPLC into four parts, numbered GJ-1, GJ-2, GJ-3 and GJ-4. GJ-1 was separated and purified by HSCCC using a solvent system composed of n-hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water (1.75:1.5:1:0.75, v/v/v/v). The purities of the target compounds were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical structures were identified by (1) H-NMR and (13) C-NMR. The HSCCC and MPLC methods were successfully used for the preparative separation and purification of 4'-demethyl podophyllotoxin (8.5 mg, 92.4%), podophyllotoxin (40.1 mg, 92.1%), deoxypodophyllotoxin (4.6 mg, 98.1%), and kaempferol (1.6 mg, 96.7%) from a 100 mg sample. Three lignans (4'-demethyl podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin) and one flavonol (kaempferol) were successfully isolated by HSCCC and MPLC in one step. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity.

  18. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

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    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus, turkey vulture (Cathartes aura and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos. California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats.

  19. A Case Report of Stercoraceous Perforation of the Cecum due to Scybalum

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    HR Khorshidi

    2006-10-01

    Introduction & Objective: Non-traumatic colon perforations are usually caused by malignancy, diverticulum and colitis. Stercoraceous perforation of the colon has rarely been reported in the literature. This lesion is assumed to be produced by the pressure from a hard scybalum resulting in a perforated ulcer with necrotic edges. We report a case of stercoraceous perforation of the cecum due to scybalum. Case: We report a 50-year-old man who had a severe abdominal pain from 3 days ago and had peritonitis in physical exam. He was admitted in Mars, 2005 at Mobasher Kashani Hospital in Hamadan and he was parapelegic from 8 months ago due to trauma in his medical history and then he had severe and chronic constipation that necessitated the use of cathartic drugs. We operated him with diagnosis of peritonitis, and perforation of cecum due to scybalum was seen and right hemicolectomy and colostomy and ileostomy was done. Conclusion: The most common site of colon perforation due to scybalum is rectosigmoid area and cecal perforation is a rare area in the literature. It is presented with peritonitis in old patients that have chronic constipation. It is difficult to diagnose this lesion preoperatively. This lesion was only 11% correctly diagnosed before operation and should be always suspected when a patient with chronic constipation suffers from sudden abdominal pain. Resection and colostomy is the treatment of choice in most situations.

  20. Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) exposures in Texas, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2006-10-01

    For centuries, jimsonweed, Datura stramonium, was known to produce hallucinogenic effects. Jimsonweed is easily obtained and may be abused by adolescents. This investigation examined the patterns of jimsonweed exposures reported to Texas poison control centers during 1998-2004. A total of 188 reported human exposures were identified. Seventy-six percent of the exposures occurred in June-October. For those cases where the information was known, the majority were male (82%) and age 13-19 yr (72%). Intentional abuse or misuse accounted for 78% of reported exposures. Eighty-two percent of the reported exposures were at, en route to, or referred to health care facilities, and 89% of those cases with a known medical outcome had moderate or major effects. The most frequently reported clinical effects were hallucination, tachycardia, agitation, mydriasis, and confusion; the most frequently reported treatments were intravenous fluids replacement, activated charcoal, cathartic, and benzodiazepines. The pattern of reported jimsonweed exposures in Texas was consistent with previously published literature.

  1. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  2. Kaschnitz, Enzensberger, and Sandig: The Ecopoetics of Water Pollution

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    Charlotte Melin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This ecocritical reading of Marie Luise Kaschnitz’s poetic cycle “Rückkehr nach Frankfurt” ‘Return to Frankfurt’ (1945/46, Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s epic poem Der Untergang der Titanic ‘ The Sinking of the Titanic ’ (1978, and a 21st-century poem by Ulrike Almut Sandig analyzes key shifts in poetic representations of water pollution. The essay explores underlying cultural and political attitudes about water that define literary depictions of its pollution. It argues that these texts register a conceptual turn away from aesthetic appreciation of water in terms of its culturally rich, purifying properties and toward scientific understanding that emphasizes the social and legal dimensions of water pollution. Ecocritical interpretation of such works, thus, enables deeper understanding of ongoing transformations in the lyric genre. The concluding interpretation of Sandig’s text points to the increasing presence of unnatural elements in representations of the environment as symptomatic of broader literary changes. It argues that developments in German nature poetry since 1945 have increasingly led poets to experiment with expressive possibilities for lyric poetry that foreground cathartic responses to human and environmental history.

  3. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of

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    ZHANG Lian-yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of themost common chronic gastrointestinal problems. The estimated incidence of constipation in the United States is3% to 19% in general population.1,2 Patientswith head injuries, spinal cord injuries, pelvic fractures, lower extremity fractures ormultiple traumas require a long-term bed rest, during which the incidence of constipation reached as high as 50%.3,4 Constipation always brings inconvenience and tremendous suffering to patientsand strongly influences the recovery from primary disease. Irritants or lubricants can relieve the symptoms, but long-term application of them may lead to side effects like melanosis coli5 and cathartic colon6. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is also affected.7 Polyethylene glycol 4000 (trade name: Forlax®, a long chain polymer with a high molecular weight, can conjugate withwater molecule through hydrogen bond to increase the water content and volume of stools, thereby, facilitate bowelmovement and defecation.8,9 It is neither absorbed nor metabolized in the digestive tract, hence it is highly safe and well tolerable. Thus, long-term medication of polyethylene glycol 4000 is conducive to the reconstruction of normal defecation pattern. Therefore, polyethylene glycol 4000 is now being widely used as the mainstay adult chronic functional constipation management.10,11 The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult functional constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

  4. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome as an unusual gastrointestinal manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome: a case report

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    Koga Hideki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome, histologically characterized by fibromuscular obliteration in the lamina propria, hyperplastic glands and thickened muscularis mucosa, causes rectal bleeding. Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune exocrinopathy that chiefly destroys the salivary and lacrimal glands by lympho-plasmacytic infiltration. Although various gastrointestinal manifestations have been reported in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, there have not been to our knowledge any case reports to date of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome in association with Sjögren's syndrome. Case presentation A 68-year-old Japanese woman with Sjögren's syndrome and long-term constipation consulted our hospital because of rectal bleeding. Because of dysphagia and xerostomia, she had consistently refused recommendations to take oral medicines including cathartics. Therefore, she frequently strained excessively during defecation. Colonoscopy and radiological examinations disclosed eroded flat protrusions of the rectum. Microscopic examination demonstrated inflamed mucosa with elongated tortuous glands and fibromuscular obliteration. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome was made. Prohibition of straining during defecation and sulfasalazine suppository use were effective. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of defecation control in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. In the case presented, rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome following long-term excessive straining during defecation caused rectal bleeding. Clinicians should consider rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome as a gastrointestinal manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome.

  6. A Review of Training Methods and Instructional Techniques: Implications for Behavioral Skills Training in U.S. Astronauts (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J.; Galarza, Laura; Holland, Albert W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration space missions (LDM) place unique physical, environmental and psychological demands on crewmembers that directly affect their ability to live and work in space. A growing body of research on crews working for extended periods in isolated, confined environments reveals the existence of psychological and performance problems in varying degrees of magnitude. The research has also demonstrated that although the environment plays a cathartic role, many of these problems are due to interpersonal frictions (Wood, Lugg, Hysong, & Harm, 1999), and affect each individual differently. Consequently, crewmembers often turn to maladaptive behaviors as coping mechanisms, resulting in decreased productivity and psychological discomfort. From this body of research, critical skills have been identified that can help a crewmember better navigate the psychological challenges of long duration space flight. Although most people lack several of these skills, most of them can be learned; thus, a training program can be designed to teach crewmembers effective leadership, teamwork, and self-care strategies that will help minimize the emergence of maladaptive behaviors. Thus, it is the purpose of this report is twofold: 1) To review the training literature to help determine the optimal instructional methods to use in delivering psychological skill training to the U.S. Astronaut Expedition Corps, and 2) To detail the structure and content of the proposed Astronaut Expedition Corps Psychological Training Program.

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE AVIFAUNA IN MARIA LIZAMBA AND ASSOCIATED BODIES OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Fuentes-Moreno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Veracruz, Mexico has many water bodies which are used by both men and birds. This study surveyed the avifauna of the lagoons Maria Lizamba, la Piedra, and small sections of the rivers Camaron and Estanzuela in Tierra Blanca, Veracruz. During February 2010 visual surveys of these aquatic habitats were conducted by walking and motorboat, including vegetated areas and surrounding villages. Species were identified by comparing to field guides both visually using binoculars and identification of songs and calls. Forty nine species were documented and comprised 25 families. The most diverse families were the Ardeidae with 7 and Icteridae 6 species respectively. Sixteen families were represented by only a single species. We found 14 species of migratory birds and we found three species (Cathartes burrovianus, Psarocolius montezuma and Campylorhynchus rufinucha rufinucha considered to be at risk status according to the Mexican list of endangered and threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. The avifauna was similar to that of the Alvarado Lagoon System, with between 17 % and 22 % of the species recently recorded there. The areas surrounding Maria Lizamba are used by numerous species of birds, however many species were aquatic and wintering migratory birds.

  8. Literature and disability: the medical interface in Borges and Beckett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Corvalán, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Samuel Beckett and Jorge Luis Borges have presented 20th century literature with a distinctive gallery of solitary figures who suffer from a series of physiological ailments: invalidism, decrepitude, infirmity and blindness, as well as neurological conditions such as amnesia and autism spectrum disorders. Beckett and Borges were concerned with the dynamics between illness and creativity, the literary representation of physical and mental disabilities, the processes of remembering and forgetting, and the inevitability of death. This article explores the depiction of physically and mentally disabled characters in Borges' Funes the Memorious (1942)--a story about an Uruguayan gaucho who has been left paralysed after a fall from a horse which simultaneously endowed him with an infallible memory and perception--and Beckett's Trilogy: Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951) and The Unnamable (1953). It examines the prodigious memory of Funes and the forgetful minds of Molloy and Malone with reference to influential neuropsychological studies such as Alexander Luria's twofold exploration of memory and forgetfulness in The Mind of a Mnemonist (1968) and The Man with a Shattered World (1972). The article demonstrates that in contrast to Beckett's amnesiacs and Luria's brain-damaged patient, who are able to transcend their circumstances through cathartic writing, Borges' and Luria's mnemonic prodigies fail to achieve anything significant with their unlimited memories and remain imprisoned within their cognitive disabilities. It reveals that medical discourses can provide invaluable insights and lead to a deeper understanding of the minds and bodily afflictions of literary characters.

  9. [The compilation, contents and spread of Qing li Shan jiu Fang (Formulary for Effective Rescuing in the Qingli Reign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Qing li shan jiu fang (Formulary for Effective Rescuing in the Qingli Reign), compiled by Hanlin Academy of Medical Official in 1048 under the decree of the Emperor, is a medical formulary exclusively used to prevent and control poisonous parasite disease. It is composed of formulae provided by a medical scholar of Fuzhou, Lin Shiyuan, together with other formulae collected by the imperial physicians and so on. Unfortunately, it was lost about after the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty. However, in the Southern Song Dynasty, two books, Liang Kejia's Chun xi san shan zhi and Hong Mai's Yi jian zhi bu, do record the progress of its compilation, parts of its contents and the condition of its spread and application. Moreover, they also describe the kinds, the feature, the epidemic, prevention and cure of parasite poison. It is especially good that this book preserves three famous formulae, including Zhi gu du zheng fang (Orthodox Formula for Treating Parasitic Poisons) (called A Cathartic Formula with 8 Ingredients in the Yuan Dynasty), Jie du wan (Antidote Pills) and He qi tang san (Powder of Decoction for Harmonious Qi), which are of medical significance for the understanding of the property of Qing li shan jiu fang. The Song emperors, the central government and local officials all paid high attention to the spread and application of this book. They not only enacted it to the counties, and provinces, but also carved it on stone steles for popularizing the knowledge of preventing parasitic poisons to medical workers and common people.

  10. Managing Stigma: Disclosure-Response Communication Patterns in Pro-Anorexic Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pamara F; Bazarova, Natalya N

    2016-01-01

    Pro-anorexic websites are a popular online venue for individuals with anorexia, but recent research suggests that they play a role of "online negative enabling support groups" because they can undermine recovery and encourage negative behaviors by validating pro-anorexic views. By analyzing 22,811 messages from 5,590 conversations from the Pro-Ana Nation online discussion board forum, this study examines communicative mechanisms of online negative enabling support through language analysis of disclosure-response sequences, changes in the language of the initial discloser within an interaction exchange, and the role of responses in eliciting those changes. The findings show that initiating disclosures containing stigma-related emotion words, anorexia-specific content, and sociorelational content are typically met with negatively valenced responses from other members of the pro-anorexic community. Moreover, although the act of revealing stigmatized information has some cathartic effects, disclosers use more, not fewer, stigma-related emotion words when they receive negatively valenced responses. These results provide insight into communicative dynamics and effects of online negative enabling support through validation of the pro-anorexic identity and the dangerous cycle of stigma escalation in disclosure-response exchanges on pro-anorexic online communities.

  11. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  12. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  13. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  14. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  15. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  16. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  17. What activities might facilitate personal recovery for adults who continue to self-harm? A meta-synthesis employing the connectedness/hope and optimism/identity/meaning/empowerment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Kris; Williams, Jo

    2017-09-19

    Self-harm is an international concern. While treatment in health care focusses on methods to reduce the act, there is less exploration in how to assist adults who are unable to minimize their self-harm. In order to aid these people, in the present systematic review, we employed a qualitative meta-synthesis to explore the lived experience of what activities might facilitate personal recovery for adults who continue to self-harm. Findings were interpreted by drawing on the CHIME framework; a taxonomy of personal recovery comprising of connectedness, hope and optimism, identity, meaning and purpose, and empowerment. The located activities in the review converged on different support groups, and although face-to-face groups were discovered, the majority highlighted the benefits of Internet forums where mutuality and reciprocity were key to promoting personal recovery. Adults desired time to share accounts of themselves, to develop connection and identity. Furthermore, hope was established by group members accepting that self-harm has a role, while congregating with others who did not judge the act. Helping relationships also promoted hope by having a balance between goals and protection against disappointment. The nature of writing online seemingly had cathartic properties fostering meaning, alongside empowerment being facilitated by adults controlling the narrative of their self-harm. It is hoped that these insights might guide self-harm research to develop beyond the confines of minimizing self-injury in health care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Cell-transforming activity and genotoxicity of phenolphthalein in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, T; Tamura, Y; Yagi, E; Hasegawa, K; Tanaka, Y; Uehama, A; Someya, T; Hamaguchi, F; Yamamoto, H; Barrett, J C

    1997-11-27

    Phenolphthalein is a cathartic agent widely used in non-prescription laxatives. For the simultaneous assessment of in vitro carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of phenolphthalein, the ability of this chemical to induce cell transformation and genetic effects was examined using the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell model. Cell growth was reduced by treatment with phenolphthalein at 10-40 microM in a dose-related manner. Treatment with phenolphthalein for 48 hr induced a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation of SHE cells. Over the dose range that resulted in cell transformation ( 10-40 microM), treatment of SHE cells with phenolphthalein induced gene mutations at the hprt locus but not at the Na+/K+ ATPase locus. A statistically significant level of chromosomal aberrations was elicited in SHE cells treated with phenolphthalein at the highest dose (40 microM). Meanwhile, neither numerical chromosomal changes nor DNA adduct formation, analyzed by the nuclease P1 enhancement version of 32P-post-labeling, were induced by treatment with phenolphthalein at any concentrations examined. We thus report cell-transforming activity and mutagenicity of phenolphthalein assessed with the same mammalian cells in culture. Our results provide evidence that phenolphthalein has cell-transforming and genotoxic activity in cultured mammalian cells. The mutagenic and clastogenic activities of phenolphthalein could be a causal mechanism for carcinogenicity in rodents.

  19. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Sidney Roberto; Calore, Edenilson Eduardo; Manzione, Carmem Ruth; Puga, Flavio Rodrigues; Perez, Nilda Maria

    2003-01-01

    Plants of the genus Senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. Radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. The objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of Senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal muscle fibers. Fragments of the lower gut of young and adult rats treated with S. occidentalis seeds (2% for 171 days and 3% for 61 days in the diet) were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis and to densitometry. The most important finding was decreased oxidative enzyme activity in smooth muscle cells and in myenteric neurons of the large bowel. As oxidative metabolism is essential for ATP and energy production, these results suggest that the functional intestinal disturbance caused by the chronic use of Senna occidentalis as a laxative can be due to a metabolic effect involving energy production, which would decrease colonic motility and cause functional colonic dilatation, but without any irreversible anatomic change.

  20. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors.

  1. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors.

  2. Recording the Personal: The Benefits in Maintaining Research Diaries for Documenting the Emotional and Practical Challenges of Fieldwork in Unfamiliar Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Ciaran Browne PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of personal research diaries maintained during a prolonged period spent working in Palestine, this article analyses the importance of maintaining research diaries when on fieldwork. The evidence produced stems from a content analysis of fieldwork diaries kept while researching commemorative events in the West Bank, Palestine, during a period of global uncertainty and at a time of much change in the region. In espousing the benefits of the fieldwork diary it is shown that diaries assume a more important role than acting as a mere logging device; they have the capacity to allow for personal reflection and to help with the development of strategic responses to the inevitable challenges one would expect to face when working far from the relative comfort of home. The research diary as a cathartic tool for researchers to record fears and shortcomings in their work is discussed and personal insights into some of the challenges this researcher faced when engaged in ethnographic work in Ramallah, Palestine are provided. In summarising the benefits of maintaining research diaries, the author, lamenting the lack of transparency in the literature to date on the practicalities of fieldwork, calls for more open and honest reflection on the challenges associated with conducting fieldwork, particularly that which takes place in volatile or unstable regions.

  3. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales.

  4. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  5. Recurrent tonic-clonic seizures and coma due to ingestion of Type I pyrethroids in a 19-month-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, A; Lampati, L; Chidini, G; Rocchi, L; Rolandi, L; Lonati, D; Petrolini, V M; Vecchio, S; Locatelli, C A; Manzo, L

    2013-07-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic pyrethrin analogues that induce sodium-channel depolarization and hyperexcitation. Severe pyrethroid poisoning is manifested by a "Tremor Syndrome" (Type I cyano-agents) or a "Choreoathetosis/Salivation Syndrome" (Type II non cyano-agents). Very few reports of neurotoxic effects caused by Type I pyrethroids ingestion are available, and no human data concerning Type I pyrethroid blood levels in pediatric poisoning are reported in the medical literature. A 19-month-old female patient presented with irritability and inconsolable crying that rapidly worsened to tonic-clonic seizures and coma (GCS 6). On admission vital signs including BP 110/70 mmHg, HR 110 beats/min, and SpO2 98% on room air were normal. Orotracheal intubation, oxygen administration, and midazolam infusion (4 μg/kg/min) were performed. Intravenous thiopental sodium, up to 18 mg/kg/hour, was administered to control convulsions. An inquiry revealed that 9 h before presentation the patient had ingested an unknown amount of an insecticide containing 7% piperonyl-butoxide and a mixture of the Type I pyrethroids bifenthrin (5%) and esbiothrin (3%). Consequently, gastric lavage was performed, followed by administration of activated charcoal and cathartics. On the subsequent 48 h, the patient returned progressively alert; she was extubated on day 4 and discharged asymptomatically 12 days after hospitalization. After 9, 48, and 72 h of ingestion, the plasma levels were 500, 95, and 40 ng/mL for bifenthrin and 1,640, 640, and 165 ng/mL for piperonyl-butoxide respectively. This pediatric case showed severe pyrethroid neurotoxicity associated with measurable plasma levels of bifenthrin and piperonyl-butoxide. In pediatric pyrethroid poisoning, coma and seizures may represent the main life-threatening features. First-aid therapy including airway maintenance and control of muscle fasciculation and seizures is of major importance. Benzodiazepines and high-dose thiopental sodium were

  6. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis L DeVault

    Full Text Available The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck. Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17% resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s, compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%. Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  7. Ranking the risk of wildlife species hazardous to military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) pose a major threat to aviation safety. Different species pose different levels of threat; thus, identification of the most hazardous species can help managers identify the level of hazard and prioritize mitigation efforts. Dolbeer et al. (2000) assessed the hazard posed by birds to civilian aircraft by analyzing data from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wildlife Strike Database to rank the hazardous species and species groups. A similar analysis has not been done for the military but would be useful and necessary. Military flight characteristics differ from those of civilian flights. During the period 1985-1998, birdstrikes cost the United States Air Force (USAF) an average of $35 million/year in damage. Using the USAF Birdstrike Database, we selected and evaluated each species or species group by the number of strikes recorded in each of 3 damage categories. We weighted damage categories to reflect extent and cost of damage. The USAF Birdstrike Database contained 25,519 records of wildlife strikes in the United States. During the period 1985-1998, 22 (mean = 1.6/year) Class-A birdstrikes (>$1,000,000 damage, loss of aircraft, loss of life, or permanent total disability) were sustained, accounting for 80% of total monetary losses caused by birds. Vultures (Cathartes aura, Coragyps atratus, Caracara cheriway) were ranked the most hazardous species group (Hazard Index Rank [HIR] = 127) to USAF aircraft, followed by geese (Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens, HIR = 76), pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P. occidentalis, HIR = 47), and buteos (Buteo sp., HIR = 30). Of the smaller flocking birds, blackbirds and starlings (mostly Agelaius phoeniceus, Euphagus cyanocephalus, Molothrus ater, Sturnus vulgaris, HIR = 46), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris, HIR = 24), and swallows (Families Hirundinidae, Apodidae, HIR = 23) were species groups ranked highest. Coupling these results with local bird census

  8. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

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    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  9. Ecballium Elaterium Poisoning in Pediatric Emergency Service: A Case Report

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    Sinem Sarı Gökay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ecballium elaterium is the only species belonging to the genus Ecballium of Cucurbitaceae family. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Despite its side effects, E. elaterium has still been being used as an alternative treatment agent for sinusitis, cirrhosis, rheumatic diseases and hemorrhoids for its anti-inflammatory and cathartic actions. Herein we discuss a pediatric case showing gastrointestinal side effects after ingesting E. elaterium. Case Report: A six-year-old boy admitted to Çukurova University Medical Faculty Pediatric Emergency Department, Turkey, for vomiting one hour after ingesting a green plant which he had tasted to satisfy his curiosity. Physical examination, vital signs and laboratory tests revealed normal. The ingested plant was defined to be E. elaterium. Maintenance fluid infusion, 1 mg/kg ranitidine and sucralfate medications were commenced. During the follow-up, the patient developed numbness of the tongue and hyper-salivation, without any signs of uvular edema or other system findings. Further follow-up showed stable vital signs within the normal range with no additional complications. The patient was sent home with the cure and recommendations. Discussion: The plants and herbs that are used as agents of alternative or complementary medicine may as well be accidentally or curiously taken by children leading to unwanted intoxication cases. Pre-encounter actions to prevent such cases are as important as any post-exposure clinical interventions to impede the unwanted consequences. One such measure might be a more intensive public information policy underscoring the fact that plants have the potential to be noxious and may cause serious side effects and even death.

  10. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  11. Forms the interpretant sign in visual and sound expression of ambience of a videojóquei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Henrique de Oliveira Cestari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is the operation of visual and audio signs in an urban ambience of entertainment, particularly the arragement of the interpretant of these signs in the luminous and cathartic output of vídeo presentations. The semiotic concept of diagrammatic reasoning is used to describe and analyze the apparitions of a clown character in an electronic music show of the British duo The Chemical Brothers, selected corpus for the study. The analyses cover the uses and the track of images and sounds at the moment the action takes place, with mask and trance being mobilized to exert hedonist, phantasmagoric, carnivalesque and ritualistic influence on the audience. The acting clown tends to produce interpretants, initially of na emotional and, subsequently, of an energetic nature, so as to incisively establish identity links with the audience. The developments of the character’s apparitions (which is inserted into the performance in different ways to yield persuasive messages are analyzed along with the effects resulting from the conjunction between sound and image which propagates in a synchronic, ambivalent and profuse manner, amid a crowd, an urban landscape and a playful phenomenon. A spiral shape guide was prepared to support the analysis and enable to infer about the work of the interpretant signs from the VJing, a kind of semeiosis typical of the videojockey’s action in this sort of event. Identity is then impregnated and so are mnemonic effects on the metropolitan cultures and habits, in the libertarian and effervescent nature of the party, on the emotion fruition reached by the audience.

  12. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  13. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascalia O. Munyewende

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC. Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design: During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results: Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15 were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions: Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level.

  14. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Francisco Martins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  15. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, A; Lemann, M; Ferguson, A; Halphen, M; Boutron, M; Flourie, B; Alix, E; Salmeron, M; Guillemot, F; Chaussade, S; Menard, A; Moreau, J; Naudin, G; Barthet, M

    1999-01-01

    Background—Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 is a non-absorbable, non-metabolised osmotic agent used in lavage solutions for gut cleansing. 
Aims—To compare the efficacy of PEG and lactulose in chronic constipation. 
Methods—A total of 115 patients with chronic constipation entered a multicentre, randomised, comparative trial. They initially received two sachets containing either PEG (13 g/sachet) or lactulose (10 g/sachet) and were given an option to change the dose to one or three sachets/day, depending on response. 
Results—Ninety nine patients completed the trial. After four weeks, patients in the PEG group (n=50) had a higher number of stools and a lower median daily score for straining at stool than patients in the lactulose group (n=49). Overall improvement was greater in the PEG group. Clinical tolerance was similar in the two groups, but flatus was less frequently reported in the PEG group. The mean number of liquid stools was higher in the PEG group but the difference was significant only for the first two weeks. There were no serious adverse events and no significant change in laboratory tests in either group. At the end of the study, the number of sachets used by the patients was 1.6 (0.7)/day in the PEG group and 2.1 (0.7)/day in the lactulose group. Sixty one patients completed a further two months open study of one to three sachets PEG daily; there was no loss of efficacy and no serious toxicity. 
Conclusion—Low dose PEG 3350 was more effective than lactulose and better tolerated. 

 Keywords: constipation; polyethylene glycol; lactulose; cathartics; randomised trial PMID:9895382

  16. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2011-02-01

    We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. CharlesTaylor, phronesis, and medicine: ethics and interpretation in illness narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Dawson Stafford; Flasher, Lydia Victoria

    2011-08-01

    This paper provides a brief overview and critique of the dominant objectivist understanding and use of illness narrative in Enlightenment (scientific) medicine and ethics, as well as several revisionist accounts, which reflect the evolution of this approach. In light of certain limitations and difficulties endemic in the objectivist understanding of illness narrative, an alternative phronesis approach to medical ethics influenced by Charles Taylor's account of the interpretive nature of human agency and language is examined. To this end, the account of interpretive medical responsibility previously described by Schultz and Carnevale as "clinical phronesis" (based upon Taylor's notion of "strong" or "radical evaluation") is reviewed and expanded. The thesis of this paper is that illness narrative has the ability to benefit patients as well as the potential to cause harm or iatrogenic effects. This benefit or harm is contingent upon how the story is told and understood. Consequently, these tales are not simply "nice stories," cathartic gestures, or mere supplements to scientific procedures and decision making, as suggested by the objectivist approach. Rather, they open the agent to meanings that provide a context for explanation and evaluation of illness episodes and therapeutic activities. This understanding provides indicators (guides) for right action. Hence, medical responsibility as clinical phronesis involves, first, the patient and provider's coformulation and cointerpretation of what is going on in the patient's illness narrative, and second, the patient and provider's response to interpretation of the facts of illness and what they signify-not simply a response to the brute facts of illness, alone. The appeal to medical responsibility as clinical phronesis thus underscores the importance of getting the patient's story of illness right. It is anticipated that further elaboration concerning the idea of clinical phronesis as interpretive illness narrative will

  18. An exploratory study; the therapeutic effects of premixed activated charcoal-sorbitol administration in patients poisoned with organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo; Song, Kyounghwan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of activated charcoal (AC) mixed with cathartics for gastric decontamination in the management of organophosphate (OP) poisoning remain unknown due to limited clinical evidence. This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of premixed AC-sorbitol as a treatment for OP poisoning. This retrospective observational case study included patients who either did not receive AC-sorbitol or received a single dose of AC-sorbitol within 24 h after OP ingestion. The patients were divided into three groups: no AC-sorbitol treatment, patients who received AC-sorbitol within 1 h of OP ingestion, and patients who received AC-sorbitol more than 1 h after OP ingestion. Mortality, the development of respiratory failure, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were used as outcome measurements for effectiveness, whereas aspiration pneumonia and electrolyte imbalance were employed as safety measurements. Among 262 patients with OP poisoning, 198 were included. Of these, 133 patients did not receive AC-sorbitol, whereas 14 and 51 patients received AC-sorbitol within 1 h or more than 1 h after ingestion, respectively. The time from ingestion to hospital arrival and time from ingestion to administration of atropine and pralidoxime differed among the groups, whereas other characteristics, including age, amount ingested, and type of ingested OP, were similar among the groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the administration of AC-sorbitol was not associated with outcome measures for effectiveness and did not significantly increase either aspiration pneumonia or electrolyte imbalances during hospitalization. The administration of AC-sorbitol exerted neither beneficial nor harmful effects on the outcomes of OP-poisoned patients regardless of the time from OP ingestion to administration, compared with those of patients who did not receive AC-sorbitol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients who received AC-sorbitol; further qualified

  19. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Villegas-Patraca

    Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  20. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  1. Long-Term Condition Self-Management Support in Online Communities: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne

    2016-03-10

    Recent years have seen an exponential increase in people with long-term conditions using the Internet for information and support. Prior research has examined support for long-term condition self-management through the provision of illness, everyday, and emotional work in the context of traditional offline communities. However, less is known about how communities hosted in digital spaces contribute through the creation of social ties and the mobilization of an online illness "workforce." The aim was to understand the negotiation of long-term condition illness work in patient online communities and how such work may assist the self-management of long-term conditions in daily life. A systematic search of qualitative papers was undertaken using various online databases for articles published since 2004. A total of 21 papers met the inclusion criteria of using qualitative methods and examined the use of peer-led online communities for those with a long-term condition. A qualitative meta-synthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. The main themes identified in relation to the negotiation of self-management support were (1) redressing offline experiential information and knowledge deficits, (2) the influence of modeling and learning behaviors from others on self-management, (3) engagement that validates illness and negates offline frustrations, (4) tie formation and community building, (5) narrative expression and cathartic release, and (6) dissociative anonymity and invisibility. These translated into a line of argument synthesis in which four network mechanisms for self-management support in patient online communities were identified. These were (1) collective knowledge and identification through lived experience; (2) support, information, and engagement through readily accessible gifting relationships; (3) sociability that extends beyond illness; and (4) online disinhibition as a facilitator in the negotiation of self

  2. [Preliminary analysis on relationship between traditional efficacy of Chinese medicine and modern pharmacological action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun-Guo; Wang, Dong-Zhi; Lei, Lei; Kang, Li; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2017-05-01

    To find the relationship between traditional efficacy of Chinese medicine and modern pharmacological action by using data mining, and provide information and reference for further research and development for the pharmacology research of traditional Chinese medicine.The information of 547 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions were collected and processed in Clinical Guide to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia published in 2010; Access and Excel software were used to analyze the frequence and frequency of single effect, pharmacological action, and both. In addition, the relationship between efficacy and pharmacology was analyzed with the clearing heat and antibacterial effects as the example. The analysis results showed that 547 kinds of Chinese medicines involved 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions. Among them, the most frequent Chinese medicine effect was"clearing heat", whose frequence was 130 and the frequency was 0.24; the most frequent pharmacological action was "anti-inflammatory action" whose frequence was 191 and the frequency was 0.35. The most common efficacy-pharmacological action group was "clearing heat" and "anti-bacterial action", whose frequence was 75 and the frequency was 0.26. The couple of "purgation" and "cathartic effect" had the largest frequency of 0.30, but they just appeared together for 3 times. There were 52 kinds of pharmacological actions that occurred together with clearing heat, of which, the top 10 were anti-bacterial action, anti-inflammatory action, antineoplastic action, anti-hepatic injury action, immunoregulation action, antipyretic action, antiviralaction, hypoglycemic action, antioxidant action and analgesic action. There were 161 kinds of Chinese medicine effects that occurred together with anti-bacterial action, of which, the top 10 were clearing heat, detoxification, detumescence, analgesia, resolving dampness

  3. Restauración: método y arquitectura (a propósito del Teatro de Sagunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent polemics about the reconstruction of the ancient Roman theatre in Sagunto (Valencia, done by the Italian architect Giorgio Grassi in collaboration with the Spanish architect Manuel Portaceli, could have been an enriching debate on the criteria of intervention on the monuments, had it not been frustrated by the virulence and the schematic nature of the argumentations used for and against the work. On the other hand, in the opinion of the author of this article, the serious methodological deficiencies (especially with regard to previous historical research and its relation with the project, as well as the poorness of the new architecture designed by Grassi, invalidate the work of Sagunto as a paradigm of one particular restoration style (the harmonious diachrony. For this reason, the work will remain only as another example of the Spanish disorder in the eighties. The author believes, however, in the healthy cathartic role which the work and the polemics may have had since they made it clear before the public opinion that there is a need for the historians and architects to finally face their authentic commitments in monument restoration.

    La reciente polémica sobre la reconstrucción del antiguo teatro romano de Sagunto (Valencia, proyectada por el arquitecto italiano Giorgio Grassi en colaboración con el español Manuel Portaceli, pudo constituir un enriquecedor debate sobre los criterios de intervención en los monumentos, frustrado por la virulencia y el esquematismo de las argumentaciones esgrimidas a favor y en contra de la obra. Por otra parte, ajuicio del autor del artículo, las graves deficiencias metodológicas (especialmente en cuanto a la investigación histórica previa y a su relación con el proyecto, así como la pobreza de la nueva arquitectura diseñada por Grassi, invalidan la obra de Sagunto como paradigmática de una vía de la restauración (la diacronía armónica, por lo que quedará únicamente como

  4. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  5. El trovo verde. Poesía improvisada satírico-obscena en la fiesta de la cosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Campo Tejedor, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvest time has been since Upper Antiquity an exceptional occasion in peasant societies, giving rise to festive customs such as duels of improvised poetry in obscene tone and motif. In these duels, precepts of decency were momentarily removed. The historical and comparative research since the fescennini verses of Antiquity, through the pullas of the trovadores de repente of the Golden Age and other satirical genres, allows to link the priapic improvised poetry of the Alpujarra in both reaping and grape harvest contexts to a long popular tradition in which debates of burlesque verses were an entertainment associated with the nexus between fertility of earth and sexuality and with a sense of regeneration that has cathartic laugh. The survival of this burlesque and erotic register among the Alpujarra troubadours in certain festivals, coincidental in dates, spaces and actors with the traditional context of licenses during harvest time, suggests the reusing of these duels of inventiveness, in which participants play recalling a time when

    Las cosechas han constituido desde antiguo un momento excepcional en las culturas campesinas y han propiciado costumbres festivas, como las luchas de poesías improvisadas de tono y temática obscena, en que se levantaba efímeramente el precepto del decoro. El rastreo histórico y comparativo desde los versos fesceninos de la Antigüedad, pasando por las pullas de los trovadores de repente en el Siglo de Oro y otros géneros satíricos, permite vincular el trovo priápico de la Alpujarra en contextos de siega, parva y vendimia, a una larga tradición popular en que las porfías de versos burlescos constituían un divertimento asociado al nexo de unión entre la fertilidad de la tierra y la sexualidad, así como al sentido regenerador de la risa catártica. La pervivencia en el trovo alpujarreño de este registro burlón y lúbrico en ciertas fiestas coincidentes en fechas

  6. Impact of gamma radiations on phytochemistry of senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Sunita; Vyas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia (senna) is native to India, and is cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the leaves Senna is also known by the names Alexandrian Senna and and the pods. The leaves have a purging quality, but afterwards may have a binding effect. Both the leaves and pods are used in many over-the-counter pharmaceutical laxative preparations. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have used Senna as a natural laxative for centuries. Senna is a powerful cathartic used primarily in the treatment of constipation, working through a stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. The primary chemical Constituents of Senna include anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein), beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, mucin, essential oil, mucilage, tannin and resin. The sennosides are irritating to the large intestine lining, causing peristaltic action and bowel evacuation. Senna is often combined with aromatic, carminative herbs such as cardamom, ginger root, peppermint and fennel to increase its palatability. Other historical applications of this herb have included support for inflammatory skin conditions, hypertension and weight control. Although the biological effects of large doses of ionizing radiation are predominantly harmful, low-to-intermediate doses have been observed to enhance growth and survival, augment the immune response, and increase resistance to the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of further irradiation in plants, bacteria, insects, and mammals. The existence of these stimulatory, or adaptive responses implies that the dose-response relationships for genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation may be similarly biphasic or hermetic in nature. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material, is an excellent source of sennosides. To investigate the effect of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the dry seeds of senna were treated with different doses of

  7. Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

    1991-04-01

    Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will

  8. Disease of the kidney and of the urinary tract in De Medicina Methodica (Padua, 1611) of Prospero Alpini (1563-1616).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bisaccia, Carmela; Ricciardi, Biagio; Anastasio, Pietro; Aliotta, Giovanni; Ongaro, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    scholarly teaching - encompassing localization of stones, their formation and shape, renal colic and its irradiation according to the site and gender, the best antalgic position to pass stones, the use of laxatives, cathartics, warm baths, the plants to be used, their preparation and quality, the waters to be drank and their quantity (up to 15 pounds a day), the removal of bladder stones without surgery (methods learned in Cairo and described in Aegyptyan Medicine), and lithotomy and its feasibility even in old people. De Medicina Methodicawas a modern monograph devoted to clinical medicine including urinary disease. The book reflected the polyhedral personality of the author, his experience as physician of the Republic of Venice at Cairo, and his capabilities as a director of the Botanical Garden of the University of Padua, a unique research centre in those times.

  9. “Never break them in two. Never put one over the other. Eve is Mary’s mother. Mary is the daughter of Eve”: Toni Morrison’s Womanist Gospel of Self

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    Claude LE FUSTEC

    2011-03-01

    characterized as outcasts. From Pecola, the alienated victim of the WASP definition of beauty to Consolata, the “revised Reverend Mother,” Morrison’s fiction appears to weave its way through the moral complexities of African American female resistance to white male rule—theologically based on the canonical reading of the Fall as supreme calamity caused by Eve, the arch-temptress and sinner—to hand authority back to the pariah and wrongdoer: the black woman. However, far from boiling down to this deconstructive strategy, Morrison’s fiction seems to oppose religious doctrine only so as to sound the ontological depth of Christianity: while challenging the theological basis of sexist and racist assumptions, Morrison poses as an authoritative spiritual force able to craft her own Gospel of Self, based on cathartic moments of revelation where mostly female characters experience a mystic sense of connectedness to self and other, time and place. An African American female variation on the New Testament’s “Kingdom within,” Morrison’s novels echo black abolitionist Sojourner Truth’s famous speech “Ain’t I a Woman?” and its call for theological revision and gender emancipation.

  10. Manejo de la intoxicación por plomo en la niñez Managing childhood lead poisoning

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    Morri E Markowitz

    2003-01-01

    levels in urine. Remedies include elimination of lead in the environment, changes in children's behavior and dietary checks for adequate calcium and iron intake. Chelation therapy, using Ca edetate and succimer eliminates lead from the skeleton, which is then quickly excleted using a cathartic to help prevent re-absorption. Chelation may save lives where BLLs are very high. There is usually a short term reduction of BLLs with a subsequent rise. Serious cases may require repeat therapies. Chelation should be considered in children with BLLs > or = 45 µg/dl. Chelation therapy reduces BLLs and associated symptoms. However cognitive decline may be irreversible, indicating that emphasis should be on prevention rather than cure.

  11. Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Emergent Themes From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    and renaming of therapeutic affordances: "exploration" (52/155, 33.5% of quotes), "connection" (50/155, 32.3% of quotes), "narration" (33/155, 21.3% of quotes), "adaptation" (13/155, 8.4% of quotes), and "self-presentation" (7/155, 4.5% of quotes). Of the most described affordances, "exploration" was based on a propensity for participants to explain their social media use for information seeking purposes. "Connection" placed greater emphasis on interaction, highlighting themes of "exchanging information" and "mitigating isolation". Responses regarding "narration" highlighted the value of shared experiences and the emotionally cathartic role this plays. Conclusions Much of the efficacy of social media may be explicable via a closer examination of therapeutic affordances. Particular areas that warrant attention include social media’s ability to filter and guide people to useful information, connect individuals, and share experiences. Further research into a variety of chronic conditions is warranted. Coupled with the results of the present study, a greater theoretical basis detailing how social media may foster health outcomes may lead to an improved evidence base for conducting research and may inform recommendations for social media use in chronic disease management. PMID:25533453

  12. [Managing adolescent and adult victims of extra-familial rape soon after aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchard, M; Robin, M; Mauriac, F; Waddington, A; Noirot, M N; Devynck, C; Bisson, F; Kannas, S; Polge, C

    2001-01-01

    Rape victims often experience severe and prolonged symptoms in the aftermath of the assault. Psychological assistance offered rapidly after the assault should mitigate the intensity and moderate the duration of rape-related problems. This paper tried to identify the widely-accepted therapeutic approaches from a review of the current literature; it has its roots in the clinical experience acquired by our mobile crisis service in this type of situation, too. The goal of the following practices concerning the victim and the victim's immediate family is to assist the victim to reclaim control as quickly as possible over what has happened and to return to a normal functioning. The therapist should adopt an empathetic attitude, actively and instructively, even more so, and in an even more flexible way than for other patients. Knowledge of one's potential reactions to that kind of situation is useful since the counter-transference is here particularly intense. Doubting the patient's word is part of these negative reactions and must be avoided. It is better to respect the victim's feelings of guilt in the first instance. The relating of the facts, despite its cathartic value, should not be imposed on the patient. It should be noted that these last two points are controversial. It is also important to give information, during interviews, about the symptoms which can occur, the defence mechanisms that the individual sets up for just such occasions and on the most common difficulties encountered in personal relationships. In particular, the therapist must verify that concrete measures are taken to protect the victim against another attack. As far as the immediate family is concerned, it seems particularly important to involve them and, better still, meet them. Their reaction to the rape has a determining influence on the victim's capacity to cope with the trauma and its consequences. On the one hand, the immediate family should be helped in giving support to the victim by

  13. Therapeutic affordances of social media: emergent themes from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-12-22

    : "exploration" (52/155, 33.5% of quotes), "connection" (50/155, 32.3% of quotes), "narration" (33/155, 21.3% of quotes), "adaptation" (13/155, 8.4% of quotes), and "self-presentation" (7/155, 4.5% of quotes). Of the most described affordances, "exploration" was based on a propensity for participants to explain their social media use for information seeking purposes. "Connection" placed greater emphasis on interaction, highlighting themes of "exchanging information" and "mitigating isolation". Responses regarding "narration" highlighted the value of shared experiences and the emotionally cathartic role this plays. Much of the efficacy of social media may be explicable via a closer examination of therapeutic affordances. Particular areas that warrant attention include social media's ability to filter and guide people to useful information, connect individuals, and share experiences. Further research into a variety of chronic conditions is warranted. Coupled with the results of the present study, a greater theoretical basis detailing how social media may foster health outcomes may lead to an improved evidence base for conducting research and may inform recommendations for social media use in chronic disease management.

  14. Théâtralité et narration : Le Bonheur dans le crime de Barbey d’Aurevilly

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    Kris Vassilev

    2008-03-01

    interconnectedness of narrative and theater, the cohabitation of story and performance, and the relationship between “telling” and “seeing”. What lends the third Diabolique its importance in terms of theatricality is the reliance of its plot on the interplay of theater, without which, in the final analysis, the narrative would not exist. Indeed, the originality of the story resides in its association to a theatrical representation. It follows that, in a fictional work, the act of narration is guaranteed by virtue of the existence of fiction. In other words, the story is possible only in so far as it dramatizes itself. This means that what the narrative represents draws its strategy from what is represented. The article will examine the peculiar relationship established between narration and theater and will attempt to shed light on the resulting implications of this relationship. If, thanks to its theatrical nature, the novella’s plot hints at more than it presumes to reveal through the succession of its events, it is that the narration appears to adopt as its objective the denunciation of realist fiction as ineffectual, while upholding the exemplary moral nature to which conforms the poetics of tragedy. Yet, does not the cathartic release through reading, as enunciated in the preface of Diaboliques and suggested by the intense theatralization of the story, find itself contradicted by a denouement that outwardly sabotages the very principles of tragedy?

  15. Randomized clinical trial comparing sodium picosulfate with mannitol on the preparation FOR colonoscopy in hospitalized patients Ensaio clínico randomizado comparando picosulfato de sódio com manitol no preparo para colonoscopia em pacientes hospitalizados

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    Suzana Müller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cleansing of the colon for a colonoscopy exam must be complete so as to allow the visualization and inspection of the intestinal lumen. The ideal cleansing agent should be easily administered, have a low cost, and minimum collateral effects. Sodium picosulfate together with the magnesium citrate is a cathartic stimulant and mannitol is an osmotic laxative, both usually used for this purpose. AIMS: Assess the colon cleanliness comparing the use of mannitol and sodium picosulfate as well as evaluate the level of patient satisfaction, the presence of foam, pain, and abdominal distension in hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study with 80 patients that compared two groups: mannitol (40 and sodium picosulfate (40. Both groups received the same dietary orientation. The study was approved by the hospital’s Ethics and Research Committee. The endoscopist was blind to the type of preparation. Outcomes evaluated: level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain and distension, and the duration of the exam. The data was analyzed by means of the chi-squared test for proportions and Mann-Whitney for independent samples. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to the level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain, and the duration of the exam. Fifteen percent of the exams of the mannitol group were interrupted while from the sodium picosulfate group it was 5%. The presence of foam was similar for both groups. The average duration for carrying out the exam was 28.44 minutes for the mannitol group and 35.59 minutes for the sodium picosulfate group. Abdominal distension was more frequent in the mannitol group. If they would have to do the same exam, the answer was that 80% said yes from the mannitol group and 92.5% from the sodium

  16. Exposições tóxicas agudas em crianças: um panorama Acute toxic exposure in children: an overview

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    Fábio Bucaretchi

    2005-11-01

    past decade, including the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists' position statements and position papers (peer-reviewed information based on scientific evidence and broad consensus on gastrointestinal decontamination, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Acute toxic exposure in children is a common event, mainly in children under six years of age. Death is rare. Although widely employed, there is no evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination and multiple-dose activated charcoal improve the outcome of poisoned patients. Very few efficient antidotes are used on a consistent basis, and some of them are very expensive and not available in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Ipecac syrup and cathartics should not be administered on a routine basis in acute toxic exposures in outpatient treatment. Excluding the contraindications, single-dose activated charcoal and gastric lavage may be considered within one hour of ingestion if a patient ingested a potentially toxic amount or a potentially lethal amount, respectively. Whole bowel irrigation, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization may be considered in a few situations. Fomepizole and octreotide are safe and efficient antidotes, which can be used in the treatment of alcohol (methanol and ethylene glycol and sulfonylureas poisoning, respectively.