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Sample records for categories purification method

  1. Method for biological purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    2001-03-27

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  2. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  3. Simplified purification method for Clostridium difficiletoxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Wu Fu; Jing Xue; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish the purification method for Clostridiumdifficile ( C. difficile) toxin A.METHODS: C. difficile VPI 10463 filtrate was cultured anaerobically by the dialysis bag methods. And then the toxin A was purified by precipitation with 500 g/L (NH4)2SO4and acid precipitation at pH 5.5, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl.RESULTS: Purified toxin A exhibited only one band on nativepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) andOuchterlony double immunodiffusion. The molecular weight of toxin A was estimated to be 550 000. The purified toxin A had a protein concentration of 0.881 mg/mL. The minimum lethal dose was 1×106 MLD/mL (i.p.mice). The cytotoxictiter was 107 CU/mg. The haemagglutinate activity was ata concentration of 1.72 μg/mL. The ratio of fluid volume (mL)accumulated to the length (cm) of the loop was 2.46. CONCLUSION: The modified method for purification of toxin A of C. difficile was simple and convenient. It may be even more suitable for purification of toxin A on large scales.

  4. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  5. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  6. The efficiency study of different purification methods for liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wei; Yu, Boxiang; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    JUNO is an experiment aimed at detecting neutrino mass hierarchy. The innermost part of the JUNO detector is formed by 20,000 tons of liquid scintillator which should have very low level of radioactive materials, such as 238U, 232Th, and 40K. Since the radioactive level of raw LAB(the solvent of LS)cannot reach so stringent requirements of JUNO, the purification for LAB plays an extremely important role in LS production. This article studies the efficiency of several different purification methods for LS, like distillation, water extraction and Al2O3 purification.

  7. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio A. Maximiano; Marcia A. da Silva; Katia R. P. Daghastanli; de Araujo, Pedro S.; Hernan Chaimovich; Iolanda M. Cuccovia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a) homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b) solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c) repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed wit...

  8. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  9. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during ...... isopycnic centrifugation, so that phenol/chloroform extractions can be omitted. The method was used for the purification of DNA from several members of the Alfaherpesvirinae subfamily.......A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  10. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio A. Maximiano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed with chloroform before elution with chloroform:methanol, allowing the sequential separation of fatty acids and lecithin. Chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of the product are presented. This fast procedure yields fatty acid-free lecithin at a competitive cost.

  11. Improved methods for magnetic purification of malaria parasites and haemozoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites generate free haem upon catabolism of host haemoglobin during their intraerythrocytic growth cycle. In order to minimize oxidative toxicity of the ferric iron, the free haem molecules are polymerized into the biomineral beta-haematin (commonly referred to as haemozoin. Haemozoin crystals are paramagnetic, and this property can be exploited for the purification of late stage parasites as they contain larger haemozoin crystals than early stage parasites and uninfected cells. Commercially available magnets that were originally developed for the purpose of antibody-mediated cell purification are widely used for this purpose. As these methods are not necessarily optimized for parasite purification, the relationship between magnetic field strength and the quantity and quality of yield during parasite purification was explored. Methods Inexpensive rare-earth neodymium magnets with commercially available disposable columns were employed to explore the relationship between magnetic field strength and recovery of free haemozoin and infected erythrocytes (iRBCs. Results Yields of free haemozoin increased nearly linearly with increasing magnetic field strength to the strongest fields tested (8,500 Gauss. Stronger magnetic fields also improved the recovery of iRBCs with no detrimental effects on parasite viability. An in-house constructed magnetic stand, built for $75 in materials, produced superior results when compared with much more expensive commercial products. Conclusions Existing protocols for the magnetic purification of free haemozoin and iRBCs result in sub-optimal yields. Inexpensive high-strength neodymium magnets offer a better option, resulting in higher yields with no detrimental effects on parasite viability.

  12. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety.

  13. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  14. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

  15. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  16. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel S; Sears, Khandra T; Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera.

  17. Fermentation, fractionation and purification of streptokinase by chemical reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Niakan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptokinase is used clinically as an intravenous thrombolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and is commonly prepared from cultures of Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A. The objective of the present study was the production of streptokinase from strain H46A and purification by chemical reduction method."nMaterials and Methods: The rate of streptokinase production evaluated under the effect of changes on some fermentation factors. Moreover, due to the specific structure of streptokinase, a chemical reduction method employed for the purification of streptokinase from the fermentation broth. The H46A strain of group C streptococcus, was grown in a fermentor. The proper pH adjusted with NaOH under glucose feeding in an optimum temperature. The supernatant of the fermentation product was sterilized by filtration and concentrated by ultrafiltration. The pH of the concentrate was adjusted, cooled, and precipitated by methanol. Protein solution was reduced with dithiothreitol (DTT. Impurities settled down by aldrithiol-2 and the biological activity of supernatant containing streptokinase was determined."nResults: In the fed -batch culture, the rate of streptokinase production increased over two times as compared with the batch culture and the impurities were effectively separated from streptokinase by reduction method."nConclusion: Improvements in SK production are due to a decrease in lag phase period and increase in the growth rate of logarithmic phase. The methods of purification often result in unacceptable losses of streptokinase, but the chemical reduction method give high yield of streptokinase and is easy to perform it.

  18. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  19. Experimental method for the purification and reconditioning of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotae, Constantin

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the theoretical aspects regarding the magnetogravimetric purification of ferrofluids both in the process of preparation and for their reconditioning from impurities. An experimental device used for magnetogravimetric purification is described together with experiments on some samples of oil-based ferrofluid that became impure with non-mixible solid, liquid, magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients. The experiments resulted in a complete purification of the ferrofluid samples.

  20. Testing of analytical and purification methods for HTR helium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of determination of gaseous impurities (H2, O2, N2, CO, CH4, CO2) in high purity helium as well as the methods of gaseous impurities removal. A device used for the determination was the Master GC type gas chromatograph with a helium detection unit and a ShinCarbon ST column. A temperature program was used to improve the conditions of separation and to reach maximum response of the detector. The obtained limits of detection defined as three times the standard deviation of the background value of tested components are H2 0.3 vppm, O2 0.4 vppm, N2 0.2 vppm, CO 2 vppm, CH4 3 vppm, CO2 2 vppm. Analysis time is less than 20 min. The developed method will be used for checking the purity of helium environment in the experimental loop to model experimental conditions in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Within the scope of the proposal of the helium purification system, the efficiency of removing selected impurities (CO, CO2, CH4) on adsorbents (based on zeolites and active carbon) was tested. A laboratory scale apparatus and an FTIR spectrometer were used for experiments.

  1. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  2. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  3. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initial base assessment rate determined using the financial ratios method set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of...-term debt issuer rating, shall be determined using the financial ratios method. (1) Financial ratios method. Under the financial ratios method for Risk Category I institutions, each of six financial...

  4. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  5. RESEARCH METHODS OF WATER PURIFICATION FROM POLLUTION WITH PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalova N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the currently existing methods of purification of waters from pollution with petroleum and petroleum products. The most popular cleaning ways and new emerging technologies are considered. For each method of combating with petroleum pollution the circumstances and the factors are given, under which the application of this method is the most efficient and cost-effective. The article briefly describes the technology of each method, and its main strengths and weaknesses, particularly the use and quality of water purification

  6. Innovative Methods for Soil DNA Purification Tested in Soils with Widely Differing Characteristics▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Cermak, Ladislav; Novotna, Jitka; Plhackova, Kamila; Forstova, Jana; Kopecky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Seven methods of soil DNA extraction and purification were tested in a set of 14 soils differing in bedrock, texture, pH, salinity, moisture, organic matter content, and vegetation cover. The methods introduced in this study included pretreatment of soil with CaCO3 or purification of extracted DNA by CaCl2. The performance of innovated methods was compared to that of the commercial kit Mo Bio PowerSoil and the phenol-chloroform-based method of D. N. Miller, J. E. Bryant, E. L. Madsen, and W. ...

  7. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  8. A simple method of catalase purification for the undergraduate experimental course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Cheng, Meng; Wang, Yinnan; Yao, Ming; Chen, Yongchun; Gao, Yuan; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-02-01

    Catalase is a characteristic enzyme of peroxisomes, of which it is the most abundant protein. This enzyme serves as a typical example of a peroxisomal enzyme and is important in the teaching of biochemistry and molecular biology. Although there is substantial information regarding catalase purification, purifying catalase for the junior‑grade undergraduate experimental course face challenges in obtaining materials and increasingly expensive purification equipment. This study presents a simple method for the purification of mouse liver catalase using ethanol‑chloroform treatment, sodium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G‑200 gel filtration chromatography. Catalase was purified 31.8‑fold with an 18.3% yield. The advantages of this method were its low operating environment requirements, simple procedure and reduced cost. Furthermore, the method was designed to improve students' comprehensive ability and manipulative ability and to introduce a sense of innovation in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology during their junior year.

  9. Simple Protein Complex Purification and Identification Method Suitable for High- throughput Mapping of Protein Interaction Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markillie, Lye Meng; Lin, Chiann Tso; Adkins, Joshua N.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Hill, Eric A.; Hooker, Brian S.; Moore, Priscilla A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Wiley, H. S.; Kery, Vladimir

    2005-04-11

    Most of the current methods for purification and identification of protein complexes use endogenous expression of affinity tagged bait, tandem affinity tag purification of protein complexes followed by specific elution of complexes from beads, gel separation, in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis of protein interactors. We propose a single affinity tag in vitro pulldown assay with denaturing elution, trypsin digestion in organic solvent and LC ESI MS/MS protein identification using SEQUEST analysis. Our method is simple, easy to scale up and automate thus suitable for high throughput mapping of protein interaction networks and functional proteomics.

  10. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  11. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  12. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  13. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis.

  14. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  15. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  16. Data on single-step purification method for dye-labeled DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Dye-labelled DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust technique required for molecular biology since 1977 (Sanger, 1977) [1]. I have recently provided the single-step purification method for dye-labeled sequencing products, which is based on the removal of the washing step in EDTA/ethanol precipitation (Fujikura, 2015) [2]. Here I assess and report the accumulated data of the modified method on the larger scale in practice.

  17. Data on single-step purification method for dye-labeled DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-06-01

    Dye-labelled DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust technique required for molecular biology since 1977 (Sanger, 1977) [1]. I have recently provided the single-step purification method for dye-labeled sequencing products, which is based on the removal of the washing step in EDTA/ethanol precipitation (Fujikura, 2015) [2]. Here I assess and report the accumulated data of the modified method on the larger scale in practice. PMID:27077088

  18. Categorization method affects the typicality effect: ERP evidence from a category-inference task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi ewang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The typicality effect during categorization describes a phenomenon whereby typical items are more easily judged as members of a category than atypical items. Prior studies of the typicality effect have often used an inclusion task, which asks participants to assess whether an item belongs to a category. However, the correct exclusion of non-members is also an important component of effective categorization, which has yet to be directly investigated. Thus, the present study investigated how categorization method (inclusion versus exclusion modulates the typicality effect via behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Sixteen participants each in inclusion and exclusion groups were shown consecutively six words that shared a feature. Then, a seventh word was presented. The inclusion group judged if the seventh word also possessed the feature, whereas the exclusion group judged whether the word did not possess the feature. The seventh word could be typical, atypical, or a nonmember of the category. Behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs data were collected. Behavioral results showed that the two groups did not differ in accuracy. However, typical items elicited shorter response times than atypical items, and this effect was more pronounced in the inclusion than in the exclusion group. With regard to ERPs, interactions between item type and group were shown for P2, N2, and N400 periods. Within the inclusion group, a typicality effect (indicated by a main effect of item type was present in P2 and N400 time windows, while the exclusion group elicited a typicality effect only in the N2 time window. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that an inclusion judgment task is more sensitive to category typicality than an exclusion task.

  19. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for nanodisc purification and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of proper reconstitution are still major challenges during the sample preparation. This review gives an overview of the methods used for purifying and analyzing nanodiscs and nanodisc-reconstituted membrane proteins, with an emphasis on the chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches....

  20. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri D.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Murguia, Laura

    2001-01-01

    An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). A new regeneration method is applied to the cell (30) which includes slowing or stopping the purification cycle, electrically desorbing contaminants and removing the desorbed contaminants. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. The cell (30) is regenerated electrically to desorb such previously removed ions.

  1. A novel affinity purification method to isolate peptide specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Alan E; Lernmark, A; Kofod, Hans;

    1990-01-01

    with the beads and after a wash step the bound antibodies were eluted in 1 M acetic acid. The eluted material was composed predominantly of intact immunoglobulin as evidenced by the presence of heavy and light chain bands in SDS-PAGE. The eluted antibodies were peptide specific in ELISA and bound only to intact......Site-specific, high affinity polyclonal antisera are effectively and successfully produced by immunizing rabbits with synthetic peptides. The use of these antisera in subsequent immune analysis is often limited because of non-specific binding. We describe a new and simple method to effectively...... affinity-purify anti-peptide antibodies. To test our system, rabbits were immunized with model peptides representing sequences of the putative rabbit growth hormone receptor and several HLA-DQ beta-chain molecules. Polystyrene plastic beads were coated with peptides. Immune serum was incubated...

  2. Development of methods for the purification of 67Ga and 68Ga for biomolecules labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived 68Ge/68Ga generators have been in development, obtaining 68Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. 68Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived 68Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with 68Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe3+ and Zn2+. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of 68Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. 68Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of diisopropyl ether in XAD 16 and 68Ga recovery in deionized water. Although the

  3. Apparatus and method for biological purification of waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    1998-11-24

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  4. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  5. Computer Aided Methods & Tools for Separation & Purification of Fine Chemical & Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afonso, Maria B.C.; Soni, Vipasha; Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz;

    2006-01-01

    An integrated approach that is particularly suitable for solving problems related to product-process design from the fine chemicals, agrochemicals, food and pharmaceutical industries is presented together with the corresponding methods and tools, which forms the basis for an integrated computer...... aided system. The methods and tools are linked through the problems they are able to solve and the associated data-flow. The integrated computer aided system has been used to solve a number of industrial problems and summarized results from a selection, involving separation and purification issues...

  6. Purification of Pseudomonas sp. Lipase by Continuous Elution Electrophoresis Based on Pb2+ Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-li; WANG Zhi; LIU Bin; WANG Xue-li; CAO Shu-gui; LI Zheng-qiang

    2005-01-01

    A Pb2+ precipitation method was designed to get rid of the impure proteins in a lipase. The results show that it was a simple way in the primary treatment of the crude samples and about 20% impure proteins were removed in the precipitation step. Further, continuous elution electrophoresis was also applied as a preparative technique for attaining the highly pure lipase. During the continuous elution electrophoresis, the enzyme was eluted as a single peak and 5.7-fold purification was achieved in a yield of 54.3%. The two steps finally yielded an electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme.

  7. Outstanding Data sets: A new category of articles that promotes modelling published in the Quantitative Methods for Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Cousineau; Sebastien Helie

    2014-01-01

    Model comparison requires that the data set be fixed. Yet, it is common practice to replicate studies when a researcher wishes to test a new model. Consequences of this practice are (a) reduced comparability between model fits, and (b) unnecessary time and money invested in experimentation. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology journal opens a new category of articles, the Outstanding data sets, whose purpose is to publish research paper as well as research data. With this new category of p...

  8. Chromium containing silica: effect of ultrasonic and purification methods on color products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium containing silica has numerous applications, such as: fiber-optics, luminescent materials, catalysts and pigments. In paint and ceramic pigments, chromate and dichromate ions, and silica are largely used. In this paper, it has been investigated the effect of pH, heating methods, and ultrasonic stirring on chromium oxidation states coprecipitated with silica. The material has been obtained from the coprecipitation of an aqueous diluted sodium silicate solution and acid chromium nitrate solution, purified by extractions and dialysis, and dried with microwave oven. Products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nitrogem adsorption isotherm (BET). Coprecipitates are non cristalline and the specific surface area value for sample obtained by conventional heating is smaller than the one for sample obtained by ultrasonic method. It is possible to obtain silica with different colors from blue due to the Cr(III), to yellow due to the Cr (VI), depending on the precipitation, purification and drying methods. (author)

  9. Two-stage method for purification of ceruloplasmin based on its interaction with neomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Romanico, D N; Zakharova, E T; Vasilyev, V B

    2012-06-01

    A two-stage chromatography that yields highly purified ceruloplasmin (CP) from human plasma and from rat and rabbit serum is described. The isolation procedure is based on the interaction of CP with neomycin, and it provides a high yield of CP. Constants of inhibition by gentamycin, kanamycin, and neomycin of oxidase activity of CP in its reaction with p-phenylenediamine were assayed. The lowest K(i) for neomycin (11 µM) corresponded to the highest specific adsorption of CP on neomycin-agarose (10 mg CP/ml of resin). Isolation of CP from 1.4 liters of human plasma using ion-exchange chromatography on UNO-Sphere Q and affinity chromatography on neomycin-agarose yields 348 mg of CP with 412-fold purification degree. Human CP preparation obtained with A(610)/A(280) ~ 0.052 contained neither immunoreactive prothrombin nor active thrombin. Upon storage at 37°C under sterile conditions, the preparation remained stable for two months. Efficient preparation of highly purified CP from rat and rabbit sera treated according to a similar protocol suggests the suitability of our method for isolation of CP from plasma and serum of other animals. The yield of CP in three separate purifications was no less than 78%.

  10. Statistical evaluation and optimization of zinc electrolyte hot purification process by Taguchi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram Behnajady; Javad Moghaddam

    2015-01-01

    The neutral zinc sulfate solution obtained from hydrometallurgical process of Angouran zinc concentrate has cadmium, nickel and cobalt impurities, that must be purified before electrowinning. Therefore, cadmium and nickel are usually cemented out by addition of zinc dust and remained nickel and cobalt cemented out at second stage with zinc powder and arsenic trioxide. In this research, a new approach is described for determination of effective parameters and optimization of zinc electrolyte hot purification process using statistical design of experiments. The Taguchi method based on orthogonal array design (OAD) has been used to arrange the experimental runs. The experimental conditions involved in the work are as follows: the temperature range of 70−90°C for reaction temperature (T), 30−90 min for reaction time (t), 2−4 g/L for zinc powder mass concentration (M), one to five series for zinc dust particle size distributions (S1−S5), and 0.1−0.5 g/L (C) for arsenic trioxide mass concentration. Optimum conditions for hot purification obtained in this work areT4 (85 °C),t4=75 min,M4=3.5 g/L,S4 (Serie 4), andC2=0.2 g/L.

  11. Analysis of exosome purification methods using a model liposome system and tunable-resistive pulse sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rebecca E.; Korbie, Darren; Anderson, Will; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are vesicles which have garnered interest due to their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Isolation of pure yields of exosomes from complex biological fluids whilst preserving their physical characteristics is critical for downstream applications. In this study, we use 100 nm-liposomes from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and cholesterol as a model system as a model system to assess the effect of exosome isolation protocols on vesicle recovery and size distribution using a single-particle analysis method. We demonstrate that liposome size distribution and ζ-potential are comparable to extracted exosomes, making them an ideal model for comparison studies. Four different purification protocols were evaluated, with liposomes robustly isolated by three of them. Recovered yields varied and liposome size distribution was unaltered during processing, suggesting that these protocols do not induce particle aggregation. This leads us to conclude that the size distribution profile and characteristics of vesicles are stably maintained during processing and purification, suggesting that reports detailing how exosomes derived from tumour cells differ in size to those from normal cells are reporting a real phenomenon. However, we hypothesize that larger particles present in most purified exosome samples represent co-purified contaminating non-exosome debris. These isolation techniques are therefore likely nonspecific and may co-isolate non-exosome material of similar physical properties.

  12. Determination of U and Th content in the zirconium purification process using alpha spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been performed determination of U and Th and decay daughter in the zirconium purification process using alpha spectrometric method. U and Th analysis applications as well as decay daughter of zirconium purification process done, from Na2ZrO3 dissolved stage, Na2ZrO3 dissolved with 4 M HCl, dissolving Chloride Zircon Oxide (ZOC) with 6M H2SO4 at 105°C the heating. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of U and Th and decay daughter of Na2ZrO3 dissolved process, Na2ZrO3 dissolved with 4 M HCl, dissolving Chlorid Zircon oxide (ZOC) with 6M H2SO4 at 105° C the heating. From the experiments it can be concluded that the Na2ZrO3 solution and ZrOCI2, there is no U and Th nuclides, where as in solution Zr5O8(SO4)2 there are U and Th content. (author)

  13. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  14. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  15. PEG precipitation coupled with chromatography is a new and sufficient method for the purification of botulinum neurotoxin type B [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhao

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are used to treat a variety of neuro-muscular disorders, as well as in cosmetology. The increased demand requires efficient methods for the production and purification of these toxins. In this study, a new purification process was developed for purifying type B neurotoxin. The kinetics of C.botulinum strain growth and neurotoxin production were determined for maximum yield of toxin. The neurotoxin was purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation and chromatography. Based on design of full factorial experiment, 20% (w/v PEG-6000, 4 °C, pH 5.0 and 0.3 M NaCl were optimal conditions to obtain a high recovery rate of 87% for the type B neurotoxin complex, as indicated by a purification factor of 61.5 fold. Furthermore, residual bacterial cells, impurity proteins and some nucleic acids were removed by PEG precipitation. The following purification of neurotoxin was accomplished by two chromatography techniques using Sephacryl™ S-100 and phenyl HP columns. The neurotoxin was recovered with an overall yield of 21.5% and the purification factor increased to 216.7 fold. In addition, a mouse bioassay determined the purified neurotoxin complex possessed a specific toxicity (LD(50 of 4.095 ng/kg.

  16. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2007-06-26

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  17. Identification of protein partners in mycobacteria using a single-step affinity purification method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Płociński

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in developing countries. Efforts are being made to both prevent its spread and improve curability rates. Understanding the biology of the bacteria causing the disease, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, is thus vital. We have implemented improved screening methods for protein-protein interactions based on affinity purification followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method can be efficiently applied to both medium- and high-throughput studies aiming to characterize protein-protein interaction networks of tubercle bacilli. Of the 4 tested epitopes FLAG, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, protein A and haemagglutinin, the eGFP tag was found to be most useful on account of its easily monitored expression and its ability to function as a simultaneous tool for subcellular localization studies. It presents a relatively low background with cost-effective purification. RNA polymerase subunit A (RpoA was used as a model for investigation of a large protein complex. When used as bait, it co-purified with all remaining RNA polymerase core subunits as well as many accessory proteins. The amount of RpoA strongly correlated with the amount of quantification peptide used as part of the tagging system in this study (SH, making it applicable for semi-quantification studies. Interactions between the components of the RpoA-eGFP protein complex were further confirmed using protein cross-linking. Dynamic changes in the composition of protein complexes under induction of UV damage were observed when UvrA-eGFP expressing cells treated with UV light were used to co-purify UvrA interaction partners.

  18. Purification and functional analysis of the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli by employing three different methods of bacterial lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA MOJSIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the purification of the human recombinant protein expressed in E. coli using the GSTGene Fusion System, by applying various methods of bacterial lysis: sonication, freeze/thaw and beadbeating, is presented. The study was an attempt to compare the properties of the proteins obtained by the sonication method, recommended by manufacturers but inaccessible for many researchers, with those obtained using two other readily available lysis methods. The data show that all purified proteins were soluble and intact with the highest protein yield being obtained via the freeze/thaw method. The results of functional analysis indicate that the proteins purified using the sonication and freeze/thaw methods of lysis exhibited similar DNA binding affinity, while the protein purified by beadbeating was also functional but with a lower binding affinity. The conclusion of this study is that all three lysis methods could be successfully employed for protein purification.

  19. Identifying Oil, Oil-water and Water Reservoirs by the Method of Grey Poly-category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huangsheng

    1994-01-01

    @@ Grey Poly-category is a branch of Grey System belonging to System Theory. According to the System Theory, a fully determinable figure is called White Figure, a fully undeterminable figure is called Black Figure, and the figure between them is called Grey Figure. On the same principle, a fully determinable system,a fully undeterminable, and a partial determinable and partial undeterminable system are called White, Black and Grey System respectively. For the oil, oil-water and water reservoirs, each type of reservoirs has its different log response values. These values are grey figures, not a fixed figure, and then, the system made of the figures is a Grey System.

  20. Modified methods for culturing myoblasts of rats: Combination of multi-enzymatic digestion and double purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Wei Wang; Ming Fan; Xiaoping Chen; Shuhong Liu; Liang Sun

    2007-01-01

    and enzyme digestion so as to observe morphological characteristics and growth, draw growth curve, analyze surface structure under scanning electron microscope, and evaluate with Desmin immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphological characteristics and growth of myoblasts cultured in vitro.RESULTS: ① Growth of myoblasts of skeletal muscle: Primary cells had well growth, mature and differentiation. The positive rate of Desmin was 94% and purification of cells was ideal. Growth curve of cells demonstrated that myoblasts which were characterized by high purification started proliferation plentiful through transient growth lag phase (about at one or two days after inoculation). If myoblasts were not dealt with any interventions, they might become sarcotubule gradually at 3 - 5 days after proliferative phase. During this period, myoblasts maintained a monocaryon-bipolarity state under inverted phase contrast microscope. Furthermore, the growth of cells was the strongest and reproductive activity was the most powerful. This suggested that myotube started to form; in addition, muscle fiber of contractility might form under a well culturing condition. ② Immunocytochemical stain with desmin antibody: Interzonal fiber of desmin from myoblasts showed strongly positive reaction. Positive staining existed in cytoplasm had a high nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. However, myoblasts showed negative or mildly positive reaction.CONCLUSION: It is ideal for modified multi-enzymatic digestion and double purification method to dissociate and purify myoblasts of skeletal muscle; meanwhile, these two methods are both the effective ways to provide convenient conditions to obtain seed cells for neural regeneration researches.

  1. Comparison of Influenza Virus Particle Purification Using Magnetic Sulfated Cellulose Particles with an Established Centrifugation Method for Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serve, Anja; Pieler, Michael Martin; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Wolff, Michael Werner; Reichl, Udo

    2015-11-01

    A method for the purification of influenza virus particles using novel magnetic sulfated cellulose particles is presented and compared to an established centrifugation method for analytics. Therefore, purified influenza A virus particles from adherent and suspension MDCK host cell lines were characterized on the protein level with mass spectrometry to compare the viral and residual host cell proteins. Both methods allowed one to identify all 10 influenza A virus proteins, including low-abundance proteins like the matrix protein 2 and nonstructural protein 1, with a similar impurity level of host cell proteins. Compared to the centrifugation method, use of the novel magnetic sulfated cellulose particles reduced the influenza A virus particle purification time from 3.5 h to 30 min before mass spectrometry analysis.

  2. Purification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) grown by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon monooxide has been developed. Based on the result from TGA/DTA of as-prepared sample, the oxidation temperature was determined. The process included sonication, oxidation and acid washing steps. The purity and yield after purification were determined and estimated by TEM. Moreover, for the first time, a loop structure for CVD SWNTs has been observed.

  3. High oleic sunflower bio diesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighlinelli, A. L. M. T.; Ferrari, R. A.; Miguel, A. M. R. O.; Park, K. J.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of bio diesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade) and expelled rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the bio diesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified bio diesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for bio diesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification. (Author) 28 refs.

  4. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides in embodiments a method for purification of inlet gas/liquid streams in a fuel cell or electrolysis cell, the fuel cell or electrolysis cell comprising at least a first electrode, an electrolyte and a second electrode, the method comprising the steps of: - providing...... at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas/liquid...... streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...

  5. Pain from the life cycle perspective: Evaluation and Measurement through psychophysical methods of category estimation and magnitude estimation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; da Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli; Siqueira, Hilze Benigno de Oliveira Moura; Saltareli, Simone; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; Hortense, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to describe acute and chronic pain from the perspective of the life cycle. Methods: participants: 861 people in pain. The Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (MPES) was used. Results: in the category estimation method the highest descriptors of chronic pain for children/ adolescents were "Annoying" and for adults "Uncomfortable". The highest descriptors of acute pain for children/adolescents was "Complicated"; and for adults was "Unbearable". In magnitude estimation method, the highest descriptors of chronic pain was "Desperate" and for descriptors of acute pain was "Terrible". Conclusions: the MPES is a reliable scale it can be applied during different stages of development. PMID:27556875

  6. Expression and purification of hepatitis B surface antigen S from Escherichia coli; a new simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elghanam Mohamed S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a liver disease primarily caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. It is distributed worldwide and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. HBV infections can be avoided by the administration of the currently available vaccine and can be easily diagnosed through commercially available kits. Both the vaccine and the diagnostic kits depend on using the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg as an antigen. Developing countries such as, Egypt, suffer from the widespread of HBV infections and the limited resources to provide adequate supplies of either the vaccine or the diagnostic kits. Therefore the need for an easy, rapid, low cost method to produce HBsAg is urgently needed within this setting. Findings To achieve this goal, the gene encoding the HBsAg(S protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein with a GST tag in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed and purified in both good quality and quantity. Conclusions The simplified and the relatively low cost of the used protocol make this an attractive alternative to protocols currently used for the purification of HBsAg(S. The exploiting of this achievement for new diagnostics can be directed for application in the developing countries where they are extremely needed.

  7. An alternative purification method for human serum paraoxonase 1 and its interactions with anabolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Dudu; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an alternative purification method for human paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) enzyme was developed using two-step procedures, namely, ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-3-aminophenantrene hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme indicates a single band with an apparent M(W) of 43 kDa. The enzyme was purified 219-fold with a final specific activity of 4,408,400 U/mg and a yield of 10%. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro effects of some anabolic compounds, such as zeranol, 17 β-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, oxytocin, and trenbolone on the enzyme activity to understand the better inhibitory properties of these molecules. The five anabolic compounds dose dependently decreased the activity of hPON1 with inhibition constants in the millimolar-micromolar range. The results show that these compounds exhibit inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations with IC50 values ranging from 0.064 to 16.900 µM.

  8. Purification of a RAS-responsive adenylyl cyclase complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by use of an epitope addition method.

    OpenAIRE

    J Field; Nikawa, J; Broek, D; MacDonald, B.; Rodgers, L; Wilson, I A; Lerner, R A; Wigler, M

    1988-01-01

    We developed a method for immunoaffinity purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase based on creating a fusion with a small peptide epitope. Using oligonucleotide technology to encode the peptide epitope we constructed a plasmid that expressed the fusion protein from the S. cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase promoter ADH1. A monoclonal antibody previously raised against the peptide was used to purify adenylyl cyclase by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared to be ...

  9. Preparation of recombinant firefly luciferase by a simple and rapid expression and purification method and its application in bacterial detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid expression and purification method of recombinant firefly luciferase was developed for bacteria detection. A modified luciferase gene from North American firefly Photinus pyralis was cloned into pET28a expression vector and the recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant luciferase,equipped with a polyhistidine affinity tag,was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The approach generated an abundant expression and an efficient pur...

  10. An evaluation of a solar radiation/delta-T method for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, C.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    There has been a continuing need to develop robust methods for determining Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories using solely on-site meteorological instrumentation. The Revised EPA Guideline on Air Quality Models recommends several such methods. Experience with these suggests that, since they rely on turbulence measurements, they can be unduly influenced by local effects such as mesoscale circulation (e.g., upslope/downslope flows, land/sea breeze), wakes from tree barriers or buildings, etc. to such an extent as to diminish their practical usefulness. In the following discussion, a methodology is proposed for estimating P-G stability categories that employs on-site meteorological measurements (10m wind speed coupled with solar radiation during the day and temperature difference, {Delta}T, at night) in lieu of cloud cover and ceiling height observations. The proposed method was adapted from Bowen and is herein referred to as the solar radiation/delta-T (SRDT) method. To evaluate the method, an attempt was made to acquire data bases from diverse geographical areas. Data bases with {Delta}T measurements from 2-10m above ground level were of primary interest for characterizing the boundary layer; other intervals were considered for evaluation, as available. To document the consequence of implementing the method in practical applications, an analysis was needed of the effect on design concentration ratios.

  11. Development of an aptamer-based affinity purification method for vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Lönne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in protein affinity purification. As aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, they can be easily produced in large quantities regarding GMP conditions allowing their application in protein production for therapeutic purposes. Several advantages of aptamers compared to antibodies are described in general within this paper. Here, an aptamer directed against the human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF was used as affinity ligand for establishing a purification platform for VEGF in small scale. The aptamer was covalently immobilized on magnetic beads in a controlled orientation resulting in a functional active affinity matrix. Target binding was optimized by introduction of spacer molecules and variation of aptamer density. Further, salt-induced target elution was demonstrated as well as VEGF purification from a complex protein mixture proving the specificity of protein-aptamer binding.

  12. Category management

    OpenAIRE

    Jan BERAN

    2002-01-01

    Práce popisuje category management, jeho definice a vývoj. Stěžejní část práce se věnuje osmi krokům category management procesu a subjektům, které do tohoto procesu vstupují. Mezi osm kroku patří definování kategorie, analýza kategorie, hodnocení subjektů, stanovení cíle kategorie, taktická rozhodnutí, strategická rozhodnutí, implementace a zpětná vazba. Praktická část je zaměřena na deskripci konkrétního category management projektu a tento projekt je porovnán s teoretickými předpoklady....

  13. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  14. A jackknife-like method for classification and uncertainty assessment of multi-category tumor samples using gene expression information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Keith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression profiling for the classification of human cancer tumors has been widely investigated. Previous studies were successful in distinguishing several tumor types in binary problems. As there are over a hundred types of cancers, and potentially even more subtypes, it is essential to develop multi-category methodologies for molecular classification for any meaningful practical application. Results A jackknife-based supervised learning method called paired-samples test algorithm (PST, coupled with a binary classification model based on linear regression, was proposed and applied to two well known and challenging datasets consisting of 14 (GCM dataset and 9 (NC160 dataset tumor types. The results showed that the proposed method improved the prediction accuracy of the test samples for the GCM dataset, especially when t-statistic was used in the primary feature selection. For the NCI60 dataset, the application of PST improved prediction accuracy when the numbers of used genes were relatively small (100 or 200. These improvements made the binary classification method more robust to the gene selection mechanism and the size of genes to be used. The overall prediction accuracies were competitive in comparison to the most accurate results obtained by several previous studies on the same datasets and with other methods. Furthermore, the relative confidence R(T provided a unique insight into the sources of the uncertainty shown in the statistical classification and the potential variants within the same tumor type. Conclusion We proposed a novel bagging method for the classification and uncertainty assessment of multi-category tumor samples using gene expression information. The strengths were demonstrated in the application to two bench datasets.

  15. Coherence in monoidal track categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guiraud, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We introduce homotopical methods based on rewriting on higher-dimensional categories to prove coherence results in categories with an algebraic structure. We express the coherence problem for (symmetric) monoidal categories as an asphericity problem for a track category and use rewriting methods on polygraphs to solve it. The setting is generalized to more general coherence problems, seen as 3-dimensional word problems in a track category. We prove general results that, in the case of braided monoidal categories, yield the coherence theorem for braided monoidal categories.

  16. A Robust and Fully-Automated Chromatographic Method for the Quantitative Purification of Ca and Sr for Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. B.; Kim, H.; Romaniello, S. J.; Field, P.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    High throughput methods for sample purification are required to effectively exploit new opportunities in the study of non-traditional stable isotopes. Many geochemical isotopic studies would benefit from larger data sets, but these are often impractical with manual drip chromatography techniques, which can be time-consuming and demand the attention of skilled laboratory staff. Here we present a new, fully-automated single-column method suitable for the purification of both Ca and Sr for stable and radiogenic isotopic analysis. The method can accommodate a wide variety of sample types, including carbonates, bones, and teeth; silicate rocks and sediments; fresh and marine waters; and biological samples such as blood and urine. Protocols for these isotopic analyses are being developed for use on the new prepFAST-MCTM system from Elemental Scientific (ESI). The system is highly adaptable and processes up to 24-60 samples per day by reusing a single chromatographic column. Efficient column cleaning between samples and an all Teflon flow path ensures that sample carryover is maintained at the level of background laboratory blanks typical for manual drip chromatography. This method is part of a family of new fully-automated chromatographic methods being developed to address many different isotopic systems including B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb, and U. These methods are designed to be rugged and transferrable, and to allow the preparation of large, diverse sample sets via a highly repeatable process with minimal effort.

  17. Method for purification of Kr from environmental samples for analysis of radiokrypton isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, R.; Heraty, L. J.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2008-12-01

    Two extremely low-abundance radioactive isotopes of Kr ((81Kr and (85Kr) are produced by cosmic-ray induced spallation (81Kr /Kr = 10-12, t½ = 229,000 yr) and by a nuclear fission (85Kr /Kr = 10-11, t½ = 10.8 yr). Radiokrypton chronologies are potentially important in diverse studies of hydrology and paleoclimate and the inertness of Kr, being a noble gas, makes radiokrypton-based chronometers superior to other hydrological tracers for many such applications (e.g., 3H-He, 14C, 36Cl, CFCs, SF6). The analysis of 81Kr in naturally occurring gases of interest, e.g. dissolved gases in hydrological reservoirs, using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) requires an extraction of ppm-level Kr from chemically air-like bulk gas. A newly developed Kr purification system is based on conventional cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography to which continuous monitoring of gas effluent composition using quadrupole mass spectrometer brings significant advantages. Simple cryogenic distillation is controlled based on the evolution of N2/Ar ratio that is relatively constant in naturally occurring, inorganic gas. Gas chromatographic separation of ppmv-level Kr from up to a few liter of bulk gas can be achieved by concentrating the Kr under the tails of major components. The system described here is capable of extracting Kr from 5-125 lSTP of bulk gas with >90% yield within several hours. Gas samples have been taken at several hydrological and geological settings: shallow groundwater at Locust Grove, MD, gas emanation from Cheaspeake Crater, VA, mid-continental saline groundwater (KS, MO), deep and shallow groundwater from northern Chile (Atacama desert), and the hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park, WY. Our new method was used successfully to purify microliter amounts of Kr from all of these samples, an important step en route to routine application of ATTA in hydrological studies. This work was supported by the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Postdoctoral Program in

  18. A gel-based method for purification of apolipoprotein A-I from small volumes of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Rachel J.; Sorrenson, Brie; Sviridov, Dmitri; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here a gel-based method for rapid purification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from small volumes of human plasma. After isolation of high density lipoprotein from plasma, the apoA-I protein was separated by electrophoresis and the apoA-I band excised from the gel. The apoA-I was then eluted from the gel strip, concentrated, and delipidated ready for use. The structure and function of the gel-purified apoA-I protein was compared against apoA-I purified by the traditional size-exclus...

  19. Optimizing the Performance of Porous Electrochemical Cells for Flue Gas Purification using the DOE method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg; He, Zeming;

    2011-01-01

    The DOE model was used to improve the performance of cells for electrochemical gas purification. Three factors were chosen: the amount of graphite, the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate/Gadolinium-doped Cerium oxide weight % ratio, and the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate pre-calcination temperature (with...... or without Lanthanum Strontium Manganate calcinated at 1000 °C). The effects of the following physical properties were measured: porosity, pore size, shrinkage, and conductivity. The sintered tapes were also characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Graphite was added as a pore former. The work shows...

  20. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use.

  1. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šiman

    Full Text Available A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use.

  2. An Efficient Purification Method for Quantitative Determinations of Protodioscin, Dioscin and Diosgenin in Plasma of Fenugreek-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Keiko; Hoshino, Shohei; Uemura, Taku; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient purification method for simultaneous recovery of polar saponins, protodioscin (PD) and dioscin (DC), and non-polar aglycon, diosgenin (DG), from plasma of mice fed diets containing seed flours of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was established for subsequent quantitative analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Mice plasma samples were first deproteinated by addition of acetonitrile, and the supernatant was applied to a carbon-based solid phase extraction tube. After successive washing with methanol and 35% chroloform/methanol (v/v), PD, DC and DG were eluted simultaneously with 80% chroloform/methanol (v/v). The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and re-dissolved in 80% methanol (v/v). The filtered sample was analyzed with an LC-ESI-MS/MS system. After the purification procedure, recovery rates between 89.3 to 117.4% were obtained without notable ion suppression or enhancement. The use of internal standards was therefore not necessary. The utility of the method was demonstrated by analyzing plasma of mice from a fenugreek feeding study. PMID:26875488

  3. A simple and cost-effective method for rapid purification of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC from Helicobacter pylori and its antibody production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Helicobacter pylori express abundant amounts of AhpC enzyme that functions to reduce organic hydroperoxides (ROOH into the corresponding non-toxic alcohols (ROH. This conserved antigen has been earlier described as specific and unique for H. pylori and therefore, both H. pylori AhpC and Anti-AhpC could be useful in the development of serologic and stool antigen tests, to detecting and monitoring H. pylori infection. AhpC may also serves as a potential target for an antimicrobial agent or for vaccine development. The aim of this study was to simplify isolation and purification of the AhpC and production of a highly specific polyclonal antibody against it. Methods and Results: In this paper a simple method was used for protein purification and antibody production which avoids both the long term AhpC protein purification procedure and the addition of Freund's adjuvant. One-dimensional preparative gel electrophoresis allows a single and short purification step and the high resolution capacity of this technique leads to a high level of purity of the protein and consequently to a very high specificity of the antibody. Moreover, it avoids contamination by other non-specific proteins which often appear during protein purification by column chromatographic techniques. Major Conclusion: The present method is simple, rapid and cost-effective and makes it possible to produce antibody for stool antigen enzyme immunoassay in short time and at low cost.

  4. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  5. Purification of rare earths nitrate solution yielded from Bangka's monazite ore processing using solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monazite Bangka ore processing has several steps i.e. ore preparation, decomposition, dissolution, purification, and drying. The experiment has done on residue dissolution of base decomposition of Bangka's monazite decomposition using nitric acid to produce rare earths nitrate with the solvent condition HNO3 14 N H2O2 20 cc/50 gram, time one hour, feed and solvent ratio = 1:1 (volume) and at room temperature. The experiment goal is to find optimal condition of rare earth nitrate purification from and Th using solvent extraction. The parameters are diluents feed (normal feed), ratio aqueous and organic (A/O), TBP/Kerosene content and extraction time. The results are the optimal extraction condition: feed extraction RE (NO3)3 7 N or none diluents, ratio A/O = 1:1, TBP / Kerosene content 40%, extraction time 5 minutes and at room temperature with U recovery = 93.13 %, h = 86.04 %, RE2O3 = 4.05 %, PO4 = can not be detected

  6. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  7. Research On The Purification Of Zirconium From Zirconium Dioxide By Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method With Tributyl Phosphate Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of hafnium separation from zirconium and purification of zirconium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction method bases on the selective extraction, capacity and high stability of tributyl phosphate solvent (TBP). Technical grade ZrO2 powder, imported product (about 2% Hf content), is mixed with NaOH by 1:6 mole ratio, baked at 700oC in 2 hours. The mixture of zirconate and hafnate Na2Zr(Hf)O3 was dissolved in water, acidified by HNO3 to transfer to Zr(Hf)O(NO3)2. The obtained solution is used for the hafnium separation and purification of zirconium investigation. The influence of acid concentration (HNO3) in initial solution (feed solution) on the efficiency of zirconium extraction, the effect of the extraction solvent concentration (TBP) to zirconium distribution ratio and the effect of concentrations of mixture of components (Zr and Hf) in initial solution on zirconium extraction performance and also effect of the ratio between organic and aqueous phase to zirconium distribution coefficient were carried out in this paper. Established optimum conditions of the interruptive solvent extraction in experimental scale including metal contents in initial solution CHf/Zr is 30 g/L; TBP concentration in kerosene is 60% by volume; the acid (HNO3) concentration in initial solution [H+] = 6 M; and organic : aqueous phases rate equal by 1:1. Conditions of the extracted scrubbing and extracted tripping also the continuous extraction process were studied as a first step. (author)

  8. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na2O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  9. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...

  10. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  11. An automated method for high-throughput protein purification applied to a comparison of His-tag and GST-tag affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssow Konrad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Genomics, the systematic characterisation of the functions of an organism's genes, includes the study of the gene products, the proteins. Such studies require methods to express and purify these proteins in a parallel, time and cost effective manner. Results We developed a method for parallel expression and purification of recombinant proteins with a hexahistidine tag (His-tag or glutathione S-transferase (GST-tag from bacterial expression systems. Proteins are expressed in 96-well microplates and are purified by a fully automated procedure on a pipetting robot. Up to 90 microgram purified protein can be obtained from 1 ml microplate cultures. The procedure is readily reproducible and 96 proteins can be purified in approximately three hours. It avoids clearing of crude cellular lysates and the use of magnetic affinity beads and is therefore less expensive than comparable commercial systems. We have used this method to compare purification of a set of human proteins via His-tag or GST-tag. Proteins were expressed as fusions to an N-terminal tandem His- and GST-tag and were purified by metal chelating or glutathione affinity chromatography. The purity of the obtained protein samples was similar, yet His-tag purification resulted in higher yields for some proteins. Conclusion A fully automated, robust and cost effective method was developed for the purification of proteins that can be used to quickly characterise expression clones in high throughput and to produce large numbers of proteins for functional studies. His-tag affinity purification was found to be more efficient than purification via GST-tag for some proteins.

  12. Colourful categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  13. Preparation of SiO2 nanowires from rice husks by hydrothermal method and the RNA purification performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Cao, Jianping; Meng, Xing; Liu, Yangsi; Ke, Wei; Wang, Jialiang; Sun, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In this study, SiO2 nanowires were prepared by using rice husks as silicon source via a hydrothermal method. The microstructure, thermal stability and morphology of SiO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. SiO2 nanowires with a diameter of 30-100 nm were obtained and the formation mechanism of SiO2 nanowires during the hydrothermal reaction was proposed. The SiO2 nanowires were introduced into membrane spin columns to isolate RNA and the values of A260/280 and A260/230 were 2.0-2.1 and 1.8-2.0, respectively, which shows the SiO2 nanowires were effective for RNA purification.

  14. 碳纳米管纯化处理的研究进展%Research Progress on Purification Methods of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 齐暑华; 王洲; 段国晨

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been prepared by many methods at present. However, the as-prepared pro ducts almost have impurities, such as amorphous carbon, carbon nanopartieles and catalyst partieles, which directly affect the properties and the applications of carbon nanotubes. So the purification process is necessary. Recent research in this area and characteristics of physical and chemical purification methods are introduced simply. The physical puri fication methods, the chemical purification methods and the comprehensive purification methods are described,in de tail. The good prospects of purification methods are forecasted.%目前制备碳纳米管的方法有很多,但这些方法制备的碳纳米管样品中大部分含有无定形碳、碳纳米颗粒和催化剂等杂质,这些杂质的存在直接影响其性能并限制其应用,因此碳纳米管的纯化研究很有必要.结合该领域的研究前沿概述了碳纳米管纯化处理的研究现状,简单介绍了物理纯化方法和化学纯化方法的特点,详细介绍了物理纯化法、化学纯化法和综合纯化法,并展望了纯化方法的趋势.

  15. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). Two end electrodes (35, 36) are arranged one at each end of the cell (30), adjacent to the end plates (31, 32). An insulator layer (33) is interposed between each end plate (31, 32) and the adjacent end electrode (35, 36). Each end electrode (35, 36) includes a single sheet (44) of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet (44) of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the cell (30) is saturated with the removed ions, the cell (30) is regenerated electrically, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  16. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1999-09-21

    An electrically regenerable electrochemical cell for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates, one at each end of the cell. Two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the cell, adjacent to the end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the cell is saturated with the removed ions, the cell is regenerated electrically, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  17. 植物单宁的提取纯化方法及其发展%The Extraction and Purification Methods of Vegetable Tannin and Their Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈一宁; 但年华; 但卫华

    2015-01-01

    综述了植物单宁的提取与纯化方法,主要介绍了浸提法、超临界流体萃取法、超声波辅助法、亚临界水萃取法、微波提取法、半仿生提取法等提取法,以及活性炭吸附法、大孔树脂吸附法及膜分离法等纯化法。最后,展望了植物单宁提取与纯化方法发展方向。%The methods of extraction and purification of vegetable tannin were reviewed. Several extraction techniques such as solvent extraction method, supercritical fluid extraction method, ultrasonic assisted ex-traction method, subcritical water extraction method, microwave assisted extraction, semi-bionic extraction method, and purification methods such as active carbon absorption method, macroporous resin adsorption and membrane separation method were mainly introduced. Finally, the development tendency of the extrac-tion and purification methods was also looked forward.

  18. An efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Sirous; Yousefi, Fakhroddin; Khademi, Fatemeh; Padidar, Samira; Mostafaie, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsLTP(1) (9 kDa) and nsLTP(2) (7 kDa). LTPs have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. Many efforts have been made for purification of different nsLTPs from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. We have developed a relatively simple and efficient method for the purification of rice nsLTP(1), based on the proteolytic activity of kiwifruit actinidin on the rice seed extract and one-step chromatographic procedure on a CM-Sepharose column. The purity of protein was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolated LTP(1) migrated as a homogenous polypeptide with molecular mass of 9 kDa that confirms the efficiency of actinidin on the digestion of major contaminations present in the rice seed extract without any harmful effect on the LTP(1). The advantages of using proteolytic activity of actinidin in purifying rice LTP(1) includes the reduced separation time allowing the purification of LTP(1) in one-step chromatographic procedure, low costing, high efficiency, and the relative simplicity of the method. PMID:22987614

  19. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m3 day-1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m-3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method

  20. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Natalia D; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V

    2016-08-23

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables.

  1. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  2. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Natalia D.; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V.

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  3. Hamiltonian purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsucci, Davide [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Burgarth, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] is formalized and discussed. Specifically, given a set of non-commuting Hamiltonians (h{sub 1}, …, h{sub m}) operating on a d-dimensional quantum system ℋ{sub d}, the problem consists in identifying a set of commuting Hamiltonians (H{sub 1}, …, H{sub m}) operating on a larger d{sub E}-dimensional system ℋ{sub d{sub E}} which embeds ℋ{sub d} as a proper subspace, such that h{sub j} = PH{sub j}P with P being the projection which allows one to recover ℋ{sub d} from ℋ{sub d{sub E}}. The notions of spanning-set purification and generator purification of an algebra are also introduced and optimal solutions for u(d) are provided.

  4. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  5. Defeating numts: semi-pure mitochondrial DNA from eggs and simple purification methods for field-collected wildlife tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguchi, Gabriela; Friesen, Vicki L; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2006-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) continues to play a pivotal role in phylogeographic, phylogenetic, and population genetic studies. PCR amplification with mitochondrial primers often yields ambiguous sequences, in part because of the co-amplification of nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes (numts) and true mitochondrial heteroplasmy arising from mutations, hybridization with paternal leakage, gene duplications, and recombination. Failing to detect numts or to distinguish the origin of such homologous sequences results in the incorrect interpretation of data. However, few studies obtain purified mtDNA to confirm the mitochondrial origin of the first reference sequences for a species. Here, we demonstrate the importance and ease of obtaining semi-pure mtDNA from wildlife tissues, preserved under various typical field conditions, and investigate the success of 3 commercial extraction kits, cesium-chloride gradient mtDNA purification, long-template PCR amplification, cloning, and more species-specific degenerate primers. Using more detailed avian examples, we illustrate that unfertilized or undeveloped eggs provide the purest sources of mtDNA; that kits provide an alternative to cesium-chloride gradient methods; and that long-template PCR, cloning, and degenerate primers cannot be used to produce reliable mitochondrial reference sequences, but can be powerful tools when used in conjunction with purified mtDNA stocks to distinguish numts from true heteroplasmy.

  6. Development and validation of a method for purification of mallein for the diagnosis of glanders in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho Filho Maurício

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allergic test of mallein is one of the most frequently used tests, together with the Complement Fixation Test (CFT, for the diagnosis of glanders in endemic areas. Mallein, a purified protein derivative (PPD, is produced similarly to PPD tuberculin and the end product is a primarily proteic antigen, which is only poorly purified. The immuno-allergic activity of mallein is believed to be due to a high molecular weight group of proteins present in the antigen. To improve the quality of the antigen, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, a new method of mallein production was developed, in which purification was accomplished by ultrafiltration in a Tangential Flow Filtration system (TFF. Results The TFF methodology efficiently separated the high and low molecular weight protein groups of mallein. The five TFF-purified malleins, produced from Burkholderia mallei strains isolated from clinical cases of glanders in Brazil, proved to be more potent than standard mallein in the induction of an allergic reaction in sensitized animals. Regarding specificity, two of the purified malleins were equivalent to the standard and three were less specific. Conclusion Some of the TFF-purified malleins showed considerable potential to be used as an auxiliary test in the diagnosis of glanders.

  7. Advances on Aquaculture Water Purification Method%水产养殖水体处理方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔷; 刘松; 杨立群

    2014-01-01

    Purifying aquaculture water of ponds to improve water of breeding environment has become a research focus of breeding ecology and environmental.The research progress of the pond water quality purification methods were described, the handle principles and efficiency of a variety of water purification methods were focused on, and several recommendations of water treatment for aquaculture development direction were prospected.%如何净化养殖池塘水质、改善养殖水体环境质量已成为渔业养殖环境和生态研究的重点。阐述了池塘水质净化方法研究的进展,着重讨论了各种水质净化方法的处理原理和处理效率,并就水产养殖水体处理发展方向提出建议。

  8. 碳纳米管的纯化——电化学氧化法%Purification of Carbon Nanotubes Oxidation Method by Using Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占红; 吴浩青; 李晶; 李新海

    2001-01-01

    用电化学氧化法对碳纳米管进行纯化, 从稳态极化曲线出发, 对反应的可行性进行了分析, 考察了支持电解质、 电流密度、 时间等因素对反应的影响, 确定了最佳实验条件, 同时对纯化机理进行了解释.%Carbon nanotubes were purified by use of electrical chemistry oxidation method. In the view of polarization curves it was discussed that electrochemistry method could be used in the purification of carbon nanotubus. The influence of current density, sulfuric acid concentration and reaction time on the reaction was studied, the optimum experimental condition was obtained and the mechanism of purification was also discussed.

  9. 汉字六书象形构形法%Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    Study Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation , increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in bringing forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the difference resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different versions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼,以

  10. Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method%汉字六书象形构形法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    IStudy Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation . increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in htinging forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the differ- ence resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different ver- sions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼

  11. The possible ways for soil complex purification from radionuclides in conditions of large-scale contamination and effectiveness of used methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a considerable aggregate effect of natural factors on soils contaminated with radioactive pollution by autopurification. Such factors such as natural decay, vertical migration of nuclides over the soil profile, as well as cyclic carrying of nuclides from the soil by vegetation, have been analyzed. The contaminated Belarus Polessie soils, as the result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe, have shown that during the past 13 years, a 1.5-1.7 fold decrease of long living radionuclides has taken place in the rooting layer. The qualitative characteristics of the soil purification process by phytocoenosis have been established, and the effectiveness and limitations of this method have been demonstrated. The effect of microbiological soil processes on the radionuclides mobility have been studied and the issues of the migration process intensification by means of optimal nutrient media have been considered. Hydroseparation of highly dispersed soil particles with simultaneous consideration of the soil organic substance contents allows attainment of a purification coefficient of 1.5-2. Further increase of Cpur leads to irreversible humus substance loss and depriving the soil of its fertility, in addition the quantity of solid wastes dramatically increases that should be localized. A soil cut has been carried out on an experimental plot. It has been shown that the effectiveness of this method is high in comparison with other appropriate methods. However, with time, the purification rate decreases due to the radionuclides exceeding the bounds of the cutting layer caused by migration. (author)

  12. Blood purification and hemo- perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method of blood purification is a new overlapping frontierdiscipline which develops quickly in recent years. It helps overcoming many serious and complicated diseases, even including some incurable illnesses.

  13. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  14. A gradient-free method for the purification of infective dengue virus for protein-level investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Stephanie M; Nguyen, Celina T; Jewett, John C

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that infects approximately 100 million people annually. Multi-day protocols for purification of DENV reduce the infective titer due to viral sensitivity to both temperature and pH. Herein we describe a 5-h protocol for the purification of all DENV serotypes, utilizing traditional gradient-free ultracentrifugation followed by selective virion precipitation. This protocol allows for the separation of DENV from contaminating proteins - including intact C6/36 densovirus, for the production of infective virus at high concentration for protein-level analysis. PMID:27265428

  15. Evaluation of methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanqing Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is an essential step in all cultivation-independent approaches to characterize microbial diversity, including that associated with the human body. A fundamental challenge in using these approaches has been to isolate DNA that is representative of the microbial community sampled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we statistically evaluated six commonly used DNA extraction procedures using eleven human-associated bacterial species and a mock community that contained equal numbers of those eleven species. These methods were compared on the basis of DNA yield, DNA shearing, reproducibility, and most importantly representation of microbial diversity. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from a mock community showed that the observed species abundances were significantly different from the expected species abundances for all six DNA extraction methods used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protocols that included bead beating and/or mutanolysin produced significantly better bacterial community structure representation than methods without both of them. The reproducibility of all six methods was similar, and results from different experimenters and different times were in good agreement. Based on the evaluations done it appears that DNA extraction procedures for bacterial community analysis of human associated samples should include bead beating and/or mutanolysin to effectively lyse cells.

  16. A Method of Purification of Bovine Colostrum sIgA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; GAO Xuejun; YAO Yonghao; ZHOU Shenghua

    2008-01-01

    sIgA in bovine colostrum was purified by ultrafiltration and enzymolysis methods in this experiment, and the prepared substance was detected by Western Blot. The purity and yield were up to 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for production of bovine colostrum sIgA.

  17. Purification of human albumin by the combination of the method of Cohn with liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of plasma can be fractionated by the method of Cohn at low cost. However, liquid chromatography is superior in terms of the quality of the product obtained. In order to combine the advantages of each method, we developed an integrated method for the production of human albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG. The cryoprecipitate was first removed from plasma for the production of factor VIII and the supernatant of the cryoprecipitate was fractionated by the method of Cohn. The first precipitate, containing fractions (F-I + II + III, was used for the production of IgG by the chromatographic method (see Tanaka K et al. (1998 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31: 1375-1381. The supernatant of F-I + II + III was submitted to a second precipitation and F-IV was obtained and discarded. Albumin was obtained from the supernatant of the precipitate F-IV by liquid chromatography, ion-exchange on DEAE-Sepharose FF, filtration through Sephacryl S-200 HR and introduction of heat treatment for fatty acid precipitation. Viral inactivation was performed by pasteurization at 60ºC for 10 h. The albumin product obtained by the proposed procedure was more than 99% pure for the 15 lots of albumin produced, with a mean yield of 25.0 ± 0.5 g/l plasma, containing 99.0 to 99.3% monomer, 0.7 to 1.0% dimers, and no polymers. Prekallikrein activator levels were <=5 IU/ml. This product satisfies the requirements of the 1997 Pharmacopée Européenne.

  18. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium

  19. Development of a nucleotide sugar purification method using a mixed mode column & mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Heather; Xia, Fang; Lo, Mei-Chu; Zhou, Jing; Jordan, John B; McCarter, John; Barnhart, Wesley W; Gahm, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-11-10

    Analysis of nucleotide sugars, nucleoside di- and triphosphates and sugar-phosphates is an essential step in the process of understanding enzymatic pathways. A facile and rapid separation method was developed to analyze these compounds present in an enzymatic reaction mixture utilized to produce nucleotide sugars. The Primesep SB column explored in this study utilizes hydrophobic interactions as well as electrostatic interactions with the phosphoric portion of the nucleotide sugars. Ammonium formate buffer was selected due to its compatibility with mass spectrometry. Negative ion mode mass spectrometry was adopted for detection of the sugar phosphate (fucose-1-phophate), as the compound is not amenable to UV detection. Various mobile phase conditions such as pH, buffer concentration and organic modifier were explored. The semi-preparative separation method was developed to prepare 30mg of the nucleotide sugar. (19)F NMR was utilized to determine purity of the purified fluorinated nucleotide sugar. The collected nucleotide sugar was found to be 99% pure.

  20. Intein Applications: From Protein Purification and Labeling to Metabolic Control Methods*

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, David W.; Camarero, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of inteins in the early 1990s opened the door to a wide variety of new technologies. Early engineered inteins from various sources allowed the development of self-cleaving affinity tags and new methods for joining protein segments through expressed protein ligation. Some applications were developed around native and engineered split inteins, which allow protein segments expressed separately to be spliced together in vitro. More recently, these early applications have been expand...

  1. Development of a Novel Method for the Purification and Culture of Rodent Astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Lynette C.; Allen, Nicola J.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ventura, P. Britten; Chung, Won-Suk; Zhou, Lu; Cahoy, John D.; Daneman, Richard; Zong, Hui; Ellisman, Mark H.; Barres, Ben A.

    2011-01-01

    The inability to purify and culture astrocytes has long hindered studies of their function. Whereas astrocyte progenitor cells can be cultured from neonatal brain, culture of mature astrocytes from postnatal brain has not been possible. Here we report a new method to prospectively purify astrocytes by immunopanning. These astrocytes undergo apoptosis in culture, but vascular cells and HBEGF promote their survival in serum-free culture. We found that some developing astrocytes normally undergo...

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA from warts for typing by endonuclease restriction patterns: purification by alkaline plasmid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinami, M; Tanikawa, E; Hachisuka, H; Sasai, Y; Shingu, M

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline plasmid DNA extraction method of Birnboim and Doly was applied for the isolation of human papillomavirus (HPV) from warts. Tissue from common and plantar warts was digested with proteinase K, and the extrachromosomal circular covalently-closed form of HPV-DNA was rapidly extracted by alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol-chloroform treatment. Recovery of HPV-DNA from the tissue was sufficient for determination of endonuclease restriction patterns by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  3. Nanolipoprotein particles and related methods and systems for protein capture, solubilization, and/or purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromy, Brett A.; Henderson, Paul; Hoeprich, Jr, Paul D.

    2016-10-04

    Provided herein are methods and systems for assembling, solubilizing and/or purifying a membrane associated protein in a nanolipoprotein particle, which comprise a temperature transition cycle performed in presence of a detergent, wherein during the temperature transition cycle the nanolipoprotein components are brought to a temperature above and below the gel to liquid crystalling transition temperature of the membrane forming lipid of the nanolipoprotein particle.

  4. Development of a nucleotide sugar purification method using a mixed mode column & mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Heather; Xia, Fang; Lo, Mei-Chu; Zhou, Jing; Jordan, John B; McCarter, John; Barnhart, Wesley W; Gahm, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-11-10

    Analysis of nucleotide sugars, nucleoside di- and triphosphates and sugar-phosphates is an essential step in the process of understanding enzymatic pathways. A facile and rapid separation method was developed to analyze these compounds present in an enzymatic reaction mixture utilized to produce nucleotide sugars. The Primesep SB column explored in this study utilizes hydrophobic interactions as well as electrostatic interactions with the phosphoric portion of the nucleotide sugars. Ammonium formate buffer was selected due to its compatibility with mass spectrometry. Negative ion mode mass spectrometry was adopted for detection of the sugar phosphate (fucose-1-phophate), as the compound is not amenable to UV detection. Various mobile phase conditions such as pH, buffer concentration and organic modifier were explored. The semi-preparative separation method was developed to prepare 30mg of the nucleotide sugar. (19)F NMR was utilized to determine purity of the purified fluorinated nucleotide sugar. The collected nucleotide sugar was found to be 99% pure. PMID:26279371

  5. Polonium purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Three processes for the purification of {sup 210}Po from irradiated bismuth targets are described. Safety equipment includes shielded hotcells for the initial separation from other activation products, gloveboxes for handling the volatile and highly toxic materials, and provisions for ventilation. All chemical separations must be performed under vacuum or in inerted systems. Two of the processes require large amounts of electricity; the third requires vessels made from exotic materials.

  6. [Potential of nitrification and denitrification in water purification system with hydroponic bio-filter method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-ing; Lu, Xi-wu; Song, Hai-liang; Osamu, Nishimura; Yuhei, Inamori

    2005-03-01

    The potential of nitrification and denitrification of sediment and the density of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in sediment in water quality purifying system with hydroponic bio-filter method (HBFM) were measured. The variation of nitrification and denitrification potential of the sediment along the stream way was quantitatively studied. The results show that among the sediments from front, middle and retral part of the stream way, the sediment from middle part reached a maximum nitrification potential . nitrification potential of 4.76 x 10(-6) g/(g x h), while the sediment from front part reached a maximum denitrification potential of 8 .1 x 10(-7) g/(g x h). The distribution of nitrification potential accords with the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria density. The key for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of HBFM system consists in changing nitrification & denitrification region distributing and accordingly enhances denitrification process.

  7. Simple method for Shiga toxin 2e purification by affinity chromatography via binding to the divinyl sulfone group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Arimitsu

    Full Text Available Here we describe a simple affinity purification method for Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e, a major causative factor of edema disease in swine. Escherichia coli strain MV1184 transformed with the expression plasmid pBSK-Stx2e produced Stx2e when cultivated in CAYE broth containing lincomycin. Stx2e bound to commercial D-galactose gel, containing α-D-galactose immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone linker, and was eluted with phosphate-buffered saline containing 4.5 M MgCl2. A small amount of Stx2e bound to another commercial α-galactose-immobilized agarose resin, but not to β-galactose-immobilized resin. In addition, Stx2e bound to thiophilic adsorbent resin containing β-mercaptoethanol immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone, and was purified in the same manner as from D-galactose gel, but the Stx2e sample contained some contamination. These results indicate that Stx2e bound to D-galactose gel mainly through the divinyl sulfone group on the resin and to a lesser extent through α-D-galactose. With these methods, the yields of Stx2e and attenuated mutant Stx2e (mStx2e from 1 L of culture were approximately 36 mg and 27.7 mg, respectively, and the binding capacity of the D-galactose gel and thiophilic adsorbent resin for Stx2e was at least 20 mg per 1 ml of resin. In addition, using chimeric toxins with prototype Stx2 which did not bind to thiophilic adsorbent resin and some types of mutant Stx2e and Stx2 which contained inserted mutations in the B subunits, we found that, at the least, asparagine (amino acid 17 of the B subunits was associated with Stx2e binding to the divinyl sulfone group. The mStx2e that was isolated exhibited vaccine effects in ICR mice, indicating that these methods are beneficial for large-scale preparation of Stx2e toxoid, which protects swine from edema disease.

  8. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  9. Categories from scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especially inscrutable to external audiences. More specifically, the common explanatory route to approach categories is usually: "here is a formal specification of what a category is; then look at these kno...

  10. An improved method for the cost-effective expression and purification of large quantities of KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Vemulapally, Spandana; Cortes, Doris M; Cuello, Luis G

    2016-11-01

    KcsA, the bacterial K(+) channel from Streptomyces lividans, is the prototypical model system to study the functional and structural correlations of the pore domain of eukaryotic voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv channels). It contains all the molecular elements responsible for ion conduction, activation, deactivation and inactivation gating [1]. KcsA's structural simplicity makes it highly amenable for structural studies. Therefore, it is methodological advantageous to produce large amounts of functional and properly folded KcsA in a cost-effective manner. In the present study, we show an optimized protocol for the over-expression and purification of large amounts of high-quality, fully functional and crystallizable KcsA using inexpensive detergents, which significantly lowered the cost of the purification process. PMID:27393071

  11. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  12. Grading by Category: A simple method for providing students with meaningful feedback on exams in large courses

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Cassandra; Weiss, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Many instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to show their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Grading these items is fairly time consuming, and in large courses time constraints prohibit providing significant individualized feedback on students' exams. Instructors typically cross out areas of the response that are incorrect and write the total points awarded or subtracted. Sometimes, instructors will also write a word or two to indicate the error. This paper describes a grading method that provides greater individualized feedback, clearly communicates to students expected performance levels, takes no more time than traditional grading methods for open-ended responses, and seems to encourage more students to take advantage of the feedback provided.

  13. The limitations of 'Black MSM' as a category: Why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G; Parker, Caroline; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    The USA faces disproportionate and increasing HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). New biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been developed to address their HIV risk. Very little consideration, however, has been given to the diversity obscured by 'BMSM' as a category, to how this diversity relates to men's sexual partnering strategies, or to the relevance of these issues for new HIV prevention methods. We conducted a community-based ethnography from June 2013 to May 2014 documenting factors that affect the acceptance of and adherence to PrEP among BMSM. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM and 17 community stakeholders, and participant observation. To demonstrate the diversity of social identities, we present a taxonomy of indigenous categories organised along the axes of sexual identity, sexual positioning, and gender performance. We analyse how HIV prevention strategies, such as PrEP, may be more effective if programmes consider how gender, sexuality, and sexual desire shape sexual partnering strategies. This article underlines the importance of attending to the diversity of sexual and social subjectivities among BMSM, of bringing the study of sexuality back into HIV prevention, and of integrating biomedical prevention approaches into community-based programmes. PMID:26831639

  14. Flight Test Method Research on Pilot Induced Oscillation of Transport Category Airplanes%运输类飞机PIO试飞方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米毅; 刘庆灵

    2014-01-01

    基于CCAR-25-R4《运输类飞机适航标准》要求,结合FAA咨询通告AC25-7 C《运输类飞机合格审定飞行试验指南》,叙述了驾驶员诱发振荡( PIO)的分类,以及运输类飞机PIO的合格审定试飞要求,分析了PIO试飞方法、试验点的选取原则、试飞评定准则、注意事项和风险规避措施等,可为民用飞机的PIO试飞提供参考。%Based on the CCAR-25-R4 “Airworthiness Standards of Transport Category Airplanes” and FAA ad-visory AC25-7 C “Flight Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes”, this paper specifies the re-quirements of airworthiness and the classification of pilot induced oscillation ( PIO) . The paper also gives analysis on the flight test method of PIO and principles of flight test pointsˊselection,the safety procedures during PIO flight test and evaluation criteria. The research can provide guidance for the PIO flight test of the civil airplanes.

  15. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Poss

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  16. Category Dynamical Systems and Skew Category Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Öinert, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce category dynamical systems as functors $s$ from a category $G$ to $\\Top^{\\rm op}$ and show that they define what we call skew category algebras $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. We study the connection between topological freeness of $s$ and, on the one hand, ideal properties of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$ and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of $A$ in $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. In particular, we show that if $G$ is a groupoid and for each $e \\in \\ob(G)$ the group of all morphisms $e \\rightarrow e$ is countable and the topological space $s(e)$ is Tychonoff and Baire, then the following statements are equivalent: (i) $s$ is topologically free; (ii) if $I$ is a nonzero ideal of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$, then $I \\cap A \

  17. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  18. Effect Of Methods of Purification of the Organic Coolant on the Economy of an ORGEL Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic coolant circulating in the core of a reactor is degraded by radiation and heat to form very heavy compounds (HHB). Various techniques can be considered to eliminate these very high molecular weight compounds, which produce a deposit on the hot walls and increase the viscosity of the fluid. These techniques include: distillation; selective extraction of the HHB; and regeneration of the HHB by ''hydrocracking''. From the experimental results obtained at the CCR, Ispra, we determined for the first two techniques: Equilibrium compositions of the coolant; Cost of replacing the coolant; Cost of purification plants. Special emphasis was placed on the solvent extraction technique. This has been studied for several months using an in-pile facility. With the help of these experimental data we have been able to show the effect on the cost of the power generated of the purification process, the amount of heavy compounds and the cost of the coolant. All the values mentioned can be compared with each other, although they are not to be regarded as absolute figures. (author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence as a method of monitoring metal catalyst content during the purification of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavness, Brandon; Heimbecker, Joshua; Velasquez, Joe; Williams, S.

    2012-02-01

    There have been several studies that suggest that catalyst metals in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may pose a health threat. As there are many potential applications of CNTs in medicine, it is important to be able to quantitatively determine the amount of metal catalyst contained in a CNT sample. The relative catalyst content of carbon nanotube samples synthesized via arc-discharge has been determined at various stages of the purification process using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Purification was achieved by immersing samples in heated nitric acid. The intensities of the nickel K α X-rays were studied to determine the relative catalyst content in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of purified nanotubes have been compared to the images of a sample that has been irradiated by 0-15 keV bremsstrahlung in order to determine if the XRF analysis of the nanotubes is in any way destructive. No obvious structural defects were observed as the result of irradiation.

  20. 一种简便易行的几丁质酶纯化法%A Simple and Convenient Method in the Process of Chitinase Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 岳海梅; 张伏军; 范丽卿

    2011-01-01

    传统的纯化微生物产几丁质酶的方法步骤繁琐、不易控制、得率较低。经过实验探索得出一种较简单、快速、并可批量处理的几丁质酶纯化法。将含有几丁质酶的发酵上清液与胶体几丁质混合后离心,几丁质酶随胶体几丁质沉降而与其他成分分离,用蒸馏水洗涤沉淀,再用蒸馏水重悬,放入30℃恒温箱温育72h,胶体几丁质被完全水解,从而得到纯几丁质酶。此纯化方法条件温和,可保证纯化后的酶保持其生物活性。SDS—PAGE检测及比色法对其纯度检测表明几丁质酶纯化回收率达到88.53%。%Traditional purification of chitinase from the fermentation supernatant had some weaknesses such as complicated steps, difficult in controlling and low recovery ratio. Then we took experimental exploration and find a simple,fast and convenient method in the process of chitinase purification. This method may also be used in Batch processing. Detailed method is: fermentation supernatant which containing chitinase was first mixed with colloidal chitin, after centrifugation, the chitinase and the colloidal chitin precipitated and separated with other components in the supernatant. Then the precipitated was washed by distilled water for several times, the precipitate was then resuspended in distilled water and then sterilized at 30 ℃ for 72h. After the colloidal chitin was completely hydrolyzed, chitin enzyme was purified and abstracted. This method requires simple, mild purification conditions, ensuring the purified enzyme maintain its biological activity. SDS - PAGE and colorimetry detecting methods indicated that the recovery rate of chitinase using this method can reach 88.53%.

  1. Methods for rapid and effective PCR-based detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector Bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the DNA extraction/purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Julien; Hancock, Joseph; Ravindran, Aravind; Gross, Dennis; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Pierson, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    This study provides a protocol for rapid DNA isolation from psyllid vectors (Bactericera cockerelli and Diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with DNA-based methods for the detection of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. The fast DNA extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) DNA amplification as well as Loop mediated PCR DNA amplification. Direct cPCR of the psyllid 28S rDNA gene from samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method was as reliable as from samples prepared using standard DNA purification (> 97% from live insects) as tested in B. cockerelli. However, samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method had to be diluted 1:100 in sterile water for reliable amplification, presumably to dilute PCR inhibitors in the crude extract. Similarly, both cPCR and loop mediated PCR DNA amplification detected 'Ca. Liberibacter' in psyllids infected with either the zebra chip or huanglongbing pathogen equally well from diluted samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method or from samples prepared using a DNA purification step. In addition to being reliable, the time required to complete the fast DNA extraction for 10 samples was on average approximately 5 min and required no special reagents or laboratory equipment. Thus, the fast DNA extraction method shows strong promise as a rapid, reliable, and expedient method when coupled with PCR-based analyses for detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter' pathogens in psyllids. PMID:23865212

  2. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  3. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend;

    2003-01-01

    To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic...

  4. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  5. Monitoring the process of purification of crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Keurison F.; Caires, Anderson R.L. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica Aplicada; Oliveira, Samuel L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica e Fotonica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. The use of biodiesel has increased worldwide. The biodiesel production on an industrial scale has been based on the transesterification of vegetable oils and fats with methanol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. During the transesterification, one molecule of triglyceride reacts with three molecules of alcohol to produce glycerol and molecules of alkyl esters (biodiesel). As a result, an increase in biodiesel production also enhances the availability of glycerol on the market. However, crude glycerin has about 30% of impurities which are inherent to biodiesel production such as catalyst, alcohol and fatty acids. The present study evaluated the usefulness of the fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to monitor the glycerol purification process. Glycerol samples were obtained from transesterification of soybean, canola, and sunflower oils in the presence of NaOH. After stirring time, the solutions were let to stand in separating funnels, then two phases were observed: one containing mainly biodiesel and other consisting of glycol. Then, the respective glycerol samples were collected, henceforth called G1. After that, it was added H2SO4 (20%) in the crude glycerol samples to reduce their pH to 4 in order to remove fatty acids. The solutions were stored for 24 hours in separating funnels. The glycerol (heavy phase), hereafter named G2, was then separated and filtered. To remove other impurities from G2 samples by means of ionic exchange columns, the samples were neutralized and diluted using Milli-Q water (G3 samples). Aliquots of 20 mL were then passed through cationic and anionic resins (G4 and G5 samples, respectively). Emission and excitation spectra of the G1-G5 samples as well as of the glycerol PA-ACS (reference) were recorded at room temperature using a spectrofluorimeter. The emission spectra were obtained setting the excitation at 325nm and monitoring the emission in the 330-800nm range. Fluorimetric maps were also achieved by pumping the

  6. Category Theory in Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, Sanjay M

    2007-01-01

    Measures in the context of Category Theory lead to various relations, even differential relations, of categories that are independent of the mathematical structure forming objects of a category. Such relations, which are independent of the mathematical structure that we may represent a physical body or a system of reference with, are, precisely, demanded to be the Laws of Physics by the General Principle of Relativity.

  7. Category Theory In Geography?

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.; Kerski Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribut...

  8. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  9. 碳酸二甲酯提纯方法的研究进展%Study Progress on the Purification Methods of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红; 张艳华

    2012-01-01

    To summary the purification methods of dimethyl carbonate including industry-scal and battery-scal dimethyl carbonate.About purification of industry-scal dimethyl carbonate,to detaily introduce the separation of methanol-dimethyl carbonate azeotrope including membrane separation,adsorption separation,high-pressure distillation azeotripic distillation and extractive distillation.Separation methods of membrane or adsorption,which had the characteristics of low energy consumption and high efficiency,were new separation methods.High-pressure distillation,azeotropic distillation and extractive distillation,which had less investment,operated more expediently,obtained higher purity product,and had wider industrial foreground.About purification of battery-scal dimethyl carbonate,crystallization used simple equipment,operated more expediently,consumed less energy,showed more advantage than distillation.%综述了碳酸二甲酯提纯方法的最新研究进展,分别介绍了工业级和电池级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法。在工业级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法中,详细介绍了碳酸二甲酯-甲醇二元共沸物的分离方法,在各种分离方法中,膜分离和吸附分离能耗低、效率高,属于新型的分离方法;加压精馏、共沸精馏和萃取精馏具有投资较小、操作方便、产品纯度高等优势,具有较高的工业应用价值。在电池级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法中,冷却结晶法具有设备简单、操作方便、节能的优点,比精馏法更具优势。

  10. Blocking in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  11. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  12. 土壤、沉积物和植物样品中多环芳烃(PAHs)不同提取与净化方法比较%Comparison of Extraction and Purification Methods for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons( PAHs ) in Soil,Sediment and Plant Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁春燕; 周启星; 周俊良; 孙约兵

    2011-01-01

    系统分析和比较了土壤、沉积物和植物样品中多环芳烃(PAHs)的提取与净化方法,阐述和对比了索氏提取法、超声波提取法、超临界流提取法、固相提取与同相微提取法、固液提取法、微波辅助提取法、快速溶剂提取法等提取方法以及定量浓缩净化法、硅胶柱层析净化法、费罗里土柱层析净化法、氧化铝净化法、固相萃取(SPE)净化法等净化方法.旨在通过比较目前的提取和净化方法,展望将来提取与净化方法发展的新方向.%Various extraction and purification methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in soil, sediment and plant samples were systematically analyzed. The extraction methods including Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, solid-liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, shaking extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction were expounded and compared. At the same time the purification methods were also reviewed, such as quantitative concentrated purification, silica column purification, Florisil column purification, alumina gel column purification, gel permeation chromatography purification and solid phase extraction(SPE) purification. The extraction and purification methods for plant samples were similar with those for soil and sediment samples. The most widely applied extraction methods for plants were Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, solid phase extraction and plant solvent extraction. The most widely applied purification methods for plants were silica column purification, saponification assisted silica column purification, gel permeation chromatography purification, solid phase extraction (SPE) purification and hollow fiber liquid micro-extraction. According to the comparison of the current extraction and

  13. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  14. Category Theory In Geography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribution to this program in spatial mathematics.

  15. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  16. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  17. Selective complexation and reactivity of metallic nitride and oxometallic fullerenes with Lewis acids and use as an effective purification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Steven; Mackey, Mary A; Pickens, Jane E; Stuart, Melissa A; Confait, Bridget S; Phillips, J Paige

    2009-12-21

    Metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) and oxometallic fullerenes (OMFs) react quickly with an array of Lewis acids. Empty-cage fullerenes are largely unreactive under conditions used in this study. The reactivity order is Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@C(78) > Sc(3)N@C(68) > Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80). Manipulations of Lewis acids, molar ratios, and kinetic differences within the family of OMF and MNF metallofullerenes are demonstrated in a selective precipitation scheme, which can be used either alone for purifying Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80) or combined with a final high-performance liquid chromatography pass for Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@C(68), or Sc(3)N@C(78). The purification process is scalable. Analysis of the experimental rate constants versus electrochemical band gap explains the order of reactivity among the OMFs and MNFs. PMID:19911812

  18. 两种豆制品厂煎炸油净化方法效果的比较研究%The comparative analysis of two kinds of purification methods of frying oil in processing factory of bean products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志镭; 任莉萍; 杨琦

    2015-01-01

    This paper has conducted the research of the effection of purification methods on quality in two different bean products factory of frying oil. It choosed two companies using the method of natural sedimentation purification and water purification,then choosed two similar products to study the index of acid value,carbonyl value and polar compounds in frying oil which under factory conditions. The results showed that the two kind of frying oil purification methods has significant effect on the quality of frying oil.%本文对两种不同的豆制品厂煎炸油净化方法对煎炸油品质的影响进行了研究,选择了两家分别采用自然沉降净化法和加水净化法的企业,再选择两种相同的产品,在工厂条件下对煎炸油的酸价、羰基价和极性物质指标进行研究。研究结果显示两种煎炸油净化方法对煎炸油品质具有显著影响。

  19. A study of the effectiveness of machine learning methods for classification of clinical interview fragments into a large number of categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Kotov, Alexander; Idalski Carcone, April; Dong, Ming; Naar, Sylvie; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of state-of-the-art supervised machine learning methods in conjunction with different feature types for the task of automatic annotation of fragments of clinical text based on codebooks with a large number of categories. We used a collection of motivational interview transcripts consisting of 11,353 utterances, which were manually annotated by two human coders as the gold standard, and experimented with state-of-art classifiers, including Naïve Bayes, J48 Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), AdaBoost, DiscLDA, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in conjunction with lexical, contextual (label of the previous utterance) and semantic (distribution of words in the utterance across the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionaries) features. We found out that, when the number of classes is large, the performance of CNN and CRF is inferior to SVM. When only lexical features were used, interview transcripts were automatically annotated by SVM with the highest classification accuracy among all classifiers of 70.8%, 61% and 53.7% based on the codebooks consisting of 17, 20 and 41 codes, respectively. Using contextual and semantic features, as well as their combination, in addition to lexical ones, improved the accuracy of SVM for annotation of utterances in motivational interview transcripts with a codebook consisting of 17 classes to 71.5%, 74.2%, and 75.1%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the potential of using machine learning methods in conjunction with lexical, semantic and contextual features for automatic annotation of clinical interview transcripts with near-human accuracy.

  20. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  1. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  2. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, pweight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  4. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  5. Categories without structures

    CERN Document Server

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history of mathematics and mathematics education.

  6. Sleep enhances category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  7. The feasibility of NOx-purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch research institute TNO has developed a new, biological purification method to remove nitrogen oxide in combustion processes. Also the financial aspects and the practical possibilities of the new method were studied. By now the time has come to start a pilot project with industrial partners for which companies with a problem in their off gassing purification and a high reduction target for nitrogen oxide are requested to apply

  8. Aqueous two-phase systems: an efficient, environmentally safe and economically viable method for purification of natural dye carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; Bonomo, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Minim, Luis Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Partition of the natural dye carmine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of polymer or copolymer with aqueous salt solutions (Na(2)SO(4) and Li(2)SO(4)). The carmine dye partition coefficient was investigated as a function of system pH, polymer molar mass, hydrophobicity, system tie-line length and nature of the electrolyte. It has been observed that the carmine partition coefficient is highly dependent on the electrolyte nature and pH of the system, reaching values as high as 300, indicating the high potential of the two-phase extraction with ATPS in the purification of carmine dye. The partition relative order was Li(2)SO(4)"Na(2)SO(4). Carmine molecules were concentrated in the polymer-rich phase, indicating an enthalpic specific interaction between carmine and the pseudopolycation, which is formed by cation adsorption along the macromolecule chain. When the enthalpic carmine-pseudopolycation interaction decreases, entropic forces dominate the natural dye-transfer process, and the carmine partitioning coefficient decreases. The optimization of the extraction process was obtained by a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. The CCF design was used to evaluate the influence of Li(2)SO(4) and PEO 1500 concentration and of the pH on the partition coefficient of carmine. The conditions that maximize the partition of carmine into the top phase were determined to be high concentrations of PEO and Li(2)SO(4) and low pH values within the ranges studied. PMID:19800067

  9. 浮空器氦气纯化方法应用研究%Research on application of aerostat helium purification method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小刚; 傅剑; 赵林华

    2011-01-01

    在浮空器使用过程中,外界空气的混入将导致其内部氦气纯度降低,从而影响到浮空器正常使用.文中通过对常用气体分离方法的分析研究,提出了以高压低温冷凝和低温吸附相结合的方式作为浮空器氦气提纯方式的思路,并详细给出了实现工艺流程和控制方案.换热计算结果表明:该纯化方法液氮消耗量小、氦气提纯成本低.%Aerostat’s working capability is influenced when atmosphere mixed into its envelope and debased the inner helium purity. Through analysis of general gas separation methods, this paper presented a kind of high - pressure condensation and adsorption method as aerostat’s heiium purification way, detailed working flow and control scheme were also presented. Heat exchange calculation shows that, this method costs low liquid nitrogen and low expense.

  10. Optimization of a method for isolation and purification of early pregnancy factor%早孕因子分离纯化方法的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志锋; 练玉银; 王家骥; 聂湘辉; 林燕棉

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the method for isolation and purification of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in serum from the normal early pregnancy women so as to improve the access rate of EPF. EPF was purified from the mixed serum of normal early pregnancy women with 12 gestational weeks by using the DEAE Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Heparin Fast Flow affinity chromatography. The biological activity of each extraction was detected by erythrocty active rosette inhibition test (Ea-RIT) and the purified product was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate -polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to determinate its molecular weight. And its specificity was analyzed by Western blot. The Ea-RIT showed that the DE- I peak of the two emerged peaks in DEAE Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography, and the H-Ⅱ peak of the two arisen peaks in Heparin Fast Flow affinity chromatography were the EPF activity peak. The SDS-PAGE profile further revealed there was only one band with a molecular weight of 38 100 kD for the extraction of the H-Ⅱ peak, and Western blot analysis showed that the matching of antibody and antigen was good. The quantity of the protein was 0.615 mg with a recovery rate was 0.034%, which was much higher than the traditional four-step method. The result indicated that the optimized method for the isolation and purification of EPF from the early pregnancy women serum is feasible, which can greatly improve the purification efficiency.%目的 对正常早孕妇女血清中早孕因子(EPF)的分离纯化过程进行优化,以提高EPF的回收率.方法 依次采用DEAEFast Flow离子交换色谱和Heparin Fast Flow亲和色谱,从妊娠12周内的正常早孕妇女混合血清中提纯EPF,采用活性玫瑰花结抑制试验(Ea-RIT)检测各阶段产物的EPF活性,SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶(SDS-PAGE)电泳鉴定纯化物并测定其相对分子质量,用Western blot鉴定其特异性.结果 经Ea-RIT检测后,DEAE Fast Flow

  11. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  12. On braided tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kerler, T

    1994-01-01

    We investigate invertible elements and gradings in braided tensor categories. This leads us to the definition of theta-, product-, subgrading and orbitcategories in order to construct new families of BTC's from given ones. We use the representation theory of Hecke algebras in order to relate the fusionring of a BTC generated by an object $X$ with a two component decomposition of its tensorsquare to the fusionring of quantum groups of type $A$ at roots of unity. We find the condition of "local isomorphie" on a special fusionring morphism implying that a BTC is obtained from the above constructions applied to the semisimplified representation category of a quantum group. This family of BTC's contains new series of twisted categories that do not stem from known Hopf algebras. Using the language of incidence graphs and the balancing structure on a BTC we also find strong constraints on the fusionring morphism. For Temperley Lieb type categories these are sufficient to show local isomorphie. Thus we obtain a class...

  13. Comparative study on precipitation methods of yellow-cake from acid leachate of rock phosphate and Its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in presences of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia ((NH4)2 U2 O7), magnesia (UO3.xH2O) and sodium hydroxide (Na2U2O7) as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP extraction and matching its impurity levels with specification of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was for used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes (''2''3''4U and ''2''3''8U) in rock phosphate, resulting green phosphoric acid solution, and in different forms of the yellow cake from which the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was deduced. Likewise, AAS was used for determination of impurities (Pb, Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu). On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in the rock phosphate was 1468±979 Bq/Kg (119.38±79.66 ppm), and 711±252 Bq/L (57.85±20.46 ppm) in the resulting green solution with corresponding percent of dissolution amounting to 48% which is considered low indicating that the experimental conditions (i.e. dissolution container, temperature, PH, retention time) were not optimal. However, the isotopic ratio (''2''3''4U, ''2''3''8U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Crude yellow cakes (hydrate uranium trioxide, ammonium diuranate and sodium diuranate) were precipitated from the green solutions prior to separation of iron and once after iron separation. Although, iron was tested using bipyridine and SCN, it was found in all types of crude samples analyzed this might be attributed to either the quality of the reagent used or inhibition of Fe present in the solution by stronger complexing agent. Uranium mass concentration in crude yellow cakes precipitated before iron separation was found following the order: UO3.xH2O>ammonium diuranate

  14. Acrylic purification and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  15. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  16. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, peating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  17. The Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Benziger, J; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Chen, M; Corsi, A; Cubaiu, A; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Di Pietro, G; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Goretti, A; Harding, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S; Korga, G; Leung, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; McCarty, K; McKinsey, D; Montanari, D; Nelson, A; Orsini, M; Papp, L; Parmeggiano, S; Pocar, A; Salvo, C; Schimizzi, D; Shutt, T; Sonnenschein, A; Soricelli, F; Suvorov, Y

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  18. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  19. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  20. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  1. Mimiviruses: Replication, Purification, and Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Ferreira da Silva, Lorena Christine; Dos Santos Silva, Ludmila Karen; Kroon, Erna Geessien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this protocol is to describe the replication, purification, and titration of mimiviruses. These viruses belong to the Mimiviridae family, the first member of which was isolated in 1992 from a cooling tower water sample collected during an outbreak of pneumonia in a hospital in Bradford, England. In recent years, several new mimiviruses have been isolated from different environmental conditions. These giant viruses are easily replicated in amoeba of the Acanthamoeba genus, its natural host. Mimiviruses present peculiar features that make them unique viruses, such as the particle and genome size and the genome's complexity. The discovery of these viruses rekindled discussions about their origin and evolution, and the genetic and structural complexity opened up a new field of study. Here, we describe some methods utilized for mimiviruses replication, purification, and titration. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153385

  2. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  3. The Borexino purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Purification of 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system of combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification system removed K, U and Th by distillation of the pseudocumene solvent and the PPO fluor. Noble gases, Rn, Kr and Ar were removed by gas stripping. Distillation was also employed to remove optical impurities and reduce the attenuation of scintillation light. The success of the purification system has facilitated the first time real time detection of low energy solar neutrinos.

  4. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  5. 红果樫木树皮中罗希吐碱的纯化方法%Purification method of rohitukine from the stem bark of Dysoxylum binectariferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔保松; 马晓庆; 杨东辉; 胡学桥; 蔡少青

    2008-01-01

    To develop a simple and rapid purification method of rohitukine from the stem bark of Dysoxylum binectariferum. A L9(34) orthogonal test was designed to optimize the extraction condition. Rohitukine in the plant extract was purified by using solvent-solvent partition and cation exchange resion (CER). Five different types of packing materials, including XAD-2 resin, polyamide, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and CER, were compared and CER showed the best capacity for rohitukine separation. The purification proce- dure was optimized as follows: the plant material powder was extracted with 70% ethanol (v/m = 60) by ultrasonic agitation for 60 rain, then the 70% ethanol extract was dissolved in aqueous solution (pH 1, adjusted with 0.5 mol/L HCl) and extracted with equal volume of n-butanol. The aqueous layer was retained and the pH was adjusted to 10 with 25% aqueous ammonia and a solvent- solvent partition was performed with equal volume of n-butanol. The obtained n-butanol extract was dissolved in aqueous solution (pH 1, adjusted with 0.5 mol/L HCl), and purified by a CER column eluting with H2O and 70% ethanol (pH 10, adjusted with 25% aqueous ammonia), successively. Rohitukine existed in 70% ethanol eluate, with a purity up to 53.3%. The method developed in this study provides a simple and rapid approach for the preparation of rohitukine from the stem bark ofD. binectariferum.%建立红果樫木树皮中罗希吐碱的提取工艺.利用L9(34)正交实验确定罗希吐碱的提取条件,比较5种填料(XAD-2树脂,聚酰胺,葡聚糖凝胶LH-20,ODS和阳离子交换树脂)以及液液萃取技术对红果樫木提取物中罗希吐碱的分离效果.提取条件确定为:药材用70%7,醇(v/m=60)超声提取60分钟;提取物溶解于酸水溶液(0.5 mol/L HCl调pH 1),经等体积正丁醇萃取除去杂质;25%氨水调剩余水溶液pH 10,再经等体积正丁醇萃取;正丁醇萃取物溶解于酸水溶液(0.5 mol/L HCI调pH 1),经阳离子

  6. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE TREATMENT AND PURIFICATION METHODS OF CO-115M GLASS-CERAMICS ON OPTICAL CONTACT STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tikhmenev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present findings of the optical contact for details made of СО-115Мglass-ceramics brand mark. The optical contact is the main method of joining parts made of CO-115M glass-ceramics brand mark in commercially available laser gyros. The existing technology has a number of unresolved issues related to the durability of the optical contact, that determine the tightness of the laser sensor internal volume. Method. Mechanical strength control of the optical contact consisted in the measurement of specific tear force of the connection. Mechanical strength tests of the optical contact were carried out with the use of RMI-250 tensile testing machine. The evenly increasing load of 50 N/s was applied to the samples in mechanical tests. The value with the occurence of the optical contact destruction was registered. Main Results. We have shown that one of the main factors determining the mechanical strength of the joint is cleanliness of the surfaces being connected. Comparison of the influence of different surface cleaning methods for optical elements on the optical contact durability has been given. The negative impact of even short-term storage of optical parts after washing on the assembly strength has been shown. The additional operation of mechanical polishing of surfaces of stored optical parts before connection enabled significantly reducing the scatter of the optical contact mechanical strength. We have also established experimentally that the heating of assembly of optical elements under vacuum at a temperature of 300°C leads to the twofold increase in the optical contact strength, while the optical contact remains separable. Practical Relevance. The carried out studies make it possible to improve the technical and operational characteristics of the laser gyroes. The use of additional mechanical cleaning of surfaces of optical parts and vacuum heating of the assembly in the process of laser sensor production may

  7. Methods to determine the transcriptomes of trypanosomes in mixtures with mammalian cells: the effects of parasite purification and selective cDNA amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Mulindwa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of gene expression in cultured Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream and procyclic forms have been extensively characterized, and some comparisons have been made with trypanosomes grown to high parasitaemias in laboratory rodents. We do not know, however, to what extent these transcriptomes resemble those in infected Tsetse flies - or in humans or cattle, where parasitaemias are substantially lower. For clinical and field samples it is difficult to characterize parasite gene expression because of the large excess of host cell RNA. We have here examined two potential solutions to this problem for bloodstream form trypanosomes, assaying transcriptomes by high throughput cDNA sequencing (RNASeq. We first purified the parasites from blood of infected rats. We found that a red blood cell lysis procedure affected the transcriptome substantially more than purification using a DEAE cellulose column, but that too introduced significant distortions and variability. As an alternative, we specifically amplified parasite sequences from a mixture containing a 1000-fold excess of human RNA. We first purified polyadenylated RNA, then made trypanosome-specific cDNA by priming with a spliced leader primer. Finally, the cDNA was amplified using nested primers. The amplification procedure was able to produce samples in which 20% of sequence reads mapped to the trypanosome genome. Synthesis of the second cDNA strand with a spliced leader primer, followed by amplification, is sufficiently reproducible to allow comparison of different samples so long as they are all treated in the same way. However, SL priming distorted the abundances of the cDNA products and definitely cannot be used, by itself, to measure absolute mRNA levels. The amplification method might be suitable for clinical samples with low parasitaemias, and could also be adapted for other Kinetoplastids and to samples from infected vectors.

  8. Investigation of acid red 88 oxidation in water by means of electro-Fenton method for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ali; Gençten, Metin

    2016-03-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton method was applied to acid red 88 (AR88) containing aqueous solutions for the removal of it from water. The mineralization of AR88 has been achieved by oxidation with hydroxyl radicals. These radicals were produced simultaneously by the electro-Fenton method using an electrochemical cell including a carbon felt cathode and a platinum anode. Applied current and concentrations of catalyst and supporting electrolyte were optimized to obtain the best effective parameters of 500 mA, 0.1 mM and 75 mM, respectively. The absolute rate constant for the oxidation reaction of AR88 with hydroxyl radical was determined as (1.57 ± 0.06) x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis was performed to determine whether the organics were converted to carbon dioxide or not. A two-hour electrolysis at 500 mA is enough to remove 87% of initial TOC values of 0.25 mM AR88 solution. Electro-Fenton treatment of AR88 led to the formation of five aromatic intermediates, five short-chain carboxylic acids and three inorganic ions. Identified intermediates and complete mineralization of AR88 allowed us to propose a mineralization pathway for first time in the literature.

  9. Comparison of expression, purification and characterization of a new pectate lyase from Phytophthora capsici using two different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuguo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectate lyases (PELs play an important role in the infection process of plant pathogens and also have a commercial significance in industrial applications. Most of the PELs were expressed as soluble recombinant proteins, while a few recombinant proteins were insoluble. The production of a large-scale soluble recombinant PEL would allow not only a more detailed structural and functional characterization of this enzyme but also may have important applications in the food industry. Results We cloned a new pectate lyase gene (Pcpel2 from Phytophthora capsici. Pcpel2 was constructed by pET system and pMAL system, and both constructs were used to express the PCPEL2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The expressed products were purified using affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purity, specific activity and pathogenicity of the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system were higher than the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pET system. In addition, some other characteristics of the purified PCPEL2 differed from the two systems, such as crystallographic features. Purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K, and initial crystals were grown. Conclusion The two different methods and comparison presented here would be highly valuable in obtaining an ideal enzyme for the downstream experiments, and supply an useful alternative to purify some insoluble recombinant proteins.

  10. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  11. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, sug...

  12. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  13. Discussion on Purification Performance Evaluation Methods of Car Air Purifier%对车载空气净化器净化性能评价方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾; 闻真; 孙立

    2016-01-01

    30 car air purifiers (in view of family car) are selected in 3 m3 experiment module for testing, clean air delivery rate (CADR) and purification efficiency are used to evaluate the purifying effect of car air purifier on formaldehyde and particle pollutants, and the paper discusses the method differences. Testing result shows that it is proportional to both of them, when CADR formaldehyde≥12 m3/h and CADR particles≥15 m3/h, CADR can reflect the differences in purification capacity, and it can help consumers understand the real purification capacity of car air purifier in combination with purification efficiency.%选取30个车载空气净化器(针对家庭用车)在3 m3实验舱中进行测试,通过“洁净空气量(CADR)”和“净化效率”2种方法来评价车载空气净化器对甲醛及颗粒物污染物的净化效果,并就方法的差异展开探讨。检测结果表明,两者成正比关系,当CADR 甲醛≥12 m3/h、CADR 颗粒物≥15 m3/h时,CADR更能体现净化能力差异,结合净化效率,能帮助消费者了解车载空气净化器真实的净化能力。

  14. 强辐射催化法提纯多晶硅%Purification of silicon by the method of strong radiation catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈应天; 何祚庥

    2011-01-01

    Among others, the removal of boron is the key issue to effectively purify metallurgical silicon into solar grade silicon. An innovative slagging process is proposed in this article after reviewing many previous studies. In the process, strong radiation is employed as catalysis to promote the chemical reaction. The authors have for the first time unveiled the secrets including the newly developed high temperature tools, the materials used, the method of mixing materials before purification, the process for separating silicon from residuals after purification, etc.. In the meantime, the authors also propose a postulate to explain the mechanism of the catalysis process. Except the removal of boron, the processes to remove other impurities, such as phosphorous and residual metals using electron beam and magnetic floating directional solidification are also discussed for the completion of a new industrial process to fabricate pure silicon. In the article, the authors also extend their discussion to the possibility of using the proposed non - imaging heliostat in other fields ; to the possibility to further manufacture electronic grade silicon using the same process ; to the possibility to obtain more experimental evidences for the postulate of strong radiation catalysis and to other subjects related to authors' claimed creations. It is sincerely hoped that the publication of the innovations reported in this article may provide an alternative way in the route map for the use of renewable energy of low cost and low carbon emission.%将低纯度的金属硅,提纯成可用于制造太阳能电池的高纯硅材料的主要关键,是去除材料中的硼杂质.本文提出了一种采用特殊的造渣过程以去除硼杂质的新方法.在这种新方法中,为了促进快速的化学反应,采用高密度的光子作为催化剂,以达到太阳能级硅材料的标准.本文对使用这种新的强辐射催化法炼硅的高温工具、冶炼方法、

  15. Development of methods for the purification of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 68}Ga for biomolecules labeling; Desenvolvimento de metodos de purificacao do {sup 67}Ga e {sup 68}Ga para a marcacao de biomoleculas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators have been in development, obtaining {sup 68}Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. {sup 68}Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived {sup 68}Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with {sup 68}Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of {sup 68}Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. {sup 68}Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of

  16. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Herget

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  17. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  18. Rat dental follicle cells purification by bidirectional differential method%双向差速法纯化大鼠牙囊细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 李伯琦; 铁晓敏; 王琪; 刘奕杉

    2016-01-01

    目的:利用牙囊细胞和成釉细胞贴壁速度及酶消化分离速度不同的特点,建立一种简便、快速纯化大鼠牙囊细胞的方法。方法取新生5~6 d SD大鼠下颌第一磨牙牙胚,在体视显微镜下剥离牙囊及成釉器,剪碎后酶消化并混合培养,再利用差速贴壁法和差速传代法纯化牙囊细胞。结果原代细胞为牙囊细胞和成釉器细胞混合生长,差速传代培养到第2~3代可获得纯化的牙囊细胞。倒置显微镜下观察牙囊细胞呈梭形或三角形,免疫组织化学染色显示抗波形丝蛋白阳性,抗角蛋白阴性。结论双向差速法是一种高效、简便的纯化牙囊细胞的方法。%Objective To develop a simple and fast purifingmethod of dental follicle cell by the character of different velocity of attachment of detachment between dental follicle cells and enamel organ cells. Methods The lower first intact molar germs of SD rats with 5-6 days old were selected and separated. The dental follicle and enamel organ were stipped together under the stereo microscope. After minced into little pieces and degested with trypsin and cultured, the dental follicle cells were purified by diffierential adherence and differential passage. The final purified cells were identified by immunocytochemistry. Results The primay cells were mixed, consisting of dental follice cells and enamel organ cells. After differential adherence and passage, the cells of 2-3th passage became purified dental follicle cells. Purified dental follicle cells were elongate spindle or triangle in shape, positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin. Conclusion Bidirectional differential method is an efficient and simple method for the purification of dental follicle cells.

  19. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  20. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  1. Homotopy colimits of model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bergner, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Building on a previous definition of homotopy limit of model categories, we give a definition of homotopy colimit of model categories. Using the complete Segal space model for homotopy theories, we verify that this definition corresponds to the model-category-theoretic definition in that setting.

  2. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  3. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  4. On the Preferred Flesh Color of Japanese and Chinese and the Determining Factors —Investigation of the Younger Generation Using Method of Successive Categories and Semantic Differential Method—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Deng, Pei; Tsuruoka, Hideki; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    The preferred flesh color was surveyed by the successive five categories method and the SD method in Japan and China to investigate its determining factors. The Chinese most preferred flesh color was more reddish than the Japanese one, while the flesh color accepted by 50% and more of the observers in China was larger in chromaticness and more yellowish than in Japan. In the determining factors for selection of the preferred color extracted by a factor analysis, a big difference between Japanese and Chinese men was observed. The first factor of the former was kind personality, whereas that of the latter was showy appearance.

  5. Development of constructed wetland using hydroponic biofilter method for purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water; Fueiyoka kosui no joka no tameno suiko seibutsu rokaho wo mochiita jinko shicchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)] Nakasato, H. [Top Ecology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    Applying the hydroponic biofilter method as a direct purification method for a hyper-eutrophic lake water, an experiment was carried out at the Tsuchiura Port on Lake Kasumigaura to obtain data for constructing a hydrophilic artificial wetland. Purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water containing a large amount of water blooms in summer was attempted applying the hydroponic biofilter method for which hydrophyte is used. As a result, it was clarified, by applying the hydroponic biofilter method, that capturing effect of suspended substances can be achieved in the rooting zone, captured suspended substances are decomposed at high rate, and the revolved nutrient salt can be absorbed and assimilated by the use of plants having high growth rates. Ipomoea aquatica had the highest removal activity, followed by nasturtium officinal, menthe spicata, and oenanthe javanica. As a result, it became clear that a constructed wetland made with the hydroponic biofilter method can be applied as a direct purifying method for hyper-eutrophic lake water by selecting appropriate plants in accordance with season. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Using problem-based learning to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu, Wawan; Kurnia, Eli, Rohaeni Nur

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain information about the using Problem-based Learning (PBL) to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification. The research adopted quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design, involving 31students of class XI in one SMK in Cimahi as the subjects of study. The students were divided into three groups categories: high, medium, and low based on the average grades of daily tests. The used instruments in this study were essay, observation sheet, questionnaire (Likert scale), and interview sheet Aspects of creative thinking skills are developed including: fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing (elaborative), and judging (evaluative). To identify the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on water purification, "normalized gain" or of the pre-test and post-test scores was calculated. The results showed that PBL can enhance students' creative thinking skills by means high category (percentage of = 70.12%). This nformation can be used as an input to teachers in the school and teacher education programs.

  7. An Efficient and Safe Method for Hemoglobin Purification%一种安全高效的血红蛋白纯化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧家涛; 刘建仓; 徐竞; 李东红; 刘良明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To build up a hemoglobin purification method which could meet the needs of safety, efficiency and scale amplification. Methods; Packed red blood cells were lysed by dialyzing against 10 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 8. 0) containing 0. 15% (M/V) ascorbic acid at 4°C for 3 h with the buffer changed once an hour, and then centrifuged at 10 000 g for 10 min (4℃). The supernatant was treated with ammonium sulfate by the two-step salting-out operation to the saturation of 20% and 46% (M/V, calibrated at OX,) subsequently, and then the precipitated protein was re-suspended using the equalizing buffer (25 mmol/L Tris, 10 mmol/L NaCl pH 8. 5) with the equal volume to that of the packed red blood cells. After dialyzing against the equalizing buffer for at 4℃ for 3 h with the same changing interval, the protein solution was diluted with the equalizing buffer by the ration of 1:2 (V/V) and centrifuged at 12 000 g for 20 min (4℃). The supernatant after centrifugation, namely the rough hemoglobin extract, was loaded to an 50 mm * 200 mm ( d * h) Q sapharose FF anion exchange chromatography column pre-equalized with the equalizing buffer and then hemoglobin was eluted using 25 mmol/L Tris, 80 mmol/ L NaCl pH 8. 5. The purity of samples from different processed was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and HPLC, and the oxygen-binding status was characterized by the UV-Vis spectrum scanning and blood-gas indexes, which were provided by the Thermo Multiscan Spectrum and ABL800 Flex Blood-gas Analyzer respectively. Iipoprotein concentration was tested by the phosphorus determination method and LPS was determined using the stachypleus amebocyte lysate with the sensitivity of 0. 3 EU/ml, 0. 1 EU/ml and 0. 03 EU/ml. Results more than 98% lipids were removed in the rough hemoglobin extracts compared with hemoglobin extracts prepared by the conventional method, and this rough hemoglobin extracts could easily go through the 0.45μm cellulose nitrate membrane. In the following anion exchange

  8. 质谱图筛选红曲红色素纯化方法%MS Methods Assist Separation and Purification of A New Kind of Monasucs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立增; 孟宪昉; 白正晨; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    以商品化的红曲米为原料,利用质谱图定性分析,考察在红曲红色素提取过程中冷冻,索氏提取,溶剂,柱色谱,薄层色谱等因素对分离效果的影响,筛选并分离得到一种分子离子峰为332.6红曲红色素分子。研究结果表明该红曲红色素分子的纯化条件依次为:以甲醇为淋洗剂对红曲米进行柱色谱分离,以正己烷、乙酸乙酯和甲醇为萃取剂进行一次索氏提取,以CH2Cl2∶CH3OH=1∶1为展开剂进行薄层色谱分离,收集Rf=0.8的色带,以CH3CH2OH∶CCl4=9∶1为展开剂进行第二次薄层色谱分离,收集Rf=0.8的色带为目标分子,收率为0.0126%。%Commercial monascus red pigments were used as the raw material , the influence of the freezing temperature, Soxhlet extraction, solvents, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography separation process assisted by the use of mass methods were studied in details. A new kind of monasucs was screened out from the raw materials, the molecular ion peak located at 332.5. The experimental conditions for the purification of the monascus was:Before the Soxhlet extraction which hexane , ethyl acetate and methanol as the separated solvents, the red yeast rice subjected to column chromatography by the methanol used as the eluent. Then CH2Cl2∶CH3OH=1∶1 were used as the eluent for the thin layer chromatography ( Rf=0.8). Finally, a second thin layer chromatography were carried out to collect the the target molecule bond (Rf= 0.8) in which the CH3CH2OH∶CCl4=9∶1 were used as the corresponding eluents, yield 0.0126%.

  9. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  10. A trace for bimodule categories

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We study a 2-functor that assigns to a bimodule category over a finite k-linear tensor category a k-linear abelian category. This 2-functor can be regarded as a category-valued trace for 1-morphisms in the tricategory of finite tensor categories. It is defined by a universal property that is a categorification of Hochschild homology of bimodules over an algebra. We present several equivalent realizations of this 2-functor and show that it has a coherent cyclic invariance. Our results have applications to categories associated to circles in three-dimensional topological field theories with defects. This is made explicit for the subclass of Dijkgraaf-Witten topological field theories.

  11. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.;

    2004-01-01

    Purification and characterization of an aminotransferase (AT) specific for the degradation of branched-chain amino acids from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHCC 2115. Methods and Results: The purification protocol consisted of anion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography...

  12. A method with high yield for isolation and purification of rat islets%高产率大鼠胰岛分离纯化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阳; 徐靖; 王志梁; 陈丽; 黄莹; 王西墨

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一种高效、稳定的大鼠胰岛分离纯化方法.方法 选取41只体质量150~380 g的成年雄性SD大鼠,按体质量分成4组,采用改进后的方法进行胰岛分离纯化,双硫腙染色计数胰岛、鉴定纯度,吖啶橙-碘化丙锭染色判断胰岛活性,葡萄糖刺激实验检测胰岛功能.结果 41只大鼠的胰岛产率为(1056±357)个/只,各组间产率差异无统计学意义[A组(932±542)个/只,B组(1036±339)个/只,C组(1142±305)个/只,D组(1108±178)个/只,P>0.05].胰岛纯度在90%以上,活率超过90%,胰岛刺激指数为2.08 ±0.10.结论 应用改进的分离纯化方法,能在不同体质量水平大鼠间获得稳定的胰岛高产率,胰岛的纯度、活性和功能可靠.%Objective To set up an effective and stabile method for isolation and purification of rat islets.Methods Forty-one adult male SD rats weighing 150-380 g were used as organ donors.All donors were divided into 4 groups by body weight.Islets were isolated using digestion at 37℃ by ductal injection of collagenase with sampling timely to determine when to stop digestion,and purified by centrifugation of discontinuous Ficoll density gradient.The identification of purified islets was evaluated by dithizone staining.The viability of islet was assessed by fluorescence staining of aridine orange and propidium iodide.The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test.Results The total number of purified islets in one pancreas was 1056 ± 357.There was no significant difference among the islet yields of the 4 groups with different body weight (for groups A,B,C and D:932 ± 542,1036 ± 339,1142±305,and 1108 ± 178,respectively,P >0.05).The purity of islets was more than 90%.The viability of islets was more than 90%.The simulation index was 2.08 ± 0.10.Conclusion Using the modified method,the islet isolated and purified from rats with different weight had stable high yield,high purity

  13. QuEChERS-based purification method coupled to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yanping; Dong, Hao; Wu, Yuluan; Guo, Xindong; Hou, Xiangchang; Wang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    QuEChERS-based purification coupled with UPLC-MS/MS method, was developed for six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) determination in dairy products. Powder samples were firstly dispersed by water. Protein in liquid milk was precipitated and sample solution was extracted by acetonitrile. QuEChERS-based purification was used to purify the solution. QACs were finally separated by HILIC column and detected in MRM mode of MS/MS under ESI(+). The stable isotope benzyl-2,3,4,5,6-d5-dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide (C14-BAC-d5) was used as an internal standard. This method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy. Linear relations were favorable for QACs over the selected concentration ranges of 0.2-50μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.4-14.5μg/kg. Recoveries were between 91.2% and 115% with RSDs of 2.8-7.5% for intra-day precision and 3.7-6.7% for inter-day precision. This validated method was successfully applied to determine the QACs concentrations in dairy products. PMID:27374511

  14. Unfolding Grammars in Adhesive Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Baldan, Paolo; Corradini, Andrea; Heindel, Tobias; König, Barbara; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the unfolding semantics, previously developed for concrete formalisms such as Petri nets and graph grammars, to the abstract setting of (single pushout) rewriting over adhesive categories. The unfolding construction is characterized as a coreflection, i.e. the unfolding functor arises as the right adjoint to the embedding of the category of occurrence grammars into the category of grammars.As the unfolding represents potentially infinite computations, we need to work in adhesive...

  15. Purification of human leucocyte DNA: proteinase K is not necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A M; Georgalis, A M; Benton, L R; Canavan, K L; Atchison, B A

    1992-03-01

    A rapid nontoxic method for the purification of DNA from human leucocytes is described. Preliminary experiments which tested different methods of DNA purification indicated that digestion of proteins with proteinase K was unnecessary. This led to the development of a simple procedure involving lysis of the cells in SDS followed by extraction with 6 M NaCl. The method described overcomes the requirement for lengthy incubations in the presence of expensive proteinase K and subsequent extraction with toxic chemicals.

  16. Comparison of different anticoagulation methods in blood purification in severe patients%重症患者血液净化不同抗凝方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何润芝; 邓湘辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较重症患者血液净化中不同抗凝方式:低分子肝素抗凝(A 组)、局部枸橼酸抗凝(B 组)的效果及安全性。方法:回顾性分析我科自2014年10月至2015年03月行血液净化的27例重症患者资料,其中 A 组19例,B 组8例,比较两组患者在血液净化效果(血液净化前后血清肌酐下降值),安全性(出血、凝血事件,凝血功能)及死亡率等方面的差异。结果:两组患者在溶质清除率(血液净化前后血清肌酐下降值)、凝血功能方面无统计学差异,皆无明显出血事件,死亡率(A:26.32%与 B:37.5%)差异可能与原发病有关,凝血事件方面 B 组优于 A 组。结论:血液净化中用局部枸橼酸抗凝安全、可行、有效,局部枸橼酸抗凝在重症患者尤其是高危出血风险的患者中具有良好的应用前景。%Objective:To compare the effects and safety of different anticoagulant Methods low molecular weight heparin(A group)and regional citrate anti-coagulation (B group)in severe patients in blood purification.Methods:We analyzed retrospectively 27 cases of critically ill patients in our department from Oc-tober in 2014 to March in 2015 for blood purification,including 19 cases of A group,8 cases of B group ,the purification effects (the decline in value of serum creatinine before and after blood purification ),safety (hemorrhage,coagulant events,blood coagulate function ) and the mortality of two groups were compared.Results:There was no significant difference in two groups in the solute clearance rate (the decline in value of serum creatinine before and after blood purification),and blood coagulate function.There were no hemorrhage.Differences of mortality(A:26.32% and B:37.5%)may be related to the primary dis-ease.B group surpass than A group in coagulant events.Conclusion:Blood purification with regional citrate anticoagulation is safe,feasible,effective,there was a good

  17. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  18. Multi-granularity Linguistic Grey Target Decision Method in Categories for Preference%方案有类别偏好的多粒度语言灰靶决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴泉晨; 朱建军; 耿瑞

    2015-01-01

    研究了方案有类别偏好的不同粒度语言信息决策方法。基于不同粒度语言的距离转换函数方法,将其转换成标准语言距离;针对不完全的属性权重信息,通过灰靶决策的原理表征方案的综合靶心距;基于案例学习的思想,建立了考虑方案有多种类别偏好的属性权重确定模型。算例表明了方法有效性。%This paper researches on multi-granularity linguistic decision method in categories for preference .On the base of multi-granularity linguistic distance transform function , it converts information into a standard language distance .According to incomplete information on attribute weights , it represents the comprehensive off-target distance in the scheme through the principle of grey target decision .Based on the idea of case study , it builds the attribute weights determination model by considering different categories for preference .An example shows that the method is effective .

  19. Evaluation of separation and purification processes in the antibiotic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Lee, D.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    The different separation and purification processes for three major types of antibiotics, Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Tetracyclines will be discussed. All antibiotic, processing plants contain two majors sections, a relatively small and highly specialized fermentation section and a very large (60-80% of the plant) separation and purification section. The fermentation sections for the different antibiotics are essentially identical, except for differences in growth media and operating variables, but there are vast differences in the separation and purification sections. Several different separation methods are used including filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, precipitation, extraction, chromatography and various membrane methods. Variables affecting the specific separation and purification configurations include final fermentation broth concentration, by-product formed during fermentation, the physical properties and molecular structure of the various antibiotics and special purification requirements. Necessary reductions in the separation and purification processes required for rebuilding the antibiotic industry after a national emergency are discussed along with several relatively new separation/purification methods that hold great promise for effecting these reductions, chromatography, supercritical fluid extraction (SCF), and membranes. 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 不同血液净化方法对肾性骨病相关因子的影响%Effect on the Related Factors of Renal Osteopathy of Different Blood Purification Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可荣; 成世立; 邹进益

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect on the related factors of renal osteopathy of different blood purification method.Method:From January 2009 to August 2014,a total of 326 patients with renal osteopathy treated in our hospital by blood dialysis were randomly divided into two groups.163 cases of patients in the control group were treated using common blood purification method;163 cases of patients in the observation group were treated with combined-type blood purification methods.The blood blood calcium,phosphorus,parathyroid hormone,the change of the beta 2-microglobulin and the calcium-phosphorus product in the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Result:After treatment,blood calcium content of the patients in the observation group significantly increased(P<0.05), and the blood phosphorus,parathyroid hormone,beta 2-microglobulin and calcium-phosphorus product significantly decreased(P<0.05).But all the indexes of patients of the control group changed non-significantly.Clinical therapeutic effect of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group,but the adverse reaction was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effects on the related factors of renal osteopathy of different blood purification methods are different.Combined-type blood purification methods can better remove patients parathyroid hormone and beta 2-macroglobulin,and repair the body calcium phosphorus metabolism disorder phenomenon.%目的:分析不同血液净化方法对肾性骨病相关因子的影响。方法:选取本院收治进行血液透析的肾性骨病患者326例并分为两组。对照组采用普通血液透析方式进行治疗;观察组采用联合式血液净化方式进行治疗。比较两组患者治疗前后各项指标的变化,同时计算钙磷乘积。结果:观察组临床治疗效果显著高于对照组,不良反应显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用联合式血液净化方

  1. Simplicial Lusternik-Schnirelmann category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ternero, Desamparados; Macías-Virgós, Enrique; Minuz, Erika; Vilches, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The simplicial LS-category of a finite abstract simplicial complex is a new invariant of the strong homotopy type, defined in purely combinatorial terms, that generalizes to arbitrary simplicial complexes the well known notion of arboricity of a graph, and that allows to develop all the machinery of algebraic topology which is costumary in the classical theory of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category.

  2. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  3. Separation and Purification of Fissiogenic Ruthenium From Irradiated Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ruthenium is an important fission product. Its isotopic composition may reflect the burnup or the initial uranium enrichment of nuclear fuel. So the separation and purification method of fission products of Ruthenium from irradiated uranium was studied and established.

  4. Composite purification technology and mechanism of recycled aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房文斌; 耿耀宏; 安阁英; 叶荣茂

    2002-01-01

    Iron-rich inclusions in aluminum alloys can be effectively removed by composite purification of sedimentation and filtration technology.The results show that the purposed method has no negative effects on aluminum alloys and obviously improve their mechanical properties.

  5. Study on Biological Methods of Water Purification in Intensive Fishponds%精养池塘水质生物净化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬小军; 袁新华

    2013-01-01

    In this trial, a water purification section which was separated from traditional intensive fishponds by planting water spinach, stocking clam and bio-filter brush, was studied to improve water quality of the intensive fishponds for the first time. The results showed that the integrated system of biological methods was very effective in removing total suspended solids (TSS ) , chemical oxygen demands ( COD Mn ) , total nitrogen (TN ) , ammonium nitrogen ( TAN), nitrite nitrogen ( NO2- -N ) , nitrate nitrogen ( NO-3-N) , orthophosphate phosphorus ( PO4 34-P) and total phosphorus (TP). In particular, the bio-system in pond No. 1 had the optimal effect on water improvement and the relative removal rates (the control standard was the pollutant value of control pond) of pollutants mentioned above were 49.58 % , 30.13 % , 38. 81 % , 37.31 % , 50.72 % , 56.13 % , 52.63 % and 40.96 % , respectively. In addition, there was no obvious difference between ammoni-fier and nitrifying bacteria in water of various ponds in terms of quantity. However, the ammonifier ratios of bio-brushes to water in pond No. 1 and pond No. 2 was 32:1 and 49:1, respectively, and the nitrifying bacterial ratios of bio-brushes to water in pond No. 1 and pond No. 2 was 4:1 and 4:1, respectively. It indicated that bio-brush provided a favorable medium for two bacteria above and help the decomposition of organic materials and nitrification of nitrogen.%本研究首次在传统精养鱼池中构建了功能净化区,采用在浮床中栽种水蕹菜、吊挂背角无齿蚌和生物滤料净化水质.结果表明,与对照池相比,由水培蕹菜、背角无齿蚌和生物滤料组成的集成生物净化系统对精养鱼池水中TSS、CODMn、TN、TAN、NO2--N、NO3--N、PO43--P和TP都有较好的去除效果,尤其是1号池净化区,以对照池水质指标为参照标准,其对上述各污染物相对去除率分别为49.58%,30.13%,38.81%,37.31%,50.72%,56.13%,52.63%和40.96%;此

  6. Distributors on a tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBARA, D.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\cA$ be a tensor category and let $\\cV$ denote the category of vector spaces. A distributor on $\\cA$ is a functor $\\cA^{\\op}\\times \\cA\\to \\cV$. We are concerned with distributors with two-sided $\\cA$-action. Those distributors form a tensor category, which we denoted by ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$. The functor category $\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV)$ is also a tensor category and has the center $\\bZ(\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV))$. We show that if $\\cA$ is rigid, then ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$ and $\\...

  7. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, Oksana; Gay, Angela; Yakovleva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keyw...

  8. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. P. Sedlukho; Yu. O. Stankevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation....

  9. Purification of crime scene DNA extracts using centrifugal filter devices

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Lina; Hedell, Ronny; Ansell, Ricky; Hedman, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of forensic DNA analysis is limited by the size, quality and purity of biological evidence found at crime scenes. Sample impurities can inhibit PCR, resulting in partial or negative DNA profiles. Various DNA purification methods are applied to remove impurities, for example, employing centrifugal filter devices. However, irrespective of method, DNA purification leads to DNA loss. Here we evaluate the filter devices Amicon Ultra 30 K and Microsep 30 K with respect to re...

  10. 基于土地分类的机场噪声评价限值标准比较%Method Based on Land Use Category for Comparison of Airport-Noise-Assessment Threshold Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯霞; 刘学刚

    2013-01-01

    Many noise-assessment methods for airport are used and their threshold criteria are different from each other. A new method based on land use category was proposed to resolve the difficulty of comparison of these threshold criteria. The land around airport was classified into three categories according to use type. Various major threshold criteria were analyzed, and reunified by land use category. The relationship between threshold criteria and land use category was defined. Comparison of different threshold criteria was accomplished by comparing the area of land. Case study showed the threshold criterion for Weighted Equivalent Continuous Perceived Noise Level (WECPNL) was the most rigorous, followed by Australia Noise Exposure Forecast(ANEF), and Day-Night Average Noise Level(DNL) was the most lenient. To make WECPNL threshold criteria more effective, the minimum of it is suggested to adjust to 74 dB, and the maximum to 80 dB. Results showed the method based on land use category for comparison of different airport-noise-assessment threshold criteria is feasible.%现行的机场噪声评价方法众多,其限值标准各不相同.针对限值标准间难以相互比较这一问题,提出了一种基于土地使用分类的比较方法.将受机场噪声影响的区域按照土地使用类型划分为3类,结合不同评价方法的特点,将限值标准统一到一致的土地使用类型.定义限值区间和土地使用类型的关系,进而通过计算并比较同类型土地所占面积实现不同限值标准的比较.基于某大型繁忙机场的实例得出记权等效连续感觉噪声级(WECPNL)限值标准最严,澳大利亚噪声暴露预报(ANEF)次之,昼夜平均噪声级(DNL)最为宽松.限值标准过严不利于实施,建议将WECPNL限值标准下限调整为74 dB,上限调整为80dB.验证结果表明通过土地使用分类对不同机场噪声评价限值标准进行比较的方法切实可行.

  11. The neurobiology of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F Gregory; Spiering, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    Many recent studies have examined the neural basis of category learning. Behavioral neuroscience results suggest that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia play important category-learning roles; neurons that develop category-specific firing properties are found in both regions, and lesions to both areas cause category-learning deficits. Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories. The cognitive neuroscience literature on category learning appears contradictory until the results are partitioned according to the type of category-learning task that was used. Three major tasks can be identified: rule based, information-integration, and prototype-distortion. Recent results are consistent with the hypotheses that (a) learning in rule-based tasks requires working memory and executive attention and is mediated by frontal-striatal circuits, (b) learning in information-integration tasks requires procedural memory and is mediated primarily within the basal ganglia, and (c) learning in prototype-distortion tasks depends on multiple memory systems, including the perceptual representation system. PMID:15537987

  12. 采用类别相似度聚合的关联文本分类方法%Associative Rule-Based Text Categorization Method Using Category Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 桂小林; 杨攀; 王刚; 郭岳龙

    2012-01-01

    Conventional association rule-based categorization methods have bottleneck in improving classifier's accuracy, since these methods only consider the rule confidence degree and use the pruning technique. A novel method to solve this problem is proposed, and is called associative rule-based classifier aggregating with category similarity (AACS). The method adopts the modified chi-square statistical technique to extract feature terms from each category, and employs the CR-tree to store classification rules. Algorithms to construct and to match CR-tree are proposed. Inner-product is used to calculate the similarity between the category sub vector of the text and the category feature vector, and then is aggregated with the rules' confidence degree to serve as the foundation of text categorization. Experimental results show that the method presented achieves a micro-average value of categorization 92. 42% with extracting only 30 feature terms, which is better than the results of AWOPR, KNN, and Bayes classifiers. And the time complexity of the method is the same as that of AWOPR, indicating that the cost to calculate both the similarity and the aggregation is acceptable.%针对基于关联规则的分类方法在分类时仅考虑规则的置信度并使用规则修剪技术,导致分类器的分类精度难以进一步提高的问题,提出了一种基于类别相似度聚合的关联文本分类方法.该方法采用修改的x2统计技术提取各类别的特征词;为保证规则匹配的精度和速度,使用CR-tree存储分类规则,并给出了CR-tree的构建与匹配算法;采用向量内积来计算文本类别分量与类别标志向量的相似度,进而使用规则置信度和类别相似度的聚合值作为文本分类的依据.基于实际网络文本的实验表明,该方法仅需提取30个特征词,分类结果的微平均值即可达到92.42%,优于未经剪枝的ARGBC分类器及KNN、Bayes分类器;在分类耗时方面,该方法与未经

  13. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Generalized Tambara-Yamagami categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liptrap, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Fusion rules generalize groups by allowing multivalued multiplication. Groups are fusion rules of simple current index 1. We classify nilpotent (in the sense of Gelaki and Nikshych) fusion rules of simple current index 2, and characterize the associated fusion categories.

  15. Evaluation of five commercial methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from human faecal samples for downstream molecular detection of the enteric protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Silvia; Mateo, Marta; de Lucio, Aida; Hernández-de Mingo, Marta; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fuentes, Isabel; Mateo, María; Carmena, David

    2016-08-01

    High quality, pure DNA is required for ensuring reliable and reproducible results in molecular diagnosis applications. A number of in-house and commercial methods are available for the extraction and purification of genomic DNA from faecal material, each one offering a specific combination of performance, cost-effectiveness, and easiness of use that should be conveniently evaluated in function of the pathogen of interest. In this comparative study the marketed kits QIAamp DNA stool mini (Qiagen), SpeedTools DNA extraction (Biotools), DNAExtract-VK (Vacunek), PowerFecal DNA isolation (MoBio), and Wizard magnetic DNA purification system (Promega Corporation) were assessed for their efficacy in obtaining DNA of the most relevant enteric protozoan parasites associated to gastrointestinal disease globally. A panel of 113 stool specimens of clinically confirmed patients with cryptosporidiosis (n=29), giardiasis (n=47) and amoebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica (n=3) or E. dispar (n=10) and apparently healthy subjects (n=24) were used for this purpose. Stool samples were aliquoted in five sub-samples and individually processed by each extraction method evaluated. Purified DNA samples were subsequently tested in PCR-based assays routinely used in our laboratory. The five compared methods yielded amplifiable amounts of DNA of the pathogens tested, although performance differences were observed among them depending on the parasite and the infection burden. Methods combining chemical, enzymatic and/or mechanical lysis procedures at temperatures of at least 56°C were proven more efficient for the release of DNA from Cryptosporidium oocysts. PMID:27241828

  16. A Convenient Category of Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of topological domains, whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual ω-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, can be used as the basis for a theory of computability, and provides a model of parametric polymorphism.

  17. A convenient category of domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of "topological domains", whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual $omega$-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, provides a model of parametric polymorphism, and can be used as the basis for a theory of computab...

  18. Sulla categoria delle categorie esatte

    OpenAIRE

    Margiocco, Marco; Mora, Fulvio

    1981-01-01

    In questo lavoro si studiano alcune proprietà della categoria ex e, in particolare, si costruisce l’esattizzazione di una sottocategoria di una categoria esatta, caratterizzandola mediante una opportuna proprietà universale. In this work we study some properties of the category ex, and construct the «exactization» of a subcategory of an exact category caracterized by an «universal property».

  19. Neural correlates of colour categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Davidoff, Jules B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an electrophysiological marker of visual detection to investigate adults' processing of colour difference. Event-related potentials were collected from the identical colour (green: G0) presented as the frequent or infrequent stimulus within different colour contexts. Critically, we compared differences within the same colour category (G0 vs. green: G1) to differences between colour categories (G0 vs. blue and G0 vs. red). All differences showed a change-related positivity with...

  20. 'Protestantism' as a historical category.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrie, Alec

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘Protestant’ itself is a historical accident, but the category of western Christians who have separated from Rome since 1517 remains a useful one. The confessionalisation thesis, which has dominated recent Reformation historiography, instead posits the two major Protestant confessions and Tridentine Catholicism as its categories, but this can produce a false parallelism in which the nature of relationship between the confessions is oversimplified. Instead, this paper proposes we thin...

  1. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structur...

  2. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  4. [Protein expression and purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růčková, E; Müller, P; Vojtěšek, B

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins is essential for many applications in both basic research and also in medicine, where recombinant proteins are used as pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes procedures involved in recombinant protein expression and purification, including molecular cloning of target genes into expression vectors, selection of the appropriate expression system, and protein purification techniques. Recombinant DNA technology allows protein engineering to modify protein stability, activity and function or to facilitate protein purification by affinity tag fusions. A wide range of cloning systems enabling fast and effective design of expression vectors is currently available. A first choice of protein expression system is usually the bacteria Escherichia coli. The main advantages of this prokaryotic expression system are low cost and simplicity; on the other hand this system is often unsuitable for production of complex mammalian proteins. Protein expression mediated by eukaryotic cells (yeast, insect and mammalian cells) usually produces properly folded and posttranslationally modified proteins. How-ever, cultivation of insect and, especially, mammalian cells is time consuming and expensive. Affinity tagged recombinant proteins are purified efficiently using affinity chromatography. An affinity tag is a protein or peptide that mediates specific binding to a chromatography column, unbound proteins are removed during a washing step and pure protein is subsequently eluted. PMID:24945544

  5. 海洋底泥环境DNA提取与纯化方法比较研究%Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from marine sediment samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 黄李淑馨; 白凤武; 杜昱光

    2014-01-01

    In order to seek an effective extraction and purification method of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples,the metagenomic DNA was extracted by CTAB plus SDS method,CTAB plus glass beads method,SDS plus proteinase K method and SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method,respectively.The metagenomic DNA was purified by column humic clear kit method and electroelution.The quality and quantity of the extracted metagenomic DNA are compared.The highest extracted rate and integrity are obtained by SDS plus proteinase K method, next are SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method and CTAB plus SDS method;CTAB plus glass beads method has severe degradation;and electroelution produces the purest metagenomic DNA and large fragments with more than 42 kb.The research results show that SDS plus proteinase K method and electroelution are the optimum extraction and purification methods of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples compared with other methods.%为了探索有效的海洋底泥宏基因组DNA提取与纯化方法,分别采用CTAB结合SDS法、CTAB结合玻璃珠法、SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和 SoilMasterTM试剂盒法提取海洋底泥宏基因组DNA,用柱式腐殖酸清除试剂盒法与电洗脱法纯化宏基因组 DNA,并对宏基因组 DNA的产量与纯度进行评价。结果表明:SDS 结合蛋白酶 K 法提取率最高,DNA 片段完整;SoilMasterTM试剂盒法与 CTAB结合 SDS法次之;CTAB结合玻璃珠法有严重降解;电洗脱法可以得到高纯度、大于42 kb宏基因组DNA片段。因此,SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和电洗脱法提取纯化海洋近海底泥宏基因组DNA优于其他方法。

  6. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from marine sediment samples%海洋底泥环境DNA提取与纯化方法比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 黄李淑馨; 白凤武; 杜昱光

    2014-01-01

    In order to seek an effective extraction and purification method of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples,the metagenomic DNA was extracted by CTAB plus SDS method,CTAB plus glass beads method,SDS plus proteinase K method and SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method,respectively.The metagenomic DNA was purified by column humic clear kit method and electroelution.The quality and quantity of the extracted metagenomic DNA are compared.The highest extracted rate and integrity are obtained by SDS plus proteinase K method, next are SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method and CTAB plus SDS method;CTAB plus glass beads method has severe degradation;and electroelution produces the purest metagenomic DNA and large fragments with more than 42 kb.The research results show that SDS plus proteinase K method and electroelution are the optimum extraction and purification methods of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples compared with other methods.%为了探索有效的海洋底泥宏基因组DNA提取与纯化方法,分别采用CTAB结合SDS法、CTAB结合玻璃珠法、SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和 SoilMasterTM试剂盒法提取海洋底泥宏基因组DNA,用柱式腐殖酸清除试剂盒法与电洗脱法纯化宏基因组 DNA,并对宏基因组 DNA的产量与纯度进行评价。结果表明:SDS 结合蛋白酶 K 法提取率最高,DNA 片段完整;SoilMasterTM试剂盒法与 CTAB结合 SDS法次之;CTAB结合玻璃珠法有严重降解;电洗脱法可以得到高纯度、大于42 kb宏基因组DNA片段。因此,SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和电洗脱法提取纯化海洋近海底泥宏基因组DNA优于其他方法。

  7. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  8. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  9. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  10. Research on wet purification method of metal tantalum powders by water and acid washing%金属钽粉湿法提纯的水洗和酸洗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包玺芳; 马跃忠; 王治道; 李仲香

    2012-01-01

    A wet purification method of refining metal tantalum powder was researched.After sodium reduction,the primary tantalum powder particles was washed by water and by mixed acid,and other impurities content,such as oxygen,carbon,Si,Fe,Ni and Cr in tantalum powder,were reduced significantly,the target arrived.%研究了一种金属钽粉的湿法提纯方法,即用钠还原后的原生钽粉粒子经水洗和混合酸酸洗,使钽粉中的O,C,Si及Fe,Ni,Cr等杂质质量分数明显降低,达到金属钽粉精炼提纯的目的.

  11. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  12. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  13. Incremental Interpretation of Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a parser for Categorial Grammar which provides fully word by word incremental interpretation. The parser does not require fragments of sentences to form constituents, and thereby avoids problems of spurious ambiguity. The paper includes a brief discussion of the relationship between basic Categorial Grammar and other formalisms such as HPSG, Dependency Grammar and the Lambek Calculus. It also includes a discussion of some of the issues which arise when parsing lexicalised grammars, and the possibilities for using statistical techniques for tuning to particular languages.

  14. Post deposition purification of PTCDA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules during evaporation of unpurified raw material in ultra high vacuum was studied. The fragments were identified by mass spectrometry and the influence of these fragments and further contaminations of the raw material on the electronic structure of PTCDA thin films was measured by photoemission spectroscopy. Annealing of contaminated PTCDA films was tested as cheap and easy to perform method for (partial) post deposition purification of the contaminated films

  15. Improved native affinity purification of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Batey, Robert T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. R...

  16. The application of modified montmorillonite in the processes of baromembrane purification of water from U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of uranium-containing water purification by ultra- and nanofiltration methods combined with the use of montmorillonite modified by polyethyleneimine are studied. It is shown that the application of montmorillonite allows one to obtain the high indices of the uranium-containing water purification by baromembrane methods.

  17. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  18. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  19. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effect...

  20. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  1. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  2. A new cellulose purification approach for higher degree of polymerization: Modeling, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivechi, Ahmad; Bahrami, S Hajir

    2016-11-01

    Degree of polymerization (DP) is an important factor which is affected by purification process. In this study, a new purification process is proposed in which cellulose DP is preserved. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the purification conditions. Purification process of biomass at 100°C in 10g/L sodium hydroxide and 30g/L sodium dithionite, is reported as the optimum condition of this treatment. DP, purity, weight reduction and yellowness index were 6012, 98.10%, 8.46% and 25.22 respectively. TGA, IR, XRD and SEM techniques were used to compare both this new approach and conventional purification treatments. The results showed that this proposed purification process can produce cellulose with higher degree of polymerization compare to the conventional method. PMID:27516274

  3. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Abe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  4. Expression, purification, and characterization of a carbohydrate-active enzyme: A research-inspired methods optimization experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbur, Jaime F; Vail, Justin D; Mitchell, Lindsey N; Jakeman, David L; Timmons, Shannon C

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern techniques and instrumentation commonly found in a research laboratory. Unlike in a traditional cookbook-style experiment, students generate their own hypotheses regarding expression conditions and quantify the amount of protein isolated using their selected variables. Over the course of three 3-hour laboratory periods, students learn to use sterile technique to express a protein using recombinant DNA in E. coli, purify the resulting enzyme via affinity chromatography and dialysis, analyze the success of their purification scheme via SDS-PAGE, assess the activity of the enzyme via an HPLC-based assay, and quantify the amount of protein isolated via a Bradford assay. Following the completion of this experiment, students were asked to evaluate their experience via an optional survey. All students strongly agreed that this laboratory module was more interesting to them than traditional experiments because of its lack of a pre-determined outcome and desired additional opportunities to participate in the experimental design process. This experiment serves as an example of how research-inspired, discovery-based experiences can benefit both the students and instructor; students learned important skills necessary for real-world biochemistry research and a more concrete understanding of the research process, while generating new knowledge to enhance the scholarly endeavors of the instructor.

  5. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  6. Detergent-Free Membrane Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are localized within a lipid bilayer; in order to purify them for functional and structural studies the first step must involve solubilizing or extracting the protein from these lipids. To date this has been achieved using detergents which disrupt the bilayer and bind to the protein in the transmembrane region. However finding conditions for optimal extraction, without destabilizing protein structure, is time consuming and expensive. Here we present a recently-developed method using a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer instead of detergents. The SMA co-polymer extracts membrane proteins in a small disc of lipid bilayer which can be used for affinity chromatography purification, thus enabling the purification of membrane proteins while maintaining their native lipid bilayer environment. PMID:27485341

  7. Nel's category theory based differential and integral Calculus, or did Newton know category theory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2005-01-01

    In a series of publications in the early 1990s, L D Nel set up a study of non-normable topological vector spaces based on methods in category theory. One of the important results showed that the classical operations of derivative and integral in Calculus can in fact be obtained by a rather simple construction in categories. Here we present this result in a concise form. It is important to note that the respective differentiation does not lead to any so called generalized derivatives, for inst...

  8. CEUS Helps to Rerate Small Breast Tumors of BI-RADS Category 3 and Category 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to explore if classification, whether using the BI-RADS categories based on CEUS or conventional ultrasound, was conducive to the identification of benign and malignant category 3 or 4 small breast lesions. Material and Methods. We evaluated 30 malignant and 77 benign small breast lesions using CEUS. The range of enhancement, type of enhancement strength, intensity of enhancement, and enhancement patterns were independent factors included to assess the BI-RADS categories. Results. Of the nonenhanced breast lesions, 97.8% (44/45 were malignant, while, of the hyperplasic nodules, 96.8% (30/31 showed no enhancement in our study. Category changes of the lesions were made according to the features determined using CEUS. The results showed that these features could improve diagnostic sensitivity (from 70.0 to 80.0, 80.0, 90.0, and 90.0%, reduce the negative likelihood ratio (from 0.33 to 0.22, 0.25, 0.11, and 0.12, and improve the NPV (from 88.8 to 92.2, 91.2, 96.2, and 95.5%. However, this was not conducive to improve diagnostic specificity or the PPV. Conclusion. The vast majority of nonenhanced small breast lesions were malignant and most of the hyperplasic nodules showed no contrast enhancement. As a reference, CEUS was helpful in identifying BI-RADS category 3 or 4 small breast lesions.

  9. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  10. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Guinea highlands. Man 2-1, 5-25. Evans, Nicholas. 2009. Trelisses of the mind: how language trains thought. Chapter 8 of Dying Words: Endangered Languages and What They Have to Tell Us, 159-181. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Evans, Nicholas and Stephen Levinson. 2009. The myth of language universals......Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... in their attempt to account for cross-linguistic ordering tendencies (Rijkhoff 2009a).       Recent proposals to employ ‘concepts’ as the basis for cross-linguistic comparison (apparently conflating linguistic/semantic and non-linguistic/cognitive categories) have also met with considerable skepticism (Levinson...

  11. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  12. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  13. 大孔吸附树脂纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮的工艺研究%Purification technology of total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb.with macroporous resin method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓林; 钟方丽; 刘延超; 薛健飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the optimum purification conditions of total flavonoida in Clematis flanda Thunb. With macroporous resin method. Methods The technological conditions of purification were examined by the static adsorption and desorption experiments as well as dynamic adsorption and desorption tests, and took desorption rate as the main indicator. Results Total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb. Could be well purified with D-101 macroporous resin. On the condition that the concentration of total flavonoids was equal to the 0.2 g/ml raw material, the adsorption rate was 2 BV/h, concentration of ethanol was 95 % , desorption rate was 2 BV/h, and the pH value was 4, the content of eluant was 8 times of the raw material. After purified with macroporous resin method, the purity of Clematis florida Thunb. Was improved from 8.39% to 24.66%. Conclusion The results showed that total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb- can be well purified with D-101 macroporous resin.%目的 筛选适合纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮的大孔吸附树脂工艺.方法 采用静态吸附/解吸与动态吸附/解吸相结合的方法,以解吸率为主要指标考察各因素对东北铁线莲总黄酮大孔吸附树脂纯化工艺的影响.结果 6种树脂中D-101型大孔吸附树脂最适合纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮,其最佳工艺为:上样药液东北铁线莲总黄酬浓度相当于原生药0.2g/ml,吸附速率为2 BV/h,解吸液乙醇浓度为95%,解吸速率为2 BV/h,最佳上柱药液pH值为4,洗脱剂用量为8倍柱体积.经大孔吸附树脂分离纯化后,东北铁线莲总黄酮的纯度由8.39%提高到24.66%.结论 D-101型大孔吸附树脂对东北铁线莲总黄酮具有较好的纯化效果.

  14. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  15. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  16. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  17. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION, CLEANING AND PURIFICATION METHODS OF AFLATOXINS FOR HPLC ANALYSIS AVALIAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO, LIMPEZA E PURIFICAÇÃO DE AFLATOXINAS PARA ANÁLISE EM CROMATOGRAFIA LÍQUIDA DE ALTA EFICIÊNCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Regina Ramos; Edward Madureira Brasil; Robson Maia Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation process was carried out between two methods of aflatoxins extraction, cleaning, and purification, for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The first one is the physical-chemical method, based on chemical reactions for all the stages, and the second mak...

  18. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  19. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ahmetagić; Blaženka Piuković; Dušan Lukić

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in ...

  20. A Versatile and Inexpensive Enzyme Purification Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Shawn O.; Choo, Darryl

    1989-01-01

    Develops an experiment that could be done in two- to three-hour blocks and does not rely on cold room procedures for most of the purification. Describes the materials, methods, and results of the purification of bovine heart lactate dehydrogenase using ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis, and separation using affinity chromatography and…

  1. Purification of a Recombinant Glutathione Transferase from the Causative Agent of Hydatidosis, "Echinococcus granulosus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitas, Andrea L.; Randall, Lía M.; Möller, Matías N.; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This practical class activity was designed to introduce students to recombinant protein expression and purification. The principal goal is to shed light on basic aspects concerning recombinant protein production, in particular protein expression, chromatography methods for protein purification, and enzyme activity as a tool to evaluate purity and…

  2. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  3. Analysis of purification of slightly mineralized natural waters from radioactive pollution of nuclear-energetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of purification at sorption pilot plant of fresh water of Ladoga lake contaminated by radionuclides are represented. It is substantiated the purification technology perfecting by means of addition membrane methods to adsorption ones taking into account man-caused pollutions (petroleum derivatives and corrosion products)

  4. [Analysis of rice leaves proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem, mass spectrometry based on the purification using a novel affinity detergent removal spin column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Gong, Jiadi; Chen, Mingxue; Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2014-11-01

    A purification method was established for the analysis of proteomes in rice leaves based on a novel detergent removal spin column (DRSC). The proteins were extracted by phenol protein extraction method followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) lysis. The lysate was purified by the detergent removal spin column and the enzymolytic peptides were detected by the nanoflow liquid chromatography-hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). In terms of SDS removal efficiencies and protein identification, the method of DRSC was compared with those of filter aided sample preparation (FASP) and acetone precipitation. As a result, there were good efficiencies ( > 95%) of SDS removal for the three methods. With the DRSC purification strategy, 563 proteins were identified from rice leaves, while only 196 and 306 proteins were identified by FASP and acetone precipitation procedures respectively, in spite of certain complementarities among these identified proteins by the three methods. DRSC is suitable for proteins with various relative molecular masses and pI values. However, there were similar losses of proteins with different relative molecular masses and pI values with the other two methods. Using the established method, 588 proteins were identified by once injection analysis. According to the molecular functions, 296 proteins with at least two identified peptides can be classified into eight categories with binding activity, enzyme activity, transporter activity, inhibitor activity, structural constitute, catalytic activity, other and unknown functions. The method provides technical reference for conducting rice proteomes.

  5. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  6. Comparisons of extraction and purification methods of soil microorganism DNA from rhizosphere soil%根际土壤微生物DNA提取及纯化方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾夏; 韩士杰; 赵永华; 周玉梅

    2006-01-01

    Microorganism DNA of rhizosphere soil from Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis were extracted by proteinase K based on SDS method, CTAB method, PVP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) method, and freezing and thawing method and the crude DNA from rhizosphere soil were purified by dialysis method, silver beads absorption method, and squeezing DNA gel method. The results of different extracting and purifying methods were compared and evaluated. Results indicated that the best method of extraction for microorganism DNA in rhizosphere soil was proteinse K based on SDS method with high salt concentration of 1.0% (w/v) NaCl, which could effectively eliminate humic acids and other impurities. The dialysis method was suitable to purify DNA from rhizosphere soil because of effectively removing brown matters and humic acids and the purified products were suited to PCR amplification. Squeezing DNA gel method was also a good purification method with the advantage of inexpensive in cost and efficient in use.%本文采用了四种方法对红松和长白赤松土壤根际土壤微生物DNA进行了提取,同时分别采用了三种方法对所提取的根际土壤微生物粗DNA 进行了纯化,并且对不同的提取和纯化方法进行了比较和评价.结果表明:对根际土壤微生物总DNA提取效果最好的是,以SDS为基础的含有1.0%(w/v)的高浓度NaCl的蛋白酶K法.这个方法可有效地去除腐殖酸和其它杂质.由于透析法能够积极有效地去除粗DNA中的棕色物质和腐殖酸,所以非常适合纯化根际土壤微生物DNA,而且纯化产物进行PCR扩增时效果很好.此外,挤胶法由于其经济有效的优点,所以也是一个很好的纯化根际土壤微生物粗DNA的方法.

  7. Novel electrokinetic approaches to improve purification processes with monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Faude, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This work was focussed on mAb separations using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Methods to accelerate long winded development strategies of purification processes with monoclonal antibodies were developed facilitated by further improvement of understanding the basic adsorption mechanisms of proteins on chromatographic resins. The new experimental electrokinetic methods introduced are zeta potential determination with proteins via laser light scattering and electro-...

  8. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author)

  9. A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-Methoxy-2H-1,4-Benzoxazin-3(4H)-One (DIMBOA) from Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LIU Xin-gang; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; GUO Li-qun; KONG Zhi-qiang; TIAN Ying-ying; WU Yan-bin; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2013-01-01

    2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), the dominant benzoxazinoid hydroxamic acid in maize (Zea Mays L.), serves as important factors of resistance against insects and microbial diseases, allelochemicals used in competition with other plants. In this paper, a novel and simple method for the isolation and purification of DIMBOA from maize seedlings was developed. Frozen shoots from 7-d-old maize seedlings (1 000×g) were firstly defrosted and then were directly homogenized and extracted with ethyl acetate. The macerate was allowed to stand at room temperature (25±2)°C for 1 h to allow enzymatic release of DIMBOA from DIMBOA-glucoside. Then the ethyl acetate phase was filtered, dried and evaporated to dryness. The resulting light-tan, semicrystalline residue was stored at -20°C for 24 h. Upon recrystallization from acetone-hexane, a relative higher yield (0.58 g) of pure DIMBOA crystals was obtained compared with the yield afforded by Woodward methodology (0.26 g).

  10. 简便快捷的小鼠胰岛分离纯化方法研究%A Convenient and Efficient Method of Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    合湫; 苏恒; 李超; 沈涛; 严新民; 薛元明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨小鼠胰岛分离与纯化的方法.方法 采用多点注射灌注胶原酶法消化胰腺,不连续密度梯度离心联合人工挑取的方法分离、纯化胰岛.双硫腙特异性染色后计算胰岛产量及纯度.葡萄糖刺激后测定培养上清液胰岛素水平检测胰岛功能.结果 (1)每只小鼠采用上述分离、纯化法平均得到(114±15)个胰岛,平均纯度为(77.12±3.23)%,胰岛细胞存活率>90%; (2)分离、纯化的胰岛培养上清液中胰岛素水平在无糖、低糖(2.8 mmol/L)和高糖(22.2 mmol/L)刺激下分别为(23.80±3.52) mIU/L、 (67.57 ±4.04) mIU/L和(164.32±10.75) mIU/L,各组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两两比较,低糖组的胰岛素水平为无糖组的2.84倍(P< 0.05),高糖组的胰岛素水平为低糖组的2.43倍(P<0.05),高糖组的胰岛素水平为无糖组的6.90倍(P<0.05).结论 采用多点注射灌注胶原酶法消化胰腺,不连续密度梯度离心联合人工挑取的方法分离、纯化的小鼠胰岛产量及纯度较高,形态完整,不同浓度葡萄糖刺激后胰岛素分泌反应良好,是一种简便、快捷的小鼠胰岛分离方法.%Objective To investigate a convenient and efficient method of mouse pancreatic islets isolation and purification. Methods The isolation of mouse pancreatic islets was carried out by stationary digestion after multi-point injection of collagenase IV solution into the pancreas. A discontinuous Histopaque solution (1119, 1110, 1080 and 1060) was applied for the purification of the islets. Islet cell purity and viability were determined by dithizone ( DTZ) and Trypan blue staining. The islets were cultured overnight and stimulated with different concentration of glucose (0, 2.8 and 22.2mmol/L) for 1 hour. Supernatants were collected for insulin assays by an insulin RIA kit. Results (1) By this optimized islets isolation and purification protocol, each mouse pancreas could yield (114 ± 15) islets, with an

  11. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831

  12. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a

  13. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models

  14. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  15. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Jie; ZHANG; Guanglian; ZHU; Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  16. On generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ for a quiver variety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a method for relating the generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ defined by the author and collaborators to explicit finitely presented algebras, and apply this to quiver varieties. This allows us to describe combinatorially not just the structure of these category $\\mathcal{O}$'s but also how certain interesting families of derived equivalences, the shuffling and twisting functors, act on them. In the case of Nakajima quiver varieties, the algebras that appear are weighted...

  17. Cross-linguistic categories in morphosyntactic typology: Problems and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a new, transparent method to construe morphosyntactic categories for cross-linguistic research. It avoids the problem of categorial confusion attested in major post-Greenbergian studies in morphosyntactic typology, in particular in probabilistic typological investigations, which...... tend to mix up semantic and formal criteria and marginalize ‘statistically insignificant’ morphosyntactic variants. These and other problems are avoided by using functional criteria as the starting point in identifying comparable forms and constructions in different languages. Subsequently formal...

  18. Purification and Characterization of Abrus precatorius Agglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Absar, Nural; Funatsu, Gunki

    1984-01-01

    Abrus pvecatorius agglutinin (APA) has been purified by a new purification procedure from the seeds of semen jequiriti produced in Bangladesh and Taiwan. The method was accomplished by 33-50% saturation ammonium sulfate fraction from 1% acetic acid extract of the seeds of semen jequiriti using gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 126,000 and 122,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 for Bangladesh-APA and ...

  19. Environment purification technology using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation technologies for environment conservation are useful for purification of pollutants contained in flue gas or wastewater at very low concentration which is difficult to perform by conventional methods: removal using fine filter or charcoals and decomposition using catalysis at high temperature, etc. This paper reviews some examples of radiation application to removal of SO2 and NOx from coal-combustion flue gases, decomposition of dioxin in gas emitted through the incinerator, decomposition of gaseous toxic volatile organic compounds in off gas, reuse of agricultural wastes. (author)

  20. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vovk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keywords: biological pollutants, disinfection, effective microorganisms, EM-technology, treatmentfacilities, wastewaters.

  1. Purification of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) for structural and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrala, Annakaisa M; Quintero, Ileana B; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    High-scale purification methods are required for several protein studies such as crystallography, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, and function. Here we describe a purification method for PAP based on anion exchange, L-(+)-tartrate affinity, and gel filtration chromatographies. Acid phosphatase activity and protein concentration were measured for each purification step, and to collect the fractions with the highest acid phosphatase activity the p-nitrophenyl phosphate method was used. The purified protein obtained by the procedure described here was used for the determination of the first reported three-dimensional structure of prostatic acid phosphatase.

  2. Category of Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWan-cai; LIXiao-shen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, category GIFS of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy sets(GIF) is built up. Topoi properties of category GIFS axe studied. Firstly, it is proved that the category GIFS has all topoi properties except that it has no subobject classifiers, Secondly, it is proved that the category GIFS has middle object and consequently GIFS is a weak topos.Thirdly, by the use of theory of weak topos GIFS,the power object of an object in GIFS is studied.

  3. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  4. Abelian crossed modules and strict Picard categories

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen Tien; Phung, Che Thi Kim; Tung, Ngo Sy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we state the notion of morphisms in the category of abelian crossed modules and prove that this category is equivalent to the category of strict Picard categories and regular symmetric monoidal functors. The theory of obstructions for symmetric monoidal functors and symmetric cohomology groups are applied to show a treatment of the group extension problem of the type of an abelian crossed module.

  5. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zande, P.; Jesse, A.; Cutler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment ...

  6. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  7. Detection of protein-protein interactions using tandem affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Ian; Bailey, Dalan

    2014-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is an invaluable technique for identifying interaction partners for an affinity tagged bait protein. The approach relies on the fusion of dual tags to the bait before separate rounds of affinity purification and precipitation. Frequently two specific elution steps are also performed to increase the specificity of the overall technique. In the method detailed here, the two tags used are protein G and a short streptavidin binding peptide; however, many variations can be employed. In our example the tags are separated by a cleavable tobacco etch virus protease target sequence, allowing for specific elution after the first round of affinity purification. Proteins isolated after the final elution step in this process are concentrated before being identified by mass spectrometry. The use of dual affinity tags and specific elution in this technique dramatically increases both the specificity and stringency of the pull-downs, ensuring a low level of background nonspecific interactions.

  8. Purification of thyrotropin from human hypophysis: preliminary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of stored crude preparations for isolation of human tyrotropin (TSH) was evaluated according to Ross et al from a side fraction obtained during the purification of growth hormone from frozen pituitaries (SOMATORMON). Six crude TSH preparations were stored at - 200C during several years for further purification. One of these preparations was purified by sucessive chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, hydroxylapatite and SP-Sephadex C50. The TSH content present in the chromatographic fractions and in the pools was assayed by specific radioimmunoassay developed at our laboratory. The protein determination of the fractions and pools was performed by absorbance at 280 nm and by the method of Lowry at al, respectively. The TSH activity increased eight times during the purification and the TSH purified had a radioimmunological potency around half that de scribed by Roos at al. The results suggest the fitness of long time stored preparations in the attainment of pure TSH. (author)

  9. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  10. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septimiu Crivei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of , called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover.

  11. Client Verbal Response Category System: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Augustine; Boivin, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    The Client Verbal Response Category System classifies client responses into Temporal, Directional and Experiential categories. The categories with their subcategories are defined, interjudge reliability data is presented, and the instrument's utility in psychotherapy process research is demonstrated. Initial results indicate that the instrument is…

  12. Cascade category-aware visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen; Rui, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating image classification into image retrieval system brings many attractive advantages. For instance, the search space can be narrowed down by rejecting images in irrelevant categories of the query. The retrieved images can be more consistent in semantics by indexing and returning images in the relevant categories together. However, due to their different goals on recognition accuracy and retrieval scalability, it is hard to efficiently incorporate most image classification works into large-scale image search. To study this problem, we propose cascade category-aware visual search, which utilizes weak category clue to achieve better retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption. To capture the category and visual clues of an image, we first learn category-visual words, which are discriminative and repeatable local features labeled with categories. By identifying category-visual words in database images, we are able to discard noisy local features and extract image visual and category clues, which are hence recorded in a hierarchical index structure. Our retrieval system narrows down the search space by: 1) filtering the noisy local features in query; 2) rejecting irrelevant categories in database; and 3) preforming discriminative visual search in relevant categories. The proposed algorithm is tested on object search, landmark search, and large-scale similar image search on the large-scale LSVRC10 data set. Although the category clue introduced is weak, our algorithm still shows substantial advantages in retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption than the state-of-the-art.

  13. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  14. 双向差速法制备高纯度雪旺细胞的实验研究%Novel method of Schwann cell purification by differential velocity of cell attachment and detachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炎; 彭江; 卢世壁; 张莉; 宫旭; 陈继凤; 王玉; 赵斌; 任志午; 詹胜峰; 许文静

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To establish a novel efficient method of Schwann cell purification by the characteristic that there has been a different velocity of attachment and detachment between Schwann cells and fibroblast. [ Method] Postnatal SD rat's(3 day old) sciatic nerve segments were harvested and epinuims were striped off aseptically under a dissecting microscope. The nerve segments were digested by Collagenase NB4 at a concentratin of 0.2% with a rotator for 15 min. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation,the cell digest was allowed to settle on polylysine-coated flasks for 30 min with intermittent shaking,and then the suspended cells were transferred to new flasks. After 48h primary culture,culture media was replaced with the 0. 05% collagenase. After incubation at 37 t for 30 min, the flasks were shaked horizontally to release rounded up or detaching cells after another 48h culture. The final purified cells were identified with immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. [ Result] After two rounds of attach and detach purification the number of Schwann cells reached about (117. 2 ± 3.4) x 104 per 25 cm2 and purity was a-chieved 97.9%. [ Conclusion] A large number of purified Schwann cells can be obtained by our simple,fast and safe method within only 72h,and might be valuable for studies related to basic science of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.%[目的]利用乳鼠的雪旺细胞与成纤维细胞贴壁及复合酶消化分离速度不同的特点,建立简单而快速提取和纯化雪旺细胞的方法.[方法]取3 dSD大鼠双侧坐骨神经,在解剖镜下剥离去除神经外膜,剪碎后用0.2%复合胶原酶( Collagenase NB4)消化,细胞悬液接种于预先用多聚赖氨酸包被的培养瓶差速贴壁30 rain,然后将细胞悬液移入一新的培养瓶培养48 h;用0.05%复合胶原酶37℃消化30 min,振荡分离雪旺细胞与成纤维细胞,培养48 h后在相差显微镜下观察细胞形态;计数、纯度测定;免

  15. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercia

  16. Non-unitary fusion categories and their doubles via endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, David E

    2015-01-01

    We realise non-unitary fusion categories using subfactor-like methods, and compute their quantum doubles and modular data. For concreteness we focus on generalising the Haagerup-Izumi family of Q-systems. For example, we construct endomorphism realisations of the (non-unitary) Yang-Lee model, and non-unitary analogues of one of the even subsystems of the Haagerup subfactor and of the Grossman-Snyder system. We supplement Izumi's equations for identifying the half-braidings, which were incomplete even in his Q-system setting. We conjecture a remarkably simple form for the modular S and T matrices of the doubles of these fusion categories. We would expect all of these doubles to be realised as the category of modules of a rational VOA and conformal net of factors. We expect our approach will also suffice to realise the non-semisimple tensor categories arising in logarithmic conformal field theories.

  17. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...... in each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can...

  18. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...... interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large...

  19. Modified normal-phase ion-pair chromatographic methods for the facile separation and purification of imidazolium-based ionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, ND; Schenkel, MR; Robertson, LA; Noble, RD; Gin, DL

    2012-07-04

    lmidazolium- and oligo(imidazolium)-based ionic organic compounds are important in the design of room-temperature ionic liquid materials; however, the chromatographic analysis and separation of such compounds are often difficult. A convenient and inexpensive method for effective thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and column chromatography separation of imidazolium-based ionic compounds is presented. Normal-phase ion-pair TLC is used to effectively analyze homologous mixtures of these ionic compounds. Subsequent separation of the mixtures is performed using ion-pair flash chromatography on normal-phase silica gel, yielding high levels of recovery. This method also results in a complete exchange of the counter anion on the imidazolium compounds to the anion of the ion-pair reagent. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative assessment of immune cells in the injured spinal cord tissue by flow cytometry: a novel use for a cell purification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hal X; Beck, Kevin D; Anderson, Aileen J

    2011-04-09

    Detection of immune cells in the injured central nervous system (CNS) using morphological or histological techniques has not always provided true quantitative analysis of cellular inflammation. Flow cytometry is a quick alternative method to quantify immune cells in the injured brain or spinal cord tissue. Historically, flow cytometry has been used to quantify immune cells collected from blood or dissociated spleen or thymus, and only a few studies have attempted to quantify immune cells in the injured spinal cord by flow cytometry using fresh dissociated cord tissue. However, the dissociated spinal cord tissue is concentrated with myelin debris that can be mistaken for cells and reduce cell count reliability obtained by the flow cytometer. We have advanced a cell preparation method using the OptiPrep gradient system to effectively separate lipid/myelin debris from cells, providing sensitive and reliable quantifications of cellular inflammation in the injured spinal cord by flow cytometry. As described in our recent study (Beck & Nguyen et al., Brain. 2010 Feb; 133 (Pt 2): 433-47), the OptiPrep cell preparation had increased sensitivity to detect cellular inflammation in the injured spinal cord, with counts of specific cell types correlating with injury severity. Critically, novel usage of this method provided the first characterization of acute and chronic cellular inflammation after SCI to include a complete time course for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, neutrophils), macrophages/microglia, and T-cells over a period ranging from 2 hours to 180 days post-injury (dpi), identifying a surprising novel second phase of cellular inflammation. Thorough characterization of cellular inflammation using this method may provide a better understanding of neuroinflammation in the injured CNS, and reveal an important multiphasic component of neuroinflammation that may be critical for the design and implementation of rational therapeutic treatment strategies, including both

  1. Optimization of the Purification Process of Anthocyanin from Lonicera edulis by Response Surface Method%响应面法优化蓝靛果花色苷分离纯化工艺1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬华; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that anthocyanins have significant therapeutic effect of the eye disease ,the an‐thocyanin purity of Lonicera edulis by macro‐porous resin purification by conventional method is 14%‐18% ,it is difficult to reach more than 24% for anthocyanin purity as medicinal need of the EU regula‐tions .In this experiment ,Lonicera edulis anthocyanin which is purified by X‐5 as raw material ,polyam‐ide as chromatographic media ,single factor experiments were carried out by purity and recovery rate as index ;based on these experiments ,concentration of sample ,sample volume ,elution velocity as variables , anthocyanin purity as response value ,using the Box‐Benhnken principle for central composite design and response surface analysis method ,the prediction model of two the regression equation was received by simulation ,optimum conditions to get the chromatography :concentration of sample 3 .0mg/mL ,sample volume was 25mL ,the ratio of diameter to length is 1∶ 15 ,the concentration of ethanol eluent was 60% ,the eluent flow rate is 2mL/min ,the purity of the purified anthocyanins under these conditions reached 34 .85% ,and the predicted value of 34 .47% ,shows that the model has certain practical signifi‐cance .Anthocyanin purity is doubled of anthocyanin by micro‐porous resin purification ,about 14 times of unpurified anthocyanin extracts .%  研究表明,花色苷具有显著的治疗眼疾的效果,常规法用大孔树脂纯化的蓝靛果花色苷纯度大概在14%~18%,很难达到欧盟规定的药用的花色苷纯度需达到24%以上。实验以X‐5纯化后的蓝靛果花色苷为原料,以聚酰胺作为层析介质,以纯度和回收率为指标进行单因素实验,在此基础上,以上样浓度、上样体积、洗脱流速为自变量,花色苷的纯度为响应值,利用Box‐Benhnken中心组合设计原理及响应面分析法,模拟得到二次回归方程的预测模型,获得层析的最

  2. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  3. Microscale purification of proteins by line immunoelectrophoresis: application of the technique in protein biogenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale version of line immunoelectrophoresis in combination with immunoprecipitate excision is described as a rapid and convenient technique to purify proteins on a micro scale in biogenesis studies. In the purification and to result in a higher state of purity than an isolation procedure...... using protein A-Sepharose. Since the method furthermore allows a simultaneous purification of several different protein antigens from the same sample, it may be of interest as an alternative method to other procedures in the purification of proteins on a micro scale....

  4. Small-scale purification of butyrylcholinesterase from human plasma and implementation of a μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS method to detect its organophosphorus adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Schmidt, Christian; Mizaikoff, Boris; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2015-10-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a serine hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.8) present in all mammalian tissues and the bloodstream. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme reacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) like nerve agents or pesticides that cause enzyme inhibition (BChE adducts). These adducts represent valuable biomarkers for analytical verification of OP exposure. For establishment of these mass spectrometry based methods sufficient amounts of hBChE in high purity are required. Unfortunately, commercial lots are of inappropriate purity thus favouring in-house isolation. Therefore, we developed a small scale procedure to isolate hBChE from citrate plasma. After precipitation by polyethylene glycol (8% w/v and 20% w/v PEG 6000) hBChE was purified from plasma by four consecutive chromatographic steps including anion exchange, affinity extraction and size exclusion. Protein elution was monitored on-line by UV-absorbance (280 nm) followed by continuous fractionation for off-line analysis of (1) hBChE enzyme activity by Ellman assay, (2) protein purity by gel electrophoresis, and (3) protein identity by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Numerous major impurities separated from hBChE were identified. The purified material was used for in vitro incubation with diverse OP to establish a μ-liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection/electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometric method (μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS) for detection of hBChE adducts suitable for verification analysis. Analytical data for diverse OP pesticides including deuterated analogues as well as G- and V-type nerve agents and their precursor are summarized. This method was successfully applied to plasma samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for the 4th Biomedical Exercise. PMID:25828536

  5. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  6. Novel technology of purification of copper electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic with different valence states on the purification of copper electrolyte were studied and a novel technology of purification of copper electrolyte by copper arsenite was proposed. The results show that the purification performance of As(Ⅲ) compounds is better than that of As(Ⅴ) compounds. The purification technology by copper arsenite has the advantages of simple operation, high purification performance and low cost in comparison with other technologies and its appropriate purification conditions are that copper arsenite concentration is 18 g/L, reaction temperature is 65 ℃ and reaction time is 8 h. The removal rates of Sb and Bi are 53.22% and 58.67% respectively under these conditions. The purification principle show that a kind of yellow precipitate mainly composed of arsenic, antimony (Ⅴ), bismuth and oxygen forms in electrolyte after copper arsenite is added, and consequently antimony and bismuth are removed from electrolyte.

  7. Establishing Efficient Purification Method of Recombinant Interleukin -2%重组白细胞介素-2高效纯化方法建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤; 李海涛; 张润祥; 朱言柱; 刘艳环; 冯卓; 苗利光

    2014-01-01

    依次通过离子交换法、凝胶过滤法纯化重组白细胞介素-2(IL-2)粗品,利用SDS-PAGE电泳和hIL-2 Elisa kit检测纯化后重组IL-2的纯度和浓度。结果表明,纯化后的重组IL-2纯度和浓度高。本纯化方法简单、稳定、纯化效果好,可为重组IL-2的生产工艺提供技术支持和依据。%The sample of recombinant interleukin -2was purified by Ion exchange method and Gel filtration respectively .The purity and the concentration of RIL -2 were determined by SDS -Page and hIL-2 Elisa kit .The results showed that purity and the concentration of RIL -2 were high .This method is simple and stable ,and the efficient purity of RIL -2 can be obtained .It can provide evidence to produce RIL -2 for industry .

  8. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  9. 试论我国水土保持监测的类型与方法%Discussion on the categories and methods of soil and water conservation monitoring in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2013-01-01

    According to the nature of the work, the monitoring of soil and water conservation in China can be divided into four categories as followings; studying monitoring, experimental monitoring, productive monitoring and predictive monitoring. Currently four categories of monitoring are nested within each other and of mutual dependence. Therefore, we must cognize the actuality of the stage development accurately, and analyze the relation between each category dialectically, then keep on the right direction of development. In the future, we should strengthen the study of monitoring theory and experiment, at the same time, enhance the practice and improve the institutional systems and standardize management and reinforce the train of staff. Therefore the development of soil and water conservation monitoring in China can be promoted more scientific, comprehensive and sustainable.%依据监测工作性质,可将我国水土保持监测划分为研究性监测、实验性监测、生产性监测和预警预报性监测4种类型.各类型相互嵌套,相互依存;因此,实践中,要正视发展现状,辩证分析水土保持监测各类型间的关系,准确定位,把握正确方向,在加强监测理论和实验研究的同时,加强生产实践,并健全制度,规范管理,加强人才队伍和学科建设,进一步推动水土保持监测科学、全面、可持续发展.

  10. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  11. Purification of U and Pu from Bulk Environmental Samples for Analysis by MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure gives the methods used at LLNL for the purification of uranium and plutonium from bulk environmental samples provided by the IAEA through the DOE Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL)

  12. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  13. Purificação parcial, por dois diferentes métodos cromatográficos, da lipase produzida por Rhizopus sp. Partial purification of the lipase from Rhizopus sp by two different chromatographic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipases, especialmente as de origem microbiana, são largamente utilizadas em processos e na obtenção de produtos para as indústrias química, cosmética, farmacêutica e alimentícia. A produção de enzimas de elevada pureza é importante, principalmente, do ponto de vista do controle dos processos (ausência de interferentes, porém as etapas necessárias à purificação, em geral, provocam perdas na atividade das enzimas e aumentam seu custo final. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a melhor metodologia de purificação para a lipase de Rhizopus sp. através do teste de dois diferentes métodos cromatográficos (troca iônica e interação hidrofóbica e, ainda verificar o melhor planejamento estatístico para caracterização bioquímica da mesma. Foi possível purificar parcialmente a lipase de Rhizopus sp. com o uso de coluna de DEAE Sepharose (troca aniônica e de FENIL Sepharose (interação hidrofóbica. A primeira, embora mais seletiva para a enzima em questão, parece provocar redução de sua atividade. A presença de maiores concentrações de íons Na+1 na fração purificada por FENIL Sepharose parece contribuir para o aumento de atividade da lipase. Embora os resultados obtidos por análise multivariável para determinação das características bioquímicas da lipase sejam compatíveis com a análise univariável, aquele planejamento não foi considerado indicado no presente caso.Lipases, especially of microbial origin, are widely applied in processes and in the production of insumesfor the chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. To produce highly pure enzyme is important to process control (absence of interferentes. However the necessary stages to the purification, in general, cause losses of activity and increases enzyme final cost. The aim of this work was to consider the best methodology of purification for the Rhizopus sp. lipase through the test of two different chromatographic methods (ion exchange

  14. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  15. Radiocarbon Analysis of Individual Amino Acids: Carbon Blank Quantification for a Small-Sample High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Purification Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Amy L; Walker, Brett D; Broek, Taylor A B; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of amino acids (AAs) is of great interest as a proxy for organic nitrogen (N) cycling rates, dating archeological bone collagen, and investigating processes shaping the biogeochemistry of global N reservoirs. However, recoverable quantities of individual compounds from natural samples are often insufficient for radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses (HPLC) method designed to purify individual AAs from natural samples. We used pairs of AA standards with either modern (M) or dead (D) fraction modern (Fm) values to quantify MC and DC blanks within several chromatographic regions. Blanks were determined for both individual and mixed AA standard injections with peak loadings ranging from 10 to 85 μg C. We found 0.8 ± 0.4 μg of MC and 1.0 ± 0.5 μg of DC were introduced by downstream sample preparation (drying, combustion, and graphitization), which accounted for essentially the entire procedural blank for early eluting AAs. For late-eluting AAs, higher eluent organic content and fraction collected volumes contributed to total blanks of 1.5 ± 0.75 μg of MC and 3.0 ± 1.5 μg of DC. Our final measurement uncertainty for 20 μg of C of most AAs was ±0.02 Fm, although sample size requirements are larger for similar uncertainty in late-eluting AAs. These results demonstrate the first CSRA protocol for many protein AAs with uncertainties comparable to the lowest achieved in prior studies.

  16. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  17. Nucleic Acid Purification from FFPE on the Maxwell® 16 Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, K; English, J; Rekke, A.; Owles, C.; Mandrekar, M.; Mandrekar, P.; Hite, D.; Bellevue, S.; Horejsh, D; Urh, M.; Brazas, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples are commonly used for archiving pathological samples for molecular oncology labs and researchers. Traditional methods for the purification of nucleic acids from FFPE tissue samples are often labor intensive, include the use of hazardous organic reagents, and involve difficult pre-processing steps. Here, we describe an automated method for the purification of DNA and RNA from FFPE tissue sections using the Maxwell® 16 instrument that simplifies p...

  18. 南瓜多糖提取纯化工艺的研究%Study of extraction and purification of pumpkin polysaccharide by freezing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏

    2011-01-01

    为了提高南瓜多糖的提取率,采用冷冻法对南瓜进行前处理,通过正交实验确定了南瓜多糖提取的工艺参数,采用凝胶层析法对南瓜多糖进行了纯化并测定其分子量,采用了红外光谱对南瓜多糖进行了结构分析.实验结果表明,采用冷冻预处理后,南瓜多糖的提取率增加了77%;正交实验确定的南瓜多糖的优化工艺参数为:提取温度65℃,提取时间2 h,料液比1:16;南瓜粗多糖经SephadexG-200凝胶层析柱后分为2个色谱峰,其平均分子量分别约为21 400和57 500;红外光谱分析显示,南瓜多糖为含有环状结构的多糖.%Pumpkin was pretreated by freezing method to improve the extraction rate of pumpkin polysaccharide. Pumpkin polysaccharide extraction technology parameter was determined by orthogonal experiments. Gel chromatography was used to purify pumpkin polysaccharide and determine molecular weight.Infrared spectrometry was used to analyze the pumpkin polysaccharide structure. Experimental results show that the freezing process can effectively improve the extraction rate of pumpkin polysaccharide. The optimum extraction conditions of pumpkin polysaccharide were as follows : extraction time 2 h , ratio of material to liquid 1∶16, extraction temperature 65 ℃ . Pumpkin polysaccharide was separated into two chromatographic peak by SephadexG-200 gel column chromatography, and the average molecular weight were 21 400 and 57 500, respectively. Infrared spectrum analysis showed pumpkin polysaccharide was cyclic structures amylose.

  19. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  20. Fukaya categories as categorical Morse homology

    CERN Document Server

    Nadler, David

    2011-01-01

    The Fukaya category of a Weinstein manifold is an intricate symplectic invariant of high interest in mirror symmetry and geometric representation theory. We show in analogy with Morse homology that the Fukaya category can be obtained by gluing together Fukaya categories of Weinstein cells. Our main technical result is a d\\'evissage pattern for Lagrangian branes parallel to that for constructible sheaves. As an application, we exhibit the Fukaya category as the global sections of a sheaf on the conic topology of the Weinstein manifold. This can be viewed as a symplectic analogue of the well-known algebraic and topological theories of (micro)localization.

  1. Stable Postnikov data of Picard 2-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gurski, Nick; Johnson, Niles; Osorno, Angélica M.; Stephan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Picard 2-categories are symmetric monoidal 2-categories with invertible 0-, 1-, and 2-cells. The classifying space of a Picard 2-category $\\mathcal{D}$ is an infinite loop space, the zeroth space of the $K$-theory spectrum $K\\mathcal{D}$. This spectrum has stable homotopy groups concentrated in levels 0, 1, and 2. In this paper, we describe part of the Postnikov data of $K\\mathcal{D}$ in terms of categorical structure. We use this to show that there is no strict skeletal Picard 2-category who...

  2. The Purification of Yttrium by Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification of yttrium by extraction process in the solution of nitric acid rare earth with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) have been investigated. Feed as nitric acid rare earth solution was prepared by method digestion of xenotime sand. The contents of yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) rare earth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence. The purification was done by liquid-liquid extraction process from the feed mixture of rare earth. Variable that effect the distribution of rare earth as function of concentration of nitric acid in the aqueous phase, the concentration of organic phase in kerosene, and time of extraction. The best results at the separation was obtained as follows : concentration of nitric acid = 0.5 M, the concentration of organic phase = 30% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in kerosene, and time of extraction = 15 minutes. At this condition were the value of the separation factor of Y-La 126.9403 and separation factor of Y-Ce = 89.7923. (author)

  3. Clinical observation of curative effects of different blood purification methods on restless legs syndrome%不同血液净化方式治疗不安腿综合征的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊峰; 肖秋霞; 李宏辉; 李小艳; 汪俊超; 钟小燕; 吴任远; 陈科

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察血液灌流(HP)串联血液透析(HD)治疗不安腿综合征的临床疗效,探讨不同血液净化方式治疗不安腿综合征的优越性.方法 将26例有不安腿综合征的长期维持血液透析的病人随机分为治疗组(13例)和对照组(13例),对照组常规行血液透析治疗,治疗组行血液灌流串联血液透析(HP+HD)治疗(1次/w),连续2个月.观察2组治疗2个月前后临床表现及血清甲状旁腺激素(PTH)浓度变化.结果 治疗组总有效率84.62%,治疗后PTH浓度明显下降(P<0.01).对照组治疗后临床症状及PTH均无明显变化,总有效率23.07%,低于治疗组的总有效率(P<0.01).结论 HP+HD治疗不安腿综合征明显优于单独使用HD治疗.%Objective To observe the clinical effects of hemoperfusion ( HP ) combined with hemodialysis ( HD ) on restless leg syndrome, and discuss the advantages of different blood purification methods for this syndrome. Methods 26 patients with restless leg syndrome and receiving long - term maintenance - hemodialysis were randomly divided into treatment group ( 13 cases ) and control group ( 13 cases ). The control group only received HD,while the treatment group received HP combined with HD once a week for two successive months. Changes of clinical manifestation and concentration of serum parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) of the two groups were observed before and after the treatment. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 84.62%. After the treatment,the concentration of PTH decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ). The total effective rate of the control group was 23.07% , which was lower than that of the treatment group ( P < 0.01 ). There were no obvious changes of the clinical manifestation and PTH in the control group after the treatment. Conclusion The curative effect of HP combined with HD for restless leg syndrome is obviously better than that of HD alone.

  4. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification

  5. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, P.P.; Humbel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification.

  6. 两种方法处理后布尿布中微生物含量和种类的比较研究%Comparison of quantity and category of microorganism in cloth diapers disinfected by two different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 马玲; 王妍彦; 赵斌秀; 李新武

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the quantity and category of microorganism in cloth diapers disinfected by hospital routine disinfection and domestic hot water cleaning. Methods; Cloth diapers were selected from those, which were disinfected by hospital routine disinfection and domestic hot water cleaning respectively. Amount of bacteria, fungus/yeast, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Results; Sixty - four cloth diapers disinfected by domestic hot water cleaning were detected with bacteria, the mean value was 1450348 cfu/g; seven diapers were detected with E. coli, the mean value of 721.1 cfu/g; thirty diapers of thirty - two diapers were detected with fungus, the mean value was 726. 6 cfu/g; identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all the diapers were negative; identification of methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) were positive in forty - six diapers. In sixty - four cloth diapers disinfected by hospital routine disinfection, fifty - five diapers were detected with bacteria, the mean value was 30.9 cfu/g; none diapers were detected with E. coli, eighteen diapers were detected with fungus/yeast, the mean value was 1. 1 cfu/g; identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all the diapers were negative; identification of methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive in nine diapers. The multiple carrier rate of cloth diaper disinfected by hospital routine disinfection was lower than that with domestic starched disinfection of 90 degree water. Conclusion: The concentration of microorganism in cloth diapers disinfected by domestic hot water cleaning was higher than lhat by hospital routine disinfection , and fungus/yeast, methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the major pathogens in cloth diapers.%目的:比较使用后经医院常规消毒的布尿布和家庭热水清洗处理后的布尿布中的微生物含量和种类的差别.方

  7. Process for fine purification of fission molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with a method for the fine purification of fission molybdenum, dissolved in anionic form together with the anions of the fission products of J, Sn, Ce, Ru, and Zr in an aqueous mineral acid solution; in this process the fission molybdenum is a) fixed on a metal oxide in a sorption step and b) released again in a desorption step. By the invention, a method shall be created, which is, under less favourable working conditions, almost insusceptible to failure and can be safely carried out with low expenditure of operation time, working equipment and handling technique and which delivers a highly pure Mo-99 product with a decreased volume of radioactive waste at the same time. (orig./RB)

  8. Methods for Pseudopodia Purification and Proteomic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Shi-Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Feng; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2007-08-21

    Directional cell migration (chemotaxis) plays a central role in a wide spectrum of physiological and pathological processes, including embryo development, wounding healing, immunity, and cancer metastasis (1, 2). The process of chemotaxis is characterized by the sustained migration of cells in the direction of an increasing concentration of chemoattractant and/or ECM protein. Upon sensing the chemoattractant cells response with localized amplification of signals on the side facing the gradient (3-7). The spatial signal propagation facilitates reorganization of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton leading to extension of a dominant pseudopodium (PD) only in the direction of chemoattractant (7-10). While it is clear that localized signaling is critical for pseudopodium formation and chemotaxis, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this response remain poorly defined. To investigate mechanisms of pseudopodia formation, we recently described a novel approach to separate the PD and cell body (CB) compartments for large scale proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses using chambers equipped with microporous filters (Fig. 1) (3, 7, 11). This in vitro system recapitulates physiological events associates with pseudopodial protrusion through small openings in the ECM and the vessel wall during immune cell intravasation and cancer cell metastasis (12, 13). The model system has been used to reveal important signaling pathways and novel proteins that mediate cell migration. This model, combined with the state-of-the-art proteomics and phosphoproteomics technology, will provide an effective approach to systematically analyze the proteins that differentially localized or phosphorylated in the front and the back of polarized migrating cells. In the following sections, we will describe in detail the protocols used to purify the PD and CB compartments for large-scale proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses using mass spectrometry.

  9. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  10. The Grothendieck Construction and Gradings for Enriched Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, Dai

    2009-01-01

    The Grothendieck construction is a process to form a single category from a diagram of small categories. In this paper, we extend the definition of the Grothendieck construction to diagrams of small categories enriched over a symmetric monoidal category satisfying certain conditions. Symmetric monoidal categories satisfying the conditions in this paper include the category of $k$-modules over a commutative ring $k$, the category of chain complexes, the category of simplicial sets, the category of topological spaces, and the category of modern spectra. In particular, we obtain a generalization of the orbit category construction in [math/0312214]. We also extend the notion of graded categories and show that the Grothendieck construction takes values in the category of graded categories. Our definition of graded category does not require any coproduct decompositions and generalizes $k$-linear graded categories indexed by small categories defined by Lowen. There are two popular ways to construct functors from the...

  11. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  12. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  13. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  14. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  15. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  16. Experimental studies on islets isolation, purification and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinlu; Xue, Wujun; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Teng, Yan; Ding, Xiaoming; Pan, Xiaoming; Guo, Qi; He, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a simple and effective method of islet isolation and purification in rats. Collagenase P was injected into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath to digest the pancreas and isolate islet, then discontinuous gravity gradient purification was used to purify the islet. The purified islets were identified by dithizone staining. The viability of islets was assessed by fluorescence staining of acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test and transplantation of rat with streptozocin-induced diabetes. 738±193 islets were recovered after purification. The average purity was 77±13%, the viability of islets was more than 95%. When inspected by glucose stimulation, the secreted insulin concentration was 24.31±5.47 mIU/L when stimulated by low concentration glucose and 37.62±4.29 mIU/L by high concentration glucose. There was significant difference between the two phases (Pmethod of injecting collagenase into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath and purification using discontinuous gravity gradient. PMID:26885021

  17. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez; Persson, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-ass...

  18. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  19. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  20. Whitney categories and the Tangle Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Smyth, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new notion of `n-category with duals', which we call a Whitney n-category. There are two motivations. The first is that Baez and Dolan's Tangle Hypothesis is (almost) tautological when interpreted as a statement about Whitney categories. The second is that we can functorially construct `fundamental Whitney n-categories' from each smooth stratified space X. These are obtained by considering the homotopy theory of smooth maps into X which are transversal to all strata. This makes concrete another idea of Baez and Dolan's which is that a suitable version of homotopy theory for stratified spaces should allow one to generalise the relationship between spaces and groupoids to one between stratified spaces and categories with duals.

  1. Clinical characteristics of patients with Rutherford category IV, compared with V and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketsugu Tsuchiya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients categorized Rutherford category IV might have different characteristics compared with Rutherford category V and VI. Our study aims were to estimate the clinical differences between Rutherford category IV and Rutherford category V and VI, for those underwent endovascular therapy for isolated infrapopliteal disease, and also to find risk factors for endovascular therapy in Rutherford category IV. Methods: Based on the Japanese multi-center registry data, 1091 patients with 1332 limbs (Rutherford category IV: 226 patients with 315 limbs, Rutherford category V and VI: 865 patients with 1017 limbs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Patients’ backgrounds and lesions’ characteristics had significant differences. Both freedom rate from major adverse limb event with perioperative death and amputation-free survival rate at 1 year were better in Rutherford category IV than Rutherford category V and VI (93.6% vs 78.3%, 87.7% vs 66.7% and those maintained to 3 years (p  3.0 mg/dL, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and coronary artery disease in Rutherford category IV. Conclusion: From the present results, Rutherford category IV should be recognized to have quite different backgrounds and better outcome from Rutherford category V and VI.

  2. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ahmetagić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in establishing an effective organization of business processes. The definition of gap existing between the current approach to organizing business activities and the need to establish an approach based on knowledge, information technologies, and effective business process management points to the necessity for organization redesign and standard definition in business process management. Sewage purification business process management in Vojvodina, the Republic of Serbia has been elaborated through theoretical presentation and a practical example realized by electronic ISO 9001:2008 system of quality management in public water utility company JKP "Vodokanal" Sombor.

  3. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  4. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  5. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  6. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  7. Improving Classification Performance with Single-category Concept Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Discarding more and more complicated algorithms, this paper presents a new classification algorithm with singlecategory concept match. It also introduces the method to find such concepts, which is important to the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can improve classification precision and accelerate classification speed to some extent.

  8. Effects of Two Purification Pretreatments on Electroless Copper Coating over Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Zheng; Lianjie Li; Shijie Dong; Anchun Xiao; Shixuan Sun; Sinian Li

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the reinforcement of copper matrix composite by single-walled carbon nanotubes, a three-step-refluxing purification of carbon nanotubes sample with HNO3-NaOH-HCl was proposed and demonstrated. A previously reported purification process using an electromagnetic stirring with H2O2/HCl mixture was also repeated. Then, the purified carbon nanotubes were coated with copper by the same electroless plating process. At the end, the effects of the method on carbon nanotubes themselves and o...

  9. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... nephron-sparing approach to complex renal cysts. TEACHING POINTS : • The Bosniak classification is used to categorise complex renal cystic masses • BIIF cysts behave mostly as benign lesions • Radiological progression in complexity occurs in only 16 % of cases • BIIF category seems promising for clinical...

  10. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  11. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  12. 人肝癌细胞系SMMC-7721肿瘤干细胞筛选及鉴定%A new method for purification and identification of hepatocellular carcinoma stem cell of SMMC-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涌; 刘雅辉; 姜建帅; 崔翰斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore a new efficient purification method of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stem cells and identify their features.Methods Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 was cultured in sphere-culture system of polyhema-treated dish and tumor stem cell specific medium.Upon the formation of cellular sphere,the cells were inoculated subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice and received the interventions of different concentrations of cisplatin.Then the drug-resistant cells were purified and re-cultured in TSC medium.Finally the stem cell markers and tumor stem cell markers were determined through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),immunofluorescence method and flow cytometry.Results Through the double filter of TSC medium and cisplatin-resistance,SMMC-7721 stem cells could be grown in a suspended form and formed spheres in TSC medium.The stem cell markers (NANOG,OCT-4,SOX-2 and Notch) and tumor stem cell markers (CD24,90.0% ; CD133,6.1% ;CD90,4.8%) were all over-expressed in purified cancer stem cells as compared with ordinary cells.And the over-expression of CD24 was the most obvious.Conclusions The combination of in vitro cell culture with TSC medium,in vivo proliferation and cisplatin resistance test is a new efficient method of purifying hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells.Tumor stem cell with stem cell characteristics and an over-expression of CD24 may be cloned from SMMC-7721.%目的 探讨采用一种新型高效的肝癌干细胞分离方法,并对获得的肝癌干细胞进行鉴定.方法 应用无血清肿瘤干细胞培养基,悬浮培养SMMC-7721形成克隆,将悬浮细胞收集后裸鼠皮下接种,并予顺铂干预,取耐药细胞继续悬浮培养获得克隆,分别采用定量PCR、免疫荧光法和流式细胞法检测干细胞和肿瘤干细胞标志的表达情况.结果 在肿瘤干细胞培养基和顺铂的双重筛选下,SMMC-7721能有效形成悬浮生长的细胞克隆.检测结果提示,与普通肝癌

  13. Comparing operadic theories of $n$-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    We give a framework for comparing on the one hand theories of n-categories that are weakly enriched operadically, and on the other hand n-categories given as algebras for a contractible globular operad. Examples of the former are the definition by Trimble and variants (Cheng-Gurski) and examples of the latter are the definition by Batanin and variants (Leinster). We will show how to take a theory of n-categories of the former kind and produce a globular operad whose algebras are the n-categories we started with. We first provide a generalisation of Trimble's original theory that allows for the use of other parametrising operads in a very general way, via the notion of categories weakly enriched in V where the weakness is parametrised by an operad P in the category V. We define weak n-categories by iterating the weak enrichment construction using a series of parametrising operads P_i. We then show how to construct from such a theory an n-dimensional globular operad for each $n \\geq 0$ whose algebras are precis...

  14. Parsing Combinatory Categorial Grammar with Answer Set Programming: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lierler, Yuliya

    2011-01-01

    Combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) is a grammar formalism used for natural language parsing. CCG assigns structured lexical categories to words and uses a small set of combinatory rules to combine these categories to parse a sentence. In this work we propose and implement a new approach to CCG parsing that relies on a prominent knowledge representation formalism, answer set programming (ASP) - a declarative programming paradigm. We formulate the task of CCG parsing as a planning problem and use an ASP computational tool to compute solutions that correspond to valid parses. Compared to other approaches, there is no need to implement a specific parsing algorithm using such a declarative method. Our approach aims at producing all semantically distinct parse trees for a given sentence. From this goal, normalization and efficiency issues arise, and we deal with them by combining and extending existing strategies. We have implemented a CCG parsing tool kit - AspCcgTk - that uses ASP as its main computational mean...

  15. Silver nanocluster catalytic microreactors for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, B.; Habibi, M.; Ognier, S.; Schelcher, G.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Khalesifard, H. R. M.; Tatoulian, M.; Bonn, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the elaboration of a novel type of catalytic microsystem with a high specific area catalyst is developed. A silver nanocluster catalytic microreactor was elaborated by doping a soda-lime glass with a silver salt. By applying a high power laser beam to the glass, silver nanoclusters are obtained at one of the surfaces which were characterized by BET measurements and AFM. A microfluidic chip was obtained by sealing the silver coated glass with a NOA 81 microchannel. The catalytic activity of the silver nanoclusters was then tested for the efficiency of water purification by using catalytic ozonation to oxidize an organic pollutant. The silver nanoclusters were found to be very stable in the microreactor and efficiently oxidized the pollutant, in spite of the very short residence times in the microchannel. This opens the way to study catalytic reactions in microchannels without the need of introducing the catalyst as a powder or manufacturing complex packed bed microreactors.

  16. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  17. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... of perceptual organization, visual object recognition and category-specificity....

  18. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  19. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  20. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed......A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  1. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  2. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  3. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  4. Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David

    2015-10-01

    Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.

  5. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  6. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  7. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  10. Rapid object category adaptation during unlabelled classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, David; Intrator, Nathan; Yovel, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports from electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments provide evidence that repeated exposure to an ordered sequence of morphed stimuli may over time adapt a prelearned object category such that the category may generalise the entire sequence as belonging to the same object. Here, a new protocol that includes a single exposure to a morphing sequence is presented. Subjects exposed to the new protocol replaced a prelearned face with an entirely different face within just 3 days, significantly faster than in previous reports.

  11. Analysis of N Category Privacy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available File sharing becomes popular in social networking and the disclosure of private information without user’s consent can be found easily. Password management becomes increasingly necessary for maintaining privacy policy. Monitoring of violations of a privacy policy is needed to support the confidentiality of information security. This paper extends the analysis of two category confidentiality model to N categories, and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transitions in the information security privacy modeling.

  12. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    OpenAIRE

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ER...

  13. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  14. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  15. RETIN AL: An Active Learning Strategy for Image Category Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2004-01-01

    International audience Active learning methods have been considered with an increasing interest in the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) community. In this article, we propose an effi- cient method based on active learning strategy to retrieve large image categories. At each feedback step, the system optimizes the image set presented to the user in order to speed up the retrieval. Experimental tests on COREL photo database have been carried out.

  16. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  17. Optimization and design of impeller shape by centrifugal method for industrial waste oil purification%离心法净化工业油雾中叶轮的形状优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎娜; 李志峰

    2015-01-01

    叶轮是离心设备中重要的组成部件,提高叶轮的工作效率是工业油雾净化的一个重要目标。为了改善工业生产环境,对离心叶轮的形状优化设计过程进行研究,对叶轮叶片翼型截面形状的设计与性能进行分析。利用CATIA软件建立叶轮的结构几何模型,由MATLAB计算得到叶轮叶片截面形状。计算结果表明,对离心叶轮的优化有效减轻了叶轮叶片工作时的噪音,提高了使用寿命,使升阻比提高了0.8%,净化效率进一步提升。%Impeller is the key part of centrifugal reactor for industrial waste oil purification and its high efficiency is an important target of the reactor for industrial waste oil purification .In order to improve the envi-ronment for industrial production , the shape optimization design process of centrifugal impeller is studied with a great focus being laid on an analysis of the shape design and performance of the impeller blade airfoil sec -tion.CATIA software is used to establish the structure of the impeller geometric model , and shape of the im-peller blade section are obtained by MATLAB .The calculation results show that the optimized design of the centrifugal impeller can effectively reduce the impeller blade noise at work , improve service life , increase lift-to-drag ratio by 0.8%, thus greatly improve the purification efficiency .

  18. Expression, purification, and immobilization of recombinant tamavidin 2 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Tsunashima, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Tamavidin 2 is a fungal avidin-like protein that binds biotin with high affinity. Unlike avidin or streptavidin, tamavidin 2 in soluble form is produced at high levels in Escherichia coli. In this chapter, we describe a method for immobilization and purification of recombinant proteins with the use of tamavidin 2 as an affinity tag. The protein fused to tamavidin 2 is tightly immobilized and simultaneously purified on biotinylated magnetic microbeads without loss of activity. PMID:24943317

  19. Streamlined Purification of Plasmid DNA From Prokaryotic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Pueschel, Laura; Li, Hongshan; Hymes, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We describe the complete process of AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates for 96 plasmid preparations, starting from prokaryotic culture and ending with high purity DNA. Based on multi-well filtration for bacterial lysate clearance and DNA purification, this method creates a streamlined process for plasmid preparation. Filter plates containing silica-based media can easily be processed by vacuum filtration or centrifuge to yield appreciable quantities of plasmid DNA. Quantitative analyses determine ...

  20. PURIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER OIL in PT. PJB UP PAITON

    OpenAIRE

    Gusti Wahdaniyah*, Purnomo Tri Prasetyo, Arif Setiabudi, Totok R. Biyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the filtration or purification of transformer oil. One of the main equipment in coal-fired power generation unit is transformer. When the transformer fail to operate properly, the continuity of distribution system become interrupted. As a part of transformer, transformer oil contribute the failure of transformer due to the aging. To solve this problem, several methods is applied starting from dehydration process, degasification process, oxidation remov...

  1. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercial enzyme preparation (Rapidase) to calcium alginate beads. Approximately 75% of the various polygalacturonase activities from Rapidase can be adsorbed at pH 4.4 by calcium alginate beads as well as...

  2. Synthesis and purification of trialkyl compounds of gallium and indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The research progress in trialkyl compounds of gallium and indium was discussed from two aspects, one was the chemical synthesis of the compounds and the other was the purification of them. There are three synthesis routes being reported in the first aspect, i.e. the route staring from pure metal, the route starting from the pure metal trihalides, and the electrochemical route. In the second aspect, the purifying methods of decomposition-distillation and zone refining were reviewed.

  3. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  4. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  5. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  6. 基于水质修复与保育的城市景观水体净化循环比计算方法研究%COMPUTATIONAL METHODS OF PURIFICATION RECYCLE RATIO OF URBAN LANDSCAPE WATER BASED ON WATER RESTORATION AND CONSERVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰希; 刘伟; 徐竟成; 黄翔峰; 杜朝丹

    2015-01-01

    As the urban landscape water was polluted by endogenous and exogenous pollution, the ex-situ or in-situ purification technology is being increasingly used in water restoration and conservation engineering. But during the design and operation of the engineering, the method of determining purification scale remains to be perfected. With the balance analysis of water quantity and water quality of relatively closed scenic water, a mathematical model of purification recycle ratio based on water restoration and conservation was established. And the case analysis showed that the purification recycle ratio could be taken as the important basis for getting a reasonable engineering scale and controlling the construction investment and operation cost.%对于我国城市景观水体由于水体特性和外源性污染严重引起的水质不良现象,人们越来越多地采用净化技术开展异位及原位水质修复与保育工作。而在相应的水质净化工程设计与运行中,净化规模的确定依据与方法还有待完善,本研究就景观水体水质修复及保育工程开展净化循环比计算模式的研究。通过对基本处于封闭状态的水体水量及水质内外源污染物的平衡分析,进行了修复与保育两个阶段水质净化循环比数学模式的推演,建立了相应的计算模式与方法,并结合案例进行分析计算。结果表明:水质净化循环比可以作为合理确定工程规模,控制建设投入与运行费用的重要依据。

  7. Carbon Nanotube Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Delzeit, Clement J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for cleaning or otherwise removing amorphous carbon and other residues that arise in growth of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array. The CNT array is exposed to a plurality of hydroxyls or hydrogen, produced from a selected vapor or liquid source such as H2O or H2O2. and the hydroxyls or hydrogen (neutral or electrically charged) react with the residues to produce partly or fully dissolved or hydrogenated or hydroxylizated products that can be removed or separated from the CNT array. The hydroxyls or hydrogen can be produced by heating the CNT array, residue and selected vapor or liquid source or by application of an electromagnetic excitation signal with a selected frequency or range of frequencies to dissociate the selected vapor or liquid. The excitation frequency can be chirped to cover a selected range of frequencies corresponding to dissociation of the selected vapor or liquid. Sonication may be uscd to supplement dissociation of the H2O and/or H2O2.

  8. Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffen, Karin; Bart, Eugene; Brady, Mark; Kersten, Daniel; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively study object perception, be it perception by biological systems or by machines, one needs to create objects and object categories with precisely definable, preferably naturalistic, properties1. Furthermore, for studies on perceptual learning, it is useful to create novel objects and object categories (or object classes) with such properties2. Many innovative and useful methods currently exist for creating novel objects and object categories3-6 (also see refs. 7,8). ...

  9. NiCoMnO4: A Bifunctional Affinity Probe for His-Tagged Protein Purification and Phosphorylation Sites Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyue; Chen, Long; Zhang, Chaoqun; Xu, Xinyuan; Zhang, Yiding; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-07-27

    A bifunctional affinity probe NiCoMnO4 was designed and prepared with controllable morphology and size using facile methods. It was observed that the probe could be applied in His-tagged proteins purification and phosphopeptides enrichment simply through the buffer modulation. NiCoMnO4 particles showed satisfactory cycling performance for His-tagged proteins purification and broad pH-tolerance of loading buffer for phosphopeptides affinity. Therefore, a high-throughput, cost-effective, and efficient protein/peptide purification method was developed within 10 min based on the novel bifunctional affinity probe. PMID:27381638

  10. Comparison of two methods for purification of plantaricin ST31, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST31 Comparação de dois métodos de purificação da plantaricina ST31, a bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus plantarum ST31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of purification of the plantaricin ST31, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST31 are used in this study - the method of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sep-pack C18 cartridge and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on C18 Nucleosil column, and the method of direct purification by cation exchange SP Sepharose Fast Flow column Amersham (Pharmacia Biotech. The purity of the products from the two experimental protocols are examined for their molecular weight, aminoacid composition and sequence. Comparison of results show that the plantaricins purified with the two methods are identical. Both methods may be used to purify plantaricin ST31. Comparison of the yield in the purification protocols is 0.8% in the HPLC experimental protocol and 5.9% in the cation-exchange chromatography method.Dois métodos de purificação de plantaricin ST31, uma bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus plantarum ST31 foram usados neste estudo - o método de precipitação pelo sulfato de amônia usando cartucho Sep-pack C18 para a filtração e HPLC de fase reversa em coluna de C18 Nucleosil, e o método de purificação direta por troca catiônica SP Sepharose "Fast Flow column Amersham" (Pharmacia Biotech. A pureza dos produtos obtidos pelos dois protocolos foi examinada através da determinação dos pesos moleculares, composição e seqüência dos aminoácidos. A comparação destes resultados revelou que, em termos da pureza dos produtos, não havia diferenças entre os dois métodos de purificação podendo-se, portanto, utilizar qualquer um dos protocolos de purificação testados. No entanto, o rendimento da purificação pelo método da troca catiônica foi de 5.9% enquanto o do método HPLC foi de 0.8%.

  11. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov-Raz Gal; Mashiach-Arazi Yael; Nouriel Ariella; Raz Raanan; Constantini Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided i...

  12. Optimization of conditions for the single step IMAC purification of miraculin from Synsepalum dulcificum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuxing; Tan, Joo Shun; Lai, Oi Ming; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2015-08-15

    In this study, the methods for extraction and purification of miraculin from Synsepalum dulcificum were investigated. For extraction, the effect of different extraction buffers (phosphate buffer saline, Tris-HCl and NaCl) on the extraction efficiency of total protein was evaluated. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with nickel-NTA was used for the purification of the extracted protein, where the influence of binding buffer pH, crude extract pH and imidazole concentration in elution buffer upon the purification performance was explored. The total amount of protein extracted from miracle fruit was found to be 4 times higher using 0.5M NaCl as compared to Tris-HCl and phosphate buffer saline. On the other hand, the use of Tris-HCl as binding buffer gave higher purification performance than sodium phosphate and citrate-phosphate buffers in IMAC system. The optimum purification condition of miraculin using IMAC was achieved with crude extract at pH 7, Tris-HCl binding buffer at pH 7 and the use of 300 mM imidazole as elution buffer, which gave the overall yield of 80.3% and purity of 97.5%. IMAC with nickel-NTA was successfully used as a single step process for the purification of miraculin from crude extract of S. dulcificum. PMID:25794715

  13. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  14. Expression and purification of soluble recombinant Hexastatin in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To construct the expression vector of Hexastatin gene, to express and to purify the recombinant protein for further activity research. Methods: The human Hexastatin gene was isolated by RTPCR from EC9706 cells total RNA and cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing. Then the Hexastatin gene was subcloned into pMAL-c4x expression vector and induced to express by IPTG. The recombinant fusion protein was purified with Amylose Resin Heads. Results: RT-PCR product was about 687 bp and its sequence was the same as that of Hexastatin reported. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 with high level and the soluble protein accounted for 24.8% of the total bacterial protein. The purification of recombinant protein purified with Amylose Resin Heads reached more than 90%. Conclusion: The cloning, expression and purification of human Hexastatin have laid a foundation for its anti-angiogenesis therapy for tumor. (authors)

  15. Uranium hexafluoride purification; Purificacao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-07-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF{sub 6}-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF{sub 6}-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  16. Tea category classification using morphological characteristics and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; He, Y.; Qiu, Z. J.; Bao, Y. D.

    2008-11-01

    Tea categories classification is an importance task for quality inspection. And traditional way for doing this by human is time-consuming, requirement of too much manual labor. This study proposed a method for discriminating green tea categories based on multi-spectral images technique. Four tea categories were selected for this study, and total of 243 multi-spectral images were collected using a common-aperture multi-spectral charged coupled device camera with three channels (550, 660 and 800 nm). A compound image which has the clearest outline of samples was process by combination of the three monochrome images (550, 660 and 800 nm). After image preprocessing, 18 morphometry parameters were obtained for each samples. The 18 parameters used including area, perimeter, centroid and eccentricity et al. To better understanding these parameters, principal component analysis was conducted on them, and score plot of the first three independent components was obtained. The first three components accounted for 99.02% of the variation of original 18 parameters. It can be found that the four tea categories were distributed in dense clusters respectively in score plot. But the boundaries among them were not clear, so a further discrimination must be developed. Three algorithms including support vector machines, artificial neural network and linear discriminant analysis were adopted for developed classification models based on the optimized 9 features. Wonderful result was obtained by support vector machines model with accuracy of 93.75% for prediction unknown samples in testing set. It can be concluded that it is an effective method to classification tea categories based on computer vision, and support vector machines is very specialized for development of classification model.

  17. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  18. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  19. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist....... The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be....

  20. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  1. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  2. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  3. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  4. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  5. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  6. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, the prediction of protein secondary structure has been optimized using essentially one and the same assignment scheme known as DSSP. We present here a different scheme, which is more predictable. This scheme predicts directly the hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the secondary...... structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  7. Finding Categories and Keywords in Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Christian; Gälle, Doris; Mayr, Heinrich C.

    Nowadays web services are a common way to integrate functionality in an information system, but most of the time it is very difficult to find an appropriate service. If users of web service engines do not exactly know what they want, they often browse through categories and search with keywords. This, however, depends on the knowledge of the web service owner and his/her willingness to assign such keywords. This chapter gives a proposal to provide the user with candidates for keywords and categories which are derived directly from the web service specification itself.

  8. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  9. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  10. Nb purification by Ti gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity niobium is required for superconducting RF cavities in order to achieve high accelerating fields. Ti gettering at high temperature in a vacuum furnace appears to be a nice way to get rid of light elements (O, C and N). Using this technique, residual resistance ratio (RRR) as high as 2000 can be obtained from standard 160 RRR niobium samples. Results of heat treatment applied to low RRR samples are shown. The influence of metallic impurities is also discussed. Another important feature to point out for that kind of purification is the sample thickness dependence. An experimental profile of the local RRR as a function of depth is drawn. Finally, the improvement of the accelerating field obtained on heat treated cavities is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  11. Coherent presentations and actions on categories

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussent, Stéphane; Malbos, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We study Deligne's notion of action of a monoid on a category and, in particular, the piece of data that corresponds to the coherence relations that such an action should satisfy. We prove that actions of a monoid are equivalent to 2-functors from a 2-categorical cofibrant replacement of the monoid into the 2-category of categories. One way to compute such a cofibrant replacement is to consider the 2-category presented by a coherent presentation of the monoid: this is a presentation extended with a homotopy basis, that is, a set of relations between the relations that identifies any two proofs of the same equality in the monoid. Using higher-dimensional rewriting, in the polygraphic setting, we combine and extend Squier's theorem and Knuth-Bendix completion procedure into a "reduced homotopical completion" procedure that, when successful, transforms a given presentation into a relatively small coherent presentation. In particular, when used on Deligne's presentation of Artin-Tits groups of spherical type, the...

  12. Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...

  13. Gorensteinness and Tate Cohomology in Exact Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the classical Gorenstein homological theory and structure of Tate cohomology, we develop a theory of Gorenstein projective objects and Tate cohomology in an exact category A with enough projectives. We study some properties of Gorenstein projective objects and establish Tate cohomology of objects with finite Gorenstein projective dimension.

  14. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  15. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  16. The Space Category in Medieval Japanese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    GOREGLIAD, Vladislav N.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the fictional space in literary work depends on the correlations between on the one hand the world of ideas and emotions, and on the other hand the world of things, and in the final analysis on the ideological categories of the work.

  17. Embedded Cobordism Categories and Spaces of Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Galatius, Madsen, Tillmann, and Weiss [7] have identified the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism category with objects (d -1)-dimensional manifolds embedded in R8. In this paper we apply the techniques of spaces of manifolds, as developed by the author and Galatius in [8], to...

  18. Traces on ideals in pivotal categories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Virelizier, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We extend the notion of an ambidextrous trace on an ideal (developed by the first two authors) to the setting of a pivotal category. We show that under some conditions, these traces lead to invariants of colored spherical graphs (and so to modified 6j-symbols).

  19. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  20. Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of lipoxygenase from soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, E; Stan, H J

    1978-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure for the purification of two lipoxygenase isoenzymes (linoleate: O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12.) from soybean is described. The procedure for the purification of isoenzyme L-1 includes optimalized extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment and gradient elution from a CM-Sephadex C-50 column. The purification of L-2 includes ammonium sulfate fractionation, gelfiltration on Sephadex G-150 and gradient elution from a DEAE-cellulose column. Both isoenzymes L-1 and L-2 appear homogeneous after Disc-PAGE. The isoelectric points are 5.6 for L-1 and 5.8 for L-2. Molecular weights are estimated as 100,000 for L-1 as well as L-2 applying three different methods. Both isoenzymes contain 0.9 mol iron per mol protien. The estimated turn over numbers are 8,200 mol linoleate per mol enzyme and min for L-1 and 3,100 for L-2. Amino acid compositions determined after acid hydrolysis show marked differences between L-1 and L-2, particularly with respect to the amino acids Lys, Phe, Ser, Gly and Leu. L-1 posesses a total of 9 cysteine molecules, 6 of which are present as disulfide bonds. L-2 posesses a total of 8 cysteine molecules with only one disulfide bond.

  1. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamela O. Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  2. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  3. Studies on separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed for separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium–aluminum alloy. Alkali dissolution of the irradiated target (100 mg) results in aluminum along with 99Mo and a few fission products passing into solution, while most of the fission products, activation products and uranium remain undissolved. Subsequent purification steps involve precipitation of aluminum as Al(OH)3, iodine as AgI/AgIO3 and molybdenum as Mo-α-benzoin oxime. Ruthenium is separated by volatilization as RuO4 and final purification of 99Mo was carried out using anion exchange method. The radiochemical yield of fission 99Mo was found to be >80% and the purity of the product was in conformity with the international pharmacopoeia standards. - Highlights: • 99Mo separation, purification method developed from neutron activation of 100 g U–Al alloy. • Uranium, fission, activation product decontamination by alkali dissolution of activated target. • Purification by Al(OH)3, AgI/AgIO3, Mo-α-benzoin oxime precipitation and anion exchange. • Very high decontamination factors for alpha activity obtained. • Final 99Mo product (recovery >80%) complied with international pharmacopoeia standards

  4. Presence of Acanthamoeba spp.in water purification plants in southern England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuganathan V; Khan NA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To identify the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in drinking water treatment plants during the course of the purification processes.Methods:Samples were taken from two drinking water purification plants and moni-tored for the presence of Acanthamoeba in order to estimate the removal capacity of treatment methods em-ployed.Water samples were collected at each step in the purification,during the one year survey,and ana-lysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp.by plating on bacterial-seeded plates.Results:The results showed that amoebae were present in surface raw waters in 100 % of the samples tested.Acanthamoeba spp.were iso-lated from 71 % and 57 % of the water samples collected from post flat-bottom clarifier 1 and post-sedimenta-tion plant respectively.Considering the outflow drinking waters,the removal capacity was 100 % in both puri-fication plants monitored.The occurrence of Acanthamoeba was not associated with seasonality.Conclusion:These findings confirm that water purification plants employing methods of flocculation,sedimentation,and fil-tration in combination with activated charcoal filtration,ozonisation and chlorination exhibited sufficient Acan-thamoeba removal capacity and the presence of amoebae in the tap water may be due to older plumbing,water storage tanks,tap water hygiene,and /or environmental settings.

  5. Preparative SDS-PAGE Electroelution for Rapid Purification of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase from Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC of Helicobacter pylori is considered as a diagnostic antigen. There­fore, this antigen can be used to detect H. pylori infection by stool immunoassays such as ELISA. The aim of this study was to simplify the AhpC protein purification procedures."nMethods: For whole cell protein extraction, the bacterial cells were ruptured by octly-β-D glucopyranoside. The isolation and purification of  AhpC protein were attempted by various techniques including ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and electroelution."nResults:A simple method was used for protein purification AhpC protein. One-dimensional preparative gel electrophoresis allows a single and short purification step; the high resolution capacity of this technique leads to a high level of purity of the protein. Moreover, it avoids contamination by other non-specific proteins which often appear during protein purification by column chromatography."nConclusion: The present method is simple, rapid and makes it possible to preparate AhpC from H. pylori

  6. Extracorporeal blood purification in burns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Katharina; Stewart, Ian J; Kreyer, Stefan F X; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Cannon, Jeremy W; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Chung, Kevin K

    2014-09-01

    A prolonged and fulminant inflammatory state, with high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, is seen after extensive thermal injury. Blood purification techniques including plasma exchange, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and adsorbing membranes have the potential to modulate this response, thereby improving outcomes. This article describes the scientific rationale behind blood purification in burns and offers a review of literature regarding its potential application in this patient cohort.

  7. Development of a production scale purification of Ge-68 from irradiated gallium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target and purified by organic extraction. The Ge-68 can be used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 (Ga-68) which can be used to radiolabel PET imaging agents. The emerging use of Ge-68 in the Ga-68 medical isotope generator has caused us to develop a new purification method for Ge-68 that does not use toxic solvents. The purpose of this work was to develop a production scale separation of Ge-68 that utilizes a leaching step to remove a bulk of the gallium metal, followed by purification with Sephadex {sup copyright} G25. Production scale (300 mCi) purification was performed with the new method. The purified Ge-68 contained the highest radioactivity concentration of Ge-68 produced at BNL; the sample meet Department of Energy specifications and the method had an excellent recovery of Ge-68.

  8. Characterization and purification of bacteriophages using chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Kurt; Shen, Hong; Lute, Scott; Pérez, Jessica Soto; Frey, Douglas D

    2008-10-17

    The technique of chromatofocusing was applied to the characterization and purification of three bacteriophages that are routinely used for testing virus filters: phiX174, PR772, and PP7. Chemically well-defined eluent buffers were used, instead of the more commonly used chromatofocusing polyampholyte buffers. Chromatographic column packings were selected to minimize band broadening by confining bacteriophage adsorption solely to the exterior particle surface. Under the conditions used it was determined that bacteriophages could be made to focus into narrow bands in a retained pH gradient with recoveries of live phage that ranged from 15 to nearly 100% as determined by a plaque-forming assay. Retention times and apparent isoelectric point data were obtained for samples consisting either of purified bacteriophage, or samples consisting of crude preparations of bacteriophages containing host cell impurities. Isoelectric point estimates were obtained using modified, previously described models. The results obtained suggest that chromatofocusing is a simple and rapid method for obtaining approximate isoelectric points for bacteriophages and probably other types of viruses. It is also likely a useful method for purifying these materials.

  9. Newmark design spectra considering earthquake magnitudes and site categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Newmark design spectra have been implemented in many building codes, especially in building codes for critical structures. Previous studies show that Newmark design spectra exhibit lower amplitudes at high frequencies and larger amplitudes at low frequencies in comparison with spectra developed by statistical methods. To resolve this problem, this study considers three suites of ground motions recorded at three types of sites. Using these ground motions, influences of the shear-wave velocity, earthquake magnitudes, source-to-site distances on the ratios of ground motion parameters are studied, and spectrum amplification factors are statistically calculated. Spectral bounds for combinations of three site categories and two cases of earthquake magnitudes are estimated. Site design spectrum coefficients for the three site categories considering earthquake magnitudes are established. The problems of Newmark design spectra could be resolved by using the site design spectrum coefficients to modify the spectral values of Newmark design spectra in the acceleration sensitive, velocity sensitive, and displacement sensitive regions.

  10. Isolation and Preparative Purification for Ginkgolides A and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金玉; 王华; 常贺英; 褚巧伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple preparative method for isolation and purification of ginkgolides A and B was developed,As starting material,a commercially available standardized ginkgo extract (EGb761,containing 24% flavonoid and 6% terpene trilactones) was used,After a pretreatment step,optimized by the uniform design method ,the concentrated intermediate extract with high content of GA and gb(+90%) was separated into the individual terpenes by preparative liquid chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-ethylacetate,Analysis of products was carried out by means of HPLC-ELSD(evaporative light -scattering detector),The results show that ginkgolides A and B are obtained in higher yield and better purity.

  11. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  12. Unified Model of Purification Units in Hydrogen Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思东; 王彧斐; 冯霄

    2014-01-01

    Purification processes are widely used in hydrogen networks of refineries to increase hydrogen reuse. In refineries, hydrogen purification techniques include hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide and CO removal units. In addi-tion, light hydrocarbon recovery from the hydrogen source streams can also result in hydrogen purification. In order to simplify the superstructure and mathematical model of hydrogen network integration, the models of different pu-rification processes are unified in this paper, including mass balance and the expressions for hydrogen recovery and impurity removal ratios, which are given for all the purification units in refineries. Based on the proposed unified model, a superstructure of hydrogen networks with purification processes is constructed.

  13. Synthesis of capped RNA using a DMT group as a purification handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliath, Elizabeth; Gaffney, Barbara L; Jones, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    We report a new method for synthesis of capped RNA or 2'-OMe RNA that uses a N(2-)4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group as a lipophilic purification handle to allow convenient isolation and purification of the capped RNA. The DMT group is easily removed under mild conditions without degradation of the cap. We have used this approach to prepare capped 10- and 20-mers. This method is compatible with the many condensation reactions that have been reported for preparation of capped RNA or cap analogues.

  14. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties

  15. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  16. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  17. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  18. Simulation study for the purification of depleted uranium product in FBTR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for the purification of depleted uranium product obtained after partitioning of uranium and plutonium in the third cycle of FBTR fuel reprocessing. Uranium and plutonium were partitioned and recovered by AUC method. It is observed from the study that plutonium recovery is quantitative (100%) if Pu concentration is 0.6 g/L. (author)

  19. Cloning, expression and purification of d-tagatose 3-epimerase gene from Escherichia coli JM109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yang, Zi; Xu, Le; Yu, Yuxiu; Jia, Lingling; Li, Guoqing

    2015-10-01

    An unknown d-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTE) containing a IoIE domain was identified and cloned from Escherichia coli. This gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-15b, and induced by IPTG in E. coli BL21 expression system. Through His-select gel column purification and fast-protein liquid chromatography, highly purified and stable DTE protein was produced. The molecular weight of the DTE protein was estimated to be 29.8kDa. The latest 83 DTE sequences from public database were selected and analyzed by molecular clustering, multi-sequence alignment. DTEs were roughly divided into five categories.

  20. Investor Attention: Overconfidence and Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Wei Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by psychological evidence that attention is a scarce cognitive resource, we model investors' attention allocation in learning and study the effects of this on asset-price dynamics. We show that limited investor attention leads to ``category-learning" behavior, i.e., investors tend to process more market and sector-wide information than firm-specific information. This endogenous structure of information, when combined with investor overconfidence, generates important features observe...

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  2. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  3. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions tha...

  4. DVE architecture based on message category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; ZHANG Qiang; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2009-01-01

    By importing the idea of P2P, and transmitting messages among clients directly into the client-server architecture, a new hybrid architecture was presented with the help of AOI technology and message category. Theoretical analysis of this architecture was presented in detail. A series of simulation experiments was carried out to verify its effectiveness. Results indicate that the new architecture produces less server message workload than traditional architectures, which can improve the scalability of DVE systems.

  5. Listeners retune phoneme categories across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-02-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch listeners were exposed to unusual pronunciation variants in which word-final /f/ or /s/ was replaced by an ambiguous sound. At test, listeners categorized Dutch minimal word pairs ending in sounds along an /f/-/s/ continuum. Dutch L1 and German L2 listeners showed boundary shifts of a similar magnitude. Moreover, following exposure to Dutch-accented English, Dutch listeners also showed comparable effects of category retuning when they heard the same speaker speak her native language (Dutch) during the test. The former result suggests that lexical representations in a second language are specific enough to support lexically guided retuning, and the latter implies that production patterns in a second language are deemed a stable speaker characteristic likely to transfer to the native language; thus retuning of phoneme categories applies across languages.

  6. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  7. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  8. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  9. The progress of catalytic technologies in water purification:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dapeng; QU Jiuhui

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic technologies have been paid increasing attention in refractory pollutants abatement due to its practical and potential values in water purification.As effective and efficient approaches for water purification,Fenton's reagent,ozonation,electrochemical and photocatalytic methods have been widely studied and applied in different aspects and have been reviewed by several papers.In recent years,some novel catalytic processes based on above processes have been developed for enhancing the efficiency of removing the organics form water.This reviews emphasize on the recent development of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation,electrocatalysis in respect of novel electrodes and electro-Fenton method (EF),photoelectrocatalysis process (PEC) and photoelectron-Fenton (PEF) in water purification.It is also an attempt to propose general ideas about mechanism and principle enhancing the catalytic efficiency for degradation and mineralization of organics in water.

  10. Graded mutation in cluster categories coming from hereditary categories with a tilting object

    CERN Document Server

    Bertani-Økland, Marco Angel; Wrålsen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    We present a graded mutation rule for quivers of cluster-tilted algebras. Furthermore, we give a technique to recover a cluster-tilting object from its graded quiver in the cluster category of coh $\\mathbb{X}$.

  11. Purification and properties of thioether methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to assay activity was developed which measures acceptance of methyl groups from [methyl-3H]-S-adenosylmethionine by dimethyl selenide. The product, [3H]trimethylselenonium ion, is separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. Thioether methyltransferase from mouse liver and lung resides primarily in the cytosol. In terms of specific activity the enzyme is most active in the lung and liver. Purification from lung cytosol requires a three-step process of DEAE and gel filtration column chromatographies followed by chromatofocusing. SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows a single homogeneous band with a molecular mass of 28,000 daltons. Vmax and Km values for dimethyl selenide as a substrate are 15. 7 pmol/min and 0.44 μM, respectively. Our studies have also shown that this purified enzyme is capable of methylating a wide range of compounds. To further test the enzyme's role in detoxification, in vivo studies were performed by injecting mice with substrate and [methyl-3H]methionine and analyzing tissue extracts and urine for [methyl-3H]sulfonium

  12. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  13. Cross-category demand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Parreno-Selva, Josefa

    2012-01-01

    Do promotions in a certain category lead to higher revenues in other categories? If so, to what degree? The answers to these questions are highly relevant for retailers that supply products in different categories. Empirical findings in studies that consider a limited number of categories indicate s

  14. The Picard crossed module of a braided tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    Davydov, Alexei; Nikshych, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    For a finite braided tensor category we introduce its Picard crossed module consisting of the group of invertible module categories and the group of braided tensor autoequivalences. We describe the Picard crossed module in terms of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center of the braided tensor category. As an illustration, we compute the Picard crossed module of a braided pointed fusion category.

  15. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  16. 自然净化方式处理城市生活污水的设计方案%The Design Program of Natural Purification Methods in the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勤; 李华楹

    2009-01-01

    Through the comprehensive analysis of sewage discharge, water quality status, water body con-figuration of Wangjia River, hydrolytic acidification - Facuhative pond - oxidation pond system, a newly natu-ral purification approach was proposed. After analyzing the relative processing effect and the operation benefit, the article indicates that this project not only treat the pollutant effectively, but also restore the water body function as well as improve the south lake water environment.%文章通过对王家河水体的污水排放、水质现状以及水体构型的综合分析,提出了水解酸化-兼性塘-氧化塘系统这一新型自然净化处理方式,并对处理效果和运营效益进行了分析,认为该项目不仅能够有效处理污染物,还能恢复水体生态功能,进而推动下游南湖水环境的改善.

  17. Unsupervised and self-mapping category formation and semantic object recognition for mobile robot vision used in an actual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madokoro, H.; Tsukada, M.; Sato, K.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised learning-based object category formation and recognition method for mobile robot vision. Our method has the following features: detection of feature points and description of features using a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), selection of target feature points using one class support vector machines (OC-SVMs), generation of visual words using self-organizing maps (SOMs), formation of labels using adaptive resonance theory 2 (ART-2), and creation and classification of categories on a category map of counter propagation networks (CPNs) for visualizing spatial relations between categories. Classification results of dynamic images using time-series images obtained using two different-size robots and according to movements respectively demonstrate that our method can visualize spatial relations of categories while maintaining time-series characteristics. Moreover, we emphasize the effectiveness of our method for category formation of appearance changes of objects.

  18. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  19. Relationship between Physical Activity and Age on the Main Categories of Cognitive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Alexandra; Maillot, Pauline; Gagnon, Christine; Bertsch, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Many transversal studies show a positive relationship between physical activity and a large panel of cognitive functions. However, the majority of studies in this domain separately investigated categories of cognitive functions (e.g., attention, executive functions, visuospatial abilities). Studies simultaneously addressing the main categories of cognitive functions are rare. Moreover, assessment methods to measure physical activity are diverse (i.e., direct method with VO2max or indirect met...

  20. Strategies and considerations for protein purifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Prior to embarking upon the purification of a protein, one should begin by considering what the protein is to be used for. In particular, how much of the protein is needed, what should be its state of purity, and must it be folded correctly and associated with various other peptides or cofactors. Using such criteria, an appropriate assay should be chosen and a procedure be planned taking into account the source of the protein, how it is to be extracted from the source, and what agents the protein ought to be exposed to or ultimately be stored in. One is often surprised at the time necessary to develop an appropriate protein purification procedure relative to the time required to clone a gene or to accumulate information with the purified protein. There are an overwhelming number of options for protein purification steps, so forethought is necessary to expedite the tedious job of developing the purification scheme, or to avoid having to redesign it upon attempting to use the protein. This chapter points out general considerations to be undertaken in designing, organizing, and executing the purification, while subsequent chapters of this volume supply more specific options and technical details. PMID:19892162

  1. Palladium-based Membrane Applications for Hydrogen Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin'e; MA Guang; JIA Zhihua; JIANG Ting

    2012-01-01

    It describes the purification of hydrogen isotopes,separation with the preparation of palladium-based membrane's technology,types,application,advantages and disadvantages of palladium in this article.Due to excellent comprehensive properties palladium composite membrane will become the future direction of development.At the same time it will develop preparation methods of the membrane support body with high mechanical strength and heat resistance and low-cost and palladium-based membrane.Also it will explore high service life and high transmittance of novel composite membrane.

  2. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  3. Communication: Generalized canonical purification for density matrix minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truflandier, Lionel A.; Dianzinga, Rivo M.; Bowler, David R.

    2016-03-01

    A Lagrangian formulation for the constrained search for the N-representable one-particle density matrix based on the McWeeny idempotency error minimization is proposed, which converges systematically to the ground state. A closed form of the canonical purification is derived for which no a posteriori adjustment on the trace of the density matrix is needed. The relationship with comparable methods is discussed, showing their possible generalization through the hole-particle duality. The appealing simplicity of this self-consistent recursion relation along with its low computational complexity could prove useful as an alternative to diagonalization in solving dense and sparse matrix eigenvalue problems.

  4. Studies of iso-alpha-acids: analysis, purification, and stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in the formation of three pairs of trans-/cis-iso-alpha–acids. The aim of this thesis project was to develop a method for the analysis (Chapter 2 and 7) as well as the purification of iso-alpha-acids (...

  5. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, R

    1984-01-01

    The first of its kind, this book presents a widely accessible exposition of topos theory, aimed at the philosopher-logician as well as the mathematician. It is suitable for individual study or use in class at the graduate level (it includes 500 exercises). It begins with a fully motivated introduction to category theory itself, moving always from the particular example to the abstract concept. It then introduces the notion of elementary topos, with a wide range of examples and goes on to develop its theory in depth, and to elicit in detail its relationship to Kripke's intuitionistic semantics,

  6. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, S.; Tzevelekos, N.

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included.

  7. EXPERIMENT OF IMPACT OF RIVER HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS ON NUTRIENTS PURIFICATION COEFFICIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pei-fang; WANG Xiao-rong; WANG Chao

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulic characteristics of a river are the key factors for river water quality improvement and river restoration. A simulated river was exploited to study the interactions between water contaminant purification coefficients and the characteristics of the river, such as the cross-section velocity, water depth, Reynolds number, and Froude number. To enhance the purification capacity of the river, detritus with 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter and contact surface area per volume of 87.6 m2/m3 were constructed naturally at the bed and along one side of the bank to form half shape of the river cross-section. During the one-month experiment (including 3 periods) from the third of November to the fourth of December, 2005, three categories of hydraulic conditions were investigated. Results show that the purification coefficient (K) of Total Nitrogen (TN) is closely coherent with the hydraulic retention time (T), river length (L), Reynolds number (Re) and Froude number (Fr). The relationship of K and T generally agrees with the power law under the three experimental water hydraulic conditions. Based on these results, the optimal Re and Fr ranges can be obtain to serve as a guideline for ecological re-engineering design to improve river water quality and restore river ecosystem.

  8. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a device that is intended for use with a hemodialysis system and that is intended to remove organic...

  9. Tandem affinity purification to identify cytosolic and nuclear gβγ-interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campden, Rhiannon; Pétrin, Darlaine; Robitaille, Mélanie; Audet, Nicolas; Gora, Sarah; Angers, Stéphane; Hébert, Terence E

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric proteins serve broad roles in the regulation of cellular activity and interact with many proteins in different subcellular locations including the nucleus. Protein affinity purification is a common method to identify and confirm protein interactions. When used in conjugation with mass spectrometry it can be used to identify novel protein interactions with a given bait protein. The tandem affinity purification (TAP) technique identifies partner proteins bound to tagged protein bait. Combined with protocols to enrich the nuclear fraction of whole cell lysate through sucrose cushions, TAP allows for purification of interacting proteins found specifically in the nucleus. Here we describe the use of the TAP technique on cytosolic and nuclear lysates to identify candidate proteins, through mass spectrometry, that bind to Gβ1 subunits.

  10. Sodium coolant purification systems for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Kovalev, Yu. P.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Kumaev, V. Ya.; Kondrat'ev, A. S.; Matyukhin, V. V.; Pirogov, E. P.; Sergeev, G. P.; Sorokin, A. P.; Torbenkova, I. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Both traditional coolant purification methods (by means of traps and sorbents for removing cesium), the use of which supported successful operation of nuclear power installations equipped with fast-neutron reactors with a sodium coolant, and the possibility of removing oxygen from sodium through the use of hot traps are analyzed in substantiating the purification system for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor. It is shown that a cold trap built into the reactor vessel must be a mandatory component of the reactor plant primary coolant circuit's purification system. The use of hot traps allows oxygen to be removed from the sodium coolant down to permissible concentrations when the nuclear power station operates in its rated mode. The main lines of works aimed at improving the performance characteristics of cold traps are suggested based on the results of performed investigations.

  11. PRELIMINARY MODELING OF AN INDUSTRIAL RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN PURIFICATION PROCESS BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Garcel1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the present study a preliminary neural network modelling to improve our understanding of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin purification process in a plant was explored. A three layer feed-forward back propagation neural network was constructed for predicting the efficiency of the purification section comprising four chromatographic steps as a function of eleven operational variables. The neural network model performed very well in the training and validation phases. Using the connection weight method the predictor variables were ranked based on their estimated explanatory importance in the neural network and five input variables were found to be predominant over the others. These results provided useful information showing that the first chromatographic step and the third chromatographic step are decisive to achieve high efficiencies in the purification section, thus enriching the control strategy of the plant.

  12. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.)

  13. Technology of effective purification of liquid radioactive wastes with help of the Armenian modified natural zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reprocessing of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Armenian NPP the facility of deep evaporation has been exploited. At present the effective technology of LRW purification with help of its filtration through modified natural zeolites (clinoptilolites) from the Noemberyansk deposit of Armenia is developed. Optimal modes of Cs, Sr, Co radionuclides extraction from radioactive waters in the static and dynamical conditions have been studied. It is concluded, that radioactivity decreasing is taking place more effectively (up to 200 times) under solution treatment at the facility, incorporating the three concatenated columns sorbents filled from the granular clinoptilolite modified by diverse ways. Solutions cycling by the way of leak through the same column also satisfactorily decrease of water radioactivity (in 600 times). Test results show, that combination of these two methods is most optimal option for LRW purification and could be recommended for the LRW purification pilot facility

  14. Carbon nanotube membranes with ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for water desalination and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui Ying; Han, Zhao Jun; Yu, Siu Fung; Pey, Kin Leong; Ostrikov, Kostya; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Development of technologies for water desalination and purification is critical to meet the global challenges of insufficient water supply and inadequate sanitation, especially for point-of-use applications. Conventional desalination methods are energy and operationally intensive, whereas adsorption-based techniques are simple and easy to use for point-of-use water purification, yet their capacity to remove salts is limited. Here we report that plasma-modified ultralong carbon nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for salt (exceeding 400% by weight) that is two orders of magnitude higher than that found in the current state-of-the-art activated carbon-based water treatment systems. We exploit this adsorption capacity in ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes that can remove salt, as well as organic and metal contaminants. These ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes may lead to next-generation rechargeable, point-of-use potable water purification appliances with superior desalination, disinfection and filtration properties. PMID:23941894

  15. 纳米碳管的纯化%Purification of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德义; 陈万喜; 徐铸德

    2000-01-01

    纳米碳管是一种新型的纳米材料和碳分子,其独特的分子结构和性能引起了人们的广泛关注。纳米碳管的纯化是纳米碳管研究领域的一个重要课题。本文综述了纳米碳管的几种纯化方法及其相关机理。%As a new nanometer material and new carbon molecule,carbon nanotubes have been at tracted widely attention because of its distinctive molecular structure and performance. Developing a purification technique remains a significant task in the field of carbon nanotubes research. This paper reviews the kinds of purification methods of carbon nanotubes,and the purification mechanism is explained,too.

  16. Research progress of novel adsorption processes in water purification:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As an effective, efficient, and economic approach for water purification, adsorbents and adsorption processes have been widely studied and applied in different aspects for a long time. In the recent years, a lot of novel adsorption processes have been developed for enhancing the efficiency of removing the organic and inorganic contaminants from water. This article reviews some new adsorbents and advanced adsorption methods that specialize in their compositions, structures, functions, and characteristics used in water treatment. The review emphasizes adsorption/catalytic oxidation process, adsorption/catalytic reduction process, adsorption coupled with redox process, biomimetic sorbent and its sorption behaviors of POPs, and modified adsorbents and their water purification efficiency.

  17. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  18. Purification of precursors of Yb3+-doped YLF crystals by solvent extraction and electrochemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncher, William L.; Judge, Elizabeth; Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2015-03-01

    Optical refrigeration by laser irradiation of YLiF4:Yb3+ (YLF:Yb) crystals has been shown to be strongly deteriorated by impurities, which absorb energy at the laser wavelength, and relax non-radiatively, negating cooling produced from anti-Stokes fluorescence. We aim to increase the efficiency of optical refrigeration through materials purification. We start with the purest sources commercially available and process them in a cleanroom environment. Our method proceeds through electrochemical purification, separating out the transition metal impurities by their redox potentials, and can be scaled up to produce the amounts of material needed for crystal growth.

  19. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  20. Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.