Carlos Eduardo B. Moura
Full Text Available O cateto (Tayassu tajacu pertence à familia Tayassui-dae e é caracterizado por "colar" de pêlos brancos ao redor do pescoço que se estende bilateralmente cranialmente aos ombros. Pode ser encontrado do sudoeste dos Estados Unidos da América até a Argentina. Na literatura verificou-se a falta de dados a respeito da anatomia funcional do cateto especialmente trabalhos que envolvem a anatomia do plexo braquial. Visando elucidar o comportamento do plexo braquial do cateto e com a finalidade de contribuir para o desenvolvimento da anatomia comparada, realizou-se esta pesquisa. Utilizou-se 30 animais de idades diferentes (13 fêmeas e 17 machos provenientes do Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Após o abate, realizou-se a dissecação bilateral dos plexos braquiais e registraram-se os resultados através de desenhos esquemáticos e as disposições agrupadas em tabelas para subseqüente análise estatística e obtidas as freqüências percentuais. Observou-se que o plexo braquial de catetos é resultado das comunicações estabelecidas, principalmente, entre os ramos ventrais dos três últimos nervos espinhais cervicais (C6, C7 e C8 e dos dois primeiros nervos espinhais torácicos (T1 e T2, tendo uma contribuição do quarto e quinto nervos cervicais em 16,67% e 50,00% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 40,00% das dissecações a formação do plexo, mais freqüente, foi do tipo C6, C7, C8, T1 e T2. Os principais nervos derivados do plexo braquial dos catetos e suas respectivas origens foram: nervo supraescapular (C6 e C7, nervo subscapular (C5, C6 e C7 ou C6 e C7, nervo axilar (C6 e C7, nervo músculocutâneo (C7 e C8, nervo mediano (C7, C8, T1 e T2, nervo ulnar (C8, T1 e T2, nervo radial (C8, T1 e T2, nervos peitorais craniais (C7 e caudais (C7 e C8, nervo toracodorsal (C6, C7 e C8, nervo torácico longo (C7 e C8 e nervo torácico lateral (C8, T1 e T2
Use of a Mycoplasma suis-PCR protocol for screening a population of captive peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari Uso de um protocolo de PCR para a detecção de Mycoplasma suis para avaliação de uma população de catetos e queixadas de cativeiro (Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari
Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira
Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis is a hemotropic bacteria of red blood cells and the causative agent of swine eperythrozoonosis. Diagnosis of infection may be reached by direct examination of blood smears; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the 16S RNA gene of M. suis improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The aim of this study was to screen peccaries (Tayassu tajacu and T. pecari for M. suis infection using a specific conventional PCR. A total of 28 blood samples from captive collared and white-lipped peccaries were collected, DNA extracted and a specific M. suis PCR assay performed. All samples were negatives by both blood smear examination and PCR testing. To verify the presence of amplifiable DNA, PCR for beta-actin gene was performed in all samples. This study was part of an active surveillance program, which is crucial for monitoring animal health status, particularly in wildlife species.Mycoplasma suis é uma bactéria hemotrópica dos eritrócitos e é o agente causador da eperitrozoonose suína. O diagnóstico da infecção pode ser realizado pelo exame direto de esfregaços sanguíneos; entretanto, o uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR baseada no gene 16S RNA de M. suis aumenta a sensibilidade e especificidade da detecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar catetos e queixadas (Tayassu tajacu e T. pecari para a infecção por M. suis, utilizando PCR convencional específico. Um total de 28 amostras de sangue de catetos e queixadas de cativeiro foram coletadas, o DNA foi extraído e a PCR específica para a detecção de M. suis realizada. Todas as amostras foram negativas pelo esfregaço sanguíneo e PCR. Para verificar a presença de DNA amplificável, PCR para o gene da beta actina foi realizada em todas as amostras. Este estudo foi parte de um programa de vigilância ativa, o qual é crucial para o monitoramento do estado de saúde animal, particularmente em espécies selvagens.
Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná
L. A. Veiga
Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.
Hugo Rangel Fernandes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.
VALDÉS SÁNCHEZ, Vanessa Vianeth; SALDAÑA PATIÑO, Azael; PINEDA SEGUNDO, Vanessa Jenny; CAMACHO SANDOVAL, Jorge Antonio; CHARPENTIER ESQUIVEL, Claudia Virginia; CRUZ SÁNCHEZ, Tonatiuh Alejandro
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the gastrointestinal parasites of Tayassu tajacu (Collared peccary) and Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed deer) in captivity in the Republic of Panama during the year 2008. The gastrointestinal parasites with major prevalence were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba sp., Crystosporidium sp., Endolimax nana and Strongyloides sp.
Kilder Dantas Filgueira
Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando contribuir com informações a respeito de aspectos biométricos e patológicos em testículos de catetos (Tayassu tajacu. Utilizaram-se doze animais, com idades superior a dez anos, provenientes do Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres CEMAS/ESAM. Após a coleta, os testículos foram submetidos a biometria e em seguida fixados em solução de Bouin. Posteriormente, conservou-se a amostra em álcool a 70% e submeteu-se ao processamento histológico de rotina. A leitura das lâminas foi realizada em microscópio óptico e os resultados obtidos analisados estatisticamente através dos testes "t" e "Z". Os valores médios de comprimento, circunferência e peso, entre o testículo direito e esquerdo, não revelam diferença estatística, ao se aplicar o teste "t". Porém, o mesmo teste demonstrou correlação com significância a 1% de probabilidade entre a gônada direita e esquerda, ao se comparar cada variável biométrica. Dos 12 animais utilizados, oito (67% apresentaram alterações testiculares, as quais corresponderam a degeneração (63%, rarefação do epitélio (25% e orquite (12%. Através do teste "Z" houve significância, a 2,5%, ao se compararem às freqüências entre degeneração e rarefação, assim como degeneração e orquite. Verificou-se que, à medida que uma das variáveis biométricas de um testículo apresenta modificação, há uma correspondência com o órgão contralateral. A patologia mais frequente foi à degeneração testicular, a qual demonstrou correlação com as demais alterações.
Albuquerque,N.I.; Contreras,C.C.; Alencar,S.; Meirelles,C.F.; Aguiar,A.P.; Moreira,J.A.; Packer,I.U.
Analisaram-se as propriedades da carne e o perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes porcentagens de torta de babaçu, usada como fonte energética alternativa substituindo parte do milho na alimentação, em sistemas de produção em cativeiro. Avaliou-se o pernil de 12 animais quanto às suas propriedades - perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento, pH e capacidade de retenção de água-, depois extraiu-se o óleo da carne e determinou-se o perfil...
Propriedades da carne e perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos (Tayassu tajacu alimentados com torta de babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Meat properties and fatty acids profile of the ham of peccaries (Tayassu tajacu fed babassu (Orbignya phalerata meal
Full Text Available Analisaram-se as propriedades da carne e o perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes porcentagens de torta de babaçu, usada como fonte energética alternativa substituindo parte do milho na alimentação, em sistemas de produção em cativeiro. Avaliou-se o pernil de 12 animais quanto às suas propriedades - perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento, pH e capacidade de retenção de água-, depois extraiu-se o óleo da carne e determinou-se o perfil dos ácidos graxos. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05 das porcentagens de torta de babaçu sobre as propriedades da carne; os ácidos graxos (AG insaturados, mono e poli-insaturados, foram encontrados em maior quantidade (51,6-57,8% que os ácidos graxos saturados (42,2-48,4% na carne do pernil. Baseando-se na teoria de que os AG poli-insaturados ingeridos na dieta humana são responsáveis pela redução nos níveis séricos de colesterol, sugere-se que a carne de catetos seja uma boa fonte alternativa de proteína.The meat properties and the fatty acids profile of the ham of peccaries ham fed diets with different levels of babassu meal, used as an alternative energy source substituting part of corn on feeding peccaries in captivity, were studied. The ham meats of 12 animals were evaluated on their properties: cooking losses, shear force, pH, and water holding capacity. After that, the meat oil was extracted to determine the fatty acids contents. No effects (P>0.05 of the babassu meal levels on the meat properties were observed. The unsaturated fatty acids, mono and polyunsaturated, were found in higher quantity than the saturated fatty acids in the ham meat of peccaries. Based on the theory that the polyunsaturated fatty acids ingested in the human diet are responsible for reduction of the seric levels of cholesterol, it can be suggested that the peccary meat is a good alternative source of protein.
Biometria testicular, eletroejaculação e características seminais de caititus, Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae mantidos em cativeiro na Amazônia Oriental Testicular biometry, electroejaculation and seminal features of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae raised in the Eastern Amazon
Priscila Reis Kahwage
Full Text Available Estudos relacionados à obtenção e avaliação de sêmen de Tayassu tajacu são escassos, sendo necessárias pesquisas a respeito. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar a biometria testicular de caititus adultos cativos, testar a eficiência da eletroejaculação para obtenção de sêmen e avaliar suas características seminais ao longo do ano. Procedeu-se à eletroejaculação em oito animais adultos e as amostras de sêmen colhidas foram avaliadas quanto às características físicas e morfológicas. Os animais tinham testículo esquerdo com 3,8 ± 0,4 cm X 2,6 ± 0,3 cm e 2,3 ± 0,2 de consistência, e testículo direito com 3,8 ± 0,5 cm X 2,7 ± 0,3 cm e 2,3 ± 0,2 de consistência. A taxa de sucesso nas colheitas foi de 75,21%. O sêmen possuiu: volume 0,81 ± 0,86 mL, concentração 137,44 ± 153 x 106 sptz mL-1, pH 7,92 ± 0,73, motilidade 52,66 ± 28,79%, vigor 2,2 ± 0,8, integridade de membrana plasmática 55,84 ± 28,55%, defeitos maiores 22,87 ± 12,93%, defeitos menores 9,11 ± 5,88% e defeitos totais 31,52 ± 13,81%. Os animais apresentaram simetria testicular, a eletroejaculação se mostrou eficiente para a obtenção de ejaculados em caititus e as flutuações observadas na produção seminal não foram suficientes para caracterizá-los como animais de reprodução sazonal.Research development in semen collection and sperm evaluation of Tayassu tajacu are necessary. The aims of this research were to evaluate testicular biometry of captive collared peccaries, test electroejaculation for semen collection and evaluate seminal characteristics during the year. Eight animals were submitted to electroejaculation and semen samples were evaluated according their physical and morphological characteristics. Left testicles measured 3.8 ± 0.4 cm X 2.6 ± 0.3 cm and presented 2.3 ± 0.2 of consistence, while right testicles were 3.8 ± 0.5 cm X 2.7 ± 0.3 cm and presented 2.3 ± 0.2 of consistence. Success rate on semen collections
Full Text Available We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest.
Hendriks, J.A.; Freudenreich, W.E.
In the irradiation experiment CATETO II different reduced activation (RA) steels will be irradiated up to 2.5 dpa at a temperature of 300 C. The results of the calculation of the nuclear constants, the reactivity effect, and the activity of the steel samples are presented. (orig.)
Andréia Maria da Silva
Full Text Available Em ejaculados provenientes de 28 catetos, verificou-se a existência de relações entre a concentração espermática determinada por meio da câmara de Neubauer e a tramitância observada por espectrofotometria, utilizando comprimentos de onda variando de 530 a 590nm. Os ejaculados apresentaram uma concentração média de 283,9±30,8x106 espermatozoides mL-1, com variação de 30 a 640x106 espermatozoides mL-1. Os valores para tramitância variaram entre 36,9 a 96,3, nos diferentes comprimentos de onda. Não foram detectadas relações significativas entre os dois métodos (P>0,05. Dessa forma, não se recomenda a espectrofotometria para os procedimentos de rotina na determinação da concentração espermática em catetos.
Lozano, Ronald; Pinedo, Weninger; Inga, Lylyams
La investigación consistió en la caracterización bromatológica y determinación microbiológica de muestras de carnes procedentes de ocho especies de animales silvestres: huangana (Tayassu pecari), majaz o picuro (Agouti paca), sajino (Tayassu tajacu), venado colorado (Mazama americana), tapir (Tapirus terrestris), añuje (Dasyprota fuliginosa), ronsoco (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) y armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus); en las localidades de Puerto Belén-Roya-Utucuro, Santa Rosa de Aguaytía, Santa L...
Chromosome preparation and karyotype description. The material analysed consists of chromosome preparations of the tayassuid species T. pecari (three individuals) and. P. tajacu (four individuals) and were made from short-term lymphocyte cultures of whole blood samples using standard protocols (Chaves et al. 2002).
Descubrimiento de mamíferos fósiles de edad Lujanense (Pleistoceno tardío en el "Desierto" de La Tatacoa (Huila, Colombia Descubrimiento de mamíferos fósiles de edad Lujanense (Pleistoceno tardío en el "Desierto" de La Tatacoa (Huila, Colombia
Villaroel A. Carlos
Full Text Available A small sedimentary basin, at the Los Hoyos locality, has been discovered with in the Tatacoa "desert". Taxonomic studies are not yet complete but at least two forms related to living species have been identified: Sylvilagus aff. floridanus and Tayassu aft. tajacu. A third form is referred to family Gomphotheriidae. Based on this small fauna, the locality can be correlated with the Lujanian Land Mammal "Age". Aspects of the paleoecology and paleogeography of the locality are also brieflydiscussed. Se da a conocer el descubrimiento de una pequeña cuenca sedimentaria con mamíferos fósiles, en el lugar denominado Los Hoyos, dentro del ámbito del "desierto" de La Tatacoa. Aunque los estudios taxonómicos de los fósiles no están aún completos, no cabe duda de que se trata, de dos formas afines a especies vivientes, identificadas como Sylvilagus aff. floridanus y Tayassu aff. tajacu , y una tercera forma, referida a la familia Gomphotheriidae. Con base en esta pequeña fauna, se data el yacimiento como de edad Lujanense, además se anotan brevemente aspectos paleoecológicos y paleogeográficos.
de Azevedo Gomes, Laise; Moraes, Leopoldo Augusto; Figueira Aguiar, Délia Cristina; Tavares Dias, Hilma Lúcia; Sardinha Ribeiro, Ana Silvia; Piram do Couto Rocha, Henrique; Teixeira Nunes, Márcio Roberto; Costa Gonçalves, Evonnildo
This study aimed to identify and characterize genetically species of the genus Hepatozoon detected in Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybaras) and Pecari tajacu (collared peccaries) from two localities from the Eastern Amazon. Blood samples from 196 free-living H. hydrochaeris from Marajó Island and 109 P. tajacu kept in captivity in Belém, Pará, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were obtained and analyzed in comparison to others available in the NCBI database. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of Hepatozoon canis in both mammals and the existence of four haplotypes of Hepatozoon spp., three of Hepatozoon canis and one of Hepatozoon cuestensis, found only in H. hydrochaeris. In addition, these data increase the genetic diversity of H. canis from the Eastern Amazon, as well as reporting, for the first time, the infection of mammals by H. cuestensis and P. tajacu by H. canis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C
Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).
Montenegro, Olga L; Roncancio, Nestor; Soler-Tovar, Diego; Cortés-Duque, Jimena; Contreras-Herrera, Jorge; Sabogal, Sandra; Acevedo, Luz Dary; Navas-Suárez, Pedro Enrique
In South America, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. We captured 58 collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in locations of Colombia where coexistence of these species is known. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus (PCV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey and Indiana subtypes) and two bacterial agents, Brucella spp. and six serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The prevalence of CSFV was 5% (3/58) in collared peccaries and 7% (1/15) in feral pigs. The prevalence of PCV-2 was 7% (1/15) in collared peccaries and 67% (2/3) in feral pigs. Vesicular stomatitis prevalence was 33% (8/24) in collared peccaries and 67% (4/6) in feral pigs. Leptospira prevalence was 78% (39/50) in collared peccary and 100% (8/8) in feral pigs; bratislava, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona were the most frequent serovars. Also, the only white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari) sampled was positive for L. interrogans serovar bratislava and for vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey strain. No samples were positive for ADV or Brucella. The seroprevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans was similar to that observed in other studies. Icterohaemorrhagiae appears to be a common serovar among in situ and ex situ peccary populations. Positive antibodies against PVC-2 represent a novel report of exposure to this pathogen in Colombian peccaries. Our results indicate the possible transmission of various pathogens, important for pig farms, in the studied pig and peccaries.
Lázaro José Chaves
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Neste trabalho, quatro épocas de plantio (março, abril, maio e junho, 1994 combinadas respectivamente com um, dois, três e quatro meses de armazenamento do alho-planta, a temperaturas entre 5 e 10°C, foram comparadas com as mesmas épocas de plantio de alho-planta armazenado em condições ambientais, na cultivar Cateto Roxo, em Goiânia, Goiás. Usou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e parcelas subdivididas. A produção de bulbos curados e limpos, tanto dos bulbilhos frigorificados quanto dos não frigorificados, diminuiu com o tempo de armazenamento, em regressão linear. A frigorificação do alho-planta por apenas um mês e plantado em março reduziu a produção em 50% em relação ao não frigorificado, e a combinação de quatro meses de frigorificação com o plantio em junho anulou a produção. A freqüência do número de plantas com bulbilhos aéreos mostrou tendência à redução de março a junho. Concluiu-se que a frigorificação do alho-planta da cultivar Cateto Roxo diminui severamente a produção sem qualquer vantagem econômica.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Allium sativum; Cateto Roxo; época de plantio; frigorificação; produção.
The high quality garlic cultivars in Brazil were grown only in the southern part of the country because of its higher latitude and cool climate during the growing season. These cultivars yield well also in lower latitude regions when cold storaged planting stock is used. Concerning traditional cultivars in the tropics, however, there is a lack of information on the effect of cold storage. Cateto Roxo is well adapted to the Brazilian tropics from the middle-west (Goiás up to the north-east (Piauí. On this cultivar, four planting dates (March, April, May and June, 1994 combined
Registro de pecarí de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari en la región de la laguna de Términos, Campeche, México White lipped pecaries (Tayassu pecari recorded in the area of Términos Lagoon Campeche, México
Mircea G. Hidalgo-Mihart
Full Text Available Se registró fotográficamente al menos un grupo de pecaries de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari en la Selva La Montaña, al suroeste del área de Protección de Flora y Fauna Silvestre Laguna de Términos, Campeche, México. El registro se realizó utilizando trampas cámara. La presencia de esta especie muestra la importancia que tiene la región Selva La Montaña para la conservación de la biodiversidad, especialmente para las especies protegidas.We report at least one group of white lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari in Selva La Montaña located in the southwestern portion of the Términos Lagoon Flora and Fauna Protection Area, Campeche, Mexico. The record was obtained using camera traps. The presence of this species in the area shows the importance of the region for biodiversity conservation, particularly for protected species.
Full Text Available La investigación consistió en la caracterización bromatológica y determinación microbiológica de muestras de carnes procedentes de ocho especies de animales silvestres: huangana (Tayassu pecari, majaz o picuro (Agouti paca, sajino (Tayassu tajacu, venado colorado (Mazama americana, tapir (Tapirus terrestris, añuje (Dasyprota fuliginosa, ronsoco (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris y armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus; en las localidades de Puerto Belén-Roya-Utucuro, Santa Rosa de Aguaytía, Santa Luz de Abujao, Tacshitea–Sector Parinari en dos ocasiones, ubicadas en las márgenes del río Ucayali y sus afluentes, que fueron analizarlas por la empresa Servicios de Asesoramiento Técnico S.A.C. en Lima. La caracterización bromatológica indicó que el añuje (Dasyprota fuliginosa mostró el mayor contenido en Proteína cruda seguido de la huangana (Tayassu pecari; en el contenido de grasa destacaron las especies armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus y la sachavaca (Tapirus terrestris así también en su contenido calórico. La especie venado colorado (Mazama americana mostró un mayor valor en cenizas y en carbohidratos la especie huangana (Tayassu pecari. La determinación microbiológica indicó que todas las muestras presentaron niveles de contaminación dentro de los límites permitidos para aerobios mesófilos viables y niveles de contaminación por coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, algunos muy elevados y también de mohos y levaduras. Todos presentaron ausencia de Salmonella.
Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D
Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A
From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
Marcelo B Labruna
Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
Diva Anelie Guimarães
Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pLa sustentabilidad y la producción de pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu han sido estudiados en los últimos años, sin embargo, más información sobre su reproducción es necesaria para el éxito de los sistemas de crianza . La comprensión de los aspectos relacionados con la foliculogénesis contribuirá con la aplicación de biotécnicas de reproducción, las cuales son útiles en la preservación y la producción de la vida silvestre. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre la población folicular del ovario de pecarí de collar. En relación con la población folicular en el ovario derecho, los valores de los folículos primordiales y primarios fueron similares, pero se observó que había una diferencia significativa (p<0.05 con el secundario. En el ovario izquierdo, la fase folicular presentó diferencias significativas (p<0
Marco Tulio López
Full Text Available Se determinó el valor nutritivo y mineral de 25 especies vegetales y una especie animal (lombriz de tierra que forman parte de la dieta del chancho cariblanco (Tayassu pecari en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica, desde enero de 1998 hasta marzo de 1999. Los mayores contenidos de grasa y energía bruta se encontraron en semillas de la familia Myristicaceae. El mayor contenido de calcio se encontró en partes vegetativas de Dieffenbachia spp. Los contenidos nutritivos fueron diferentes entre las diferentes partes vegetativas analizadas (semillas, frutos, tallos y hojas. El contenido de grasa y energía bruta fue mayor en semillas y frutos, mientras que el mayor contenido de proteina cruda se encontró en frutos y hojas. El contenido de minerales tambien fue diferente entre las partes vegetativas analizadas. Los contenidos de calcio, potasio y magnesio fueron mayores en hojas mientras que los de cobre y zinc fueron mayores en semillas. Diferencias en la dieta de los chanchos cariblancos de Corcovado con los de otras regiones tropicales de Latinoamérica pueden ser parcialmente explicadas con los resultados nutritivos de este estudio. Se encontraron varias especies con mayor contenido de grasa y energía bruta que las palmas, lo que puede explicar el bajo consumo de semillas de palmas en Corcovado. Es posible que el consumo regular de partes vegetativas (hojas y tallos de algunas especies se deba al alto contenido mineral de estas. La estacionalidad de la reproducción parece estar relacionada no solo a la disponibilidad de alimentos sino tambien a la calidad nutritiva de los mismos.Nutritional values in the diet of white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. We determined the potential nutritional levels in 25 species of plants, and in earthworms, that constitute part of the diet of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, from January 1998 to
Patrícia C. Sousa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microscopy and sperm morphologic alterations were determined in percentage. In addition, sperm morphometric analysis was conducted by light microscopy coupled to image analyzer software. The smears stained with Bengal Rose provide the best results for the visualization of the sperm tail, midpiece, and head. The use of eosin-nigrosin stain did not allow an adequate impregnation, and some sperm presented a few contrasts with the background. A higher incidence of bent coiled tails was verified in the use of brome-phenol blue staining (P<0.05. Through morphometric evaluation, it was observed that the tail occupies the greatest proportion (89% of the sperm which presents a discretely elongated head. According to the results, the use of the Bengal Rose stain is recommended for the morphologic evaluation of the collared peccary sperm.
Aston, Emily J; Mayor, Pedro; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Liotta, Janice L; Kwok, Oliver; Dubey, J P
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (MAT). These animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the Yavarí-Mirín River, in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Blood samples were collected by hunters on filter papers. For determination of T. gondii antibodies, blood was eluted from filter papers, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of exposure to T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (31.0%) peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari), six (17.1%) brocket deer (Mazama americana, Mazama gouazoubira), and four (40.0%) lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). We also introduced a modification to the MAT protocol that allows the extraction of fluid samples from several types of laboratory-grade filter paper, thus enabling researchers to easily adapt their approaches to the materials presented to them.
Aston, Emily J.; Mayor, Pedro; Bowman, Dwight D.; Mohammed, Hussni O.; Liotta, Janice L.; Kwok, Oliver; Dubey, J.P.
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (MAT). These animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the Yavarí-Mirín River, in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Blood samples were collected by hunters on filter papers. For determination of T. gondii antibodies, blood was eluted from filter papers, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of exposure to T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (31.0%) peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari), six (17.1%) brocket deer (Mazama americana, Mazama gouazoubira), and four (40.0%) lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). We also introduced a modification to the MAT protocol that allows the extraction of fluid samples from several types of laboratory-grade filter paper, thus enabling researchers to easily adapt their approaches to the materials presented to them. PMID:24918073
Rengifo Pinedo, Martha Estela
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...
Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.
Keilla M. Maia
Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.
Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba
Full Text Available The consumption of hunting animals is of fundamental importance for human subsistence in different tropical areas. Knowing the chosen species, the techniques of capture and the quantity are fundamental aspects to understand how to use and the degree of threat of hunting on each wild species. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to record the wild animal species most commonly used as food resource in five rural settlements in the municipality of Uruará-PA, in addition to qualify the main techniques of capturing these species. The data collection was made through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. For the selection of the interviewees, we adopted the “snowball” method. As a result, we identified 38 species of animals consumed, most being mammals (42.1%, followed by birds (39.4% and reptiles (18.5%. The species most frequently mentioned were: Cuniculus paca (n=156, Euphractus sexcinctus (n=154 and Pecari tajacu (n=137. The most used technique was hunting with shotgun. Among the animals cited, Priodontes maximus, Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Podocnemis unifilis, Tinamus tao, Crax fasciolata and Podocnemis unifilis are in the list of threatened species. The results point to the urgent need for educational programs to farmers regarding the unsustainable use of animals.
Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira
Full Text Available The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more 'pessimistic' decisions under ambiguity. If so, this would indicate (i that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii that the species is able to adopt a cautious response style despite its bold phenotype. Eight individuals were trained to 'go' to a baited food bowl when a positive auditory cue (whistle; CS+ was given and to 'no-go' when a negative cue (horn A; CS- was sounded to avoid a loud sound and empty food bowl. An 'ambiguous' auditory cue (bell; CSA was presented to probe decision-making under ambiguity. Individuals were subjected to three tests in the order: T1 (control-no trap, T2 (24h after-trap procedure, and T3 (control-no trap. In each test, each animal was exposed to 10 judgement bias trials of each of the three cue types: CS+,CS-,CSA. We recorded whether animals reached the food bowl within 60s ('go' response and their response speed (m/s. The animals varied in their responses to the CSA cue depending on test type. In all tests, animals made more 'go' responses to CS+ than CSA. During control tests (T1 and T3, the peccaries showed higher proportions of 'go' responses to CSA than to CS-. In T2, however, the animals showed similar proportions of 'go' responses to CSA and CS-, treating the ambiguous cue similarly to the negative cue. There were differences in their response speed according to cue type: peccaries were faster to respond to CS+ than to CS- and CSA. Trapping thus appeared to cause a 'pessimistic' judgement bias in peccaries, which may reflect a negative affective state with implications for the welfare and management of captive individuals, and also
Full Text Available In order to evaluate the weight changes, level of hematocrit and serum total protein to supplement the diet of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu with a silage mixture of grass Taiwan (Pennisetum purpureum and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum a voluntary consumption test was performed for five weeks. Using eleven non-pregnant adult females, with mean age of 4.5 years and weighing 19.15 kg (Â± 0.5 kg, two groups were formed: one of five animals which offered squash (Cucurbita pepo and corn (Zea mays, and another of six animals on a diet of squash, corn and silage at 50%. Were taken blood samples and record weight every seven days. T-student test were used to compare means of two independent samples.Â There were no differences between the means of the weights and blood proteins levels of individuals. The use of a silage mixture of grass and fodder cutting is a viable option to supplement the diet of nonpregnant adult females.
Full Text Available Mineral licks are sites where a diverse array of mammals and birds consume soil (geophagy or drink water, likely for mineral supplementation. The diversity of species that visit such sites makes them important for conservation, particularly given that hunters often target animals at licks. Use of mineral licks varies among species, with frugivores among the most common visitors but there is considerable temporal and spatial variation in lick use both within and among species. Camera traps triggered by heat and motion were used to document use of mineral licks by birds and non-volant mammals over a four-year period at a lowland forest site in eastern Ecuador. We obtained 7,889 photographs representing 23 mammal species and 888 photographs representing 15 bird species. Activity (photographs/100 trap-days at the four licks varied from 89 to 292 for mammals and from six to 43 for birds. Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris, peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari, deer (Mazama americana, and pacas (Cuniculus paca were the most frequent mammal visitors; guans (Pipile pipile and pigeons (Columba plumbea were the most common birds. Use of licks varied diurnally and seasonally but patterns of use varied among species and sites. Mineral licks provide an important resource for many species but further studies are needed to determine the precise benefit(s obtained and how benefits may vary with diet and other factors, such as rainfall.
Full Text Available Although prohibited, hunting is widely practiced by rural populations settled along the Transamazon Highway. A diagnostic of subsistence hunting was conducted in 1997 in the Uruará district of Brazil. Beat, hide and trap were the three main hunting techniques, and each one targeted a specific type of game. Although these techniques were rudimentary, 62% of the hunts were successful. Hunters kept their movements within five kilometers at most from their homes, thus covering an 80 km² area. The number of species caught was low: pacas (Agouti paca, deer (Mazama sp. and collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu provided more than 70% of game meat. The red mazama (Mazama americana, the favorite species, and the paca underwent the highest hunting pressure. In addition to social and ludic roles, hunting had a real nutritional value. Mean daily game meat consumption ranged from 36 to 45.9 g per person (i.e. 13.1–16.7 kg per person per year, depending on the origin of the hunters (urban or rural, respectively. Game hunting did not seem to be the main factor for loss of biodiversity, which might rather result from the transformation of the forest ecosystem into agricultural zones: the habitats were parceled out, generating a reduction in the biodiversity. Community management of wildlife and development of new activities such as breeding of wild animals could help preserve natural resources.
Espinosa, Santiago; Celis, Gerardo; Branch, Lyn C
Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.
Full Text Available White-lipped peccaries are non-seasonal breeders in South America, but little is known about their reproduction in Central America. There are few studies about the sex ratio of this species in the field. We studied the reproduction and sex ratio of white-lipped peccaries during 200 hours of field observation of four radiomarked and two unmarked herds, from July 1996 to April 1997, in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Sex ratio data of three additional, radiomarked herds observed in 1998 were also included. We recorded numbers of mountings, presence of newborns and numbers of nursing interactions. The peccaries showed a distinct reproductive seasonality, with one mating peak in February and another in July. The greatest number of newborns and the peak in nursing activity were observed during July and August, when fruit availability for the peccaries was high. The adult sex ratio was significantly female biased (1.4:1 - 1.8:1, also in contrast with South American populations.Los "chanchos cariblancos" Tayassu pecari no son reproductores estacionales en Sur América. En Centro América se conoce muy poco sobre la reproducción de esta especie en la naturaleza. Estudiamos reproducción y la proporción de sexos durante 200 horas de observación de cuatro manadas marcadas con radiocollares y de dos manadas sin marcar, desde julio de 1996 hasta abril de 1997 en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica, agregando datos de proporción sexual de tres manadas observadas en 1998. Registramos el número de cópulas y de amamantamientos, así como la presencia de recién nacidos en las manadas. Observamos una marcada estacionalidad en la reproducción, con un pico en el número de cópulas en febrero y otro en julio. La mayor cantidad de recién nacidos y el pico de actividad de amamantamiento fueron en julio y agosto, cuando la disponibilidad de alimento era alta. Entre adultos predominaron numéricamente las hembras (1.4:1 - 1.8:1, lo cual difiere de lo
Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.
ARIANA RAQUEL DE FREITAS HONORATO
Full Text Available Rio Grande do Norte state despite having favorable conditions for growing garlic, currently depends on imports of this product to meet its domestic demand. Evaluation of cultivars from of other regions of Brazil was determined in order to verify the agronomic performance under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Mossoró. region The study consisted of an experiment conducted in the city of Mossoro from June to November/ 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications and eleven treatments, cultivars Amarante, Branco Mossoró, Caturra, Chinês Real, Chinês São Joaquim, Cateto Roxo, Gravatá, Gigante do Núcleo, Gigante Lavinia , Gigante Roxo and Hozan. Cultivars Branco Mossoró, Caturra, Cateto Roxo and Gravatá had a greater percentage of plants with bulb and larger diameter bulb, indicating adaptability conditions of Mossoró. Most total yield bulbs was recorded by cultivar Branco Mossoró presented 65.22% and 11.53% distributed in bulb diameter grades 3 (32 to 37 mm and 4 (37 to 42 mm, respectively.
banding could be a complementary tool in the study of constitutive heterochromatin heterogeneity in chromosomes of the Tayassuidae. Our characterization of peccary chromosomes suggests that the Pecari tajacu autosomal karyotype is more ...
Full Text Available Secondary forests are extensive in the tropics. Currently, these plant communities are the available habitats for wildlife and in the future they will possibly be some of the most wide-spread ecosystems world-wide. To understand the potential role of secondary forests for wildlife conservation, three ungulate species were studied: Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Pecari tajacu. We analyzed their relative abundance and habitat use at two spatial scales: (1 Local, where three different successional stages of tropical deciduous forest were compared, and (2 Landscape, where available habitats were compared in terms of landscape composition (proportion of forests, pastures and croplands within 113 ha. To determine the most important habitat-related environmental factors influencing the Sign Encounter Rate (SER of the three ungulate species, 11 physical, anthropogenic and vegetation variables were simultaneously analyzed through model selection using Akaike’s Information Criterion. We found, that P. tajacu and O. virginianus mainly used early successional stages, while M. temama used all successional stages in similar proportions. The latter species, however, used early vegetation stages only when they were located in landscapes mainly covered by forest (97%. P. tajacu and O. virginianus also selected landscapes covered essentially by forests, although they required smaller percentages of forest (86%. All ungulate species avoided landscape fragments covered by pastures. For all three species, landscape composition and human activities were the variables that best explained SER. We concluded that landscape is the fundamental scale for ungulate management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for ungulate conservation.
Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M
The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced
Jácomo Divino Borges
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Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.
The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.
KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.
G. P. Viegas
Full Text Available Three locals corn varieties and two commercial hybrids were studied at ten different places, during three consecutive years, in comparative trials. Randomized blocks, and Latin square design were used in plots with 30 or 15 square meters. Hybrid H.3531 was more productive in localities with poor soils while in places with rich soils the Agroceres hybrid was better than the open pollinated varieties. No significant difference between these hybrids was observed. In these trials, hybrids H.3531 and Agroceres produced, on the average, about 400 kg/ha more than the open pollinated varieties, Cateto and Armour, with which they have been compared.
Full Text Available The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60km², while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5 292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H´=2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargenteus (IAR=0.23 and Pecari tajacu (IAR=0.20. By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR=2.62 and Nasua narica (IAR=1.28. In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mammals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México. Rev. Biol. Trop
Cortés-Marcial, Malinalli; Briones-Salas, Miguel
The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60 km2, while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144 km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H' = 2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargen- teus (IAR = 0.23) and Pecari tajacu (IAR = 0.20). By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR = 2.62) and Nasua narica (IAR = 1.28). In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mam- mals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.
Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.; Papa, P.C.
Objectives: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important vascular mitogens, while the angiotensin receptor Tie-2 binds to the angiopoietin and stabilizes newly formed vessels. We therefore wanted to localize VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and the Tie-2 recep...
Fiorella Nasha Gonzales Guillén
Full Text Available Between the months of August to November 2011 were conducted 42 semi-structured interviews to assess the hunting of mammals in areas of special purpose (ZUE and buffer (ZA National Park Tingo María surveys. The results indicate that 43% of the population practiced hunting as a secondary activity, the main smallholder agriculture. The methodology used for hunting are the "tramperas" while the hunting is often 2-3 times a month. Hunting is more common after the wet season, it is selective and responds to the taste of meat that an economic need. Among the most hunted mammals include agouti Dasyprocta sp. and picuro Cuniculus paca, while animals higher biomass as the peccary Pecari tajacu are rare in the area, so it is recommended to increase the control of hunting of vulnerable species in the villages which are inside and in the vicinity of the Park.
Jorge J. Cherem
Full Text Available Studies to evaluate environmental impacts have become both a need and a requirement of environmental agencies due to great alteration of the native environments provoked by man. Many of these studies are short-termed, but reporting the acquired data is very important in order to increase knowledge about specific biotic groups. Thus, this paper presents the results of the non-volant mammal surveys arising from seven environmental studies in southern Brazil. The following methodologies were employed: (1 interviews with local residents; (2 visual observations and recording; (3 identification of vestiges; and (4 capture with live traps. A total of 46 mammal species were recorded (5 marsupials, 4 xenarthrans, 2 primates, 13 carnivores, 2 artiodactylans, 2 lagomorphs and 18 rodents. Some species, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca, giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis, Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, are possibly extinct or seriously threatened. The records obtained and the possibilities of the occurrence of other species are discussed.
Diversidad de mamíferos terrestres de talla grande y media de una selva subcaducifolia del noreste de Oaxaca, México Diversity of large and medium sized land mammals of a subcaducifolious tropical forest of north eastern of Oaxaca, Mexico
Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca en el sureste de México alberga una biodiversidad extraordinaria. Sin embargo, las actividades humanas han propiciado alteraciones considerables, incluida la disminución de diferentes ambientes naturales, especialmente de los bosques tropicales; por ello es importante documentar la diversidad de estos ambientes, así como su respuesta a las transformaciones antropocéntricas. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estimar la diversidad de mamíferos terrestres en una selva mediana en el noreste del estado de Oaxaca, México. Se recorrieron 3 senderos para la búsqueda de rastros, captura de organismos, avistamientos y fototrampeo de septiembre de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Se registraron 15 especies de 6 órdenes, 11 familias y 14 géneros, entre ellas 7 nuevas para la región. Las especies más abundantes fueron Nasua narica, Pecari tajacu, Dasyprocta mexicana, Cuniculus paca y Leopardus pardalis. A pesar de presentar un índice de diversidad bajo con respecto a otros estudios comparables, la presencia de especies consideradas en riesgo por la legislación mexicana, como L. pardalis, L. wiedii, Eira barbara y Tamandua mexicana hacen a la zona valiosa para la conservación de la diversidad en la región.The state of Oaxaca, in southeast Mexico is home to an extraordinary biodiversity. But human activities have led to significant changes, including reduction of different natural habitats, especially tropical forests, so it is important to document the diversity of these environments, and their response to the anthropocentric changes. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the diversity of terrestrial mammals in a tropical forest in northeastern of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Three transects were walked to search for tracks, catches of organisms, sightings, and phototrapping from September 2007 to August 2008. There were recorded 15 species of 6 orders, 11 families, and 14 genera, 7 of this not previously known in the region. The
Jesús E. Rojas-Jaimes
Conclusion: The results showed the presence of L. (V guyanensis DNA in R. microplus possibly acquired after biting a collarde peccary. Therefore, it is important to design future studies to clarify R. microplus involvement in the transmission of leishmaniasis.
Avaliação de características da carcaça e da qualidade da carne de queixada (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795] Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat quality of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795
Eduardo Mendes Ramos
Full Text Available No presente trabalho, propôs-se avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade na carcaça e carne de queixadas adultas. Um total de quatro queixadas (três machos e uma fêmea, com peso vivo (PV médio de 29,47 ± 3,45 kg, foi abatido, determinado o rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, e avaliada a área do olho do lombo (AOL, gordura de marmoreio (GM, espessura da gordura de cobertura (EGC, pH, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC, concentração de pigmentos heme totais (PHT e composição centesimal no músculo Longissimus dorsi (LD. O RCQ em relação ao PV foi de 53,80%, assemelhando-se aos índices observados em bovinos e búfalos, sendo encontrada uma quebra de peso de 3,22% após refrigeração. O pH médio final, após 24 horas, foi de 5,54, dentro da faixa considerada normal para carnes suínas. Os valores médios obtidos para AOL (14,44 cm² e EGC (3,75 mm indicam um bom desenvolvimento muscular e uma menor proporção de gordura na carcaça, também evidenciada pela existência de traços de GM e pelo baixo conteúdo de lipídeos observados no lombo. De forma geral, o lombo apresentou composição média de 74,59% de umidade, 20,25% de proteína, 1,08% de lipídeos e 1,17% de cinzas, muito similares aos observados em animais convencionais. Os dados médios de PHT (69,49 ppm e PPC (13,68% demonstram a qualidade da carne de queixada, uma vez que refletem no favorecimento da cor vermelha do produto final e em uma baixa perda de peso do corte, durante o preparo.This work was carried out to evaluate carcass and meat quality attributes of adult white-lipped peccaries. A total of four white-lipped peccaries (three males and one female, with average of live weights (LW of 29.47 ± 3.45 kg, were slaughtered and evaluated for hot carcass dressing (HCD, ribeye area (REA, rib fat thickness (RFT, intramuscular fat (marbling, pH, cook loss (CL, total haem pigments (THP and proximate composition of Longissimus dorsi (LD. The HCD in relation to LW was of 53.80% and a shrink loss of 3.22% after 24 hours of refrigeration was found. The final pH (5.54 observed was considered normal for pork carcass. The REA (14.44 cm² and RFT (3,75 mm values indicate a good muscular development and a low proportion of fat in the carcass, also evidenced for marbling traces and low content of lipids observed in the LD. The loin proximate composition was: 74.59% of moisture; 20.25% of protein; 1.08% of ethereal extract; and 1.17% of ash. The THP (69.49 ppm and CL (13.68% values show the meat quality of the peccaries, since the THP are related to the red color of the meat and CL indicates a low loss of weight during cooking.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa sobre la abundancia, presión de caza y el impacto de la caza en mamíferos que habitan los bosques de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. La información procede de censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Entre los mamíferos de caza, el choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fue el más abundante con 15,4 individuos/km², mientras que el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus y el venado colorado (Mazama americana Erxleben fueron los menos abundantes con 0,15 individuos/km² y 0,5 individuos/ km2, respectivamente. Por otro lado, del área fueron cosechados un promedio anual de 1176 mamíferos, equivalente a 14184,6 kg. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, huangana (Tayassu pecari Link, choro (L. poeppigii, mono aullador (A. seniculus y machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción anual.
Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R
The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (Pstraw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (Pstraws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (Pstraws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues
In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.
Conocimiento, uso y valor cultural de seis presas del jaguar (Panthera onca y su relación con éste, en San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico Knowledge, use and cultural value of six prey of jaguar (Panthera onca and their relationship with this species in San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico
Dulce M. Ávila-Nájera
Full Text Available Durante 2007 se obtuvo información del conocimiento y la percepción que los pobladores del ejido tienen sobre el jaguar, sus presas y los factores que afectan la distribución y su conservación. Mediante el índice de importancia cultural (IIC se determinó el conocimiento que los ejidatarios tienen de las presas, y el uso y valor que les otorgan. Las presas que reconocieron importantes fueron venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus, temazate (Mazama temama, pecarí (Tayassu pecari, tejón (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus y tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca; 72% de los encuestados también identificaron especies domésticas como presas del jaguar. Según su percepción, las más abundantes son pecarí, tejón y armadillo. El valor de uso más importante es el alimenticio, puesto que 82% de los encuestados ha consumido alguna especie silvestre. El valor más alto del IIC fue para el venado (27.17. En el ejido se considera perjudicial el jaguar por alimentarse del ganado. Los pobladores y los jaguares utilizan las mismas especies para obtener beneficio. El presente estudio constituye una base para el desarrollo de trabajos tendientes a manejar y conservar los recursos naturales que existen en el ejido considerando las necesidades de la población humana, de su fauna silvestre y la relación entre éstas.During 2007, we obtained information about the knowledge, perception of rural people regarding jaguar, its preys and the factors that affect its distribution and conservation. Additionally, we determined with the Index of Cultural Importance the knowledge, use and value that rural people assign to preys of the jaguar. They recognized as important prey species of the jaguar to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, brocket (Mazama temama, pecari (Tayassu peccari, coati (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus and paca (Cuniculus paca. Most of the villagers (72% identified also domestic species as preys of the jaguar
Hábito alimentar e interferência antrópica na atividade de marcação territorial do Puma concolor e Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae e outros carnívoros na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brasil Food habits and anthropic interference on the territorial marking activity of Puma concolor and Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae and other carnivores in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available Os hábitos alimentares da onça-parda, jaguatirica e outros carnívoros foram estudados na Juréia (80.000 ha, um dos maiores remanescentes de Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi baseado na análise de fezes encontradas durante um período de amostragem de 15 meses e 415 km percorridos. A diversidade de presas encontradas nas fezes foi alta para ambos os felinos, tendo como presas mais importantes da onça-parda em freqüência de ocorrência e biomassa, o cateto e o tatu-de-rabo-mole, e marsupiais na dieta da jaguatirica. Maior freqüência de fezes de carnívoros foi encontrada distante das casas de moradores tradicionais, sugerindo um comportamento territorial evitando a proximidade da presença humana.Food habits of puma, ocelot and other carnivores were studied in Juréia (80.000 ha, one of the largest remnants of Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo. The study was based on the analysis of scats found during a sampling period of 15 months and 415 km traversed. The diversity of prey found was high for both felines, with higher frequency and estimated biomass of collared peccary and the greater naked-tailed armadillo in the diet of the puma, and marsupials in the diet of the ocelot. The highest frequency of carnivore scats was found distant from traditional households, suggesting avoidance behavior towards human presence.
Rodolfo Burgos de Luna
Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.
Perez, Eddy; Pacheco, Luis F
Wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. A formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural management practices and controlled hunting in reducing damage to subsistence annual crops at the Cotapata National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The design included seven fields with modified agricultural practices, four fields subjected to control hunting, and five fields held as controls. We registered cultivar type, density, frequency of visiting species to the field, crops lost to wildlife, species responsible for damage, and crop biomass. Most frequent species in the fields were Dasyprocta punctata and Dasypus novemcinctus. Hunted plots were visited 1.6 times more frequently than agriculturally managed plots. Crop lost to wildlife averaged 7.28% at agriculturally managed plots, 4.59% in plots subjected to hunting, and 27.61% in control plots. Species mainly responsible for damage were Pecari tajacu, D. punctata, and Sapajus apella. We concluded that both management strategies were effective to reduce damage by >50% as compared to unmanaged crop plots.
Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.
It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.
Vitaliano, S N; Soares, H S; Minervino, A H H; Santos, A L Q; Werther, K; Marvulo, M F V; Siqueira, D B; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Su, C; Gennari, S M
This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus), three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla), three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari), one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as "primary samples", were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP), using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico). A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.
Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.
Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acre, Brasil The richness of the large and medium-sized mammals of the Serra do Divisor National Park (Acre, Brazil
Armando Muniz Calouro
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the richness (number of species of large and medium-sized mammals, and the antropic threats in the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD. In 31 days data were collected through direct observations or evidences (bones, hairs, vocalizations and tracks along pre-existing trails distributed in different types of vegetation. Wild mammals captured by local people were also considered. They were found 44 species of terrestrial mammals (with the exception of small mammals and bats and two species of cetaceans, representing 73% of the total predicted, according to the literature and information of local dwellers were registered in PNSD. They exist in the area two species classified by IUCN (1996 as "Endangered" [Cacajao calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy, 1806 and Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792] and five as "Vulnerable" [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Callimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii (Humboldt, 1812, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817]. Given that subsistence and commercial hunting are common in the PNSD, mammals more affected by hunting [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812, Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795] were observed only in the more remote areas such as Serra do Divisor, Rio Moa. In comparison with others areas, the results indicate that PNSD has high richness of the mammals, with special attention to the 14 primates species registered.
Herbert S. Soares
Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.
Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon ) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ), one agouti ( Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas ( Cuniculus paca ), Babesia spp. in one common opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis ) and one white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari ). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani ) in three spectacled caimans ( Caiman crocodilus ), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle ( Kinosternon scorpioides ) and one lowland paca ( Cuniculus paca ). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.
Borges, Alana A; Lira, Gabriela P O; Nascimento, Lucas E; Queiroz Neta, Luiza B; Santos, Maria V O; Oliveira, Moacir F; Silva, Alexandre R; Pereira, Alexsandra F
Skin vitrification is a promising and alternative tool for the conservation of biodiversity, especially for wild mammals, such as collared peccaries. Several factors can affect the success of this procedure, such as the cryoprotectant solution used. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare the efficiency of various vitrification solutions for recovery of viable cells after in vitro culture of cryopreserved skin tissues derived from the collared peccary, aiming to study the application in biobanking, where cellular use is not immediately required. Then, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) composed of 2.2 g/L sodium bicarbonate and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was supplemented with 3.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) or 3.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 1.5 M EG plus 1.5 M DMSO with or without sucrose (SUC; 0.25 M) to produce six solutions for solid-surface vitrification. After warming, skin tissues were cultured in vitro and recovered cells were analyzed for morphology, adhesion, subconfluence, and proliferative activity for developing the growth curve and determining the population doubling time (PDT), and viability by Trypan Blue. The vitrification did not alter the ability of the tissues to adhere to the culture dish, as well as the day of all explants with cell growth, subconfluence samples, subconfluence total time, and PDT (p > 0.05). Moreover, independent of the cryoprotectant solution used, the vitrification altered the day of all attached explants (p 0.05). Additionally, for viability after the third passage, only the EG-SUC group maintained the cell quality (88.3%), when compared with the nonvitrified (97.8%, p > 0.05). In conclusion, DMEM with 10% FBS, 3.0 M EG, and 0.25 M sucrose was the most efficient solution for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissues, leading to the in vitro culture of viable cells.
Alana A. Borges
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The cryopreservation of somatic tissue in collared peccaries promotes an alternative source of genetic material of this specie. The solid-surface vitrification (SSV is a great option for tissue conservation; nevertheless, the optimization of SSV requirements is necessary, especially when referred to cryoprotectants that will compose the vitrification solution. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the effect of the presence of 0.25 M sucrose in addition to different combinations (only or association and concentrations (1.5 M or 3.0 M of ethylene glycol (EG and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO in the somatic tissue vitrification of collared peccaries. Subsequently, we tested six combinations of cryoprotectants with or without sucrose in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Thus, 3.0 M EG with sucrose was able to maintain normal tissue characteristics compared with non-vitrified (control, especially for the volumetric ratio of epidermis (61.2 vs. 58.7% and dermis (34.5 vs. 36.6%, number of fibroblast (90.3 vs. 127.0, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR ratio (0.09 vs. 0.17% and nucleus area (15.4 vs. 14.5 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, 3.0 M EG with 0.25 M sucrose and 10% FBS resulted in a better cryoprotectant composition in the SSV for somatic tissue of collared peccaries.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.
Selene S C Nogueira
Full Text Available Grunt-like calls are present in the vocal repertoire of many group-living mammals and seem to facilitate social interactions between lower and higher-ranking members. The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari lives in stable hierarchical mixed-sex groups and like non-human primates, usually emits grunt-like calls following aggressive interactions, mainly during feeding contexts. We investigated the possible functions of peccaries' grunt-like calls and their relationship to the individuals' social rank, identity, and sexual dimorphism. We observed that low-ranking individuals emitted grunt-like calls more often than high-ranking ones, and that the alpha male never emitted this vocalization. Moreover, the mean minimum frequency of grunt-like calls decreased as the peccary's rank increased. The findings revealed differences among individual grunts, but the low accuracy of cross-validation (16% suggests that individual recognition in peccaries may be less important than an honest signal of individual social status. In addition, the absence of differences in the acoustic parameters of grunt-like calls between males and females points to the lack of sexual dimorphism in this species. We verified that after hearing grunt calls, dominant opponents were more likely to cease attacking a victim, or at least delay the continuation of conflict, probably decreasing the severity of agonistic interactions. Our findings are particularly important to improve the current understanding of the role of grunt-like calls in herd-living mammals with linear dominant hierarchies, and strongly suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of herd social stability and cohesion.
Nogueira, Selene S C; Caselli, Christini B; Costa, Thaise S O; Moura, Leiliany N; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G
Grunt-like calls are present in the vocal repertoire of many group-living mammals and seem to facilitate social interactions between lower and higher-ranking members. The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) lives in stable hierarchical mixed-sex groups and like non-human primates, usually emits grunt-like calls following aggressive interactions, mainly during feeding contexts. We investigated the possible functions of peccaries' grunt-like calls and their relationship to the individuals' social rank, identity, and sexual dimorphism. We observed that low-ranking individuals emitted grunt-like calls more often than high-ranking ones, and that the alpha male never emitted this vocalization. Moreover, the mean minimum frequency of grunt-like calls decreased as the peccary's rank increased. The findings revealed differences among individual grunts, but the low accuracy of cross-validation (16%) suggests that individual recognition in peccaries may be less important than an honest signal of individual social status. In addition, the absence of differences in the acoustic parameters of grunt-like calls between males and females points to the lack of sexual dimorphism in this species. We verified that after hearing grunt calls, dominant opponents were more likely to cease attacking a victim, or at least delay the continuation of conflict, probably decreasing the severity of agonistic interactions. Our findings are particularly important to improve the current understanding of the role of grunt-like calls in herd-living mammals with linear dominant hierarchies, and strongly suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of herd social stability and cohesion.
Selene S C Nogueira
Full Text Available Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3 and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled. The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2 than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3. The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1 and the following control phase (C2 than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2, also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.
Nogueira, Selene S C; Abreu, Shauana A; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G
Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene información relacionada a la caza, la abundancia y el impacto de la caza de los mamíferos que habitan los bosques inundables aledaños a dos comunidades asentadas en el interior de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria. Está basado en registros de caza y censos por transectos. Los registros de caza muestran un promedio de cosecha anual de 190,3 mamíferos del área de San Miguel, equivalente a 2275,9 kg de carne de monte, y 104,5 mamíferos del área de Parinari, equivalente a 985,9 kg de carne de monte. Los primates fueron los más abundantes en ambas áreas de estudio; sin embargo, las densidades estimadas fueron mayores para el área de Parinari. Ninguna especie de ungulados fue observada en el área de San Miguel, mientras que para el área de Parinari la densidad del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus fue estimada en 0,2 individuos/ km2 y para el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link en 6,6 individuos/ km2 . Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza para el tapir, maquisapa cenizo (Ateles belzebuth E. Geoffroy, choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt y mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción. Se discuten los factores que podrían influir para la escasez y/o ausencia de algunas especies, particularmente ungulados y primates.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene información relacionada a los mamíferos de caza que habitan los aguajales de los bosques inundables de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria y su interrelación con las plantas alimenticias. Está basado en censos por transectos en aguajales de origen reciente y aguajales semi-eutrofizados. Fueron registrados 24 especies de mamíferos de caza haciendo uso de los aguajales; de ellas, los primates fueron los más representativos y de mayor abundancia en ambos tipos de aguajales. Entre los primates, el fraile (Saimiri boliviensis E. Geoffroy & R. de Blainville y el machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus fueron los más abundantes en aguajales de origen reciente (350 individuos/km2 y 90 individuos/km2 , respectivamente, mientras que el machín blanco (Cebus albifrons Humboldt fue el más abundante en aguajales semi-eutrofizados (90 individos/ km2 . En términos de biomasa, los ungulados tuvieron la mayor biomasa y estuvieron representados por el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link con 825 kg/km2 y el tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus con 126,6 kg/km2 . Finalmente, en los aguajales fueron registradas 16 especies de plantas alimenticias, la mayoría habitando en los aguajales semi-eutrofizados; de ellas, el aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L.f., la shapaja (Scheelea cephalotes Poepp. Ex Mart y los renacos (Ficus spp., constituyeron los recursos alimenticios más importantes, de cuyos frutos y semillas se alimentaron alrededor de 14 especies de mamíferos de caza.
Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo
Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.
Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.
Lluis i Ginovart, J.
Full Text Available In the Gothic era, spiral staircases were one of the greatest showpieces of the magister operis knowledge. They were the focus of arithmetic and geometric medieval constructor knowledge. Their construction involved the use of templates known as gabarits, which required the polygonal division of the circumference. These regular 11-, 13-, 14-, 17- and 19-sided polygons do not appear in the Euclid’s Elementa or the Tolomeo’s Almagest, or in the few Practica Geometriae of the time. These polygons can be constructed by using a square with two arms, supporting repeatedly the legs on the hypotenuse, a rotation of the instrument. Squares constructed using arithmetic or geometric methods must always be calibrated and can therefore be used as an abacus, which enables the circumference to be divided with sufficient accuracy. San Pedro (1383 and Santa Catalina staircases (1424, of Tortosa’s cathedral, have been drawn by the instruments explained previously.Las escaleras de caracol en el período gótico han sido uno de los mayores exponentes del conocimiento de los magister operis. En él se concentran los saberes aritméticos y geométricos del constructor medieval. Para su construcción se utilizan los gabarits, que necesitan el concurso de la división poligonal de la circunferencia. Los polígonos regulares de 11, 13, 14, 17 y 19 caras no aparecen en los Elementa de Euclides, ni en el Almagesto de Tolomeo, ni en las escasas Practica Geometriae de la época. Estos polígonos pueden ser construidos mediante la utilización de una escuadra de dos brazos, con el apoyo reiterado de los catetos sobre la hipotenusa, creando así una rotación del instrumento. Las escuadras construidas por métodos aritméticos o geométricos pueden ser utilizadas como un ábaco, el cual permite resolver con suficiente exactitud la división de la circunferencia. Las escaleras de San Pedro (1383 y Santa Catalina (1424 de la catedral de Tortosa han sido trazadas mediante
Full Text Available Com base na abordagem etnozoológica foram resgatadas informações históricas e atuais sobre a mastofauna do município de Fênix, mesorregião centro-ocidental do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, no ano de 2004, foram realizadas entrevistas com 19 moradores locais por meio de uma conversa informal que tinham por objetivo o preenchimento de um questionário básico e a apresentação de fotografias da fauna potencial da região. Como resultado, foram registradas 39 espécies de mamíferos, sendo que destas, pelo menos seis são novos registros para a área. Informações obtidas em relação à caça indicam que esta atividade, muito comum no passado, ainda é presente, inclusive em unidades de conservação, como o Parque Estadual Vila Rica do Espírito Santo. As espécies que sofreram e sofrem maior pressão de caça são as mesmas citadas para outras partes do neotrópico. Atualmente, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae é a espécie mais procurada, dada à facilidade de encontrá-la em diversas áreas naturais ou parcialmente antropizadas do município. No que se refere à predação causada por animais silvestres sobre animais domésticos, quase 80% dos entrevistados relataram ter sofrido perdas em suas criações, principalmente galinhas, resultantes de ataques de carnívoros de médio porte. Dados sobre alterações temporais na composição da mastofauna também foram obtidos junto aos entrevistados, como a extinção local de alguns mamíferos de grande porte (Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 (Felidae, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Tapiridae e Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795 (Tayassuidae e o aumento populacional de Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (Cebidae e de Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766 (Procyonidae, supostamente relacionado ao consumo de plantações como o milho.Based on an ethnozoological approach we obtained historical and present information on the mammalian fauna of the municipality of Fênix
Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Roberta M. de Araújo
Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica, apesar de ainda sofrer uma intensa devastação, abriga 261 espécies de mamíferos, sendo 73 endêmicos. Mamíferos de grande porte estão entre os mais vulneráveis à caça, perda de habitat e tráfico de animais. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro existem somente duas Reservas Biológicas de Mata Atlântica de baixada, a Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas e a Reserva Biológica União. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da prática da caça ilegal sobre a fauna de mamíferos nestas duas Unidades de Conservação. O levantamento populacional foi realizado utilizando o método de transecção linear e 375 quilômetros foram percorridos durante o período de dezembro de 2003 a janeiro de 2005. Os dados de estimativa de densidade populacional foram analisados no programa DISTANCE 5.0. Através de encontros visuais foram confirmadas 12 espécies durante o levantamento, sendo estas regularmente caçadas na região. As espécies que apresentaram maior densidade nas duas Unidades de Conservação foram o macaco-prego (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, o bugio (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, tatu-galinha (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758 e o tatu (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies mais raras ou ausentes foram a anta (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, o veado (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 e o queixada (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. Evidências diretas e indiretas da ação da caça ilegal foram observadas nas duas áreas de estudo, indicando que a caça é uma prática comum nessas Reservas Biológicas. A sobrevivência a longo prazo dessas espécies é questionável, já que as populações remanescentes em fragmentos são pequenas e isoladas, o que as tornam muito susceptível à extinção mesmo sob uma baixa pressão de caça.The Atlantic Rain Forest even though suffering intense devastation, shelters 261 species of mammals, 73 endemic. Large mammals were among the most vulnerable to
Omar Stalin Landázuri Paredes
Full Text Available Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans. A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%. Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species
Paredes, Omar Stalin Landázuri; Norris, Darren; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Michalski, Fernanda
Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits) on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores) and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans). A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%). Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans) were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species
Campbell, Tyler A.; Long, David B.; Shriner, Susan A.
Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons ( Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine ( Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks.
Acevedo-Quintero, Juan Fernando; Zamora-Abrego, Joan Gastón
Mammals and palms are important elements of fauna and flora in the Neotropics, and their interactions, such as fruit consumption and seed dispersal, are one of the most important ecological relationships in these ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to identify the relative importance of mammals in the dispersal and predation of Mauritia flexuosa palm fruits. We installed camera-traps in front of palm fallen seeds and clusters with fruits. A catalog of species was prepared with the recorded videos and the foraging behaviors exhibited were classified and identified. In addition, two exclusion treatments with three repetitions each were used. In the semi-open treatment, a plot was fenced with metal mesh leaving four open- ings in order to allow access only to small and medium sized mammals, while in the open treatment, the small, medium and large sized mammals had free access. In both cases, seed removal was evaluated. We recorded a total of 19 species of mammals, nine of which fed on palm fruits and the other five were seed dispersers. We reported for the first time the consumption of Mauritia flexuosa fruits by Atelocynus microtis. The species with the highest relative importance was Dasyprocta fuliginosa, which showed the highest percentage of seed dispersal (63.5%) compared to the other species. Tayassu peccary was identified as an in situ consumer, eating 45.3% of seeds without dispersing them. The number of seeds consumed in situ in the open treatment showed significant differences regarding the semi-open treatment, suggesting greater involvement of large mammals in this process. In conclusion, the fruits of M. flexuosa are an important food source for the local mammal com- munity. Additionally, the consumption of seeds under the canopy of the mother palm is proportionally greater than their dispersion. Generally, the pressure of frugivorous species over seeds may determine the reproductive strategies of plants. However, research on effective
Lall, Kavita Ranjeeta; Jones, Kegan Romelle; Garcia, Gary Wayne
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume. Nutritional requirements of the animals are required to understand what is needed for growth, maintenance and reproduction of each physiological stage. The agouti ( D. leporina/D. aguti ) was observed to be a monogastric mammal that fed primarily on fruits, seeds, animal matter and practiced caecotrophy. The lappe/paca ( C. paca/A. paca ) was described as a strict herbivore and a frugivore which practiced caecotrophy, with a diet that varied throughout the year, according to food availability. The capybara ( H. hydrochaeris ) was found to be the largest known rodent and was described as a semiaquatic hindgut fermenter that practiced caecotrophy. The manicou/opossum ( D. marsupialis insularis ) was found to be an omnivore with a simple stomach. The collared peccary ( T. tajacu ) was found to be frugivorous. Their unique stomach enabled them to consume a wide variety of feedstuff, allowing them to be found in a wide range of habitats. The red brocket deer ( M. americana ), a ruminant, was described as a browser that consumed mainly fruits and seeds and they frequented mineral lick. Knowledge of what they consume in the wild is important, so that we know what to feed in captivity. There is also the need to evaluate captive diets while trying to domesticate these mammals and develop nutrient requirement tables for these
Olivero, Jesús; Ferri, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Lobo, Jorge M; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Á; Romero, David; Real, Raimundo
, overall hunting, and more specifically the hunting of primates, Mazama americana, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, and Tayassu pecari. Our results showed that TEK-based approaches can serve as a basis for validating the livelihood relevance of landscapes in high-value conservation areas, which can form the basis for furthering the management of natural resources in these regions.
Raphael Alves Fonseca
Full Text Available In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July and two in the dry season (September and November in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (χ²=23.79, df=5, p<0.001. A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267 or between
Federico A Chinchilla
Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae, Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha. However the smaller fragment (20 ha, had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 865-877. Epub 2009 September 30.Pocos estudios han evaluado la depredación de semillas en ambientes fragmentados, en éstos la menor diversidad de especies debe estar modificando las interacciones ecológicas. Se investigó la remoción de semillas por mamíferos en un bosque continuo y dos fragmentos en Monteverde