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Sample records for cathartics

  1. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient cleansing of the colon before a colonoscopy or a radiological examination is essential. The osmotically acting cathartics (those given the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A06AD) currently used for this purpose comprise products based on three main substances: sodium phosphate......, combinations of polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solutions (PEG-ELS), and magnesium citrate. All these preparations give adequate cleansing results and have similar profiles in terms of the frequency and type of mild to moderate adverse effects. However, serious adverse events, such as severe...... hyperphosphatemia and irreversible kidney damage owing to acute phosphate nephropathy, have been reported after use of sodium-phosphate-based products. The aim of this Review is to provide an update on the potential safety issues related to the use of osmotically acting cathartics, especially disturbances of renal...

  2. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    hyperphosphatemia and irreversible kidney damage owing to acute phosphate nephropathy, have been reported after use of sodium-phosphate-based products. The aim of this Review is to provide an update on the potential safety issues related to the use of osmotically acting cathartics, especially disturbances of renal......Efficient cleansing of the colon before a colonoscopy or a radiological examination is essential. The osmotically acting cathartics (those given the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A06AD) currently used for this purpose comprise products based on three main substances: sodium phosphate...... function and water and electrolyte balance. The available evidence indicates that PEG-ELS-based products are the safest option. Magnesium-citrate-based, hypertonic products should be administered with caution to elderly individuals and patients who are prone to develop disturbances in water and electrolyte...

  3. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  4. Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ on rats with cathartic colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the change and effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the colon of rats with cathartic colon.METHODS: The cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats rhubarb for 3 mo, the changes of colonic electromyography were investigated by both suspension muscle strips test and serosal recordings of colonic myoelectrical activity. Immunohistochemical staining (S-P methods) and image analysis were used to determine the changes of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the proximal colon and distal colon of rats with cathartic colon.RESULTS: Suspension muscle strips test in vitro showed OFQ (10-9-10-6 mol/L) concentration dependently caused an immediate tonic contraction in the isolated colon. But the increase of tension in cathartic colon was less than control groups (P<0.01). Intravenous administration of OFQ (1μg/kg) caused phasic contractions in the proximal colon, while the amplitude of phasic contractions caused by OFQ in cathartic colon was much lower than that in the control groups (2.58 ± 0.41 vs 4.16± 0.53, t= -2.6, P = 0.012). OFQ was highly expressed in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon but not in the muscle cells. The immunoreactivity of OFQ in the proximal colon in cathartic colon rats decreased significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Colonic smooth muscle of cathartic colon showed low sensitivity to the stimulation of OFQ, suggesting that it might be caused by the abnormal distribution of OFQ or the abnormalities of receptors, leading to the disorganization of dynamic and incoordinated contractions.

  5. Changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in cathartic colon of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-hua; MO Ping; JIA Hou-jun; LI Chun-xue; ZHANG Sheng-ben

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To oberve the changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat, and to clarify that whether opioid receptors accounts for the occurrence of slow trait constipation (STC). Methods: The cathartiic colon model of rat was made by feeding with laxatives. The activity of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat was measured by radio-ligand binding assay. Results: Compared with the control group, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and affinity(Kd) of mu opioid receptor in cathartic colon group were significantly increased (207. 00 ± 22. 90 fmol/mg·p vs 82. 00 ± 14.23 fmol/mg· p, P < 0.01 ;3.30 ± 0.45 mmol/L vs 2.40 ± 0.57 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The maximal binding capacity of kappa opioid receptor also showed a great increase (957. 00 ± 102. 41 fmol/mg· p vs 459.00 ± 52.41 fmol/mg·p, P < 0.01 ), but no significant difference of affinity was found between the two groups. Conclsion: The mu and kappa opioid receptors may be involved in the functional disorders of cathartic colon.

  6. Diagnostic performance of CT colonography with limited cathartic preparation in colorectal cancer screening; comparison with conventional colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farghally Amin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that CTC with limited cathartic bowel preparation and iodinated agents for fecal tagging can obtain high sensitivity and PPV values results for <5 mm polyps comparable to those obtained with conventional preparation with laxatives. Furthermore, this method could really improve the acceptance of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  7. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  8. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  9. Head color and caruncles of sympatric Cathartes vultures (Aves Cathartidae) in Guyana and their possible function in intra- and interspecific signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    The naked heads of Cathartes vultures are widely believed to be adaptations for temperature regulation and to reduce plumage fouling during carrion feeding. Bright head color and the elaborate pattern of caruncles on the head and neck skin have a likely function in intra- and interspecific...

  10. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Whitehead, M.A.; Gasper, G.; Meteyer, C.U.; Link, W.A.; Taggart, M.A.; Meharg, A.A.; Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose 0.1?0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  11. Is Senna Laxative Use Associated to Cathartic Colon, Genotoxicity, or Carcinogenicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1 there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2 there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3 senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4 the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  12. Is senna laxative use associated to cathartic colon, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Hernández, D; Bustamante, S; Bachiller, I; Rojas, A

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  13. Activation Effect of Cathartic Natural Compound Rhein to CFTR Chloride Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in intestinal exocrine glands, which plays a key role in intestinal fluid secretion. A natural anthraquinone activator of CFTR Cl- channel, rhein, was identified by screening 217 single compounds from Chinese herbs via a cellbased halide-sensitive fluorescent assay. Rhein activates CFTR Cl- transportation in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of cAMP with a physiological concentration. This study provides a novel molecular pharmacological mechanism for the laxative drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine such as aloe, cascara and senna.

  14. Contribución al conocimiento de la Epizootiología y Biología del Cathartes aura Lin (Contribution to the knowledge of the Epizootiology and Biology of the Cathartes aura Lin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isacc J. Rotella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de esclarecer el papel epizoodémico del Catharthes aura Lin. (aura y el fundamento de su resistencia frente a los microorganismos y toxinas que ingiere, se realizó una investigación en 53 ejemplares, que comprendió la infección artificial de 12 animales con B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus y S. typhimurium y, en animales no inoculados, bacteriología, parasitología, serología (brucelosis y leptospirosis, electroforesis del suero, hematología y medición del pH de órganos del tracto digestivo. En las auras infectadas por vía oral solamente se recuperó el microorganismo en una en que se aisló M. bovis de un exudado bucal; por vía intramuscular, un animal infectado con S. aureus presentó lesiones en el punto de inoculación y otro con S. typhimurium, alteraciones macroscópicas compatibles con salmonelosis. La bacteriología general fue negativa en el 72,5% de los animales siendo el germen mas frecuentemente aislado E. coli b hemolítica (12,5%. Las pruebas serológicas fueron negativas. En los proventrículos se encontraron parásitos parecidos a los tetrámeros de las aves (7,5% y en los intestinos ooquistes de Coccidia sp. (19,4%. No se detectaron hemoparásitos en sangre ni ectoparásitos en las plumas. Según la electroforesis del suero, las fracciones alfa 1 y beta no se delimitaron nítidamente y corrieron muy unidas a la albúmina la primera y a la gamma la segunda. El pH del aparato digestivo resultó más ácido a medida que el muestreo se alejó del pico, presentando el mayor grado de acidez el estómago muscular rudimentario (2,9. El aura posee un formidable poder destructivo de los microorganismos que ingiere por lo que no representa un gran peligro epizoodémico, por el contrario, contribuye a eliminar desperdicios que pueden ser focos de enfermedades. Al parecer su resistencia es independiente de la constitución globulínica del suero y la acidez del estómago muscular rudimentario constituye su principal defensa antimicrobiana. In order to clarify the epizoodemic role of Catharthes aura Lin. (turkey vulture and the basis of its resistance against microorganisms and toxins it ingests, a study was made with 53 subjects. This included the artificial infection of 12 the birds with B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, and non-inoculated birds were studied by bacteriology, parasitology, serology (brucellosis and leptospirosis, serum electrophoresis, hematology and pH measuring of the organs in the digestive tract. In the birds only infected orally, the microorganism was recovered in the case of one which M. bovis was isolated from oral fluids; intramuscularly, a bird infected with S. aureus exhibited lesions at the point of inoculation, and another one with S. typhimurium, macroscopic alterations compatible with salmonelosis. The general bacteriology was negative in 72.5% of the birds; the most frequently isolated germ was hemolytic E. coli (12.5%. The serology tests were negative. In the proventricles, parasites were found similar to avian tetrameters (7.5%, and Coccidia sp. oocysts (19.4% in the intestines. No hemoparasites were detected in the blood, nor ectoparasites in the feathers. According to the serum electrophoresis, the fractions alpha 1 and beta are not distinctly defined: the first runs very close to the albumen, the second one to the gamma. The digestive tract pH was found to be more acidic the further from the beak the testing went. The greatest level of acidity was found in the rudimentary muscular stomach (2.9. The turkey vulture has a formidable destructive capacity of the microorganisms it ingests, so it does not pose a serious epizoodemic threat, but on the contrary, it helps eliminate refuse that could be sources of illness. Apparently, its resistance is independent from the globulinic character of its serum, and the acidity of the rudimentary muscular stomach constitutes its main antimicrobial defense.

  15. Contribución al conocimiento de la Epizootiología y Biología del Cathartes aura Lin (Contribution to the knowledge of the Epizootiology and Biology of the Cathartes aura Lin.)

    OpenAIRE

    Isacc J. Rotella; Enrique A. Silveira,; Lázaro Delgado; Maria J. Manso; Juana R. Perdomo; Reinaldo Campos

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de esclarecer el papel epizoodémico del Catharthes aura Lin. (aura) y el fundamento de su resistencia frente a los microorganismos y toxinas que ingiere, se realizó una investigación en 53 ejemplares, que comprendió la infección artificial de 12 animales con B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus y S. typhimurium y, en animales no inoculados, bacteriología, parasitología, serología (brucelosis y leptospirosis), electroforesis del suero, hematología y medición del pH de órganos del tr...

  16. The Cathartic Efficacy of Dietary Fiber in Carrot Pomace%胡萝卜渣膳食纤维的润肠通便作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文庭; 洪华荣

    2008-01-01

    目的 为开发利用胡萝卜渣膳食纤维(CRDF)提供依据.方法通过测定日排便量和粪便含水率,判断CRDF对小鼠排便功能的影响;以复方地芬诺酯建立便秘模型,通过测定黑便排出情况和墨汁推进率,判断CRDF对小鼠肠道蠕动功能的影响.结果低、中、高剂量的胡萝卜渣水溶性膳食纤维(CRSDF)和低、中、高剂量的胡萝卜渣水不溶性膳食纤维(CRIDF)均可提高实验小鼠的日排便湿质量;低、中、高剂量的CRSDF和高剂量的CRIDF可提高实验小鼠的日排便粒数;高剂量的CRSDF和低、中、高剂量的CRIDF可提高实验小鼠的粪便干质量;中、高剂量的CRSDF和高剂量的CRIDF可提高实验小鼠的粪便含水率.高剂量CRSDF和中、高剂量CRIDF可缩短实验小鼠首粒黑便排出时间及提高小肠墨汁推进率;中、高剂量CRSDF和高剂量CRIDF可增加实验小鼠6 h黑便粒数;低、高剂量CRSDF和高剂量CRIDF可提高实验小鼠6 h黑便质量,差别均有统计学意义.结论CRDF具有良好的促进排便和促进肠道蠕动功能.

  17. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation: prospective assessment of patient experience and preference in comparison to optical colonoscopy with cathartic bowel preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensch, Sebastiaan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Vries, Ayso H. de; Heutinck, Anneke; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peringa, Jan; Montauban van Swijndregt, Alexander D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare participant experience and preference of limited preparation computed tomography colonography (CTC) with full-preparation colonoscopy in a consecutive series of patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. CTC preparation comprised 180 ml diatrizoate meglumine, 80 ml barium and 30 mg bisacodyl. For the colonoscopy preparation 4 l of polyethylene glycol solution was used. Participants' experience and preference were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the chi-squared test, respectively. Associations between preference and experience parameters for the 173 participants were determined by logistic regression. Diarrhoea occurred in 94% of participants during CTC preparation. This side effect was perceived as severely or extremely burdensome by 29%. Nonetheless, the total burden was significantly lower for the CTC preparation than for colonoscopy (9% rated the CTC preparation as severely or extremely burdensome compared with 59% for colonoscopy; p<0.001). Participants experienced significantly more pain, discomfort and total burden with the colonoscopy procedure than with CTC (p<0.001). After 5 weeks, 69% preferred CTC, 8% were indifferent and 23% preferred colonoscopy (p<0.001). A burdensome colonoscopy preparation and pain at colonoscopy were associated with CTC preference (p<0.04). In conclusion, participants' experience and preference were rated in favour of CTC with limited bowel preparation compared with full-preparation colonoscopy. (orig.)

  18. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation: prospective assessment of patient experience and preference in comparison to optical colonoscopy with cathartic bowel preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jensch; S. Bipat; J. Peringa; A.H. de Vries; A. Heutinck; E. Dekker; L.C. Baak; A.D. Montauban van Swijndregt; J. Stoker

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare participant experience and preference of limited preparation computed tomography colonography (CTC) with full-preparation colonoscopy in a consecutive series of patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. CTC preparation comprised 180 ml di

  19. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  20. Effect of rhubarb and Glauber's salt cathartic intervention on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%大黄加芒硝导泻治疗有机磷农药中毒的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱茄英; 陈茶花; 鄢小莲; 肖玲; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nasal tube feeding of rhubarb solution and umbilical compress of Glauber's salt for purgation in the treatment of patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods A retrospective study was conducted.Eighty patients with severe AOPP were dividedinto two groups according to different treatment,with 40 patients in each group.A thorough gastric lavage was done,followed by cholinesterase complex agent and atropine were given for all the patients.On the base of this treatment,one group of patients were given nasogastric feeding of rhubarb solution (200 ml) and Glauber's salt solution ( 100 g) for umbilical compress (rhubarb plus Glauher group),and another group of patients were fed with 20% mannitol (200 ml)as a control group (mannitol group).The time of first defecation,number of passing stools,the time of normalization of cholinesterase (ChE) activity,time of atropinization,dosage of atropinization,and total amount of atropine given,incidence of adverse reactions,and hospital stay in two groups were observed,a statistical analysis of the data was conducted.Results In rhubarb plus Glauber group,all the conditions were improved better than those of mannitol group [first defecation time (minutes):134.13 ± 31.31 vs.154.35 ± 34.78,the number of stools (times/d):2.60 ±0.81 vs.2.14 ± 0.63,time of ChE activity returned to normal (days):9.65 ± 1.42 vs.10.66 ± 1.74,atropinization time ( hours ):3.00 ± 0.73 vs.3.56 ± 1.02,dosage of atropinization (mg):51.43 ± 7.03 vs.57.65 ± 7.74,the total amount of atropine given (mg):229.78 ± 28.96 vs.248.41 ± 31.45,the incidence of adverse reactions:abdominal pain 0 vs.17.5%,abdominal distention 0 vs.20.0%,hospital stay (days):10.43 ± 1.68 vs.11.59 ± 2.121,and all the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01).Conclusion Combination usage with aqueous rhubarb solution and Glauber's salt in AOPP patients could yield quick clearance of toxin,reduced adverse effects,and lower length of hospital stay.%目的 观察鼻饲大黄水溶液、芒硝敷脐导泻救治重度急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)患者的效果.方法 采用回顾性分析方法,选择80例重度AOPP患者,按治疗方法不同分为两组,每组40例.所有患者给予彻底洗胃、正确使用胆碱酯酶复能剂及阿托品等综合治疗,在此基础上,一组鼻饲大黄水溶液200 ml、芒硝100 g敷脐治疗(大黄芒硝组),另一组鼻饲20%甘露醇200 ml作为对照(甘露醇组).观察两组患者首次排便时间、导泻期间排便次数、胆碱酯酶(ChE)活性恢复正常时间、阿托品化时间、阿托品化用量、阿托品总用量、不良反应发生率、住院时间,并进行统计学分析.结果 大黄芒硝组各指标改善情况均好于甘露醇组[首次排便时间(min):134.13±31.31比154.35±34.78,导泻期间排便次数(次/d):2.60±0.81比2.14±0.63,ChE活性恢复正常时间(d):9.65±1.42比10.66±1.74,阿托品化时间(h):3.00±0.73比3.56±1.02,阿托品化用量(mg):51.43±7.03比57.65±7.74,阿托品总用量(mg):229.78±28.96比248.41±31.45,不良反应发生率:腹痛0比17.5%、腹胀0比20.0%,住院时间(d):10.43±1.68比11.59±2.12],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 联用大黄水溶液和芒硝敷脐导泻治疗重度AOPP患者,能及时清除肠内毒物,减少不良反应,缩短住院时间.

  1. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T H; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  2. Archaeological Investigations at Nelson Wash, Fort Irwin, California. Fort Irwin Archaeological Project Research Report Number 23. Volume 1. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Mimus polygottos 0 Say’s Phoebe Savornis sara C Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula 0 Black-throated Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata C Brewer’s...Ruby- crowned Kinglet (Regulls calendula ), Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura), and American Robin (Turdus migratorius), all winter visitants (present

  3. Irony, Humour and Cynicism in Relation to Memory. A Contrastive Analysis between the Argentinian and the Mexican Literary Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, B.Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Making fun of traumatic experiences is a delicate issue. However, Freud has worked on the cathartic function of the joke (1905), and Andréa Lauterwein, in her edited volume Rire, Mémoire, Shoah (2009) insisted on the presence and relevance of laughter in the memory of the Shoah. In the context of La

  4. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients.

  5. A Collision of Culture, Values, and Education Policy: Scrapping Early French Immersion in New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2009-01-01

    A CBC New Brunswick Forum broadcast live on March 27, 2008, from Moncton's Capitol Theatre provided a cathartic moment for parents angry at Education Minister Kelly Lamrock, who was linked into the discussion via satellite from Fredericton. Two weeks earlier, Minister Lamrock had declared in a press release that bilingualism was changing from an…

  6. The Role of Stillness and Quiet When Developing Human/Nature Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Valerie; Gray, Tonia

    2007-01-01

    The cathartic, transformative and restorative powers resulting from immersion in nature are well documented. Furthermore, they are regarded as the key characteristics that differentiate bush and adventure therapy from more traditional forms of therapy/counselling. But how does adventure therapy access the healing powers of nature? Drawing upon…

  7. Emotional Self-Repair and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Terry, Rina

    1994-01-01

    Notes that some scholars have argued that writing poetry was harmful for psychological health of Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton. Contends that their writing probably provided cathartic benefit for them and helped them gain cognitive distance from their inner conflicts. Argues that writing may have helped both poets survive longer than they might…

  8. Louis Vivet, un cas paradigmatique des personnalités multiples et de la méthode cathartique

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Laurens; Toshiaki Kozakaï

    2006-01-01

    A clinical case of Louis Vivet, described by Bourru and Burot (1888), contributed to elaborate the concepts of multiple personality and cathartic method. The authors present this clinical case, the cultural context of this mental illness, and the relevant theories. The genetic analysis of Louis Vivet's iatrogenic disorder or transient mental illness (Hacking, 2002) shows how the dominant theories on identity and memory contributed to construct the symptoms observed by Bourru and Burot (1888) ...

  9. La sofferenza nell'arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bonito Oliva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between art and suffering is determined by art’s ability to represent its subjects without defining them. It is a process of subtraction rather than one of sheer imitation. This practice allows access to the core of suffering as the defining trait of human existence. The cathartic nature of art translates into a therapeutic experience, creating new emotional and interpersonal bounds.

  10. Louis Vivet, un cas paradigmatique des personnalités multiples et de la méthode cathartique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Laurens

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of Louis Vivet, described by Bourru and Burot (1888, contributed to elaborate the concepts of multiple personality and cathartic method. The authors present this clinical case, the cultural context of this mental illness, and the relevant theories. The genetic analysis of Louis Vivet's iatrogenic disorder or transient mental illness (Hacking, 2002 shows how the dominant theories on identity and memory contributed to construct the symptoms observed by Bourru and Burot (1888 and validated the therapeutic methods.

  11. Renal scintigraphy in the 21st Century {sup 99m} Tc-MAG{sub 3} with zero time injection of furosemide (MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0}): a fast and easy protocol, one for all indications. Part 3. Clinical experience. Congenital disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.N. [Professor of Radiology and Pediatrics, Director Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Florida (United States)

    2007-07-01

    In this work the Protocol for MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0} is presented. Patient preparation, easy (only restriction, oral hydration, no bladder cathartic). Dynamic study (iv 1-10 mCi MAG{sub 3} + 40-80 mg LASIX), simultaneous injection of furosemide: MAG{sub 3}-F{sub 0}, duration of the study: 25 minutes. Tomography-SPECT (20 mCi MAG{sub 3}). No diuretic needed, duration of the study: 4 minutes. (Author)

  12. Le roman policier de Fred Vargas : mutations du romanesque et diffusion médiatique dans la France contemporaine

    OpenAIRE

    Chen CHEN

    2015-01-01

    In order to have a better understanding of the impressive success of Fred Vargas' detective novels, this thesis endeavours to place the writer in editorial landscape, analyses her positioning among the sub-categories of crime fiction, and aims to clarify the cathartic function in her literary creation. As a result, the study is about novelistic mutations, about transmedia and transnational spreading of Fred Vargas' works, with a corpus basically relating to the serie of the Three Evangelists ...

  13. Advances in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnert, M T; Lewander, W J; Gaudreault, P; Lovejoy, F H

    1985-02-01

    New data are reviewed in two areas in the management of the acute overdose: gastrointestinal decontamination and systemic antidotes. The mechanism and effectiveness of Ipecac syrup, gastric aspiration and lavage, activated charcoal, gastrointestinal dialysis, and saline cathartics are discussed. Special problems posed by disc batteries and packet ingestion of cocaine (in transporting contraband) are highlighted. The pharmacology and uses of pyridoxine and naloxone as antidotes are detailed.

  14. CT colonography with reduced bowel preparation after incomplete colonoscopy in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrate, F.; Stagnitti, A. [University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hassan, C.; Zullo, A. [Hospital-Rome, Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Spagnuolo, A. [Univeristy of Rome, I.C.O.T, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy); Ferrari, R.; Laghi, A.

    2008-07-15

    We prospectively assessed the feasibility and acceptance of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) without bowel cathartic preparation in elderly patients after incomplete colonoscopy. A total of 136 patients underwent CTC without cathartic preparation. The time delay between conventional colonoscopy and CTC ranged between 3 and 20 days, depending on the clinical situation. Before CTC, fecal tagging was achieved by adding diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium to regular meals. CTCs were interpreted using a primary two-dimensional (2D) approach and 3D images for further characterization. Patients were interviewed before and 2 weeks after CTC to assess preparation acceptance. CTC was feasible and technically successful in all the 136 patients. Fecal tagging was judged as excellent in 113 (83%) patients and sufficient in 23 (17%). Average CT image interpretation time was 14.8 min. Six (4.4%) cases of colorectal cancer and nine (6.6%) large polyps were detected, as well as 23 (11.3%) extracolonic findings of high clinical importance. No major side effect occurred, although 25% patients reported minor side effects, especially diarrhea. Overall, 76/98 patients replied that they would be willing to repeat the test if necessary. CTC without cathartic preparation is a technically feasible and safe procedure to complete a colonic study in the elderly, prompting its use in clinical practice. (orig.)

  15. Electroacupuncture Treatment for Constipation Due to Spasmodic Syndrome of the Pelvic Floor- A Report of 36 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thirty-six cases of constipation due to spasmodic syndrome of the pelvic floor were treated by electroacupuncture, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows. Clinical Data There were 36 cases in this series, 12 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 25 to 76 years, averaging 42 years. The course of disease ranged from 6 months to 22 years, with an average of 6 years. All the 36 cases were previously treated by purgative and emollient cathartic for promoting the bowl movement.

  16. A brief grief over bowel relief [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/wq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalpreet S Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sodium phosphate (OSP solution is commonly used as bowel purgative before colonoscopy. Its safety has recently been questioned with several reports of acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease following its use. All of the cases reported are following bowel preparation for colonoscopy. I present a case of acute renal failure following OSP solution given to relieve constipation. This report further highlights the dangers of OSP and the importance of caution and careful monitoring when OSP solution is used as a cathartic, or for bowel preparation before colonoscopy.

  17. Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Maura; Abbott, Kevin C; Yuan, Christina M

    2010-10-01

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) potassium binding resins increase colonic potassium excretion and are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hyperkalemia. In 2009, the FDA recommended that sorbitol, a cathartic often given with SPS to prevent obstipation, not be added to SPS powder because of associated colonic necrosis. A premixed oral suspension of SPS in 33% sorbitol was not included in this warning. SPS resins increase stool potassium excretion in normokalemic subjects, but proportionately more potassium is excreted due to cathartics when the two are combined. In hyperkalemic patients, oral SPS mixed in water significantly decreases serum potassium within 24 hours. SPS/sorbitol-associated colonic necrosis is most commonly seen in patients who have received enemas in the setting of recent abdominal surgery, bowel injury, or intestinal dysfunction. It is a rare event, on the order of 0.2 to 0.3%, almost exclusively present in patients at risk. The agent most likely associated with colonic necrosis is 70% sorbitol, and animal data support that etiology. There is very little data to suggest that oral SPS given with 33% sorbitol (in the premixed form) or SPS powder in water orally or as an enema causes colonic necrosis. SPS ion-exchange resins are the only agents, other than dialysis and diuretics, available to increase potassium excretion in hyperkalemia, and when used appropriately, they appear to be clinically effective and reasonably safe.

  18. Could spirituality and religion promote stress resilience in survivors of childhood trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Koenig, Harold G

    2014-04-01

    Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes. While spirituality and religion can be related to guilt, neurotic, and psychotic disorders, they also can be powerful sources of hope, meaning, peace, comfort, and forgiveness for the self and others. This article provides an overview of religion and spirituality as they relate to the neurobiology of resilience in victims of childhood trauma.

  19. LANGUAGE PSYCHODYNAMIC ANALYSIS IN THE DRUG DEPENDENT PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Addictions are currently the starting point of many behaviors that border on the maladaptive and have a dynamic articulation in the patient language, the same is expressed in his words, the dynamic relationship between the origins of their addiction and inherent conflict consumption added. Dynamic analysis seeks to generate a cathartic process, in order to achieve an unleash chain reaction, significant value-content, then, is in the gorge of the word, bringing together the split of speech grounds, a point from where the reorganization of the reality principle parts, in the addict and his psycho detoxification. This is a basic research with qualitative cut, approached by Psychoanalysis epistemology and methodology principles. The paradigms leading the research are psychological determinism and phenomenological.

  20. [Moreno's psychodrama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourame, G

    1975-01-01

    Moreno's psychodrama is a technique of training and of group therapy which obeys the laws of sociometry. At the beginning of his career, Moreno as Freud, found himself in a transcultural position which allowed him to better observe the "classical occidental individual" captive of his stereotypal "Tinned culture". The psychodrama aims to the liberation of the human being alienated in his individuality thus giving him back a creative and relational spontaneity owing to the cathartic value of the collective game and drama (taken is its etymological sense). The new American society, issued from the old Europe, allowed him to practise his theoretical conceptions of sociometry. If the Psychodrama is a method of remarkable efficiency in the training of dynamic psychology of groups, its therapeutics indications must be given with the greatest caution, in order to be at any time under medical control, specifically psychiatric control.

  1. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  2. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  3. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

    2009-09-01

    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone.

  4. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  5. [Humanities as a means of survival: the testimony of a Siberian prisoner of war in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.

  6. Healing words: becoming a spirit-host in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, John

    2011-08-01

    In discussion of healing processes in sub-Saharan Africa, emphasis is characteristically placed on the role of performance. Yet in spirit mediumship, speech is also an important element in therapeutic practices. In Madagascar, the spirits (tromba) are often of exotic origins (frequently in time as well as space) and the language used is likewise exotic. A complex of techniques of enchantment is employed: amongst them, music, changes of dress, the burning of perfumes and incense, rum, putting matches in the mouth, or the use of herbal medicines. Sometimes artefacts, such as - in the case discussed - a large model ship, are employed. Although the setting is shrine-like, the techniques are at once both dynamic and eclectic, collapsing time and space into a single embodied moment when the spirit speaks through the vehicle of the medium. Such 'spirit-speech' is itself empowered and empowering, cathartic and curative.

  7. “Traumas from the Holocaust Have Revived”. March 1968 as a Polish Postcatastrophic Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Artwińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses select literary images and presentations of March 1968, which are treated as an example of a postcatastrophic narration. The author states that the events of the years 1967-1968 are often depicted in Polish literature as a kind of a “recurring catastrophe” – predicting an event of the calibre of the Holocaust. Similarities and parallels can be noticed on the artistic level (ways of representation and ideological (judgement of events. Consequently, the catastrophe does not fulfil its cathartic function and does not become a breakthrough, instead its characteristic features are repetitions and new configurations. Finally, the author asks whether, and to what extent, Polish remembrance of March overlaps with the remembrance of the Holocaust, and to what degree the struggle with anti-Semitism in 1967-1968 was simultaneously a struggle with anti-Semitism during WWII.

  8. The Art of Dueling with Words: Toward a New Understanding of Verbal Duels across the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pagliai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A common view of verbal duels is that they are exchanges of insults between young males, and thus a cathartic expression of aggression. Through an examination of verbal duels worldwide, this article demonstrates that this view is overly restrictive. The heterogeneity of forms of verbal duels includes genres performed by both men and women and by children, adults, or the elderly, as well as duels that are staged or improvised, more or less structured, and so on. At the same time, a closer analysis of insults is necessary to understand why, when insults are exchanged, they cannot be immediately connected to aggression. In particular, a distinction must be made between insults and “outrageous speech,” between the target and the recipient of insults, and between verbal duels and ritual insults.

  9. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  10. ["I swear on Apollus Medicus...": the birth of medical deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccobelli, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    In the Oath, Hippocrates does not cite Dionisus at all. In Greek mythology, Apollus and Dionisus are, in some way, absolutely conflicting gods, nonetheless complementary each to the other; both are devoted to healing practices, one through his téchne founded on scientific knowledge, the other throught collective cathartic processes. The author conjectures that the exclusion of Dionisus from the medical Hippocratic scene means the birth of a medical deontology founded on the contrast between profecy and extasis, knowledge and happiness, order and change, health and disease. Balancing these cultural different aspects of therapy and cure, Bioethics could reunify the concepts of health, sickness and disease in the idea of Life, continuosly changing and developing. The curing process needs synthesis--invoking Apollus to rescover Dionisus mask.

  11. Ayahuasca versus violence--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede

    2008-05-01

    We have limited resources available for the treatment and prevention of violent behavior. The usefulness of the most commonly used medications, namely the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] agents for the above purpose is a debated issue in the psychiatric literature. The aim of this case report is to add an ethnopharmacological perspective to the management of human aggression. Particularly, attention is called to the potential prosocial effect of the Amazonian beverage, ayahuasca--a decoctum, which has been used traditionally for multiple medico-religious purposes by numerous indigenous groups of the Upper Amazon--and has been found to be useful in crisis intervention, achieving redemption, as well as eliciting cathartic feelings with moral content.

  12. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time.

  13. Diversidad de aves rapaces diurnas en la Reserva de la Biosfera Selva El Ocote, Chiapas, México Diversity of diurnal raptors in the Biosphere Reserve Selva El Ocote, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Vázquez-Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida y degradación de ambientes naturales está afectando a grupos funcionales de gran relevancia, como las aves rapaces diurnas. En este estudio evaluamos la variación espacial de la diversidad de este grupo en la zona núcleo y de amortiguamiento de la Reserva de la Biosfera Selva El Ocote, por medio de puntos de conteo en transectos y puntos elevados. Registramos un total de 16 especies de aves rapaces diurnas, de las cuales 10 se encontraron en la zona núcleo, 14 en la zona de amortiguamiento, y 8 en ambas. Chondrohierax uncinatus y Buteogallus anthracinus fueron exclusivas de la zona núcleo, y 6 especies de la zona de amortiguamiento. Las más abundantes fueron Cathartes aura y Coragyps atratus, en puntos elevados en la zona núcleo, mientras que Micrastur ruficollis lo fue en puntos de conteo en la zona de amortiguamiento. Aunque en la zona núcleo se presentó menor número de especies, las estimaciones de diversidad y equitatividad fueron mayores que en la de amortiguamiento. Las altas tasas de deforestación serán determinantes en la distribución y diversidad de las aves rapaces diurnas de selva en la región.Environmental loss and degradation are negatively affecting important functional avian groups, such as diurnal raptors. We evaluated spatial variation of diversity in diurnal raptors in core and buffer zones in Selva El Ocote Biosphere Reserve using point counts and elevated points for observation. We recorded 16 diurnal raptor species, 10 in the core zone, 14 in the buffer zone, and 8 species occurred in both zones. Chondrohierax uncinatus and Buteogallus anthracinus were exclusive in the core zone and 6 species in the buffer zone. Cathartes aura and Coragyps atratus were the more abundant species in the core zone using point counts, and Micrastur ruficollis using point counts in the buffer zone. The diversity index showed that core zone had the higher values comparing with the buffer zone values. Although the core

  14. Effect of Dachengqi Decoction combined with Chinese acupressure on postoperative constipation in patients with femur fractures%大承气汤结合中医穴位按摩治疗股骨骨折术后患者便秘的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪冰; 刘晓红; 詹文英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on Dachengqi Decoction combined of traditional Chinese acupressure on postoperative constipation in patients with femur fractures. Methods 101 patients with femur fractures were divided into the experiment group (n = 52) and the control group at random (n = 49). The former group was managed with Dachengqi decoction combined with acupressure and the control group received cathartic therapy with Kaiselu. The curative outcomes and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. The total effective rate of the experimental group and control group were 96.2%and 67.3% (P < 0.01). As for adverse reactions, the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dachengqi decoction combined with traditional Chinese medicine acupressure therapy is better than the enema drug cathartic therapy. It is worthy of clinical generalization.%目的 探讨大承气汤结合中医穴位按摩治疗股骨骨折术后患者便秘的效果.方法 将101例股骨骨折术后患者随机分为实验组52例和对照组49例,实验组患者采用大承气汤结合中医穴位按摩治疗,对照组采用开塞露药物导泻治疗.比较两组患者治疗效果及不良反应发生情况.结果 实验组患者治疗总有效率为96.2%,对照组患者为67.3%,两组比较,P< 0.01,差异具有统计学意义;两组患者不良反应情况比较,均P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 大承气汤结合中医穴位按摩治疗股骨骨折术后患者便秘效果优于采用开塞露药物导泻法,而且不良反应少,值得临床推广应用.

  15. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  16. [Suicidal process and suicidal motives. Suicide illustrated by the art, life and illness of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, L

    1996-03-30

    A suicide will naturally be a shock to the surroundings, unexpected and brutal as it is. Suicide survivors will often emphasize the unexpected. Nevertheless a suicide must be regarded as the end result of a long process. In this paper the extremely well-documented case of Vincent van Gogh is used to study suicidal processes and suicidal motives. In van Gogh's case, an early childhood trauma initiated a life-long suicidal process. His difficulties as regards attachment to and separation from his parents continued throughout his life and his emotional instability, intensity and lowered tolerance to frustration seem to portray a borderline personality. Vincent van Gogh's chronic suicidal ideation and behaviour led to a series of crises throughout his life, escalating during the last 18 months before his suicide in 1890. It is possible to identify at least three prominent suicidal motives in van Gogh's case. The first is unbearable emotional pain related to personal experience of loss which reactivated the childhood trauma. The second is introverted murderous rage arising from conflicts with other persons. The third motive described is the need for a cathartic release of energy and emotion.

  17. Review: Colchicine, current advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ade R, Rai MK. 2010. Colchicine, current advances and future prospects. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 90-96. Colchicine is a toxic natural compound and secondary metabolite commonly produced by plants like Colchicum autumnale and Gloriosa superba. It is originally used to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds its uses for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It is also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Initially oral colchicine has not been approved as a drug by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. But now FDA approved colchicine as a drug for some disorders. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. In neurons, axoplasmic transport is disrupted by colchicine. Due to all the pharmacological application of colchicine, there is urgent need to enhance the properties and increase the production of colchicine with the help of in vitro technologies. The present review is mainly focused on the chemistry of colchicine, its medicinal uses and toxicity.

  18. The evolution of bowel preparation and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae; Lee, Yong Kook; Yang, Chang Heon

    2014-05-01

    Bowel preparation is essential for successful colonoscopy examination, and the most important factor is the bowel preparation agent used. However, selection of a bowel preparation agent invariably involves compromise. Originally, bowel preparation was performed for radiologic and surgical purposes, when the process involved dietary limitations, cathartics, and enemas, which had many side effects. Development of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution led to substantive advancement of bowel preparation; however, despite its effectiveness and safety, the large volume involved, and its salty taste and unpleasant odor reduce compliance. Accordingly, modified PEG solutions requiring consumption of lower volumes and sulfate-free solutions were developed. Aqueous sodium phosphate is more effective and better tolerated than PEG solutions; however, fatal complications have occurred due to water and electrolyte shifts. Therefore, aqueous sodium phosphate was withdrawn by the US Food and Drug Administration, and currently, only sodium phosphate tablets remain available. In addition, oral sulfate solution and sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate are also available, and various studies have reported on adjunctive preparations, such as hyperosmolar or stimulant laxatives, antiemetics, and prokinetics, which are now in various stages of development.

  19. A Case Report of Stercoraceous Perforation of the Cecum due to Scybalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Khorshidi

    2006-10-01

    Introduction & Objective: Non-traumatic colon perforations are usually caused by malignancy, diverticulum and colitis. Stercoraceous perforation of the colon has rarely been reported in the literature. This lesion is assumed to be produced by the pressure from a hard scybalum resulting in a perforated ulcer with necrotic edges. We report a case of stercoraceous perforation of the cecum due to scybalum. Case: We report a 50-year-old man who had a severe abdominal pain from 3 days ago and had peritonitis in physical exam. He was admitted in Mars, 2005 at Mobasher Kashani Hospital in Hamadan and he was parapelegic from 8 months ago due to trauma in his medical history and then he had severe and chronic constipation that necessitated the use of cathartic drugs. We operated him with diagnosis of peritonitis, and perforation of cecum due to scybalum was seen and right hemicolectomy and colostomy and ileostomy was done. Conclusion: The most common site of colon perforation due to scybalum is rectosigmoid area and cecal perforation is a rare area in the literature. It is presented with peritonitis in old patients that have chronic constipation. It is difficult to diagnose this lesion preoperatively. This lesion was only 11% correctly diagnosed before operation and should be always suspected when a patient with chronic constipation suffers from sudden abdominal pain. Resection and colostomy is the treatment of choice in most situations.

  20. Toxicity of Nutmeg (Myristicin: A Review

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    Rahman N.A.A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed review of myristicin is reported. Numerous literatures report that myristicin is responsible for hallucinogenic effects, which induced by the consumption of nutmeg due to its metabolism structure of 3-methoxy-4,5-methylendioxyamphetamine (MMDA. Minimum dosage of nutmeg that can cause psychogenic effect is 5 g (ground nutmeg with 1 to 2 mg myristicin content and this dosage is considered as ‘toxic dose’. At higher dosage of myristicin death may occur. Additionally, Myristicin poisoning can lead to many health problems that related to brain problem. Those symptoms usually occur 3 to 6 hours after ingestion of myristicin or foodstuffs containing it, and effects may persist up to 72 hours. California Poison Control System (CPCS electronic database 72.3% exposures between 1997 and 2008 that were intentional for recreational purposes (between ages 13 and 20 years old. The remaining considered as unintentionally exposed. Between 1998 to 2008, Texas Poison Center Network (TPCN received seventeen nutmeg poisoning and 64.7% from that cases involved abuse, and the rest was unintentional exposure. Most of the nutmeg exposures were via the oral route and minor cases of nutmeg exposure occurred through insufflated nutmeg, unintentional dermal and ocular exposures. Nutmeg also has been misused by mixing it with other drugs in order to get “high”. For intoxication cases, treatments like decontamination (cathartic, charcoal, dilution, fresh air, IV fluids and supportive care (benzodiazepines will be provided to reduce the effects.

  1. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  2. Novel method for digital subtraction of tagged stool in virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendel, Lutz; Suehling, Michael; Eckert, Helmut

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death. CT colonography is a novel method for the detection of polyps and early cancer. The general principle of CT colonography includes a cathartic bowel preparation. The resulting discomfort for patients leads to limited patient acceptance and therefore to limited cancer detection rates. Reduced bowel preparation, techniques for stool tagging, and electronic cleansing, however, improve the acceptance rates. Hereby, the high density of oral contrast material highlights residual stool and can be digitally removed. Known subtraction methods cause artifacts: additional 3D objects are introduced and small bowel folds are perforated. We propose a new algorithm that is based on the 2 nd derivative of the image data using the Hessian matrix and the following principal axis transform to detect tiny folds which shall not be subtracted together with tagged stool found by a thresholding method. Since the stool is usually not homogenously tagged with contrast media a detection algorithm for island-like structures is incorporated. The interfaces of air-stool level and colon wall are detected by a 3-dimensional difference of Gaussian module. A 3-dimensional filter smoothes the transitions between removed stool and colon tissue. We evaluated the efficacy of the new algorithm with 10 patient data sets. The results showed no introduced artificial objects and no perforated folds. The artifacts at the air-stool and colon tissue-stool transitions are considerably reduced compared to those known from the literature.

  3. Feasibility study of computed tomography colonography using limited bowel preparation at normal and low-dose levels study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florie, Jasper; Gelder, Rogier E. van; Schutter, Michiel P.; Randen, Adrienne van; Jager, Steven de; Prent, Anna; Bipat, Shandra [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-230, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Venema, Henk W. [Academic Medical Center, Department of MedicaPhysics, L0-106, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulst, Victor P.M. van der [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, J1b-212, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department Gastroenterology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-211, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose was to evaluate low-dose CT colonography without cathartic cleansing in terms of image quality, polyp visualization and patient acceptance. Sixty-one patients scheduled for colonoscopy started a low-fiber diet, lactulose and amidotrizoic-acid for fecal tagging 2 days prior to the CT scan (standard dose, 5.8-8.2 mSv). The original raw data of 51 patients were modified and reconstructed at simulated 2.3 and 0.7 mSv levels. Two observers evaluated the standard dose scan regarding image quality and polyps. A third evaluated the presence of polyps at all three mSv levels in a blinded prospective way. All observers were blinded to the reference standard: colonoscopy. At three times patients were given questionnaires relating to their experiences and preference. Image quality was sufficient in all patients, but significantly lower in the cecum, sigmoid and rectum. The two observers correctly identified respectively 10/15 (67%) and 9/15 (60%) polyps {>=}10 mm, with 5 and 8 false-positive lesions (standard dose scan). Dose reduction down to 0.7 mSv was not associated with significant changes in diagnostic value (polyps {>=}10 mm). Eighty percent of patients preferred CT colonography and 13% preferred colonoscopy (P<0.001). CT colonography without cleansing is preferred to colonoscopy and shows sufficient image quality and moderate sensitivity, without impaired diagnostic value at dose-levels as low as 0.7 mSv. (orig.)

  4. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Mc Sweeney, Sean; Mc Williams, Sebastian; O' Regan, Kevin; Kelly, Denis; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Eustace, Joseph; O' Connor, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients. Patients aged over 70 years considered at risk of complication during SPS-MC administration by a physician specialised in care of the elderly were included in this retrospective study. Biochemical parameters pre- and post-CTC and the presence of co-morbidities were recorded. Imaging findings and quality of bowel preparation at CTC were graded by consensus by two radiologists. Of the 72 patients 56% had co-morbidities that caution the use of SPS-MC. No significant changes in serum urea, sodium, potassium or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) occurred post-CTC (p > 0.10). Serum magnesium increased by 0.11 mmol/L in 14 patients (p = 0.03) without clinical sequelae. Good overall preparation was achieved in 88% of patients, allowing confident identification of signs of colonic neoplasia in 20 patients (27%). A mild increase in serum magnesium but no other significant biochemical disturbance was observed. In our group CTC with SPS-MC was safe and effective; however, we advise an alternate preparation be considered in patients with decreased renal function due to decreased magnesium clearance. (orig.)

  5. Multiple personality disorder and iatrogenesis: the cautionary tale of Anna O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, M

    1993-01-01

    An examination of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. illustrates some of the controversies surrounding the recent rise of case reports of multiple personality disorder. Anna O., the first patient of the cathartic method, psychoanalysis, and dynamic psychiatry, fits current criteria for multiple personality disorder. Breuer's treatment, however, may have contributed to her states of absence; the timing, type, and intensity of Breuer's interventions make it possible that he unwittingly encouraged and amplified Anna's dissociations, reified her ego fragments, and then explained Anna's symptoms with the pseudomemories and confabulations recovered from Anna while she was hypnotized. A review of Breuer's treatment highlights some of the controversial aspects of multiple personality disorder, specifically its possible vulnerability to iatrogenesis via suggestion and unconscious collusion and other factors. The current stance of some multiple personality disorder enthusiasts, opaque to their participation in interactions that may lead to certain patient productions, resembles the older psychoanalytic stance exemplified by the early Breuer and Freud. The dialectic of the therapist as a neutral observer versus as an influential participant continues to be a focus of controversy, both within psychoanalysis and psychotherapy and in the understandings of the etiology and treatment of multiple personality disorder.

  6. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales.

  7. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  8. Il razzismo del lager nazista: il confine fra realtà e finzione nel Dio Kurt di Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Dell'Aia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the question of racism in the Nazi concentration camp as it emerges in Moravia’s 1968 play Dio Kurt. The focus of Moravia’s play is on Oedipus, a Jew detained in a Nazi concentration camp, and Fate, personified by the camp commander, Colonel Kurt, who forces Oedipus-Saul and his family to enact in reality the Sophoclean tragedy Oedipus Rex. Through a series of barbarous machinations derived by Kurt, the boundaries between reality and fiction that characterize a work of fiction and the artistic process more generally, are surpassed. If, as Levinas maintains, in Reflections on the Philosophy of Hitlerism (1934, racism and Nazism question the very essence of humanity in man in the moment in which they ‘enslave’ being to the body, and if, as Agamben asserts in Homo sacer (1995, the concentration camp is the biopolitical space par excellence, the interpretive consequences on a reading of Moravia’s play are manifold. In Dio Kurt, the Jews are reduced to a biological state, to ‘bare life’ to use Benjamin’s term, through the manipulation of the artistic tradition that is transformed into an instrument in the annihilation of humanity precisely when it loses its status of cathartic fiction.

  9. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity.

  10. Literature and disability: the medical interface in Borges and Beckett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Corvalán, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Samuel Beckett and Jorge Luis Borges have presented 20th century literature with a distinctive gallery of solitary figures who suffer from a series of physiological ailments: invalidism, decrepitude, infirmity and blindness, as well as neurological conditions such as amnesia and autism spectrum disorders. Beckett and Borges were concerned with the dynamics between illness and creativity, the literary representation of physical and mental disabilities, the processes of remembering and forgetting, and the inevitability of death. This article explores the depiction of physically and mentally disabled characters in Borges' Funes the Memorious (1942)--a story about an Uruguayan gaucho who has been left paralysed after a fall from a horse which simultaneously endowed him with an infallible memory and perception--and Beckett's Trilogy: Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951) and The Unnamable (1953). It examines the prodigious memory of Funes and the forgetful minds of Molloy and Malone with reference to influential neuropsychological studies such as Alexander Luria's twofold exploration of memory and forgetfulness in The Mind of a Mnemonist (1968) and The Man with a Shattered World (1972). The article demonstrates that in contrast to Beckett's amnesiacs and Luria's brain-damaged patient, who are able to transcend their circumstances through cathartic writing, Borges' and Luria's mnemonic prodigies fail to achieve anything significant with their unlimited memories and remain imprisoned within their cognitive disabilities. It reveals that medical discourses can provide invaluable insights and lead to a deeper understanding of the minds and bodily afflictions of literary characters.

  11. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  12. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures.

  13. Counselling against HIV in Africa: a genealogy of confessional technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-01-01

    This paper contextualises counselling within a broader historical formation that links disclosure to healing and deploys confessional technologies to incite disclosure and awareness of the mysterious substance of the self. Foucault's argument that sexuality was the privileged arena for using confessional technologies to 'produce' the truth of the self is particularly relevant in light of the diffusion of counselling practices in Africa in the wake of the HIV epidemic, particularly with their emphasis on inciting appropriate sexual behaviour. Examination of the historical assemblage of counselling practices shows how they articulate what the self is, the nature of truth and a politics of language. This paper focuses on the genealogy of four key assumptions that express this confessional reason. These are that: (1) people can be 'empowered' to have control on their own lives by working on themselves, (2) secrets untold become pathogens, (3) the ability to heal requires that one first overcome personal illness, (4) the experience of sharing secrets is cathartic and healing. The genealogy intertwines four strands: that of the Unconscious as revealed by Freud and his followers, attempts to treat shell-shocked veterans of World War I, group psychotherapy and participatory research after World War II.

  14. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  15. MERCURY TOXICITY AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rimjhim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is an element that has been known for at least 4000 years (Chang 1985. It is a metal that is liquid at room temperatures and is widely used in our modern society. Today, the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury are widely used in industry, agriculture, medicine, mining, dentistry and other areas of everyday life. Some of these are used in the manufacture or processing of felt, fireworks, batteries, blackening brass, photography pigments for rubber and plastics, wine colouring and medicine. Medical compounds comprised of 75 % of the list and included antibacterial, antiseptic, topical anaesthetic, immunosuppressant, anti-infective and fungicide, diuretic, cathartic and preservative agents. There are two goals to treatment. First, get rid of the mercury, second, control symptoms so you can be comfortable and productive during the prolonged period when mercury is removed and healing takes place. In order to control the symptoms it is necessary to identify the metabolic defects mercury is causing for you.

  16. Barbaloin:A concise report of its pharmacological and analytical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; K Patel; V Tahilyani

    2012-01-01

    Barbaloin is C-glucoside of aloe emodin anthrone which is found in the plant name as Aloevera is a perennial succulent (Liliaceal), also called the healing plant. Barbaloin have variety of pharmacological activity such as strong inhibitory effect on histamine release, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant activity and alternative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications. The peak amount of barbaloin was reached about 3 h after oral administration. Concentration of barbaloin in Aloe vera leaves was shown to depend on the leaf part, age, and position of the leaf. Young leaves contain more barbaloin compared to old one. Various researches have been done on barbaloin but still the relationship between the barbaloin and its overall effect has not been clarified. A more specific perceptive of the pharmacological activities of barbaloin is required to develop for pharmaceutical purpose. Many attempts have been made regarding its isolation, biological activity to examine their effects, and clarify their functional mechanism. This review gives a brief idea about its uses, ethnomedicinally and commercially important analytical techniques and their pharmacological activities.

  17. Barbaloin:A concise report of its pharmacological and analytical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK; Patel; K; Patel; V; Tahilyani

    2012-01-01

    Barbaloin is C-glucoside of aloe emodin unthrone which is found in the plant name as Aloe vera is a perennial succulenl(Liliaceal),also called the healing planl.Barbaloin have variety of pharmacological activity such as strong inhibitory effect on histamine release,anti-inflammatory,cathartic,antiviral,antimicrobial,anticancer,antioxidant activity and alternative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications.The peak amount of barbaloin was reached about 3 h after oral administration.Concentration of barbaloin in Aloe vera leaves was shown to depend on the leaf part,age,and position of the leaf.Young leaves contain more barbaloin compared to old one.Various researches have been done on barbaloin but still the relationship between the barbaloin and its overall effect has not been clarified.A more specific;perceptive of the pharmacological activities of barbaloin is required to develop for pharmaceutical purpose.Many attempts have been made regarding its isolation,biological activity to examine their effects,and clarify their functional mechanism.This review gives a brief idea about its uses,ethnomedicinally and commercially important analytical techniques and their pharmacological activities.

  18. Influence of atomic bonds on the properties of the laxative drug sodium picosulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Romani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the different S═O, S−O, N⋯H, O⋯H, Na⋯O bonds present in the structures of the powerful laxative drug, sodium picosulphate in gas and aqueous solution phases were studied combining the density functional theory (DFT calculations with the experimental available infrared, 1H NMR and UV-visible spectra. The structural, topological, electronic and vibrational properties were investigated in both media by using the hybrid B3LYP/6-31G* method and the integral equation formalism variant polarised continuum model (IEFPCM. Here, the characteristics of the S═O, S−O, N⋯H, O⋯H, Na⋯O bonds were completely revealed by using atomic charges, natural bond orbital (NBO and atoms in molecules (AIM studies. The infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-visible spectra are in reasonable concordance with those experimental available in the literature. The vibrational analysis of sodium picosulphate was performed considering C3V symmetries for both SO42− groups and the complete assignments of the 126 vibration modes were reported in gas phase and aqueous solution together with their corresponding force fields. In addition, the reactivities of sodium picosulfate increase in solution due to their ionic characteristic which probably justifies their behaviour as a stimulant cathartic and their easy metabolic conversion, as reported in the literature.

  19. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  20. [Constipation. Proposal for a new classification and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Attilio; Stella, Luigi Persico; Nicolai, Alessia Pia

    2006-01-01

    The Authors propose a new classification for constipation according to which 84 patients were selected (63 females, 21 males) for a functional rehabilitation programme. Patients were subjected to a diagnostic protocol involving the performance of a number of instrumental tests. Degree and symptomatology of constipation were established by taking the clinical history of the patient. The rehabilitation protocol involved the simultaneous performance of physiokinesitherapy, electrostimulation and biofeedback of the pelvic floor. Patients underwent 3 weekly sessions, each lasting 60 minutes, over a series of 15 consecutive sessions, followed by a series of 6 consecutive sessions every three months. One-year results showed that 77 patients (92%) reported achieving regular intestinal activity with at least one evacuation a day and at intervals of no more than 3 days, and with a modification of faecal consistency and discontinuation of laxatives and/or cathartics. The other 7 patients (8%) continued using laxatives at a minimal dosage but had an improved evacuation rate and faecal consistency. The results show that many patients with constipations can undergo rehabilitation procedures with encouraging and remarkable therapeutic success.

  1. Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, A J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ∑HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ∑Drins, ∑DDT, ∑Heptachlor, and ∑Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ∑DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species.

  2. Predatory bird populations in the east Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.L.; Camp, R.J.; Boarman, W.I.; Knight, H.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    We surveyed 7 species of predatory birds weekly during a 12-month period (December 1992 through November 1993) in the east Mojave Desert, California. The Common Raven (Corvus corax) was the most frequently observed species with an average of 6.9 sightings per 100 km. Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) were seen in decreasing order of frequency of observation through the study period. Ravens, Red-tailed Hawks, Loggerhead Shrikes, American Kestrels, and Prairie Falcons were seen throughout the year. Turkey Vultures were not present during winter months, while Golden Eagles were seen only during November and December. Turkey Vultures, Red-tailed Hawks, and ravens were most numerous on agricultural lands, while Loggerhead Shrikes were most Common at urban areas. Raven numbers increased with increasing number of linear rights-of-way parallel to the survey route. Perching was the most common behavior type, although Turkey Vultures and ravens were often observed soaring, flying, or standing on the ground near highways. Transmission powerline towers and telephone poles were used as perch sites disproportionately to availability.

  3. Activation analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte confirm arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weider, B; Fournier, J H

    1999-12-01

    In 1960, activation analyses at the Harwell Nuclear Research Laboratory of the University of Glascow, London of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte taken immediately after his death confirmed Napoleon's chronic arsenic poisoning on the island of St. Helena. Timeline correlation of his clinical symptomatology of the preceding 4 months, as reported in the written diaries of his exiled companions, further supports the effect of fluctuating, elevated toxic levels of arsenic on his health. Independent analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon by the Toxicology Crime Laboratory of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1995 reveals toxic levels of arsenic. The successful assassination of Napoleon included both a cosmetic and lethal phase. The cosmetic phase consisted of arsenic poisoning over time to weaken Napoleon, making the associated debility appear to be a natural illness and thus allay any suspicions prior to instituting the lethal phase. On May 3, 1821, at 5:30 P.M., the lethal phase was carried out. Napoleon was given Calomel (HgCl), a cathartic, and a popular orange-flavored drink called orgeat, which was flavored with the oil of bitter almonds. Together they formed mercury cyanide, which is lethal. Napoleon lost consciousness and died two days later.

  4. Errors in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilisky, Igor; Ward, Emily; Dachman, Abraham H

    2015-10-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a colorectal cancer screening modality which is becoming more widely implemented and has shown polyp detection rates comparable to those of optical colonoscopy. CTC has the potential to improve population screening rates due to its minimal invasiveness, no sedation requirement, potential for reduced cathartic examination, faster patient throughput, and cost-effectiveness. Proper implementation of a CTC screening program requires careful attention to numerous factors, including patient preparation prior to the examination, the technical aspects of image acquisition, and post-processing of the acquired data. A CTC workstation with dedicated software is required with integrated CTC-specific display features. Many workstations include computer-aided detection software which is designed to decrease errors of detection by detecting and displaying polyp-candidates to the reader for evaluation. There are several pitfalls which may result in false-negative and false-positive reader interpretation. We present an overview of the potential errors in CTC and a systematic approach to avoid them.

  5. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IRANIAN SENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R GHANADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Senna italica Miller or Cassia italica (Miller Sprengel is a native medicinal plant growing in south of Iran and has laxative and cathartic effects. Anthraquinone compounds have been partly associated with the purgative effects of the plant. One of the side effects of anthraquinones is griping and presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant may decrease this effect. Methods. In this study, the plant after being collected, was extracted by a soxhlet method. The isolation of flavonoids was carried out by means of preparative Thin Layer Chromatography of extract of the plant leaves. The structure of flavonoids was determined by the UV-Vis. techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in plant were also performed using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method. Results and Discussion. Rutin or 5, 7, 3', 4' tetrahydroxy-flavone 3-O-rhamnoglucoside and two flavonoids from aurone group were isolated and identified from the leaves of Senna italica. The percent of flavonoids in Iranian Senna determined 1.5 fold than Cassia angustifolia. These flavonoids may decrease the griping effects of Senna anthraquinones

  6. Foundation works for construction of Danube Bridge II Vidin (Bulgaria)-Calafat (Romania); Puente internacional sobre el rio Danubio entre las localidades de Vidin (Bulgaria) y Calafat (Rumania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martin, J.

    2011-07-01

    The Foundations works of the bridge over the the Danube River II has involved a new technical challenge due to the cathartics of depth and diameter of the piles, and the logistical and human, due to the hard environmental conditions for the execution. This work, awarded to FCC. Construction company in its two contracts. Access to the bridge and Main Bridge has required on the differenced sites, the use of a wide range of foundation systems, since driven precast piles to in in situ pile with permanent casing, installed by vibrating systems and excavated with benoto grabs systems. The enormous responsibility of this phase is evident in the intense camping of characterization tests with static load tests, dynamic and Osterberg cells, as well as control the campaign with Cross-hole tests in 100% of the piles in situ executed, that has allowed no only ensure the highest level of quality on the foundation elements, but also to take the most of the mechanical characteristics of soils provided. The complexity of the execution of more than 24,000 ml pile executed along the more than 2 years duration of the work reach the maximum expression in the more than 6,900 ml of in situ pile made from marine resources, with a maximum depths up to 80 m with 2 m diameter pile. The article intends to give an overview of the site and the execution, associating the different foundation methods used, and the problems that were detected. (Author)

  7. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  8. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  9. 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用对急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效%Effect of joint of activated charcoal and mannitol on the efficacy of treating acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新旺; 黄亮; 赖谋锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral administration of activated charcoal and mannitol on removing toxicant after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Method A total of 41 patients with severe AOPP were randomly divided into experiment group (activated charcoal used as adsorbent and mannitol used as cathartics, n =21)and control group (without adsorbent and cathartics, n = 20). Patients of both groups received routine treatment for AOPP after admission to hospital. The differences in duration of atropinization, the length of hospitalization and the success rate of treatment were compared between two groups. Results There were significant differences in duration of atropinization, the success rate of treatment and hospitalization time between the two groups. Conclusions The combination of activated charcoal and mannitol is more effective than the conventional gastric lavage on removal of organophosphorus pesticides from G-I tract, shorting the duration of atropinization time and hospital stays, and enhancing the success rate of rescue as well as improving the outcome of patients after organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨口服活性炭和甘露醇对急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)的毒物清除作用.方法 2004年1月至2009年12月南昌大学第一附属医院收治的41例重症AOPP患者随机分为试验组(活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=21)和对照组(未用活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=20).两组患者均进行AOPP急救常规治疗,观察两组患者阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间的差异.结果 试验组阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间与对照组比较差异[(3.60±1.6)h vs.(17.5±13.4)h;(4.1±1.45)d vs.(8.00±2.13)d;100% vs.(70.0±4.7)]均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用较传统洗胃法更能有效清除进入体内的有机磷农药,且能缩短患者阿托品化时间和住院时间,进一步提

  10. 茯砖茶抗腹泻效果研究%Research of the Anti-Diarrhea Function of Fuzhuan Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余智勇; 黄建安; 杨明臻; 张玥; 欧阳梅; 傅冬和

    2009-01-01

    The animal models were established that different-induced cathartics were fed to different groups of mice respectively to cause diarrhea and mice small intestinal motility. Fuzhuan tea extract was fed to all of the diarrhea mice. The effect of Fuzhuan tea extract on secretion diarrhea, non-infected exudative diarrhea, permeability diarrhea and diarrhea caused by small intestine motility function disorder was investigated. The results showed that Fuzhuan tea extract could reduce the diarrhea index and watery defecate rate caused by senna, castor oil, bitter salt. It could restrain the movement of gastrointestinal tract of the normal mice and the mice whose small intestine motility function disordered. The relationship between the function and the dose was positive.%研究茯砖茶提取物对不同致泻剂所致的小鼠腹泻试验以及小鼠小肠推进试验的作用,以探讨茯砖茶对分泌性腹泻、非感染渗出性腹泻、渗透性腹泻以及小肠推进运动功能紊乱所引起腹泻的作用效果.结果显示茯砖茶提取物可降低番泻叶、蓖麻油和硫酸镁致腹泻小鼠的腹泻指数和稀便率,抑制正常小鼠及小肠运动紊乱小鼠的胃肠道推进运动且剂量间呈一定正相关的量效关系.

  11. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Walther, Bruno A; Weng, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1) buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2) buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3) buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1). We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs' relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a 'multi-modal foraging strategy' among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard's genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors.

  12. The compleat lawyer--medical law as practical reasoning: doctrine, empiricism, and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Margot Brazier has modelled the relationship between legal scholarship and health care practice--an evidence-based approach to doing good in the real world through the application of the discipline of law. No ivory tower academic, but a good citizen. This paper explores the expression of her comprehensive contribution in an academic paper and a policy review. She has shown how law needs to take into account the realities of the clinic when considering the plausibility of various claims for the doctrine of informed consent. She has also demonstrated how discipline could be brought to bear on policy-making, where in the Surrogacy Review she prioritised empirical evidence over preconceptions: evidence-based policy not policy-based evidence as modern consultation documents too often elicit. Margot Brazier has also provided a role model for academic lawyers' contribution to the public good; not only through ensuring the proper administration of the law (as chair of the Animal Procedures Committee for the Home Office), but also in shaping a cathartic response to public concerns as Chair of the Retained Organ Commission. She did not set out to establish a grand theory of medical law, but rather has built an approach that has enriched its practice and has had a lasting impact on those working in the field. In her hands, law is a tool for improving the practice of health care. Efficient practice precedes the theory of it; methodologies presuppose the application of the methods, of the critical investigation of which they are the products. It was because Aristotle found himself and others reasoning now intelligently and now stupidly and it was because Izaak Walton found himself and others angling sometimes effectively and sometimes ineffectively that both were able to give their pupils the maxims and prescriptions of their arts.

  13. [Curing power, or the restoring myth (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, R

    1981-01-01

    Nowadays, occidental or traditional healers are gaining more attention. The author aimed at demonstrate that the healer can be classified between the physician and the soothsayer. Six manners of healing are described through examples: -- operating allurement (Quesalid); -- trip in the unconscious to subdue its forces (the Chaman); -- domination of Powers under hallucinogen substance(s) (Peytol); -- symbolic efficacity of words (Mûu); -- cathartic confession and trance through reintegration into a mythic structure. In every historical technique, a personage is found whose "doing" and "saying" express an exceptional experience, constituting a magical and therapeutic area, facilitating the inscription in a mythical structure, which provides a sense. Several kinds of healers are shortly described, as well as their personality and their patients. The border lines of their power are contiguous to the Sacred and the Religious (which mythical fragments are many "power-allurements") as well as articulated with credulity and belief, and finally built on the pattern of magical thoughts and acts. Healer and/or quack? Healer and/or physician? What are the analogies or differences according to the pattern of the relation "physician-patient"? It is not a "restoring-myth", universal, whose actuality is spotted every time for each act of healing (by a healer)? -- even if this myth is not clearly definite or legible. The power of the healer articulates itself on the pregnancy of this myth which guides the sufferer towards this personage whose power is nothing else but the power the sufferer hopes the healer possesses. It is this hope which the "restoring-myth" contains.

  14. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

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    Travis L DeVault

    Full Text Available The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck. Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17% resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s, compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%. Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  15. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  16. Cation Exchange Resins and colonic perforation. What surgeons need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Fernández-Rivera, Enrique; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín E.; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge; Hernández-Méndez, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 1961 the use of Cation Exchange Resins has been the mainstream treatment for chronic hyperkalemia. For the past 25 years different kind of complications derived from its clinical use have been recognized, being the colonic necrosis the most feared and lethal of all. Presentation of case We report a case of a 72-year-old patient with chronic kidney disease, treated with calcium polystyrene sulfonate for hyperkalemia treatment who presented in the emergency department with constipation treated with hypertonic cathartics. With clinical deterioration 48 h later progressed with colonic necrosis requiring urgent laparotomy, sigmoidectomy and open abdomen management with subsequent rectal stump perforation and dead. The histopathology finding: calcium polystyrene sulfonate embedded in the mucosa, consistent with the cause of perforation. Discussion Lillemoe reported the first case series of five uremic patients with colonic perforation associated with the use of SPS in sorbitol in 1987 and in 2009 the FDA removed from the market the SPS containing 70% of sorbitol. The pathophysiologic change of CER goes from mucosal edema, ulcers, pseudomembranes, and the most severe case transmural necrosis. Up to present day, some authors have questioned the use of CER in the setting of lowering serum potassium. Despite its worldwide use in hyperkalemia settings, multiple studies have not demonstrated a significant potassium excretion by CER. Conclusion Despite the low incidence of colonic complication and lethal colonic necrosis associated with the CER clinical use, the general surgeon needs a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients treated with CER and abdominal pain. PMID:26439420

  17. Fecal-tagging CT colonography with structure-analysis electronic cleansing for detection of colorectal flat lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonghua, E-mail: howardyonghua@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuhui Central Hospital of Shanghai and China Academy of Sciences Shanghai Medical Center, 966 Huai Hai Central Road, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Cai, Wenli; Nappi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiro [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 25 New Chardon Street 400C, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the 3D-reading of fecal-tagging CT colonography (CTC) with a novel structure-analysis electronic cleansing (SAEC) in detecting colorectal flat lesions in comparison with a cleansed 3D reading with Viatronix V3D Colon system (V3D) and primary uncleansed 2D reading (2D). Materials and methods: Forty CTC cases with flat lesions were retrospectively observed. The Subjects from a multicenter clinical trial underwent cathartic bowel preparation with orally administrated barium-based fecal-tagging. Sixty-nine flat lesions were confirmed using colonoscopy and histopathology as a reference standard. The results from SAEC reading were compared with those of prospective V3D and 2D readings. Results: Overall detection sensitivity with SAEC was 52% (36/69), which was statistically higher than that of 32% (22/69) and 29% (20/69) with V3D and 2D readings, respectively (p < 0.05). The sensitivities in detecting not-on-fold flat lesions were 63% (24/38), 45% (17/38), and 42% (16/38) with SAEC, V3D, and 2D readings, respectively; whereas those of on-fold flat lesions were 39% (12/31), 16% (5/31), and 13% (4/31), respectively. None of the eight flat lesions (2-9 mm) at cecum was detected by any of the three reading methods. Excluding the flat lesions at cecum, the sensitivity with SAEC for detecting flat lesion {>=}4 mm increased to 84% (31/37). Conclusions: The fecal-tagging CTC with structure-analysis electronic cleansing could yield a high sensitivity for detecting flat lesions {>=}4 mm. The not-on-fold flat lesions were detected with higher sensitivity than on-fold flat lesions.

  18. Forms the interpretant sign in visual and sound expression of ambience of a videojóquei

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    Guilherme Henrique de Oliveira Cestari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is the operation of visual and audio signs in an urban ambience of entertainment, particularly the arragement of the interpretant of these signs in the luminous and cathartic output of vídeo presentations. The semiotic concept of diagrammatic reasoning is used to describe and analyze the apparitions of a clown character in an electronic music show of the British duo The Chemical Brothers, selected corpus for the study. The analyses cover the uses and the track of images and sounds at the moment the action takes place, with mask and trance being mobilized to exert hedonist, phantasmagoric, carnivalesque and ritualistic influence on the audience. The acting clown tends to produce interpretants, initially of na emotional and, subsequently, of an energetic nature, so as to incisively establish identity links with the audience. The developments of the character’s apparitions (which is inserted into the performance in different ways to yield persuasive messages are analyzed along with the effects resulting from the conjunction between sound and image which propagates in a synchronic, ambivalent and profuse manner, amid a crowd, an urban landscape and a playful phenomenon. A spiral shape guide was prepared to support the analysis and enable to infer about the work of the interpretant signs from the VJing, a kind of semeiosis typical of the videojockey’s action in this sort of event. Identity is then impregnated and so are mnemonic effects on the metropolitan cultures and habits, in the libertarian and effervescent nature of the party, on the emotion fruition reached by the audience.

  19. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Francisco Martins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  20. Dog Sacrifice in Ancient and Modern Greece: From the Sacrifice Ritual to Dog Torture (kynomartyrion

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    Manolis G. Sergis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and discusses the custom of kynomartyrion (dogtorture which took place in the Greek lands until the 1980s. In many areas it stopped in the 1930s because of its cruelty. The author begins his discussion with the presentation of some elements that are related to the dog. More specifically, the dog is an animal that entered the humanized environment long ago and belongs to the creatures whose nature is twofold because it is part of thehuman and the non-human worlds and it has been treated as twofold by at least the Indo-Europeans. It is also maintained that the liminal Hellenistic period was decisive for the formation of folk worship because of the religious syncretism and the invasion of demons that dominated in the Eastern Mediterranean. The author points out its remarkable similarities to ancient Greek and Roman (and Indo-European fertile, cathartic and other sacrificial practices. Due to industrialization of agriculture and rationalization of the magical way of thought of the “traditional” peasant, performance of the custom was transformed into a folkloric, spectacular one with intensely violent and sadistic behaviour on the part of humans in the places where it still took place after 1960. The writer argues that violence was always an inherent characteristic of the custom. Nonetheless, the archaic, and later folk thinking ritualized the performance and attributed to it a different facet, devoid of any sacred elements, during the 20th century where its inherent violence was manifested in its raw essence.

  1. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food.

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    Shu-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough's nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1 buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2 buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3 buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1. We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs' relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a 'multi-modal foraging strategy' among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard's genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors.

  2. Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A.; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region. PMID:24647442

  3. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Villegas-Patraca

    Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  4. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  5. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

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    Pascalia O. Munyewende

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC. Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design: During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results: Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15 were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions: Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level.

  6. One case analysis for severe diarrhea in neurological department%1例神经内科重症患者腹泻病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦丽; 齐晓涟

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the reasons of diarrhea in intensive care unit,providing reference for the clinical pharmacists to treat severe diarrhea patients. Methods: During the treatment of a severe diarrhea pa-tient ,the clinical pharmacists found the reasons and treatment methods according to the medication,laboratory exam-ination,clinical symptoms and so on. Results: During the hospitalization of 54 days,the patient suffered from diar-rhea for three times. The reasons of diarrhea were cathartic effect,antibiotic associated diarrhea,and enteral nutrition intolerance,respectively. Conclusion: For diarrhea of severe patients,the clinical pharmacists should comprehen-sively analyze and treat the disorder based on the factors such as the disease condition,medication and nutrition.%目的:了解危重症监护室患者出现腹泻的原因,为临床药师处理重症患者腹泻提供一定的参考.方法:临床药师参与治疗过程对1例危重症患者住院期间所用药物及实验室等相关检查结果,结合临床症状,找出患者出现腹泻的原因和处理方法.结果:在54 d的住院期间内,共发生3次腹泻,原因分别是导泻剂所致腹泻、抗菌素相关性腹泻、肠内营养不耐受性腹泻.结论:危重症患者的腹泻应结合患者的病情,用药情况及营养情况多方考虑,综合分析治疗.

  7. Analysis on Relevant Risk Factors of Pseudomembranous Coliitis%伪膜性肠炎的相关危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭威

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of pseudomembranous colitis, so as to increase awareness of the disease and to develop targeted preventive measures. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical data of 56 patients with pseudomembranous colitis diagnosed in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2010. Another 60 patients with non - pseudomembranous colitis were recruited as control group. A self - designed questionnaire survey was conducted among the subjects in both groups, including the age, sex, basic chronic disease, application of immunosuppressant, number of hospitalized day, intestinal surgery history, history of non - intestinal surgery, application of enteral nutrition, clean enema, cathartics , and antibiotics type and time of antibiotics application. The univariate analysis ( x2 test) was used to screen the relevant factors of pseudomembranous colitis. And multi - variable ( conditional Logistic regression ) analysis was used to determine the main risk factors of the disease. Results Univariate analysis showed that a statistically significant difference between the two groups in nine aspects of age, application of immunosuppressants, number of hospitalized day, intestinal surgery history, application of enteral nutrition, clean enema, cathartics, antibiotics types ≥3 , and antibiotic usage time ≥10 days ( P < 0. 05 ); Multiple conditional factors ( Logistic regression ) analysis showed that the age, application of immunosuppressants, number of hospitalized day, usage of clean enema, application of cathartics, antibiotics types ≥3 and antibiotics ≥10 days were the risk factors, being closely related to pseudomembranous colitis. Conclusion The pseudomembranous colitis related with many factors , so through the reasonable use of antibiotics, strengthen the monitoring in elderly patients, early enteral nutrition can people reduce the occurrence of false membranous enteritis.%目的 探讨伪膜性肠炎发生的相关危

  8. 贫困大学生就业心理障碍分析%An Analysis of Psychological Obstacle of Poor College Students' Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳胜权

    2012-01-01

    在大学生就业形势仍然严峻的今天,贫困大学生就业尤其令人关注。贫困大学生在就业过程中经常表现出焦虑、自卑、被动、从众等因自我认知失调导致的心理障碍,分析发现他们产生心理障碍的原因包括对自己认识不充分、自我认识矛盾、社会实践经验缺乏等主观因素和社会、家庭、学校等客观原因。因此,贫困大学生需要从多途径了解自己、客观地评价自己、坚定地相信自己、充分认识求职单位等方面来认识自己.有的放矢:同时通过学好专业知识、培养兴趣特长、不断完善人格来完善自己,扬长补短;并运用转化法、宣泄法、慰藉法、放松法等多种手段及时调适、缓和冲突。%The college students" employment situation is still grim today, and poor college students" employment was particularly noteworthy. This article describes mental disorders of the poor college students in employment process, including anxiety, inferiority, passiveness, conformity because of self cognition disorders. And the reasons are the subjective factors as not fully self-understanding, self-contradiction and lack of social practice experience and the objective factors as social, family and school reasons. Hence, there are many methods for the students such as knowing their own by putting forward multiple channels to understand themselves, evaluating themselves objectively, believing their own firmly and fully understanding the job units; perfecting themselves by putting forward to learn professional knowledge, constantly cultivate interest and perfect personality; and using effective ways of adjustment of conversion method, cathartic method, consolation, relaxation and other means to timely adjustment to ease the conflict.

  9. El trovo verde. Poesía improvisada satírico-obscena en la fiesta de la cosecha

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    del Campo Tejedor, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvest time has been since Upper Antiquity an exceptional occasion in peasant societies, giving rise to festive customs such as duels of improvised poetry in obscene tone and motif. In these duels, precepts of decency were momentarily removed. The historical and comparative research since the fescennini verses of Antiquity, through the pullas of the trovadores de repente of the Golden Age and other satirical genres, allows to link the priapic improvised poetry of the Alpujarra in both reaping and grape harvest contexts to a long popular tradition in which debates of burlesque verses were an entertainment associated with the nexus between fertility of earth and sexuality and with a sense of regeneration that has cathartic laugh. The survival of this burlesque and erotic register among the Alpujarra troubadours in certain festivals, coincidental in dates, spaces and actors with the traditional context of licenses during harvest time, suggests the reusing of these duels of inventiveness, in which participants play recalling a time when

    Las cosechas han constituido desde antiguo un momento excepcional en las culturas campesinas y han propiciado costumbres festivas, como las luchas de poesías improvisadas de tono y temática obscena, en que se levantaba efímeramente el precepto del decoro. El rastreo histórico y comparativo desde los versos fesceninos de la Antigüedad, pasando por las pullas de los trovadores de repente en el Siglo de Oro y otros géneros satíricos, permite vincular el trovo priápico de la Alpujarra en contextos de siega, parva y vendimia, a una larga tradición popular en que las porfías de versos burlescos constituían un divertimento asociado al nexo de unión entre la fertilidad de la tierra y la sexualidad, así como al sentido regenerador de la risa catártica. La pervivencia en el trovo alpujarreño de este registro burlón y lúbrico en ciertas fiestas coincidentes en fechas

  10. Analysis of prescriptions compatibility law for treatment coronary disease in uyghur medicines%维吾尔药治疗冠心病方剂的组方配伍规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提依力·努尔买提; 艾尼瓦尔·塔力甫; 吐尔洪·阿西木; 阿布都瓦尔·阿布拉克

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analysize prescriptions compatibility law for treatment coronary disease,discuss pathogenesis and therapy characteristics.Methods:To collect effective prescriptions of treatment for palpitation,cardiodynia,chest pain,choking sensation in chest,analysize the medical classification and using frequency,utilizing screen function of the Microsoft Excel to set up database and have a statistic analysis.Results:According to using frequency,cardiotonic drug was used at most,then mature drugs of abnormal body fluid,tonifying brain,kidney and invigorating stomach and cathartic drugs in sequence.Conclusion:The results suggest that cardiotonic drug is the main group of in prescriptions,compatibility of tonifying brain,kidney,stomach and boosting natural force drugs in the treatment of coronary disease.Its statistical analysis reveals the coronary disease prescription drug laws,and has important theoretical and clinical significance.%目的:分析冠心病用药的组方配伍规律,探讨其病机和治法特点.方法:具有以卡伏绀(心悸)、心痛、胸痛、胸闷为主治的有效方剂进行收集、整理、汇总,利用Mcirosotf Exce1建立资料数据表,通过数据筛选功能对药物分类、使用频数进行统计分析.结果:按照使用频次排列强心药最多,27味,537次,其次为异常体液成熟药、补脑药、补肾和健胃顺肠药.讨论:以强心药为主,配伍异常体液成熟药、补脑药、补肾药、健胃顺肠药及增强自然力的药,揭示了冠心病用药的组方配伍规律,具有重要的理论与临床意义.

  11. Restauración: método y arquitectura (a propósito del Teatro de Sagunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent polemics about the reconstruction of the ancient Roman theatre in Sagunto (Valencia, done by the Italian architect Giorgio Grassi in collaboration with the Spanish architect Manuel Portaceli, could have been an enriching debate on the criteria of intervention on the monuments, had it not been frustrated by the virulence and the schematic nature of the argumentations used for and against the work. On the other hand, in the opinion of the author of this article, the serious methodological deficiencies (especially with regard to previous historical research and its relation with the project, as well as the poorness of the new architecture designed by Grassi, invalidate the work of Sagunto as a paradigm of one particular restoration style (the harmonious diachrony. For this reason, the work will remain only as another example of the Spanish disorder in the eighties. The author believes, however, in the healthy cathartic role which the work and the polemics may have had since they made it clear before the public opinion that there is a need for the historians and architects to finally face their authentic commitments in monument restoration.

    La reciente polémica sobre la reconstrucción del antiguo teatro romano de Sagunto (Valencia, proyectada por el arquitecto italiano Giorgio Grassi en colaboración con el español Manuel Portaceli, pudo constituir un enriquecedor debate sobre los criterios de intervención en los monumentos, frustrado por la virulencia y el esquematismo de las argumentaciones esgrimidas a favor y en contra de la obra. Por otra parte, ajuicio del autor del artículo, las graves deficiencias metodológicas (especialmente en cuanto a la investigación histórica previa y a su relación con el proyecto, así como la pobreza de la nueva arquitectura diseñada por Grassi, invalidan la obra de Sagunto como paradigmática de una vía de la restauración (la diacronía armónica, por lo que quedará únicamente como

  12. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  13. “Never break them in two. Never put one over the other. Eve is Mary’s mother. Mary is the daughter of Eve”: Toni Morrison’s Womanist Gospel of Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude LE FUSTEC

    2011-03-01

    characterized as outcasts. From Pecola, the alienated victim of the WASP definition of beauty to Consolata, the “revised Reverend Mother,” Morrison’s fiction appears to weave its way through the moral complexities of African American female resistance to white male rule—theologically based on the canonical reading of the Fall as supreme calamity caused by Eve, the arch-temptress and sinner—to hand authority back to the pariah and wrongdoer: the black woman. However, far from boiling down to this deconstructive strategy, Morrison’s fiction seems to oppose religious doctrine only so as to sound the ontological depth of Christianity: while challenging the theological basis of sexist and racist assumptions, Morrison poses as an authoritative spiritual force able to craft her own Gospel of Self, based on cathartic moments of revelation where mostly female characters experience a mystic sense of connectedness to self and other, time and place. An African American female variation on the New Testament’s “Kingdom within,” Morrison’s novels echo black abolitionist Sojourner Truth’s famous speech “Ain’t I a Woman?” and its call for theological revision and gender emancipation.

  14. 广东地区伪膜性肠炎的危险因素研究%Research on Risk Factors of Pseudomembranous Colitis in Guangdong Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管映君

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究广东地区伪膜性肠炎的危险因素及发病特点,以准确地确定危险因素,提高对该病的认识及制定针对性的预防措施。方法:对2003年1月-2013年6月广东省内7家三甲综合性医院诊断为伪膜性肠炎的127例住院患者及同期住院的381例对照组患者的病历资料进行回顾性调查。比较两组患者在19个可能的危险因素中的差异性。结果:单因素分析结果示,两组在年龄≥65岁、住院天数≥10 d、肠道手术史、非肠道手术史、清洁灌肠、泻药、克林霉素、β-内酰胺类抗生素、氟喹诺酮、肠内营养、免疫抑制剂、放射线治疗及抗结核药物等13个方面存在显著差异(P<0.05)。多变量条件logistic回归分析示:年龄≥65岁、住院天数≥10 d、非肠道手术史、清洁灌肠及克林霉素是独立高危因素,与伪膜性肠炎的发生密切相关(P<0.05)。结论:伪膜性肠炎的发生与多种因素相关,应加强对老年患者、住院天数较长(≥10 d)、有非肠道手术史的患者的监测,积极提高其机体免疫力,合理规范使用抗生素。%To research the risk factors and clinical features of pseudomembranous colitis in Guangdong region,so as to determine the risk factors accurately,improve awareness of the disease and to develop targeted preventive measures.Method:A retrospective analysis was conducted of medical data of 127 pseudomembranous colitis in-patients and also the 381 cases over the same period of information of the control group in 7 grade A class 3 hospitals in Guangdong region from January 2003 to June 2013. The differences were compared between two groups of patients onninteen aspects. Result:Univariate analysis showed that statistically significant differences between two groups on 13 aspects of age≥65 years,length of hospital stay ≥ 10 days,intestinal surgery,non-intestinal surgery,enema,cathartics

  15. Revista de Revistas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jáuregui Isasmendi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Psiquiatría dinámica en la "década del cerebro". Psychodynamic psychiatry in the "decade of the brain". G.o. Gabbard. Am J Pschiatry. Agosto 1992; 149: 991-998. J. Jáuregui Isasmendi El cambio psíquico: desarrollo en la teoría de las técnicas psicoanalíticas. Psychic change: development in the theory of psychoanalytic techniques. A. Cooper. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Summer 1992; vol 73, part 2: pp 245-250. J. López Castillo ¿Tiene efecto catártico un intento de suicidio?. An attempted suicide actually have a cathartic effect?. Jo. Bronish. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992; 86: 228-232. M. Salvador Robert La exposición prenatal a la gripe no causa esquizofrenia. Prenatal exposure to influenza does not cause schizophrenia. JJ. Crovv, D.J. Oone. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1992; 161: 390-393. Rosa Villanueva Peña Alexitimia en mujeres con anorexia nerviosa. Alexithymia in women with anorexia nervosa. M.P Bourke et al. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1992; 161: 240-243. M. A. Casado Prieto Dinámica de caos en la actividad del sistema nervioso autónomo durante una sesión de psicoterapia. Chaotic dynamics in autonomic nervous system activity of a patient during a psychotherapy session. D.J. Redington, S.P Reidbord. Biol Psychiatry. 1992; 31: 984-992. P. Pérez Sales, T. Ferrer Gila Uso de psicofármacos en el paciente con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. J.L. Ayuso Mateas. Farmacología del S.N.C. Septiembre 1992; vol 6, N.o 3: pp 94-101. I. Morales Tratamiento de mantenimiento de la depresión recurrente orientación actual y futura. Maintenance treatment in recurrent depresion: current and future directions. D.J. Kupfer. British Journal 01 Psychiatry 1992; 161: 309-316. F. Rodríguez y González-Nicolás Comportamientos de riesgo para el VIH/SIDA entre los enfermos mentales crónicos. AIDS/HIV risk behavior among the cronic mentally ill. J.A. Kelly et al. Am J Psychiatry. July 1992; 149: 7. J

  16. Randomized clinical trial comparing sodium picosulfate with mannitol on the preparation FOR colonoscopy in hospitalized patients Ensaio clínico randomizado comparando picosulfato de sódio com manitol no preparo para colonoscopia em pacientes hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Müller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cleansing of the colon for a colonoscopy exam must be complete so as to allow the visualization and inspection of the intestinal lumen. The ideal cleansing agent should be easily administered, have a low cost, and minimum collateral effects. Sodium picosulfate together with the magnesium citrate is a cathartic stimulant and mannitol is an osmotic laxative, both usually used for this purpose. AIMS: Assess the colon cleanliness comparing the use of mannitol and sodium picosulfate as well as evaluate the level of patient satisfaction, the presence of foam, pain, and abdominal distension in hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study with 80 patients that compared two groups: mannitol (40 and sodium picosulfate (40. Both groups received the same dietary orientation. The study was approved by the hospital’s Ethics and Research Committee. The endoscopist was blind to the type of preparation. Outcomes evaluated: level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain and distension, and the duration of the exam. The data was analyzed by means of the chi-squared test for proportions and Mann-Whitney for independent samples. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to the level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain, and the duration of the exam. Fifteen percent of the exams of the mannitol group were interrupted while from the sodium picosulfate group it was 5%. The presence of foam was similar for both groups. The average duration for carrying out the exam was 28.44 minutes for the mannitol group and 35.59 minutes for the sodium picosulfate group. Abdominal distension was more frequent in the mannitol group. If they would have to do the same exam, the answer was that 80% said yes from the mannitol group and 92.5% from the sodium

  17. Théâtralité et narration : Le Bonheur dans le crime de Barbey d’Aurevilly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Vassilev

    2008-03-01

    interconnectedness of narrative and theater, the cohabitation of story and performance, and the relationship between “telling” and “seeing”. What lends the third Diabolique its importance in terms of theatricality is the reliance of its plot on the interplay of theater, without which, in the final analysis, the narrative would not exist. Indeed, the originality of the story resides in its association to a theatrical representation. It follows that, in a fictional work, the act of narration is guaranteed by virtue of the existence of fiction. In other words, the story is possible only in so far as it dramatizes itself. This means that what the narrative represents draws its strategy from what is represented. The article will examine the peculiar relationship established between narration and theater and will attempt to shed light on the resulting implications of this relationship. If, thanks to its theatrical nature, the novella’s plot hints at more than it presumes to reveal through the succession of its events, it is that the narration appears to adopt as its objective the denunciation of realist fiction as ineffectual, while upholding the exemplary moral nature to which conforms the poetics of tragedy. Yet, does not the cathartic release through reading, as enunciated in the preface of Diaboliques and suggested by the intense theatralization of the story, find itself contradicted by a denouement that outwardly sabotages the very principles of tragedy?

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  19. Exposições tóxicas agudas em crianças: um panorama Acute toxic exposure in children: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bucaretchi

    2005-11-01

    past decade, including the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists' position statements and position papers (peer-reviewed information based on scientific evidence and broad consensus on gastrointestinal decontamination, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Acute toxic exposure in children is a common event, mainly in children under six years of age. Death is rare. Although widely employed, there is no evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination and multiple-dose activated charcoal improve the outcome of poisoned patients. Very few efficient antidotes are used on a consistent basis, and some of them are very expensive and not available in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Ipecac syrup and cathartics should not be administered on a routine basis in acute toxic exposures in outpatient treatment. Excluding the contraindications, single-dose activated charcoal and gastric lavage may be considered within one hour of ingestion if a patient ingested a potentially toxic amount or a potentially lethal amount, respectively. Whole bowel irrigation, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization may be considered in a few situations. Fomepizole and octreotide are safe and efficient antidotes, which can be used in the treatment of alcohol (methanol and ethylene glycol and sulfonylureas poisoning, respectively.