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Sample records for categories purification method

  1. Agarase: Review of Major Sources, Categories, Purification Method, Enzyme Characteristics and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into α-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.158 and β-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.81 according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as a tool enzyme for biological, physiological, and cytological studies. The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future.

  2. Method for biological purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    2001-03-27

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  3. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  4. Simplified purification method for Clostridium difficiletoxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Wu Fu; Jing Xue; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish the purification method for Clostridiumdifficile ( C. difficile) toxin A.METHODS: C. difficile VPI 10463 filtrate was cultured anaerobically by the dialysis bag methods. And then the toxin A was purified by precipitation with 500 g/L (NH4)2SO4and acid precipitation at pH 5.5, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl.RESULTS: Purified toxin A exhibited only one band on nativepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) andOuchterlony double immunodiffusion. The molecular weight of toxin A was estimated to be 550 000. The purified toxin A had a protein concentration of 0.881 mg/mL. The minimum lethal dose was 1×106 MLD/mL (i.p.mice). The cytotoxictiter was 107 CU/mg. The haemagglutinate activity was ata concentration of 1.72 μg/mL. The ratio of fluid volume (mL)accumulated to the length (cm) of the loop was 2.46. CONCLUSION: The modified method for purification of toxin A of C. difficile was simple and convenient. It may be even more suitable for purification of toxin A on large scales.

  5. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  6. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  7. Purification process studies for the reprocessing by fluoride volatility method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the research and development program for the reprocessing by fluoride volatility method, the fluorination-purification process has been studied with a simulated FBR fuel containing UO2-PuO2 and non-radioactive fission products, in the 2''phi and 3''phi fluid-beds. Behaviors of fission products and other process problems in a proposed flow-sheet were clarified. Described are the flow-sheet aimed to study and its purification principle, experimental results of plutonium and uranium purifications, and analytical methods. (auth.)

  8. The efficiency study of different purification methods for liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wei; Yu, Boxiang; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    JUNO is an experiment aimed at detecting neutrino mass hierarchy. The innermost part of the JUNO detector is formed by 20,000 tons of liquid scintillator which should have very low level of radioactive materials, such as 238U, 232Th, and 40K. Since the radioactive level of raw LAB(the solvent of LS)cannot reach so stringent requirements of JUNO, the purification for LAB plays an extremely important role in LS production. This article studies the efficiency of several different purification methods for LS, like distillation, water extraction and Al2O3 purification.

  9. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  10. Scandium(3) purification from concomitant impurities by chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of scandium(3) purification from concomitant impurities (rare earths, Zr(4), Th(4), Fe(3)) using sorptional chromatography has been studied by tracer technique. The relevant sorbents have been chosen and the optimal conditions for scandium isolation have been ascertained. It is shown that employment of sorption-chromatographic methods for scandium purification permits obtaining scandium(3) preparation of 99.99% purity

  11. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio A. Maximiano; Marcia A. da Silva; Katia R. P. Daghastanli; de Araujo, Pedro S.; Hernan Chaimovich; Iolanda M. Cuccovia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a) homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b) solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c) repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed wit...

  12. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during ...... isopycnic centrifugation, so that phenol/chloroform extractions can be omitted. The method was used for the purification of DNA from several members of the Alfaherpesvirinae subfamily.......A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  13. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio A. Maximiano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed with chloroform before elution with chloroform:methanol, allowing the sequential separation of fatty acids and lecithin. Chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of the product are presented. This fast procedure yields fatty acid-free lecithin at a competitive cost.

  14. Improved methods for magnetic purification of malaria parasites and haemozoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites generate free haem upon catabolism of host haemoglobin during their intraerythrocytic growth cycle. In order to minimize oxidative toxicity of the ferric iron, the free haem molecules are polymerized into the biomineral beta-haematin (commonly referred to as haemozoin. Haemozoin crystals are paramagnetic, and this property can be exploited for the purification of late stage parasites as they contain larger haemozoin crystals than early stage parasites and uninfected cells. Commercially available magnets that were originally developed for the purpose of antibody-mediated cell purification are widely used for this purpose. As these methods are not necessarily optimized for parasite purification, the relationship between magnetic field strength and the quantity and quality of yield during parasite purification was explored. Methods Inexpensive rare-earth neodymium magnets with commercially available disposable columns were employed to explore the relationship between magnetic field strength and recovery of free haemozoin and infected erythrocytes (iRBCs. Results Yields of free haemozoin increased nearly linearly with increasing magnetic field strength to the strongest fields tested (8,500 Gauss. Stronger magnetic fields also improved the recovery of iRBCs with no detrimental effects on parasite viability. An in-house constructed magnetic stand, built for $75 in materials, produced superior results when compared with much more expensive commercial products. Conclusions Existing protocols for the magnetic purification of free haemozoin and iRBCs result in sub-optimal yields. Inexpensive high-strength neodymium magnets offer a better option, resulting in higher yields with no detrimental effects on parasite viability.

  15. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for nanodisc purification and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers, termed nanodiscs, are widely used in science for studying the membrane-anchored and integral membrane protein complexes under defined experimental conditions. Although their formation occurs by a self-assembly process, nanodisc purification and the verification of...... proper reconstitution are still major challenges during the sample preparation. This review gives an overview of the methods used for purifying and analyzing nanodiscs and nanodisc-reconstituted membrane proteins, with an emphasis on the chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches....

  16. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety. PMID:22195191

  17. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  18. Fermentation, fractionation and purification of streptokinase by chemical reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Niakan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptokinase is used clinically as an intravenous thrombolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and is commonly prepared from cultures of Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A. The objective of the present study was the production of streptokinase from strain H46A and purification by chemical reduction method."nMaterials and Methods: The rate of streptokinase production evaluated under the effect of changes on some fermentation factors. Moreover, due to the specific structure of streptokinase, a chemical reduction method employed for the purification of streptokinase from the fermentation broth. The H46A strain of group C streptococcus, was grown in a fermentor. The proper pH adjusted with NaOH under glucose feeding in an optimum temperature. The supernatant of the fermentation product was sterilized by filtration and concentrated by ultrafiltration. The pH of the concentrate was adjusted, cooled, and precipitated by methanol. Protein solution was reduced with dithiothreitol (DTT. Impurities settled down by aldrithiol-2 and the biological activity of supernatant containing streptokinase was determined."nResults: In the fed -batch culture, the rate of streptokinase production increased over two times as compared with the batch culture and the impurities were effectively separated from streptokinase by reduction method."nConclusion: Improvements in SK production are due to a decrease in lag phase period and increase in the growth rate of logarithmic phase. The methods of purification often result in unacceptable losses of streptokinase, but the chemical reduction method give high yield of streptokinase and is easy to perform it.

  19. A convenient and efficient purification method for chemically labeled oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jihee; Kang, Junhee; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Younggyu

    2013-05-01

    We developed an efficient, cost-effective, and rapid purification method for chemically-labeled oligonucleotides that requires less time than conventional procedures such as ethanol precipitation or size-exclusion chromatography. Based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of DNA and amine-reactive fluorophores, we show that n-butanol saturated with distilled water may be used to remove unreacted fluorophores by sequestering them in the organic phase, while labeled DNA remains in the aqueous phase. This phase extraction method is simple, fast, and allows for processing multiple samples simultaneously, a necessity for high-throughput labeling strategies. PMID:23662899

  20. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  1. Direct osmosis method of purification and desalination of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Drinking water quality is one of the general factors influencing people's health. The human activity in industry and agriculture has led to pollution of the environment: soil, air, both surface and ground waters that are polluted with chemical substances. It has a disastrous effect on the health of the population, especially of children. At present, the known equipment, based on ion exchange, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, require great expense, energy expenditures, and highly qualified personnel that are inaccessible to the population especially living in remote regions. Methods, which are usually used in water supplying plants, cannot remove spore forms of bacteria and many types of chemical substances. The purpose of this Project is to create an absolutely new method for purification of drinking water from chemical and biological agents. The method is based on using direct osmosis process that removes all contaminants except one and removing last contaminant. This method will be used for making new low energy-consuming and cheap mini-systems for individual and collective use for desalination of drinking water and purification from bacteria, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants. Preliminary experiments and calculations conducted in Uzbekistan show that the energy consumption is 0.8 MW per 1 m3 of water. Advantage of the method is low energy consumption, potentially purifying water without pretreatment and removing different types of bacteria including spore forms, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contaminants. Devices can be powered by solar units in remote locations. The purpose of this work is further elaboration of this technology creation of new method and its accommodation to conditions of different countries. Test models will be made and tested in laboratories of interested countries

  2. Experimental method for the purification and reconditioning of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotae, Constantin

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the theoretical aspects regarding the magnetogravimetric purification of ferrofluids both in the process of preparation and for their reconditioning from impurities. An experimental device used for magnetogravimetric purification is described together with experiments on some samples of oil-based ferrofluid that became impure with non-mixible solid, liquid, magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients. The experiments resulted in a complete purification of the ferrofluid samples.

  3. Testing of analytical and purification methods for HTR helium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of determination of gaseous impurities (H2, O2, N2, CO, CH4, CO2) in high purity helium as well as the methods of gaseous impurities removal. A device used for the determination was the Master GC type gas chromatograph with a helium detection unit and a ShinCarbon ST column. A temperature program was used to improve the conditions of separation and to reach maximum response of the detector. The obtained limits of detection defined as three times the standard deviation of the background value of tested components are H2 0.3 vppm, O2 0.4 vppm, N2 0.2 vppm, CO 2 vppm, CH4 3 vppm, CO2 2 vppm. Analysis time is less than 20 min. The developed method will be used for checking the purity of helium environment in the experimental loop to model experimental conditions in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Within the scope of the proposal of the helium purification system, the efficiency of removing selected impurities (CO, CO2, CH4) on adsorbents (based on zeolites and active carbon) was tested. A laboratory scale apparatus and an FTIR spectrometer were used for experiments.

  4. P46-S A New Method for the Purification of DNA Sequencing Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo, G.; Harrold, M.; Pistacchi, S.

    2007-01-01

    BigDye XTerminator is a new single-tube method for purifying DNA sequencing reactions prior to electrophoretic analysis. Sequencing reactions purified using this method display very few artifacts from residual dye-labeled nucleotides (dye blobs), as well as excellent recovery of the smallest extension products. BigDye XTerminator also has unique workflow advantages over conventional purification schemes such as ethanol precipitation or spin column purifications.

  5. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  6. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  7. A Classification Method of Open-ended Questionnaire Using Category-based Dictionary from Sampled Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Keiichi; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Samejima, Masaki; Oiso, Hiroaki

    This paper addresses a classification method of open-ended questionnaire using category-based dictionary from categorized samples. Different from generally-used document classification methods, our proposed method here introduces a new category-based dictionary which is generated from a small set of categorized samples, because the purpose of analysis is to have meaningful results along with a user's viewpoints in a sense. This category-based dictionary is used to judge a category as to a questionnaire with tf-idf (term frequency inverted document frequency) and co_tf-idf (co-occurrence tf-idf). We show the effectiveness in applying our proposed method to questionnaires about an university lecture.

  8. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initial base assessment rate determined using the financial ratios method set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of...-term debt issuer rating, shall be determined using the financial ratios method. (1) Financial ratios method. Under the financial ratios method for Risk Category I institutions, each of six financial...

  9. On use of the method of acoustic coagulation of aerosols for purification of gaseous wastes from highly dispersed radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic coagulation of radioactive highly dispersed aerosols was investigated experimentally. Dispersive composition of aerosols before and after systems of collection by standard methods was determined. Efficiency of purification of gaseous wastes from radioactive highly dispersed aerosols using the method of acoustic coagulation in conjunction with standard purification methods was estimated. This method permitted to raise an efficiency of purification of gaseous flows from difficultly collected radioactive aerosols with particle sizes 2

  10. Agarase: Review of Major Sources, Categories, Purification Method, Enzyme Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Moo Kim; Xiao Ting Fu

    2010-01-01

    Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into α-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.158) and β-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.81) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as ...

  11. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  12. Innovative Methods for Soil DNA Purification Tested in Soils with Widely Differing Characteristics▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Cermak, Ladislav; Novotna, Jitka; Plhackova, Kamila; Forstova, Jana; Kopecky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Seven methods of soil DNA extraction and purification were tested in a set of 14 soils differing in bedrock, texture, pH, salinity, moisture, organic matter content, and vegetation cover. The methods introduced in this study included pretreatment of soil with CaCO3 or purification of extracted DNA by CaCl2. The performance of innovated methods was compared to that of the commercial kit Mo Bio PowerSoil and the phenol-chloroform-based method of D. N. Miller, J. E. Bryant, E. L. Madsen, and W. ...

  13. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  14. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  15. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  16. New method of water purification based on the particle-exclusion phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuzhin, Ivan; Symonds, Andrew; Magula, Jeffrey; Pollack, Gerald H

    2008-08-15

    Colloidal particles in suspension are excluded from the vicinity of various hydrophilic surfaces. On the basis of this phenomenon, a novel method of water purification is proposed and tested. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated using a custom-made extractor that collected clean water from the annular "exclusion zone" within a Nafion tube. Up to 99.6% of particles could be removed from the suspension. The experimental results suggest that particle exclusion may provide a new framework for water purification from both organic and inorganic matter, as well as from harmful pathogens. PMID:18767681

  17. An effective method for thallium bromide purification and research on crystal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising candidate for room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors in view of its excellent intrinsic features. However, material purity and crystal quality concerns still limit the use of TlBr crystals as detectors. In this work, a combination of hydrothermal recrystallization (HR) and vacuum distillation (VD) methods were applied to purify TlBr salts prior to crystal growth. Trace impurities at the ppb/ppm level were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results showed that the impurity concentrations of the TlBr salt decreased significantly after HR and VD purification, and high performance of the resultant TlBr crystal in areas such as electrical and optical properties was achieved. The combination of HR and VD methods could fabricate purer material, with an order of magnitude higher resistivity and better optical quality, than HR or VD method used separately. The possible technological considerations affecting the parameters of the crystals are investigated. - Highlights: ► The effectiveness of purification can be increased by combining different purification methods. ► A pure material with a sum of impurity concentrations of approximately 300 ppb was obtained. ► Good electrical and optical properties were achieved via combination of purification methods.

  18. APPLICATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD ON PURIFICATION OF GLUCOMANNAN FROM AMORPHOPHALLUS ONCOPHYLLUS BY USING 2-PROPANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYAH H. WARDHANI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucomannan purification methods affect the properties of mannan and have influence to the scope of glucomannan applications. Combination between ethanol solution and thermal treatment is commonly method applied to purify glucomannan obtained from Amorphophallus sp. However, 2-propanol was reported to be more effective in removing glucomannan impurities including the starch and the carotenes. The objective of this research was to study the effect of 2-propanol concentration, temperature and time as well as their interaction on purification of glucomannan obtained from Amorphophallus oncophyllus by using response surface methods. The relevant parameters (glucomannan content, starch content, degree of whiteness, yield were investigated in order to establish mathematical model. The results showed that the linear models were reliable to predict the responses (R2 ≥ 0.926. Temperature was a significant variable for the all responses. This purification method improved the absorbance of the functional groups at ~2900 cm-1 of stretching of C-H vibration and ~1730 cm-1 of acetyl group which is responsible on glucomannan solubility. However, this method reduced the absorbance of the functional groups at ~1650, ~1070, ~1020 and 900 - 800 cm-1 of absorbed water or protein, C-O alcohol and -glucosidic and -mannosidic linkages, respectively. The morphology observation revealed that this purification method achieves separation and removal of impurities which encapsulated the glucomannan and subsequently released the glucomannan granules. The highest content of glucomannan obtained in this study was 72.30 % when 90 % 2-propanol at 75 °C for 180 min was used for purification.

  19. Enhanced method for microbial community DNA extraction and purification from agricultural yellow loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Pyung Il; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Si Wouk

    2015-11-01

    In this study, novel DNA extraction and purification methods were developed to obtain high-quantity and reliable quality DNA from the microbial community of agricultural yellow loess soil samples. The efficiencies of five different soil DNAextraction protocols were evaluated on the basis of DNA yield, quality and DNA shearing. Our suggested extraction method, which used CTAB, EDTA and cell membrane lytic enzymes in the extraction followed by DNA precipitation using isopropanol, yielded a maximum DNA content of 42.28 ± 5.59 µg/g soil. In addition, among the five different purification protocols, the acid-treated polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column purification method yielded high-quality DNA and recovered 91% of DNA from the crude DNA. Spectrophotometry revealed that the ultraviolet A 260/A 230 and A 260/A 280 absorbance ratios of the purified DNA were 1.82 ± 0.03 and 1.94 ± 0.05, respectively. PCR-based 16S rRNA amplification showed clear bands at ~1.5 kb with acid-treated PVPP-purified DNA templates. In conclusion, our suggested extraction and purification protocols can be used to recover high concentration, high purity, and high-molecular-weight DNA from clay and silica-rich agricultural soil samples. PMID:26502961

  20. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  1. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities (14C from organically compounds, 36Cl as chloride and free chlorine, 40K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na2O2 and KMnO4), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na2O2 and KMnO4) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization

  2. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  3. Data on single-step purification method for dye-labeled DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Dye-labelled DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust technique required for molecular biology since 1977 (Sanger, 1977) [1]. I have recently provided the single-step purification method for dye-labeled sequencing products, which is based on the removal of the washing step in EDTA/ethanol precipitation (Fujikura, 2015) [2]. Here I assess and report the accumulated data of the modified method on the larger scale in practice.

  4. Data on single-step purification method for dye-labeled DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-06-01

    Dye-labelled DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust technique required for molecular biology since 1977 (Sanger, 1977) [1]. I have recently provided the single-step purification method for dye-labeled sequencing products, which is based on the removal of the washing step in EDTA/ethanol precipitation (Fujikura, 2015) [2]. Here I assess and report the accumulated data of the modified method on the larger scale in practice. PMID:27077088

  5. An optimized DNA extraction and purification method from dairy manure compost for genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongyang; Zhou, Tiantian; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2013-05-01

    An unbiased DNA extraction protocol is necessary for analysis of genetic diversity, particularly, of genes in complex environmental samples by nucleic acid techniques. In the present study, three manual extraction methods and two commonly used commercial kits, which were accompanied by two DNA purification strategies, were compared based on cell lysis efficiency, DNA and humic acid yields, PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The results show that in spite of higher cell lysis efficiencies of the two commercial kits, the purified DNA yields were only one-third of that obtained by the two manual methods of FTSP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K) and FTSPP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K-Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). The purified DNA from all five methods was pure enough for successful PCR and real-time PCR amplifications in the presence of 1 μg μL(-1) BSA. However, the FTSPP extraction method with DNA purification by a Wizard(®) kit yielded the largest number of 16S rRNA gene copies and ribotypes or bands in DGGE profiles, which indicated a superiority over the other four methods. The development of this optimized DNA extraction and purification method may provide a valuable tool for further molecular analysis of compost. PMID:23239373

  6. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Murguia, Laura (Manteca, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). A new regeneration method is applied to the cell (30) which includes slowing or stopping the purification cycle, electrically desorbing contaminants and removing the desorbed contaminants. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. The cell (30) is regenerated electrically to desorb such previously removed ions.

  7. Sorption method for scandium (3) chloride purification from zirconium (4) impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of Zr4+ sorption on cationite KRF-20t-60 in H-form containing phosphonic functional groups from ScCl3 solution under dynamic conditions was studied for scandium (3) chloride purification from zirconium (4) impurity. It is shown that at initial concentration of scandium chloride in solution equal to 3 g/l and zirconium impurity concentration of about 3 mg/l, sorption column height to diameter ratio equal to 10:1 and solution flow rate 0.4 ml/min · cm2, the method mentioned provides purification factor of about 50. Variants of the sorbent regeneration using 5% solution of ammonium fluoride or 10% solution of potassium carbonate at room temperature were proposed

  8. Development of methods for the purification of 67Ga and 68Ga for biomolecules labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived 68Ge/68Ga generators have been in development, obtaining 68Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. 68Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived 68Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with 68Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe3+ and Zn2+. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of 68Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. 68Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of diisopropyl ether in XAD 16 and 68Ga recovery in deionized water. Although the

  9. Apparatus and method for biological purification of waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    1998-11-24

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  10. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  11. Computer Aided Methods & Tools for Separation & Purification of Fine Chemical & Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afonso, Maria B.C.; Soni, Vipasha; Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz;

    2006-01-01

    An integrated approach that is particularly suitable for solving problems related to product-process design from the fine chemicals, agrochemicals, food and pharmaceutical industries is presented together with the corresponding methods and tools, which forms the basis for an integrated computer...... aided system. The methods and tools are linked through the problems they are able to solve and the associated data-flow. The integrated computer aided system has been used to solve a number of industrial problems and summarized results from a selection, involving separation and purification issues, are...

  12. Measurement of habituation to noise using the method of continuous judgment by category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.

    1988-12-01

    Using "the method of continuous judgment by category", we examined the noisiness of sounds from public loudspeakers, and habituation to them. Subjects judged the noisiness of the sound at any moment of their choice by touching one of seven numbered keys on a computer keyboard, each corresponding to a noisiness category. At the same time, the subjects were required to complete a task as carefully and rapidly as possible. The duration of "no response" to sounds was an index of habituation. Both personality factors and physical factors were analyzed. It was found that the duration of "no response" is a good index to habituation to noise, and that there were wide differences in the "no response" time of different subjects. The reactions of individual subjects in sessions 1 and 2 and the questionnaire survey were, however, consistent. This suggests that there is a group that is relatively sensitive to noise and a group that is less sensitive to noise. It was also found that subjects had difficulty in becoming accustomed to intense noise.

  13. Evaluation of High-Yield Purification Methods on Monodisperse PEG-Grafted Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental research on nanoparticle (NP) interactions and development of next-generation biomedical NP applications relies on synthesis of monodisperse, functional, core–shell nanoparticles free of residual dispersants with truly homogeneous and controlled physical properties. Still, synthesis and purification of e.g. such superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs remain a challenge. Comparing the success of different methods is marred by the sensitivity of analysis methods to the purity of the product. We synthesize monodisperse, oleic acid (OA)-capped, Fe3O4 NPs in the superparamagnetic size range (3–10 nm). Ligand exchange of OA for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was performed with the PEG irreversibly grafted to the NP surface by a nitrodopamine (NDA) anchor. Four different methods were investigated to remove excess ligands and residual OA: membrane centrifugation, dialysis, size exclusion chromatography, and precipitation combined with magnetic decantation. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to determine the purity of samples after each purification step. Importantly, only magnetic decantation yielded pure NPs at high yields with sufficient grafting density for biomedical applications (∼1 NDA-PEG(5 kDa)/nm2, irrespective of size). The purified NPs withstand challenging tests such as temperature cycling in serum and long-term storage in biological buffers. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering show stability over at least 4 months also in serum. The successful synthesis and purification route is compatible with any conceivable functionalization for biomedical or biomaterial applications of PEGylated Fe3O4 NPs. PMID:27046133

  14. A new method of purification of proteasome substrates reveals polyubiquitination of 20 S proteasome subunits

    OpenAIRE

    Ventadour, Sophie; Jarzaguet, Marianne; Simon S. Wing; Chambon, Christophe; Combaret, Lydie; Béchet, Daniel; Attaix, Didier; Taillandier, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The 26 S proteasome is implicated in the control of many major biological functions but a reliable method for the identification of its major substrates, i.e. polyubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, is still lacking. Based on the steps present in cells, i.e. recognition and deubiquitination, we developed an affinity matrix-based purification of polyUb conjugates suitable for any biological sample. Ub-conjugates were first purified from proteasome inhibitor-treated C2C12 cells using the Ub binding doma...

  15. Outstanding Data sets: A new category of articles that promotes modelling published in the Quantitative Methods for Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Cousineau; Sebastien Helie

    2014-01-01

    Model comparison requires that the data set be fixed. Yet, it is common practice to replicate studies when a researcher wishes to test a new model. Consequences of this practice are (a) reduced comparability between model fits, and (b) unnecessary time and money invested in experimentation. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology journal opens a new category of articles, the Outstanding data sets, whose purpose is to publish research paper as well as research data. With this new category of p...

  16. A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Dong, Jin; Deng, Xinxin

    2010-11-01

    Rapid purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood is a challenging problem due to the difficulty in recovering and dispersing blood clots. We developed a new method for discarding the serum-separator gel and rapidly dispersing the blood clots. A special disposable tip was inserted into the serum-separator gel so that the serum-separator gel could be discarded. The blood clot obtained was dispersed into small pieces through a copper mesh (pore size, 250 μm) in a special dispersing instrument by centrifugation. After lysis of red blood cells and white blood cells, genomic DNA was concentrated and desalted by isopropanol precipitation. The mean yield of DNA purified from a 0.3-ml blood clot was 22.70 μg in 173 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for 1 month, and 19.02 μg in 1,372 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for >6 months. DNA samples were successfully performed through polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction, and melt curve analysis. Their quality was comparable with that purified directly from EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The new method overcomes the difficulties in recovering and dispersing blood clots, allowing efficient purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood. PMID:20549389

  17. Chromium containing silica: effect of ultrasonic and purification methods on color products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium containing silica has numerous applications, such as: fiber-optics, luminescent materials, catalysts and pigments. In paint and ceramic pigments, chromate and dichromate ions, and silica are largely used. In this paper, it has been investigated the effect of pH, heating methods, and ultrasonic stirring on chromium oxidation states coprecipitated with silica. The material has been obtained from the coprecipitation of an aqueous diluted sodium silicate solution and acid chromium nitrate solution, purified by extractions and dialysis, and dried with microwave oven. Products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nitrogem adsorption isotherm (BET). Coprecipitates are non cristalline and the specific surface area value for sample obtained by conventional heating is smaller than the one for sample obtained by ultrasonic method. It is possible to obtain silica with different colors from blue due to the Cr(III), to yellow due to the Cr (VI), depending on the precipitation, purification and drying methods. (author)

  18. Development of a high-throughput purification method and a continuous assay system for chlorophyllase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkus, Kiani A J; Jez, Joseph M

    2006-06-01

    In the degradation of chlorophyll, chlorophyllase catalyzes the initial hydrolysis of the phytol moiety from the pigment. Since chlorophyll degradation is a defining feature of plant senescence, compounds inhibiting chlorophyllase activity may delay senescence, thereby improving shelf life and appearance of plant products. Here we describe the development of a 96-well plate-based purification and assay system for measuring chlorophyllase activity. Integrated lysis and immobilized metal affinity chromatography plates were used for purifying recombinant hexahistidine-tagged Triticum aestivum (wheat) chlorophyllase from Escherichia coli. Chlorophyllase assays using chlorophyll as a substrate showed that the immobilized fusion protein displayed kinetic parameters similar to those of recombinant enzyme purified by affinity chromatography; however, the need to extract reaction products from a multiwell plate limits the value of this assay for high-throughput screening applications. Replacing chlorophyll with p-nitrophenyl-ester substrates eliminates the extraction step and allows for continuous measurement of chlorophyllase activity in a multiwell plate format. Determination of steady state kinetic constants, pH rate profile, the inhibitory effects of metal ions and esterase inhibitors, and the effect of functional group-modifying reagents validated the utility of the plate-based system. The combined purification and assay system provides a convenient and rapid method for the assessment of chlorophyllase activity. PMID:16643837

  19. Analysis of exosome purification methods using a model liposome system and tunable-resistive pulse sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rebecca E.; Korbie, Darren; Anderson, Will; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are vesicles which have garnered interest due to their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Isolation of pure yields of exosomes from complex biological fluids whilst preserving their physical characteristics is critical for downstream applications. In this study, we use 100 nm-liposomes from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and cholesterol as a model system as a model system to assess the effect of exosome isolation protocols on vesicle recovery and size distribution using a single-particle analysis method. We demonstrate that liposome size distribution and ζ-potential are comparable to extracted exosomes, making them an ideal model for comparison studies. Four different purification protocols were evaluated, with liposomes robustly isolated by three of them. Recovered yields varied and liposome size distribution was unaltered during processing, suggesting that these protocols do not induce particle aggregation. This leads us to conclude that the size distribution profile and characteristics of vesicles are stably maintained during processing and purification, suggesting that reports detailing how exosomes derived from tumour cells differ in size to those from normal cells are reporting a real phenomenon. However, we hypothesize that larger particles present in most purified exosome samples represent co-purified contaminating non-exosome debris. These isolation techniques are therefore likely nonspecific and may co-isolate non-exosome material of similar physical properties.

  20. Determination of U and Th content in the zirconium purification process using alpha spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been performed determination of U and Th and decay daughter in the zirconium purification process using alpha spectrometric method. U and Th analysis applications as well as decay daughter of zirconium purification process done, from Na2ZrO3 dissolved stage, Na2ZrO3 dissolved with 4 M HCl, dissolving Chloride Zircon Oxide (ZOC) with 6M H2SO4 at 105°C the heating. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of U and Th and decay daughter of Na2ZrO3 dissolved process, Na2ZrO3 dissolved with 4 M HCl, dissolving Chlorid Zircon oxide (ZOC) with 6M H2SO4 at 105° C the heating. From the experiments it can be concluded that the Na2ZrO3 solution and ZrOCI2, there is no U and Th nuclides, where as in solution Zr5O8(SO4)2 there are U and Th content. (author)

  1. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides in embodiments a method for purification of inlet gas/liquid streams in a fuel cell or electrolysis cell, the fuel cell or electrolysis cell comprising at least a first electrode, an electrolyte and a second electrode, the method comprising the steps of: - providing...... at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas...... purified with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  2. Evaluation of immunoglobulin purification methods and their impact on quality and yield of antigen-specific antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Farhat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies are the main effectors against malaria blood-stage parasites. Evaluation of functional activities in immune sera from Phase 2a/b vaccine trials may provide invaluable information in the search for immune correlates of protection. However, the presence of anti-malarial-drugs, improper collection/storage conditions or concomitant immune responses against other pathogens can contribute to non-specific anti-parasite activities when the sera/plasma are tested in vitro. Purification of immunoglobulin is a standard approach for reducing such non-specific background activities, but the purification method itself can alter the quality and yield of recovered Ag-specific antibodies. Methods To address this concern, various immunoglobulin (Ig purification methods (protein G Sepharose, protein A/G Sepharose, polyethylene glycol and caprylic acid-ammonium sulphate precipitation were evaluated for their impact on the quality, quantity and functional activity of purified rabbit and human Igs. The recovered Igs were analysed for yield and purity by SDS-PAGE, for quality by Ag-specific ELISAs (determining changes in titer, avidity and isotype distribution and for functional activity by in vitro parasite growth inhibition assay (GIA. Results This comparison demonstrated that overall polyethylene glycol purification of human serum/plasma samples and protein G Sepharose purification of rabbit sera are optimal for recovering functional Ag-specific antibodies. Conclusion Consequently, critical consideration of the purification method is required to avoid selecting non-representative populations of recovered Ig, which could influence interpretations of vaccine efficacy, or affect the search for immune correlates of protection.

  3. Purification of gaseous and liquid releases by electron irradiation. Application of the radiation method to the purification and bacterial decontamination of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beams produced by electron accelerators, and gamma rays emitted by suitable radioisotopes such as Co-60 can be used to purify gases and liquids. Research and development efforts are concentrating on the following fields: (i) radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, (ii) radiation purification of industrial liquid wastes, (iii) radiation purification of waste sludges, and (iv) radiation purification of flue gases. Radiation doses not exceeding 1 kGy are sufficient for the decolorization, deodorization, and disinfection of drinking water, whereas doses in the order of tens of kGy are necessary for the treatment of wastewaters. Therefore, wastewaters are first purified by conventional methods, followed by an aftertreatment with fast electrons. Active species such as OH and H radicals emerge, causing oxidation and/or decomposition of organic pollutants and exerting disinfecting effects. Gas treatment with electron beams is suitable for removing some inorganic elements and compounds and other pollutants. Applicability of this approach has been confirmed for chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene derivatives, dioxin, and furan derivatives. For instance, the attained degree of dioxin removal from water was 99%. Trichloroethylene can be decomposed by application of a dose of 7 kGy, giving rise to carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and chlorine. The resulting aerosol particles can be collected, concentrated, and disposed of by combustion or biological degradation. The method shows promise for the removal of hydrocarbons from large volumes of gases with initial concentrations of 50 to 100 mg carbon per cubic metre. (P.A.). 1 fig., 1 ref

  4. PEG precipitation coupled with chromatography is a new and sufficient method for the purification of botulinum neurotoxin type B [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhao

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are used to treat a variety of neuro-muscular disorders, as well as in cosmetology. The increased demand requires efficient methods for the production and purification of these toxins. In this study, a new purification process was developed for purifying type B neurotoxin. The kinetics of C.botulinum strain growth and neurotoxin production were determined for maximum yield of toxin. The neurotoxin was purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation and chromatography. Based on design of full factorial experiment, 20% (w/v PEG-6000, 4 °C, pH 5.0 and 0.3 M NaCl were optimal conditions to obtain a high recovery rate of 87% for the type B neurotoxin complex, as indicated by a purification factor of 61.5 fold. Furthermore, residual bacterial cells, impurity proteins and some nucleic acids were removed by PEG precipitation. The following purification of neurotoxin was accomplished by two chromatography techniques using Sephacryl™ S-100 and phenyl HP columns. The neurotoxin was recovered with an overall yield of 21.5% and the purification factor increased to 216.7 fold. In addition, a mouse bioassay determined the purified neurotoxin complex possessed a specific toxicity (LD(50 of 4.095 ng/kg.

  5. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to...... rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  6. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to...... rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  7. Identification of protein partners in mycobacteria using a single-step affinity purification method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Płociński

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in developing countries. Efforts are being made to both prevent its spread and improve curability rates. Understanding the biology of the bacteria causing the disease, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, is thus vital. We have implemented improved screening methods for protein-protein interactions based on affinity purification followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method can be efficiently applied to both medium- and high-throughput studies aiming to characterize protein-protein interaction networks of tubercle bacilli. Of the 4 tested epitopes FLAG, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, protein A and haemagglutinin, the eGFP tag was found to be most useful on account of its easily monitored expression and its ability to function as a simultaneous tool for subcellular localization studies. It presents a relatively low background with cost-effective purification. RNA polymerase subunit A (RpoA was used as a model for investigation of a large protein complex. When used as bait, it co-purified with all remaining RNA polymerase core subunits as well as many accessory proteins. The amount of RpoA strongly correlated with the amount of quantification peptide used as part of the tagging system in this study (SH, making it applicable for semi-quantification studies. Interactions between the components of the RpoA-eGFP protein complex were further confirmed using protein cross-linking. Dynamic changes in the composition of protein complexes under induction of UV damage were observed when UvrA-eGFP expressing cells treated with UV light were used to co-purify UvrA interaction partners.

  8. Purification and functional analysis of the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli by employing three different methods of bacterial lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA MOJSIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the purification of the human recombinant protein expressed in E. coli using the GSTGene Fusion System, by applying various methods of bacterial lysis: sonication, freeze/thaw and beadbeating, is presented. The study was an attempt to compare the properties of the proteins obtained by the sonication method, recommended by manufacturers but inaccessible for many researchers, with those obtained using two other readily available lysis methods. The data show that all purified proteins were soluble and intact with the highest protein yield being obtained via the freeze/thaw method. The results of functional analysis indicate that the proteins purified using the sonication and freeze/thaw methods of lysis exhibited similar DNA binding affinity, while the protein purified by beadbeating was also functional but with a lower binding affinity. The conclusion of this study is that all three lysis methods could be successfully employed for protein purification.

  9. Modified methods for culturing myoblasts of rats: Combination of multi-enzymatic digestion and double purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Wei Wang; Ming Fan; Xiaoping Chen; Shuhong Liu; Liang Sun

    2007-01-01

    and enzyme digestion so as to observe morphological characteristics and growth, draw growth curve, analyze surface structure under scanning electron microscope, and evaluate with Desmin immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphological characteristics and growth of myoblasts cultured in vitro.RESULTS: ① Growth of myoblasts of skeletal muscle: Primary cells had well growth, mature and differentiation. The positive rate of Desmin was 94% and purification of cells was ideal. Growth curve of cells demonstrated that myoblasts which were characterized by high purification started proliferation plentiful through transient growth lag phase (about at one or two days after inoculation). If myoblasts were not dealt with any interventions, they might become sarcotubule gradually at 3 - 5 days after proliferative phase. During this period, myoblasts maintained a monocaryon-bipolarity state under inverted phase contrast microscope. Furthermore, the growth of cells was the strongest and reproductive activity was the most powerful. This suggested that myotube started to form; in addition, muscle fiber of contractility might form under a well culturing condition. ② Immunocytochemical stain with desmin antibody: Interzonal fiber of desmin from myoblasts showed strongly positive reaction. Positive staining existed in cytoplasm had a high nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. However, myoblasts showed negative or mildly positive reaction.CONCLUSION: It is ideal for modified multi-enzymatic digestion and double purification method to dissociate and purify myoblasts of skeletal muscle; meanwhile, these two methods are both the effective ways to provide convenient conditions to obtain seed cells for neural regeneration researches.

  10. A purification method for a molecular complex in which a scaffold molecule is fully loaded with heterogeneous molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji J Ohuchi

    Full Text Available An affinity resin-based pull-down method is convenient for the purification of biochemical materials. However, its use is difficult for the isolation of a molecular complex fully loaded with multiple components from a reaction mixture containing the starting materials and intermediate products. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new purification procedure that depends on sequential elimination of the residues. In practice, two affinity resins were used for purifying a triangular-shaped RNP (RNA-protein complex consisting of three ribosomal proteins (L7Ae bound to an RNA scaffold. First, a resin with immobilized L7Ae protein captured the incomplete RNP complexes and the free RNA scaffold. Next, another resin with an immobilized chemically modified RNA of a derivative of Box C/D motif, the binding partner of L7Ae, was used to capture free protein. The complete triangular RNP was successfully purified from the mixture by these two steps. Obviously, the purified triangular RNP displaying three protein-binding peptides exhibited an improved performance when compared with the unrefined product. Conceptually, this purification procedure should be applicable for the purification of a variety of complexes consisting of multiple components other than RNP.

  11. Purification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) grown by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon monooxide has been developed. Based on the result from TGA/DTA of as-prepared sample, the oxidation temperature was determined. The process included sonication, oxidation and acid washing steps. The purity and yield after purification were determined and estimated by TEM. Moreover, for the first time, a loop structure for CVD SWNTs has been observed.

  12. High oleic sunflower bio diesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighlinelli, A. L. M. T.; Ferrari, R. A.; Miguel, A. M. R. O.; Park, K. J.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of bio diesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade) and expelled rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the bio diesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified bio diesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for bio diesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Rapid purification method for fumonisin B1 using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, A; Lorántfy, L; Bencsik, O; Kecskeméti, A; Szécsi, Á; Mesterházy, Á; Vágvölgyi, Cs

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a highly toxic mycotoxin produced by fungal strains belonging to the Fusarium genus, which can be found mainly in maize products, and is gaining interest in food safety. To produce large amounts of pure FB1, a novel purifying method was developed by using centrifugal partition chromatography, which is a prominent member of the liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques. Rice cultured with Fusarium verticillioides was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water and found to contain 0.87 mg of FB1 per gram. The crude extracts were purified on a strong anion-exchange column and then separated by using a biphasic solvent system consisting of methyl-tert-butyl-ether-acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water. The collected fractions were analysed by flow injection-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Corona-charged aerosol detector and identified by congruent retention time on high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric data. This method produced approximately 120 mg of FB1 with a purity of more than 98% from 200 g of the rice culture. The whole purification process is able to produce a large amount of pure FB1 for analytical applications or for toxicological studies. PMID:23043634

  14. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... regard to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  15. Expression and purification of hepatitis B surface antigen S from Escherichia coli; a new simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elghanam Mohamed S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is a liver disease primarily caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. It is distributed worldwide and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. HBV infections can be avoided by the administration of the currently available vaccine and can be easily diagnosed through commercially available kits. Both the vaccine and the diagnostic kits depend on using the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg as an antigen. Developing countries such as, Egypt, suffer from the widespread of HBV infections and the limited resources to provide adequate supplies of either the vaccine or the diagnostic kits. Therefore the need for an easy, rapid, low cost method to produce HBsAg is urgently needed within this setting. Findings To achieve this goal, the gene encoding the HBsAg(S protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein with a GST tag in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed and purified in both good quality and quantity. Conclusions The simplified and the relatively low cost of the used protocol make this an attractive alternative to protocols currently used for the purification of HBsAg(S. The exploiting of this achievement for new diagnostics can be directed for application in the developing countries where they are extremely needed.

  16. Purification of a RAS-responsive adenylyl cyclase complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by use of an epitope addition method.

    OpenAIRE

    J Field; Nikawa, J; Broek, D; MacDonald, B.; Rodgers, L; Wilson, I A; Lerner, R A; Wigler, M

    1988-01-01

    We developed a method for immunoaffinity purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase based on creating a fusion with a small peptide epitope. Using oligonucleotide technology to encode the peptide epitope we constructed a plasmid that expressed the fusion protein from the S. cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase promoter ADH1. A monoclonal antibody previously raised against the peptide was used to purify adenylyl cyclase by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared to be ...

  17. Functional categories and categorial change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , communicative) acts.      A functional category consists of linguistic units (formally expressed as e.g. a clause, a phrase, a word or an affix) that are the products of an interpersonal act, which include SPEECH ACTS (Austin 1962), THETICAL ACTS (Kaltenböck et al. 2011), PROPOSITIONAL ACTS (predicating...... and semantic categories, functional categories (as defined here) have played a rather marginal role in linguistics. In the tentative typology of functional categories proposed below, linguistic forms and constructions are classified on the basis of various kinds of interpersonal (discourse...

  18. An evaluation of a solar radiation/delta-T method for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, C.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    There has been a continuing need to develop robust methods for determining Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories using solely on-site meteorological instrumentation. The Revised EPA Guideline on Air Quality Models recommends several such methods. Experience with these suggests that, since they rely on turbulence measurements, they can be unduly influenced by local effects such as mesoscale circulation (e.g., upslope/downslope flows, land/sea breeze), wakes from tree barriers or buildings, etc. to such an extent as to diminish their practical usefulness. In the following discussion, a methodology is proposed for estimating P-G stability categories that employs on-site meteorological measurements (10m wind speed coupled with solar radiation during the day and temperature difference, {Delta}T, at night) in lieu of cloud cover and ceiling height observations. The proposed method was adapted from Bowen and is herein referred to as the solar radiation/delta-T (SRDT) method. To evaluate the method, an attempt was made to acquire data bases from diverse geographical areas. Data bases with {Delta}T measurements from 2-10m above ground level were of primary interest for characterizing the boundary layer; other intervals were considered for evaluation, as available. To document the consequence of implementing the method in practical applications, an analysis was needed of the effect on design concentration ratios.

  19. Development of an aptamer-based affinity purification method for vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Lönne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in protein affinity purification. As aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, they can be easily produced in large quantities regarding GMP conditions allowing their application in protein production for therapeutic purposes. Several advantages of aptamers compared to antibodies are described in general within this paper. Here, an aptamer directed against the human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF was used as affinity ligand for establishing a purification platform for VEGF in small scale. The aptamer was covalently immobilized on magnetic beads in a controlled orientation resulting in a functional active affinity matrix. Target binding was optimized by introduction of spacer molecules and variation of aptamer density. Further, salt-induced target elution was demonstrated as well as VEGF purification from a complex protein mixture proving the specificity of protein-aptamer binding.

  20. A Quick and Efficient Method for the Purification of Endoderm Cells Generated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Claudia; Diekmann, Ulf; Naujok, Ortwin

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation capabilities of pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) allow a potential therapeutic application for cell replacement therapies. Terminally differentiated cell types could be used for the treatment of various degenerative diseases. In vitro differentiation of these cells towards tissues of the lung, liver and pancreas requires as a first step the generation of definitive endodermal cells. This step is rate-limiting for further differentiation towards terminally matured cell types such as insulin-producing beta cells, hepatocytes or other endoderm-derived cell types. Cells that are committed towards the endoderm lineage highly express a multitude of transcription factors such as FOXA2, SOX17, HNF1B, members of the GATA family, and the surface receptor CXCR4. However, differentiation protocols are rarely 100% efficient. Here, we describe a method for the purification of a CXCR4+ cell population after differentiation into the DE by using magnetic microbeads. This purification additionally removes cells of unwanted lineages. The gentle purification method is quick and reliable and might be used to improve downstream applications and differentiations. PMID:26966833

  1. Innovative Methods for Soil DNA Purification Tested in Soils with Widely Differing Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Čermák, Ladislav; Novotná, Jitka; Plháčková, Kamila; Forstová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 9 (2008), s. 2902-2907. ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6020410; GA AV ČR IAA600200519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : soil characteristic * dna * purification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.801, year: 2008

  2. Optimizing the Performance of Porous Electrochemical Cells for Flue Gas Purification using the DOE method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg; He, Zeming; Menon, Mohan; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2011-01-01

    The DOE model was used to improve the performance of cells for electrochemical gas purification. Three factors were chosen: the amount of graphite, the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate/Gadolinium-doped Cerium oxide weight % ratio, and the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate pre-calcination temperature (wi...

  3. EFFICIENT WATER PURIFICATION USING TIO2 AND NOVEL ACTIVATION METHOD - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under this SBIR, Imaging Systems Technology (IST) will investigate coating UV Plasma-shells with titanium (IV) dioxide (TiO2) to produce a low-cost, rugged, lightweight, and highly efficient and versatile water purification system. Plasma-shells are tiny hollow...

  4. Heating as a rapid purification method for recovering correctly-folded thermotolerant VH and VHH domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyldermans Serge

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant antibodies from Camelidae (VHHs are potentially useful tools for both basic research and biotechnological applications because of their small size, robustness, easy handling and possibility to refold after chemio-physical denaturation. Their heat tolerance is a particularly interesting feature because it has been recently related to both high yields during recombinant expression and selective purification of folded protein. Results Purification of recombinant RE3 VHH by heat treatment yielded the same amount of antibody as purification by affinity chromatography and negligible differences were found in stability, secondary structure and functionality. Similar results were obtained using another class of thermotolerant proteins, the single domain VH scaffold, described by Jespers et al. 8. However, thermosensitive VHs could not withstand the heat treatment and co-precipitated with the bacterial proteins. In both cases, the thermotolerant proteins unfolded during the treatment but promptly refolded when moved back to a compatible temperature. Conclusion Heat treatment can simplify the purification protocol of thermotolerant proteins as well as remove any soluble aggregate. Since the re-folding capability after heat-induced denaturation was previously correlated to higher performance during recombinant expression, a unique heating step can be envisaged to screen constructs that can provide high yields of correctly-folded proteins.

  5. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...

  6. Category management

    OpenAIRE

    Jan BERAN

    2002-01-01

    Práce popisuje category management, jeho definice a vývoj. Stěžejní část práce se věnuje osmi krokům category management procesu a subjektům, které do tohoto procesu vstupují. Mezi osm kroku patří definování kategorie, analýza kategorie, hodnocení subjektů, stanovení cíle kategorie, taktická rozhodnutí, strategická rozhodnutí, implementace a zpětná vazba. Praktická část je zaměřena na deskripci konkrétního category management projektu a tento projekt je porovnán s teoretickými předpoklady....

  7. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  8. A jackknife-like method for classification and uncertainty assessment of multi-category tumor samples using gene expression information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Keith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression profiling for the classification of human cancer tumors has been widely investigated. Previous studies were successful in distinguishing several tumor types in binary problems. As there are over a hundred types of cancers, and potentially even more subtypes, it is essential to develop multi-category methodologies for molecular classification for any meaningful practical application. Results A jackknife-based supervised learning method called paired-samples test algorithm (PST, coupled with a binary classification model based on linear regression, was proposed and applied to two well known and challenging datasets consisting of 14 (GCM dataset and 9 (NC160 dataset tumor types. The results showed that the proposed method improved the prediction accuracy of the test samples for the GCM dataset, especially when t-statistic was used in the primary feature selection. For the NCI60 dataset, the application of PST improved prediction accuracy when the numbers of used genes were relatively small (100 or 200. These improvements made the binary classification method more robust to the gene selection mechanism and the size of genes to be used. The overall prediction accuracies were competitive in comparison to the most accurate results obtained by several previous studies on the same datasets and with other methods. Furthermore, the relative confidence R(T provided a unique insight into the sources of the uncertainty shown in the statistical classification and the potential variants within the same tumor type. Conclusion We proposed a novel bagging method for the classification and uncertainty assessment of multi-category tumor samples using gene expression information. The strengths were demonstrated in the application to two bench datasets.

  9. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  10. A simplified method for purification of annexin V from human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, G G; Melkonyan, V Z; Mikaelyan, M V; Gasparyan, V K

    2003-08-01

    A simplified procedure for purification of annexin V from human placenta was developed. At first, the protein was separated from other proteins in membrane bound form in the presence of Ca2+, then was extracted with EDTA and purified by affinity chromatography on PAAG-immobilized phosphatidylserine. The purified protein gave a single band with a molecular weight of 35,000 in SDS-PAGE. PMID:12916812

  11. A Comparison of DNA Purification Methods for Sanger Sequencing and Library Size Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S.; McCoy, A.; Zianni, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purification of DNA is a critical process for many aspects of molecular biology including DNA sequencing by automated capillary electrophoresis and library preparation for Next Generation DNA sequencing. Towards this end there are many options including alcohol precipitation, size exclusion chromatography, and solid phase reversible immobilization (SPRI). Two new SPRI reagents were tested for effectiveness and ease of use as compared to these other techniques and a previously used SPRI reagen...

  12. Method for purification of Kr from environmental samples for analysis of radiokrypton isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, R.; Heraty, L. J.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2008-12-01

    Two extremely low-abundance radioactive isotopes of Kr ((81Kr and (85Kr) are produced by cosmic-ray induced spallation (81Kr /Kr = 10-12, t½ = 229,000 yr) and by a nuclear fission (85Kr /Kr = 10-11, t½ = 10.8 yr). Radiokrypton chronologies are potentially important in diverse studies of hydrology and paleoclimate and the inertness of Kr, being a noble gas, makes radiokrypton-based chronometers superior to other hydrological tracers for many such applications (e.g., 3H-He, 14C, 36Cl, CFCs, SF6). The analysis of 81Kr in naturally occurring gases of interest, e.g. dissolved gases in hydrological reservoirs, using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) requires an extraction of ppm-level Kr from chemically air-like bulk gas. A newly developed Kr purification system is based on conventional cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography to which continuous monitoring of gas effluent composition using quadrupole mass spectrometer brings significant advantages. Simple cryogenic distillation is controlled based on the evolution of N2/Ar ratio that is relatively constant in naturally occurring, inorganic gas. Gas chromatographic separation of ppmv-level Kr from up to a few liter of bulk gas can be achieved by concentrating the Kr under the tails of major components. The system described here is capable of extracting Kr from 5-125 lSTP of bulk gas with >90% yield within several hours. Gas samples have been taken at several hydrological and geological settings: shallow groundwater at Locust Grove, MD, gas emanation from Cheaspeake Crater, VA, mid-continental saline groundwater (KS, MO), deep and shallow groundwater from northern Chile (Atacama desert), and the hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park, WY. Our new method was used successfully to purify microliter amounts of Kr from all of these samples, an important step en route to routine application of ATTA in hydrological studies. This work was supported by the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Postdoctoral Program in

  13. A gel-based method for purification of apolipoprotein A-I from small volumes of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Rachel J.; Sorrenson, Brie; Sviridov, Dmitri; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here a gel-based method for rapid purification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from small volumes of human plasma. After isolation of high density lipoprotein from plasma, the apoA-I protein was separated by electrophoresis and the apoA-I band excised from the gel. The apoA-I was then eluted from the gel strip, concentrated, and delipidated ready for use. The structure and function of the gel-purified apoA-I protein was compared against apoA-I purified by the traditional size-exclus...

  14. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  15. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  16. A simple and cost-effective method for rapid purification of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC from Helicobacter pylori and its antibody production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Helicobacter pylori express abundant amounts of AhpC enzyme that functions to reduce organic hydroperoxides (ROOH into the corresponding non-toxic alcohols (ROH. This conserved antigen has been earlier described as specific and unique for H. pylori and therefore, both H. pylori AhpC and Anti-AhpC could be useful in the development of serologic and stool antigen tests, to detecting and monitoring H. pylori infection. AhpC may also serves as a potential target for an antimicrobial agent or for vaccine development. The aim of this study was to simplify isolation and purification of the AhpC and production of a highly specific polyclonal antibody against it. Methods and Results: In this paper a simple method was used for protein purification and antibody production which avoids both the long term AhpC protein purification procedure and the addition of Freund's adjuvant. One-dimensional preparative gel electrophoresis allows a single and short purification step and the high resolution capacity of this technique leads to a high level of purity of the protein and consequently to a very high specificity of the antibody. Moreover, it avoids contamination by other non-specific proteins which often appear during protein purification by column chromatographic techniques. Major Conclusion: The present method is simple, rapid and cost-effective and makes it possible to produce antibody for stool antigen enzyme immunoassay in short time and at low cost.

  17. RECOVERY OF MORE THAN 10 YEARS-DRYING m o N ascus CULTURES AND ITS PURIFICATION METHODS FROM FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDANG SUHARNA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the recovery capability of more than 10 years- drying Monascus cultures. A new simple purification technique from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment was also reported as a part of this study. The result showed that all drying cultures were recovered well and retained their characters such as good growth, pigmen-tation and production of fruit bodies (ascomata, sexual spores (ascospores and asexual spores. Several cultures showed its good growth in 20% ethanol medium. This study also reported suc-cessful purification of cultures from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment. This self-drying method, therefore, could be suggested as a good long-term preservation method for Monascus cultures. Moreover, purification method from fungal contamination soaked in ethanol 70% or 95% was successfully effective.

  18. Purification of rare earths nitrate solution yielded from Bangka's monazite ore processing using solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monazite Bangka ore processing has several steps i.e. ore preparation, decomposition, dissolution, purification, and drying. The experiment has done on residue dissolution of base decomposition of Bangka's monazite decomposition using nitric acid to produce rare earths nitrate with the solvent condition HNO3 14 N H2O2 20 cc/50 gram, time one hour, feed and solvent ratio = 1:1 (volume) and at room temperature. The experiment goal is to find optimal condition of rare earth nitrate purification from and Th using solvent extraction. The parameters are diluents feed (normal feed), ratio aqueous and organic (A/O), TBP/Kerosene content and extraction time. The results are the optimal extraction condition: feed extraction RE (NO3)3 7 N or none diluents, ratio A/O = 1:1, TBP / Kerosene content 40%, extraction time 5 minutes and at room temperature with U recovery = 93.13 %, h = 86.04 %, RE2O3 = 4.05 %, PO4 = can not be detected

  19. Comparison of different methods for the isolation and purification of total community DNA from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsek, M; Wellington, E M

    1999-12-01

    The efficiency and reproducibility of DNA extraction from soil was tested for variations in lytic and purification treatments and their effect on yield and purity of DNA. The extraction yield was improved by increasing the concentration of EDTA or monovalent ions in isolation buffers, by the introduction of mechanical lysis treatments, and by the use of ethanol precipitation in place of PEG precipitation. Purity was improved using buffers with decreasing concentration of EDTA or by reducing the ionic strength of the buffer, and by all mechanical treatments. No lytic treatment was efficient on its own, the highest purity was achieved using Crombach buffer and a combination of bead-beating with lysozyme and SDS lysis followed by potassium acetate and PEG precipitation, phenol/chloroform purification, isopropanol precipitation, and spermine-HCl precipitation. Sonication sheared the DNA more than bead-beating. Lysozyme and SDS lysis without any mechanical treatments allowed isolation of larger fragments (40-90 kb). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA isolated using a range of lytic treatments revealed alterations in band patterns which might reflect differences in the efficiency of lytic treatments. PMID:10579502

  20. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  1. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na2O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  2. Research On The Purification Of Zirconium From Zirconium Dioxide By Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method With Tributyl Phosphate Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of hafnium separation from zirconium and purification of zirconium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction method bases on the selective extraction, capacity and high stability of tributyl phosphate solvent (TBP). Technical grade ZrO2 powder, imported product (about 2% Hf content), is mixed with NaOH by 1:6 mole ratio, baked at 700oC in 2 hours. The mixture of zirconate and hafnate Na2Zr(Hf)O3 was dissolved in water, acidified by HNO3 to transfer to Zr(Hf)O(NO3)2. The obtained solution is used for the hafnium separation and purification of zirconium investigation. The influence of acid concentration (HNO3) in initial solution (feed solution) on the efficiency of zirconium extraction, the effect of the extraction solvent concentration (TBP) to zirconium distribution ratio and the effect of concentrations of mixture of components (Zr and Hf) in initial solution on zirconium extraction performance and also effect of the ratio between organic and aqueous phase to zirconium distribution coefficient were carried out in this paper. Established optimum conditions of the interruptive solvent extraction in experimental scale including metal contents in initial solution CHf/Zr is 30 g/L; TBP concentration in kerosene is 60% by volume; the acid (HNO3) concentration in initial solution [H+] = 6 M; and organic : aqueous phases rate equal by 1:1. Conditions of the extracted scrubbing and extracted tripping also the continuous extraction process were studied as a first step. (author)

  3. Thermodynamic aspects of obtaining of cryolite-alumina concentrate from the sludge of gas purification of electrolytic aluminium production by burning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to thermodynamic aspects of obtaining of cryolite-alumina concentrate from the sludge of gas purification of electrolytic aluminium production by burning method. The chemical and mineralogical analysis of sludge and cryolite-alumina concentrate were conducted. On the basis of computations of thermodynamic parameters the analysis of possibility of passing of a number of chemical reactions at burning method of obtaining of cryolite-alumina concentrate from the sludge of gas purification of electrolytic aluminium production was conducted. Scientifically approved the changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of initial raw material at production of cryolite-alumina concentrate.

  4. When old and frail is not the same: dissociating category and stimulus effects in four implicit attitude measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Anne; Rothermund, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    It is not always clear whether implicit attitude measures assess the attitude towards single stimuli or the attitude towards categories. Nevertheless, this is important to know-both for interpreting implicit attitude effects and for selecting the test that is most appropriate for individual research aims. We investigated this for four implicit measures: the standard Implicit Association Test (IAT), the IAT-recoding free (IAT-RF), and two versions of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST, identification (ID)-EAST). Effects in the standard IAT reflect evaluations of categories and single stimuli, whereas the IAT-RF measures attitudes towards categories only. Both versions of the EAST measure evaluations of single stimuli independently from the evaluation of categories. Three different effect sources are distinguished: attitudes towards single stimuli (IAT; EAST and ID-EAST), attitudes towards target categories (IAT and IAT-RF), and processes of recoding (IAT), which do not necessarily reflect attitudes. PMID:19606404

  5. An automated method for high-throughput protein purification applied to a comparison of His-tag and GST-tag affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssow Konrad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Genomics, the systematic characterisation of the functions of an organism's genes, includes the study of the gene products, the proteins. Such studies require methods to express and purify these proteins in a parallel, time and cost effective manner. Results We developed a method for parallel expression and purification of recombinant proteins with a hexahistidine tag (His-tag or glutathione S-transferase (GST-tag from bacterial expression systems. Proteins are expressed in 96-well microplates and are purified by a fully automated procedure on a pipetting robot. Up to 90 microgram purified protein can be obtained from 1 ml microplate cultures. The procedure is readily reproducible and 96 proteins can be purified in approximately three hours. It avoids clearing of crude cellular lysates and the use of magnetic affinity beads and is therefore less expensive than comparable commercial systems. We have used this method to compare purification of a set of human proteins via His-tag or GST-tag. Proteins were expressed as fusions to an N-terminal tandem His- and GST-tag and were purified by metal chelating or glutathione affinity chromatography. The purity of the obtained protein samples was similar, yet His-tag purification resulted in higher yields for some proteins. Conclusion A fully automated, robust and cost effective method was developed for the purification of proteins that can be used to quickly characterise expression clones in high throughput and to produce large numbers of proteins for functional studies. His-tag affinity purification was found to be more efficient than purification via GST-tag for some proteins.

  6. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  7. Colourful categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  8. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). Two end electrodes (35, 36) are arranged one at each end of the cell (30), adjacent to the end plates (31, 32). An insulator layer (33) is interposed between each end plate (31, 32) and the adjacent end electrode (35, 36). Each end electrode (35, 36) includes a single sheet (44) of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet (44) of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the cell (30) is saturated with the removed ions, the cell (30) is regenerated electrically, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  9. Method and apparatus for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1999-09-21

    An electrically regenerable electrochemical cell for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates, one at each end of the cell. Two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the cell, adjacent to the end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the cell is saturated with the removed ions, the cell is regenerated electrically, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  10. 植物单宁的提取纯化方法及其发展%The Extraction and Purification Methods of Vegetable Tannin and Their Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈一宁; 但年华; 但卫华

    2015-01-01

    综述了植物单宁的提取与纯化方法,主要介绍了浸提法、超临界流体萃取法、超声波辅助法、亚临界水萃取法、微波提取法、半仿生提取法等提取法,以及活性炭吸附法、大孔树脂吸附法及膜分离法等纯化法。最后,展望了植物单宁提取与纯化方法发展方向。%The methods of extraction and purification of vegetable tannin were reviewed. Several extraction techniques such as solvent extraction method, supercritical fluid extraction method, ultrasonic assisted ex-traction method, subcritical water extraction method, microwave assisted extraction, semi-bionic extraction method, and purification methods such as active carbon absorption method, macroporous resin adsorption and membrane separation method were mainly introduced. Finally, the development tendency of the extrac-tion and purification methods was also looked forward.

  11. Development of a nicking endonuclease-assisted method for the purification of minicircles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cláudia P A; Šimčíková, Michaela; Brito, Liliana; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F

    2016-04-22

    Minicircle (MC) DNA vectors are able to generate a high-level transgene expression in vivo, which is superior to the one afforded by conventional plasmids. MC vectors are produced by replicating a parental plasmid (PP) and promoting its recombination in Escherichia coli. This generates a MC with the expression cassette, and a miniplasmid (MP) with the replication segment. Unfortunately, wider use of MC vectors is hampered by difficulties in isolating the target MCs from their MP counterpart. In this proof-of-concept study, a reproducible process is described to improve the purification of supercoiled (sc) MCs that combines an in vitro enzymatic relaxation of sc MP impurities with topoisomer separation and RNA clearance by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) step. At the early stage of vector design, a site for the nicking endonuclease Nb.BbvCI was strategically placed in the MP part of the PP backbone. A process was then established that involves E. coli culture and recombination of PPs into target MC, cell harvesting and alkaline lysis, precipitation with isopropanol and ammonium sulfate and diafiltration/concentration by microfiltration. Next, an in vitro digestion step was carried out with Nb.BbvCI to nick of one of the strands of the MPs and of non-recombined PPs by Nb.BbvCI. As a result, sc MPs and non-recombined PPs were converted into the corresponding open circular (oc) forms whereas sc MCs remain unaffected. Finally, sc MC was isolated from oc DNA molecules (oc MPs, oc MC) and RNA by performing HIC with a phenyl-Sepharose column using a series of elution steps with decreasing ammonium sulfate concentrations. On the basis of agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, the sc MC-containing fractions were determined to be virtually free from nucleic acid impurities. PMID:27016116

  12. An efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Sirous; Yousefi, Fakhroddin; Khademi, Fatemeh; Padidar, Samira; Mostafaie, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsLTP(1) (9 kDa) and nsLTP(2) (7 kDa). LTPs have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. Many efforts have been made for purification of different nsLTPs from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. We have developed a relatively simple and efficient method for the purification of rice nsLTP(1), based on the proteolytic activity of kiwifruit actinidin on the rice seed extract and one-step chromatographic procedure on a CM-Sepharose column. The purity of protein was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolated LTP(1) migrated as a homogenous polypeptide with molecular mass of 9 kDa that confirms the efficiency of actinidin on the digestion of major contaminations present in the rice seed extract without any harmful effect on the LTP(1). The advantages of using proteolytic activity of actinidin in purifying rice LTP(1) includes the reduced separation time allowing the purification of LTP(1) in one-step chromatographic procedure, low costing, high efficiency, and the relative simplicity of the method. PMID:22987614

  13. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m3 day-1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m-3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method

  14. Hamiltonian purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsucci, Davide [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Burgarth, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] is formalized and discussed. Specifically, given a set of non-commuting Hamiltonians (h{sub 1}, …, h{sub m}) operating on a d-dimensional quantum system ℋ{sub d}, the problem consists in identifying a set of commuting Hamiltonians (H{sub 1}, …, H{sub m}) operating on a larger d{sub E}-dimensional system ℋ{sub d{sub E}} which embeds ℋ{sub d} as a proper subspace, such that h{sub j} = PH{sub j}P with P being the projection which allows one to recover ℋ{sub d} from ℋ{sub d{sub E}}. The notions of spanning-set purification and generator purification of an algebra are also introduced and optimal solutions for u(d) are provided.

  15. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Natalia D.; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V.

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  16. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  17. Development of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography purification methods using rapid solubility screening with multiple solubility chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Kyung H; Huang, Ke; Barnhart, Wesley W; Goetzinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Rapid solubility screening in diverse supercritical fluids (SCFs) was carried out via multiple solubility chambers with a trapping device and online ultraviolet (UV) detection. With this device, it was possible to rapidly study the solubility variations of multiple components in a mixture. Results from solubility studies have been used to develop efficient supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods. After the investigation of solubilities of theophylline and caffeine in several neat organic solvents and SCFs, advantages of SFE over conventional organic solvent extraction were demonstrated with a model mixture of theophylline and caffeine. The highest solubility ratio of 1:40 (theophylline:caffeine) was observed in the SCF with 20% acetonitrile (MeCN), where a ratio of 1:11 was the highest in the neat organic solvents. A model mixture of theophylline:caffeine (85:15 w/w, caffeine as an impurity) was successfully purified by SFE by leveraging the highest solubility difference. The SCF with 20% MeCN selectively removed caffeine and left theophylline largely intact. Rapid SCF solubility screening was applied to development of SFE and SFC methods in a drug discovery environment. Two successful applications were demonstrated with proprietary Amgen compounds to either remove an achiral impurity before chiral purification or enhance chiral chromatographic throughput. PMID:21766341

  18. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  19. Fibred Fibration Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    We show that, for a fibred category whose base category is a type-theoretic fibration category, fiberwise and total structures of type-theoretic fibration categories coincide. This gives the notion of fibred type-theoretic fibration categories which includes Shulman's inverse diagrams. Fibred type-theoretic fibration categories give categorical foundation of logical relation for identity types.

  20. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  1. Purification of human albumin by the combination of the method of Cohn with liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Large volumes of plasma can be fractionated by the method of Cohn at low cost. However, liquid chromatography is superior in terms of the quality of the product obtained. In order to combine the advantages of each method, we developed an integrated method for the production of human albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). The cryoprecipitate was first removed from plasma for the production of factor VIII and the supernatant of the cryoprecipitate was fractionated by the method of Cohn. The first ...

  2. Blood purification and hemo- perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method of blood purification is a new overlapping frontierdiscipline which develops quickly in recent years. It helps overcoming many serious and complicated diseases, even including some incurable illnesses.

  3. The possible ways for soil complex purification from radionuclides in conditions of large-scale contamination and effectiveness of used methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a considerable aggregate effect of natural factors on soils contaminated with radioactive pollution by autopurification. Such factors such as natural decay, vertical migration of nuclides over the soil profile, as well as cyclic carrying of nuclides from the soil by vegetation, have been analyzed. The contaminated Belarus Polessie soils, as the result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe, have shown that during the past 13 years, a 1.5-1.7 fold decrease of long living radionuclides has taken place in the rooting layer. The qualitative characteristics of the soil purification process by phytocoenosis have been established, and the effectiveness and limitations of this method have been demonstrated. The effect of microbiological soil processes on the radionuclides mobility have been studied and the issues of the migration process intensification by means of optimal nutrient media have been considered. Hydroseparation of highly dispersed soil particles with simultaneous consideration of the soil organic substance contents allows attainment of a purification coefficient of 1.5-2. Further increase of Cpur leads to irreversible humus substance loss and depriving the soil of its fertility, in addition the quantity of solid wastes dramatically increases that should be localized. A soil cut has been carried out on an experimental plot. It has been shown that the effectiveness of this method is high in comparison with other appropriate methods. However, with time, the purification rate decreases due to the radionuclides exceeding the bounds of the cutting layer caused by migration. (author)

  4. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  5. "In gel patch electrophoresis" : a new method for environmental DNA purification

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf. D.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the microorganism species are largely untapped and could represent an interesting reservoir of genes useful for biotechnological applications. Unfortunately, a major difficulty associated with the methods used to isolate environmental DNA is related to the contamination of the extracted material with humic substances. These polyphenolic compounds inhibit the DNA processing reactions and severely impede cloning procedures. In this work, we describe a rapid, simple and efficient method ...

  6. Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method%汉字六书象形构形法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    IStudy Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation . increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in htinging forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the differ- ence resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different ver- sions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼

  7. 汉字六书象形构形法%Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    Study Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation , increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in bringing forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the difference resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different versions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼,以

  8. A two-step electrodialysis method for DNA purification from polluted metallic environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mejía, José Luis; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2008-08-01

    Extracting DNA from samples of polluted environments using standard methods often results in low yields of poor-quality material unsuited to subsequent manipulation and analysis by molecular biological techniques. Here, we report a novel two-step electrodialysis-based method for the extraction of DNA from environmental samples. This technique permits the rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality DNA based on its acidic nature, and without the requirement for phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol cleanup and ethanol precipitation steps. Subsequent PCR, endonuclease restriction, and cloning reactions were successfully performed utilizing DNA obtained by electrodialysis, whereas some or all of these techniques failed using DNA extracted with two alternative methods. We also show that his technique is applicable to purify DNA from a range of polluted and nonpolluted samples. PMID:18601228

  9. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hendry Sakke Tira; Yesung Allo Padang; Mirmanto; Rio Cristovan Mantiri

    2014-01-01

    Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that...

  10. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium

  11. Evaluation of methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanqing Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is an essential step in all cultivation-independent approaches to characterize microbial diversity, including that associated with the human body. A fundamental challenge in using these approaches has been to isolate DNA that is representative of the microbial community sampled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we statistically evaluated six commonly used DNA extraction procedures using eleven human-associated bacterial species and a mock community that contained equal numbers of those eleven species. These methods were compared on the basis of DNA yield, DNA shearing, reproducibility, and most importantly representation of microbial diversity. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from a mock community showed that the observed species abundances were significantly different from the expected species abundances for all six DNA extraction methods used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protocols that included bead beating and/or mutanolysin produced significantly better bacterial community structure representation than methods without both of them. The reproducibility of all six methods was similar, and results from different experimenters and different times were in good agreement. Based on the evaluations done it appears that DNA extraction procedures for bacterial community analysis of human associated samples should include bead beating and/or mutanolysin to effectively lyse cells.

  12. A gradient-free method for the purification of infective dengue virus for protein-level investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Stephanie M; Nguyen, Celina T; Jewett, John C

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that infects approximately 100 million people annually. Multi-day protocols for purification of DENV reduce the infective titer due to viral sensitivity to both temperature and pH. Herein we describe a 5-h protocol for the purification of all DENV serotypes, utilizing traditional gradient-free ultracentrifugation followed by selective virion precipitation. This protocol allows for the separation of DENV from contaminating proteins - including intact C6/36 densovirus, for the production of infective virus at high concentration for protein-level analysis. PMID:27265428

  13. Purification of human albumin by the combination of the method of Cohn with liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of plasma can be fractionated by the method of Cohn at low cost. However, liquid chromatography is superior in terms of the quality of the product obtained. In order to combine the advantages of each method, we developed an integrated method for the production of human albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG. The cryoprecipitate was first removed from plasma for the production of factor VIII and the supernatant of the cryoprecipitate was fractionated by the method of Cohn. The first precipitate, containing fractions (F-I + II + III, was used for the production of IgG by the chromatographic method (see Tanaka K et al. (1998 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31: 1375-1381. The supernatant of F-I + II + III was submitted to a second precipitation and F-IV was obtained and discarded. Albumin was obtained from the supernatant of the precipitate F-IV by liquid chromatography, ion-exchange on DEAE-Sepharose FF, filtration through Sephacryl S-200 HR and introduction of heat treatment for fatty acid precipitation. Viral inactivation was performed by pasteurization at 60ºC for 10 h. The albumin product obtained by the proposed procedure was more than 99% pure for the 15 lots of albumin produced, with a mean yield of 25.0 ± 0.5 g/l plasma, containing 99.0 to 99.3% monomer, 0.7 to 1.0% dimers, and no polymers. Prekallikrein activator levels were <=5 IU/ml. This product satisfies the requirements of the 1997 Pharmacopée Européenne.

  14. A Rapid, Cost-Effective Method of Assembly and Purification of Synthetic DNA Probes >100 bp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael A.; Jauregui, Lauren; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Here we introduce a rapid, cost-effective method of generating molecular DNA probes in just under 15 minutes without the need for expensive, time-consuming gel-extraction steps. As an example, we enzymatically concatenated six variable strands (50 bp) with a common strand sequence (51 bp) in a single pool using Fast-Link DNA ligase to produce 101 bp targets (10 min). Unincorporated species were then filtered out by passing the crude reaction through a size-exclusion column (12) could be achieved with further optimization. Moreover, for large-scale assays, we envision this method to be fully automated with the use of robotics such as the Biomek FX; here, potentially thousands of samples could be pooled, ligated and purified in either a 96, 384 or 1536-well platform in just minutes. PMID:22493688

  15. Chromatofocusing: a new method for purification of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1.

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, I A; Terplan, G; Kickhöfen, B; Hammer, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new chromatographic procedure was developed which obtained highly purified preparations of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1 in yields of 60% from cultures of Staphylococcus aureus and which is faster than any of the separation methods used previously. The procedure involves chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose, removal of alpha-toxin by adsorption to rabbit erythrocyte membranes, and finally, chromatofocusing as the fundamental new step. Enterotoxins were obtained in highly purified...

  16. Intein Applications: From Protein Purification and Labeling to Metabolic Control Methods*

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, David W.; Camarero, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of inteins in the early 1990s opened the door to a wide variety of new technologies. Early engineered inteins from various sources allowed the development of self-cleaving affinity tags and new methods for joining protein segments through expressed protein ligation. Some applications were developed around native and engineered split inteins, which allow protein segments expressed separately to be spliced together in vitro. More recently, these early applications have been expand...

  17. Development of a Novel Method for the Purification and Culture of Rodent Astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Lynette C.; Allen, Nicola J.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ventura, P. Britten; Chung, Won-Suk; Zhou, Lu; Cahoy, John D.; Daneman, Richard; Zong, Hui; Ellisman, Mark H.; Barres, Ben A.

    2011-01-01

    The inability to purify and culture astrocytes has long hindered studies of their function. Whereas astrocyte progenitor cells can be cultured from neonatal brain, culture of mature astrocytes from postnatal brain has not been possible. Here we report a new method to prospectively purify astrocytes by immunopanning. These astrocytes undergo apoptosis in culture, but vascular cells and HBEGF promote their survival in serum-free culture. We found that some developing astrocytes normally undergo...

  18. Pituitary human growth hormone: small-scale purification method and application to radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone (hGH) extracted from pituitary glands is often heterogeneous, presenting, besides the native isohormone - B (IH-B) up to four different isohormones. To obtain more homogeneous preparations, essential for reproduceble radioligand assay results, the original method was modified, on a small scale, and by adding bacteriostatic and enzime inhibiting agents to all buffers (NaN3, EDTA, Trasylol) in order to minimize isohormone formation. After 3 to 4 homogeneizations and extractions of the frozen glands (10-20), hGH is precipitated, by 50% ammonium sulphate immediatly purified by Sephadex G 100 molecular sieve chromatography and hGH fractions are lyophilized. The whole process is completed in one week. Using 20 hypophises, 1.3 mg/gland was obtained. Several labellings with 125-I were performed using this purified hGH stored for more than one year. Two labelling techniques were employed: the classical method which uses 50 μg of Chloramine T and the stoichiometric iodination, which uses limiting amounts of chloramine T. For this preparation only 1.5 μg Chloramine T were necessary to achieve the desired specific activity. (author)

  19. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  20. Categories for the working mathematician

    CERN Document Server

    MacLane, Saunders

    1971-01-01

    Category Theory has developed rapidly. This book aims to present those ideas and methods which can now be effectively used by Mathe­ maticians working in a variety of other fields of Mathematical research. This occurs at several levels. On the first level, categories provide a convenient conceptual language, based on the notions of category, functor, natural transformation, contravariance, and functor category. These notions are presented, with appropriate examples, in Chapters I and II. Next comes the fundamental idea of an adjoint pair of functors. This appears in many substantially equivalent forms: That of universal construction, that of direct and inverse limit, and that of pairs offunctors with a natural isomorphism between corresponding sets of arrows. All these forms, with their interrelations, are examined in Chapters III to V. The slogan is "Adjoint functors arise everywhere". Alternatively, the fundamental notion of category theory is that of a monoid -a set with a binary operation of multiplicati...

  1. Two-track categories

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 2-dimensional analogue of track categories, called two-track categories, and show that it can be used to model categories enriched in 2-type mapping spaces. We also define a Baues-Wirsching type cohomology theory for track categories, and explain how it can be used to classify two-track extensions of a track category D by a module over D.

  2. Categories from scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especially inscrutable to external audiences. More specifically, the common explanatory route to approach categories is usually: "here is a formal specification of what a category is; then look at these kno...

  3. An improved method for the cost-effective expression and purification of large quantities of KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Vemulapally, Spandana; Cortes, Doris M; Cuello, Luis G

    2016-11-01

    KcsA, the bacterial K(+) channel from Streptomyces lividans, is the prototypical model system to study the functional and structural correlations of the pore domain of eukaryotic voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv channels). It contains all the molecular elements responsible for ion conduction, activation, deactivation and inactivation gating [1]. KcsA's structural simplicity makes it highly amenable for structural studies. Therefore, it is methodological advantageous to produce large amounts of functional and properly folded KcsA in a cost-effective manner. In the present study, we show an optimized protocol for the over-expression and purification of large amounts of high-quality, fully functional and crystallizable KcsA using inexpensive detergents, which significantly lowered the cost of the purification process. PMID:27393071

  4. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  5. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF6-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF6-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  6. Rigidification of quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction for rigidifying a quasi-category into a simplicial category, and prove that it is weakly equivalent to the rigidification given by Lurie. Our construction comes from the use of necklaces, which are simplicial sets obtained by stringing simplices together. As an application of these methods, we use our model to reprove some basic facts from Lurie's "Higher Topos Theory" regarding the rigidification process.

  7. The limitations of 'Black MSM' as a category: Why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G; Parker, Caroline; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    The USA faces disproportionate and increasing HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). New biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been developed to address their HIV risk. Very little consideration, however, has been given to the diversity obscured by 'BMSM' as a category, to how this diversity relates to men's sexual partnering strategies, or to the relevance of these issues for new HIV prevention methods. We conducted a community-based ethnography from June 2013 to May 2014 documenting factors that affect the acceptance of and adherence to PrEP among BMSM. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM and 17 community stakeholders, and participant observation. To demonstrate the diversity of social identities, we present a taxonomy of indigenous categories organised along the axes of sexual identity, sexual positioning, and gender performance. We analyse how HIV prevention strategies, such as PrEP, may be more effective if programmes consider how gender, sexuality, and sexual desire shape sexual partnering strategies. This article underlines the importance of attending to the diversity of sexual and social subjectivities among BMSM, of bringing the study of sexuality back into HIV prevention, and of integrating biomedical prevention approaches into community-based programmes. PMID:26831639

  8. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Poss

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  9. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  10. Biogas Purification up to Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Losiuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main technological methods for biogas purification from impurities that permit to increase energy value of the product and decrease its corrosion activity.  While evaluating economic efficiency due to introduction of the corresponding purification technology, in addition, it is necessary to take into account an ecological factor.

  11. Effect Of Methods of Purification of the Organic Coolant on the Economy of an ORGEL Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic coolant circulating in the core of a reactor is degraded by radiation and heat to form very heavy compounds (HHB). Various techniques can be considered to eliminate these very high molecular weight compounds, which produce a deposit on the hot walls and increase the viscosity of the fluid. These techniques include: distillation; selective extraction of the HHB; and regeneration of the HHB by ''hydrocracking''. From the experimental results obtained at the CCR, Ispra, we determined for the first two techniques: Equilibrium compositions of the coolant; Cost of replacing the coolant; Cost of purification plants. Special emphasis was placed on the solvent extraction technique. This has been studied for several months using an in-pile facility. With the help of these experimental data we have been able to show the effect on the cost of the power generated of the purification process, the amount of heavy compounds and the cost of the coolant. All the values mentioned can be compared with each other, although they are not to be regarded as absolute figures. (author)

  12. Separation And Purification Of Radioiodine 131I by Means of wet Distillation Method From By-Product of U-235 Fission Produced 99Mo Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of 99Mo from 235U fission also produces radioiodine fraction as by product. The radioiodine fraction can be expected to be a complement for radioiodine 131I produced by neutron activation on TeO2 target. Separation and purification were therefore carried out from radioiodine fraction obtained from production process of 99Mo fission product. The radioiodine 131I fraction was separated and purified by means of wet distillation method that is often used for separating 131I from post-neutron activated TeO2. The quality control of the resulting products indicates that the resulting radioiodine 131I solution was suitable to be used for labelling or synthesis of 131I labelled compounds. Although the efficiencies of separation and purification were found to be low ranging between 25 to 37%, the result of the presented experiment generally affirm the consideration to exploit the 131I fission product for labelling or synthesis of 131I radiopharmaceuticals. Key word : distillation, radioiodine 131I , 235U

  13. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend;

    2003-01-01

    To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic...

  14. Developed Method for Nitrate Extraction and Purification to Measure d18O-NO3- Composition in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure suitable for measuring d18O-NO3- in waters with moderate ionic strengths and high DOC loads has been established. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing anions and DOC without scarifying the isotopic signature of nitrate were investigated. The wet chemistry train developed for extraction and purification of nitrate from the liquid matrix consists of the following consecutive steps: sulfate precipitation using barium hydroxide, filtration, cation exchange, anion exchange, elution, neutralization and adsorption. A mixed neutralization scheme comprising neutralization using silver oxide and potassium hydroxide has been devised and implemented. Many DOCs removal pathways have been evaluated with regard to their DOCs removal efficiency and negative effects on sample -nitrate pool as well as the oxygen isotope composition of nitrate. Preservation experiments revealed that addition of 1/4 ml chloroform (99.8%) per one liter sample is an effective way of preserving nitrate pool

  15. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  16. 碳酸二甲酯提纯方法的研究进展%Study Progress on the Purification Methods of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红; 张艳华

    2012-01-01

    To summary the purification methods of dimethyl carbonate including industry-scal and battery-scal dimethyl carbonate.About purification of industry-scal dimethyl carbonate,to detaily introduce the separation of methanol-dimethyl carbonate azeotrope including membrane separation,adsorption separation,high-pressure distillation azeotripic distillation and extractive distillation.Separation methods of membrane or adsorption,which had the characteristics of low energy consumption and high efficiency,were new separation methods.High-pressure distillation,azeotropic distillation and extractive distillation,which had less investment,operated more expediently,obtained higher purity product,and had wider industrial foreground.About purification of battery-scal dimethyl carbonate,crystallization used simple equipment,operated more expediently,consumed less energy,showed more advantage than distillation.%综述了碳酸二甲酯提纯方法的最新研究进展,分别介绍了工业级和电池级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法。在工业级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法中,详细介绍了碳酸二甲酯-甲醇二元共沸物的分离方法,在各种分离方法中,膜分离和吸附分离能耗低、效率高,属于新型的分离方法;加压精馏、共沸精馏和萃取精馏具有投资较小、操作方便、产品纯度高等优势,具有较高的工业应用价值。在电池级碳酸二甲酯的提纯方法中,冷却结晶法具有设备简单、操作方便、节能的优点,比精馏法更具优势。

  17. Category Theory In Geography?

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.; Kerski Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribut...

  18. Category Theory in Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, Sanjay M

    2007-01-01

    Measures in the context of Category Theory lead to various relations, even differential relations, of categories that are independent of the mathematical structure forming objects of a category. Such relations, which are independent of the mathematical structure that we may represent a physical body or a system of reference with, are, precisely, demanded to be the Laws of Physics by the General Principle of Relativity.

  19. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  20. Geometric Phantom Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gorchinskiy, Sergey; Orlov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a construction of phantom categories, i.e. admissible triangulated subcategories in bounded derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth projective varieties that have trivial Hochschild homology and trivial Grothendieck group. We also prove that these phantom categories are phantoms in a stronger sense, namely, they have trivial K-motives and, hence, all their higher K-groups are trivial too.

  1. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified

  2. Materials for Molybdenum 99 purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) produces fission Mo 99, an isotope of wide use in nuclear medicine. In order to simplify the current Mo 99 production process, to shorten its duration and reduce impurities in the final product, alternative methods for purification steps were looked for. In this work a variety of new materials for the purification columns were designed, all of them with carbon. These materials were studied and a material which contribute with the best results for molybdenum retention, was selected. The preparation procedure and the working conditions were determined. (author)

  3. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs134 and Cs137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  4. 土壤、沉积物和植物样品中多环芳烃(PAHs)不同提取与净化方法比较%Comparison of Extraction and Purification Methods for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons( PAHs ) in Soil,Sediment and Plant Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁春燕; 周启星; 周俊良; 孙约兵

    2011-01-01

    系统分析和比较了土壤、沉积物和植物样品中多环芳烃(PAHs)的提取与净化方法,阐述和对比了索氏提取法、超声波提取法、超临界流提取法、固相提取与同相微提取法、固液提取法、微波辅助提取法、快速溶剂提取法等提取方法以及定量浓缩净化法、硅胶柱层析净化法、费罗里土柱层析净化法、氧化铝净化法、固相萃取(SPE)净化法等净化方法.旨在通过比较目前的提取和净化方法,展望将来提取与净化方法发展的新方向.%Various extraction and purification methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in soil, sediment and plant samples were systematically analyzed. The extraction methods including Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, solid-liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, shaking extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction were expounded and compared. At the same time the purification methods were also reviewed, such as quantitative concentrated purification, silica column purification, Florisil column purification, alumina gel column purification, gel permeation chromatography purification and solid phase extraction(SPE) purification. The extraction and purification methods for plant samples were similar with those for soil and sediment samples. The most widely applied extraction methods for plants were Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, solid phase extraction and plant solvent extraction. The most widely applied purification methods for plants were silica column purification, saponification assisted silica column purification, gel permeation chromatography purification, solid phase extraction (SPE) purification and hollow fiber liquid micro-extraction. According to the comparison of the current extraction and

  5. Blocking in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  6. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein.

  7. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  8. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  9. Selective complexation and reactivity of metallic nitride and oxometallic fullerenes with Lewis acids and use as an effective purification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Steven; Mackey, Mary A; Pickens, Jane E; Stuart, Melissa A; Confait, Bridget S; Phillips, J Paige

    2009-12-21

    Metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) and oxometallic fullerenes (OMFs) react quickly with an array of Lewis acids. Empty-cage fullerenes are largely unreactive under conditions used in this study. The reactivity order is Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@C(78) > Sc(3)N@C(68) > Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80). Manipulations of Lewis acids, molar ratios, and kinetic differences within the family of OMF and MNF metallofullerenes are demonstrated in a selective precipitation scheme, which can be used either alone for purifying Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80) or combined with a final high-performance liquid chromatography pass for Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@C(68), or Sc(3)N@C(78). The purification process is scalable. Analysis of the experimental rate constants versus electrochemical band gap explains the order of reactivity among the OMFs and MNFs. PMID:19911812

  10. Category Theory In Geography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribution to this program in spatial mathematics.

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  12. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  13. The feasibility of NOx-purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch research institute TNO has developed a new, biological purification method to remove nitrogen oxide in combustion processes. Also the financial aspects and the practical possibilities of the new method were studied. By now the time has come to start a pilot project with industrial partners for which companies with a problem in their off gassing purification and a high reduction target for nitrogen oxide are requested to apply

  14. Purification of silicon for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Solar grade silicon, as a starting material for crystallization to produce solar cells, is discussed here in terms of impurities whose maximum content is estimated from recent literature and conferences. A review of the production routes for each category of solar-grade silicon (undoped, compensated or heavily compensated) is proposed with emphasis on the metallurgical route. Some recent results are proposed concerning segregation, showing that directional solidification systems can be used for solidification even at high solidification rate (15 cm/h). Results on inductive plasma purification, where boron is evacuated as HBO in a gas phase blown from an inductive plasma torch, are shown to apply as well to arc plasmas and purification by moist gas. Special attention is paid to the history of impurities in the purification processes, showing that impure auxiliary phases (silicon tetrachloride, slag, aluminum, etc.) often need their own purification process to enable their recycling, which has to be considered to evaluate the cost (financial, energetic and environmental) of the purification route.

  15. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholt Jes S; Birkelund Svend; Østergaard Lars; Mygind Tina; Christiansen Gunna

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA sampl...

  16. Aqueous two-phase systems: an efficient, environmentally safe and economically viable method for purification of natural dye carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; Bonomo, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Minim, Luis Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Partition of the natural dye carmine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of polymer or copolymer with aqueous salt solutions (Na(2)SO(4) and Li(2)SO(4)). The carmine dye partition coefficient was investigated as a function of system pH, polymer molar mass, hydrophobicity, system tie-line length and nature of the electrolyte. It has been observed that the carmine partition coefficient is highly dependent on the electrolyte nature and pH of the system, reaching values as high as 300, indicating the high potential of the two-phase extraction with ATPS in the purification of carmine dye. The partition relative order was Li(2)SO(4)"Na(2)SO(4). Carmine molecules were concentrated in the polymer-rich phase, indicating an enthalpic specific interaction between carmine and the pseudopolycation, which is formed by cation adsorption along the macromolecule chain. When the enthalpic carmine-pseudopolycation interaction decreases, entropic forces dominate the natural dye-transfer process, and the carmine partitioning coefficient decreases. The optimization of the extraction process was obtained by a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. The CCF design was used to evaluate the influence of Li(2)SO(4) and PEO 1500 concentration and of the pH on the partition coefficient of carmine. The conditions that maximize the partition of carmine into the top phase were determined to be high concentrations of PEO and Li(2)SO(4) and low pH values within the ranges studied. PMID:19800067

  17. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  18. Comparison of detection platforms and post-polymerase chain reaction DNA purification methods for use in conjunction with Cleavase fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, T; Olson, S; Hall, J; Siebert, M; Grooms, K; Heisler, L; de Arruda, M; Neri, B

    1999-06-01

    The removal of impurities and contaminants from PCR-amplified fragments is important for mutation detection methods which identify mutations based on shifts in electrophoretic mobility. This is particularly critical for assays and detection methods which use target DNA that is labeled prior to analysis and electrophoretic detection. We examined several procedures for purifying DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their use in conjunction with a novel DNA scanning method, the Cleavase fragment length polymorphism (CFLP)* assay. In this study, a 480 bp DNA fragment, fluorescently labeled on the 5'-end of one strand, was amplified and subjected to various widely used purification procedures, including several commercially available clean-up kits. We demonstrate that visualization of the fluorescent label, as opposed to simple ethidium bromide staining, reveals the presence of considerable levels of labeled, truncated, amplification products. The various procedures were evaluated on the basis of their ability to remove these unwanted DNA fragments as well as on the degree to which they inhibited or promoted the CFLP reaction. Several procedures are recommended for use with CFLP analysis, including isopropanol precipitation, gel excision, and several commercially available spin columns. Concurrently, we evaluated (compared) a number of commonly used visualization platforms, including fluorescence imaging, chemiluminescence, and post-electrophoretic staining, for the ability to detect CFLP pattern changes. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are discussed and amounts of DNA to be used for CFLP analysis on different detection platforms are recommended. PMID:10380752

  19. ELEMENTS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladjana Brajevic

    2012-01-01

    Retail industry is facing changes due to financial crises in 2007., and its impact on consumption and consumer behaviour. The battle for new consumer is changing and is being transferred in to the store. Therefore stores are placed that needs to be considered, but the retailers do not have any change in profit when costumers switch from article A to article B. The new strategy that some consider to be an evolving approach to retail product management is category management. Category managemen...

  20. Sleep enhances category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  1. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  2. Improved synthesis of [18F]FLETT via a fully automated vacuum distillation method for [18F]2-fluoroethyl azide purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [18F]2-fluoroethyl azide and its subsequent click reaction with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EDU) to form [18F]FLETT was performed using an iPhase FlexLab module. The implementation of a vacuum distillation method afforded [18F]2-fluoroethyl azide in 87±5.3% radiochemical yield. The use of Cu(CH3CN)4PF6 and TBTA as catalyst enabled us to fully automate the [18F]FLETT synthesis without the need for the operator to enter the radiation field. [18F]FLETT was produced in higher overall yield (41.3±6.5%) and shorter synthesis time (67 min) than with our previously reported manual method (32.5±2.5% in 130 min). - Highlights: • An automated vacuum distillation method for the purification of [18F]2-fluoroethyl azide. • Significantly shortened synthesis protocol. • Increased yield and higher specific activity

  3. Flash Chromatography Application for Risperidone Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Trush, G. S.; Halkevych, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Relevance. Biological samples for forensic-chemical investigation are complicated multi-component systems.Aim of our investigations is the study of robustness and validity of purification technique applying the flash chromatography for purification of acidic extracts from biological tissues.Methods and results. It is established that 78.4 – 83.4 % of risperidone was isolated from liver tissues by water acidified with oxalic acid, than proteins precipitated by ammonia sulphate, and finally pur...

  4. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  5. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  6. Acrylic purification and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  7. Comparative study on precipitation methods of yellow-cake from acid leachate of rock phosphate and Its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in presences of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia ((NH4)2 U2 O7), magnesia (UO3.xH2O) and sodium hydroxide (Na2U2O7) as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP extraction and matching its impurity levels with specification of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was for used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes (''2''3''4U and ''2''3''8U) in rock phosphate, resulting green phosphoric acid solution, and in different forms of the yellow cake from which the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was deduced. Likewise, AAS was used for determination of impurities (Pb, Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu). On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in the rock phosphate was 1468±979 Bq/Kg (119.38±79.66 ppm), and 711±252 Bq/L (57.85±20.46 ppm) in the resulting green solution with corresponding percent of dissolution amounting to 48% which is considered low indicating that the experimental conditions (i.e. dissolution container, temperature, PH, retention time) were not optimal. However, the isotopic ratio (''2''3''4U, ''2''3''8U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Crude yellow cakes (hydrate uranium trioxide, ammonium diuranate and sodium diuranate) were precipitated from the green solutions prior to separation of iron and once after iron separation. Although, iron was tested using bipyridine and SCN, it was found in all types of crude samples analyzed this might be attributed to either the quality of the reagent used or inhibition of Fe present in the solution by stronger complexing agent. Uranium mass concentration in crude yellow cakes precipitated before iron separation was found following the order: UO3.xH2O>ammonium diuranate

  8. Categories. Beginning Course (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, G V

    2008-01-01

    This is a short textbook on Category Theory for Russian speaking students. It consists of three chapters: Categories and Functors, Representable Functors (including Adjoint Functors and (Co)limits) and Tensor Categories.

  9. The Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Benziger, J; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Chen, M; Corsi, A; Cubaiu, A; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Di Pietro, G; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Goretti, A; Harding, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S; Korga, G; Leung, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; McCarty, K; McKinsey, D; Montanari, D; Nelson, A; Orsini, M; Papp, L; Parmeggiano, S; Pocar, A; Salvo, C; Schimizzi, D; Shutt, T; Sonnenschein, A; Soricelli, F; Suvorov, Y

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  10. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  11. Proanthocyanidin A2 purification and levels found in American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, five common proanthocyanidin purification techniques were evaluated prior to phloroglucinolysis, followed by HPLC analysis. An optimized purification method was then used to identify and quantify the proanthocyanidins (extension and terminal units of epigallocatechin, catechin, epicat...

  12. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, peating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  13. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  14. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  15. Category Enhanced Word Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chunting; Sun, Chonglin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Lau, Francis C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed word representations have been demonstrated to be effective in capturing semantic and syntactic regularities. Unsupervised representation learning from large unlabeled corpora can learn similar representations for those words that present similar co-occurrence statistics. Besides local occurrence statistics, global topical information is also important knowledge that may help discriminate a word from another. In this paper, we incorporate category information of documents in the l...

  16. Mimiviruses: Replication, Purification, and Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Ferreira da Silva, Lorena Christine; Dos Santos Silva, Ludmila Karen; Kroon, Erna Geessien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this protocol is to describe the replication, purification, and titration of mimiviruses. These viruses belong to the Mimiviridae family, the first member of which was isolated in 1992 from a cooling tower water sample collected during an outbreak of pneumonia in a hospital in Bradford, England. In recent years, several new mimiviruses have been isolated from different environmental conditions. These giant viruses are easily replicated in amoeba of the Acanthamoeba genus, its natural host. Mimiviruses present peculiar features that make them unique viruses, such as the particle and genome size and the genome's complexity. The discovery of these viruses rekindled discussions about their origin and evolution, and the genetic and structural complexity opened up a new field of study. Here, we describe some methods utilized for mimiviruses replication, purification, and titration. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153385

  17. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied. PMID:27142461

  18. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  19. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  20. The Borexino purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Purification of 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system of combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification system removed K, U and Th by distillation of the pseudocumene solvent and the PPO fluor. Noble gases, Rn, Kr and Ar were removed by gas stripping. Distillation was also employed to remove optical impurities and reduce the attenuation of scintillation light. The success of the purification system has facilitated the first time real time detection of low energy solar neutrinos.

  1. A simple method for the preparation and purification of C1 complement cleaved beta 2-microglobulin from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Johansen, B; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    1997-01-01

    A simple method is described for the preparation of proteolytically processed forms of beta 2-microglobulin suitable for structural and biological studies. PEG 6000 was added to the serum of healthy individuals to precipitate the C1 complement complex from C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). After di...... component was seen by SDS-PAGE stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue....

  2. Comparison of expression, purification and characterization of a new pectate lyase from Phytophthora capsici using two different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuguo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectate lyases (PELs play an important role in the infection process of plant pathogens and also have a commercial significance in industrial applications. Most of the PELs were expressed as soluble recombinant proteins, while a few recombinant proteins were insoluble. The production of a large-scale soluble recombinant PEL would allow not only a more detailed structural and functional characterization of this enzyme but also may have important applications in the food industry. Results We cloned a new pectate lyase gene (Pcpel2 from Phytophthora capsici. Pcpel2 was constructed by pET system and pMAL system, and both constructs were used to express the PCPEL2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The expressed products were purified using affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purity, specific activity and pathogenicity of the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system were higher than the purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pET system. In addition, some other characteristics of the purified PCPEL2 differed from the two systems, such as crystallographic features. Purified PCPEL2 expressed by the pMAL system was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K, and initial crystals were grown. Conclusion The two different methods and comparison presented here would be highly valuable in obtaining an ideal enzyme for the downstream experiments, and supply an useful alternative to purify some insoluble recombinant proteins.

  3. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  4. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  5. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  6. PURIFICATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM ERWINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSHPINDER PAUL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to do Purification of the Glutaminase enzyme produced from free cells of Erwinia species at flask level. Glutaminase can be isolated from a number of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms. Glutaminase is an important enzyme that serves many functions. It plays a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. Glutaminase is very important food enzyme used in food industries for flavor enhancement. Glutaminase, in combination with or as an alternative to asparaginase could be of great significance in enzyme therapy for cancer especially acute lymphocytic leukemia. Glutaminase enzyme was produced from free cells of Erwinia under optimized conditions such as Temperature, pH, Time, Inducer concentrations etc. After production of Glutaminase enzyme, Partial purification of enzyme was done with Ammonium Sulphate precipitation method. After isolation, the Glutaminase enzyme was purified with Gel filtration Chromatography & Ion Exchange chromatography. After purification by both methods, Purified samples were analyzed for enzyme activity & protein content. Enzyme activity was determined by Nessler's method & protein content was determined by Bradford method. It was found that after purification of crude sample by both methods, Gel Filtration chromatography shows maximum enzyme activity and specific activity than the samples purified with Ion Exchange Chromatography. Also %age recovery (97.59% & purification fold (1.70 obtained was found maximum from the samples purified with Gel Filtration Chromatography. From above results it was concluded that Gel filtration method is Better method for the purification of Glutaminase enzyme than Ion exchange Chromatography.

  7. 强辐射催化法提纯多晶硅%Purification of silicon by the method of strong radiation catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈应天; 何祚庥

    2011-01-01

    Among others, the removal of boron is the key issue to effectively purify metallurgical silicon into solar grade silicon. An innovative slagging process is proposed in this article after reviewing many previous studies. In the process, strong radiation is employed as catalysis to promote the chemical reaction. The authors have for the first time unveiled the secrets including the newly developed high temperature tools, the materials used, the method of mixing materials before purification, the process for separating silicon from residuals after purification, etc.. In the meantime, the authors also propose a postulate to explain the mechanism of the catalysis process. Except the removal of boron, the processes to remove other impurities, such as phosphorous and residual metals using electron beam and magnetic floating directional solidification are also discussed for the completion of a new industrial process to fabricate pure silicon. In the article, the authors also extend their discussion to the possibility of using the proposed non - imaging heliostat in other fields ; to the possibility to further manufacture electronic grade silicon using the same process ; to the possibility to obtain more experimental evidences for the postulate of strong radiation catalysis and to other subjects related to authors' claimed creations. It is sincerely hoped that the publication of the innovations reported in this article may provide an alternative way in the route map for the use of renewable energy of low cost and low carbon emission.%将低纯度的金属硅,提纯成可用于制造太阳能电池的高纯硅材料的主要关键,是去除材料中的硼杂质.本文提出了一种采用特殊的造渣过程以去除硼杂质的新方法.在这种新方法中,为了促进快速的化学反应,采用高密度的光子作为催化剂,以达到太阳能级硅材料的标准.本文对使用这种新的强辐射催化法炼硅的高温工具、冶炼方法、

  8. Coarse categories I: foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Viêt-Trung

    2007-01-01

    Following Roe and others (see, e.g., [MR1451755]), we (re)develop coarse geometry from the foundations, taking a categorical point of view. In this paper, we concentrate on the discrete case in which topology plays no role. Our theory is particularly suited to the development of the Roe (C*-)algebras C*(X) and their K-theory on the analytic side; we also hope that it will be of use in the strictly geometric/algebraic setting of controlled topology and algebra. We leave these topics to future papers. Crucial to our approach are nonunital coarse spaces, for which we introduce locally proper maps. Our coarse category Crs generalizes the usual one: its objects are nonunital coarse spaces and its morphisms (locally proper) coarse maps modulo closeness. Crs is much richer than the usual unital coarse category. As such, it has all nonzero limits and all colimits. We examine various other categorical issues. E.g., Crs does not have a terminal object, so we substitute a termination functor which will be important in t...

  9. Development of methods for the purification of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 68}Ga for biomolecules labeling; Desenvolvimento de metodos de purificacao do {sup 67}Ga e {sup 68}Ga para a marcacao de biomoleculas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators have been in development, obtaining {sup 68}Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. {sup 68}Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived {sup 68}Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with {sup 68}Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of {sup 68}Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. {sup 68}Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of

  10. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Herget

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  11. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  12. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, sug...

  13. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  14. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  15. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  16. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  17. Development of constructed wetland using hydroponic biofilter method for purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water; Fueiyoka kosui no joka no tameno suiko seibutsu rokaho wo mochiita jinko shicchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)] Nakasato, H. [Top Ecology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    Applying the hydroponic biofilter method as a direct purification method for a hyper-eutrophic lake water, an experiment was carried out at the Tsuchiura Port on Lake Kasumigaura to obtain data for constructing a hydrophilic artificial wetland. Purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water containing a large amount of water blooms in summer was attempted applying the hydroponic biofilter method for which hydrophyte is used. As a result, it was clarified, by applying the hydroponic biofilter method, that capturing effect of suspended substances can be achieved in the rooting zone, captured suspended substances are decomposed at high rate, and the revolved nutrient salt can be absorbed and assimilated by the use of plants having high growth rates. Ipomoea aquatica had the highest removal activity, followed by nasturtium officinal, menthe spicata, and oenanthe javanica. As a result, it became clear that a constructed wetland made with the hydroponic biofilter method can be applied as a direct purifying method for hyper-eutrophic lake water by selecting appropriate plants in accordance with season. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Using problem-based learning to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu, Wawan; Kurnia, Eli, Rohaeni Nur

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain information about the using Problem-based Learning (PBL) to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification. The research adopted quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design, involving 31students of class XI in one SMK in Cimahi as the subjects of study. The students were divided into three groups categories: high, medium, and low based on the average grades of daily tests. The used instruments in this study were essay, observation sheet, questionnaire (Likert scale), and interview sheet Aspects of creative thinking skills are developed including: fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing (elaborative), and judging (evaluative). To identify the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on water purification, "normalized gain" or of the pre-test and post-test scores was calculated. The results showed that PBL can enhance students' creative thinking skills by means high category (percentage of = 70.12%). This nformation can be used as an input to teachers in the school and teacher education programs.

  19. Semidirect Products of Monoidal Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We introduce semidirect products of monoidal categories as a categorification of semidirect products of monoids (or, perhaps more familiarly, of groups). We also introduce a weakened version of this construction, resulting in some examples of skew monoidal categories. We discuss how this construction interacts with autonomous and closed monoidal categories, and end by producing some examples of monoidal categories which are closed on only one side.

  20. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  1. Homotopy colimits of model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bergner, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Building on a previous definition of homotopy limit of model categories, we give a definition of homotopy colimit of model categories. Using the complete Segal space model for homotopy theories, we verify that this definition corresponds to the model-category-theoretic definition in that setting.

  2. On the Preferred Flesh Color of Japanese and Chinese and the Determining Factors —Investigation of the Younger Generation Using Method of Successive Categories and Semantic Differential Method—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Deng, Pei; Tsuruoka, Hideki; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    The preferred flesh color was surveyed by the successive five categories method and the SD method in Japan and China to investigate its determining factors. The Chinese most preferred flesh color was more reddish than the Japanese one, while the flesh color accepted by 50% and more of the observers in China was larger in chromaticness and more yellowish than in Japan. In the determining factors for selection of the preferred color extracted by a factor analysis, a big difference between Japanese and Chinese men was observed. The first factor of the former was kind personality, whereas that of the latter was showy appearance.

  3. Purification of 85Kr radiation source, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-purification equipment was devised for 85Kr radiation source. Purification of a 210 Ci 85Kr source was performed by removing chemically dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) contained in the 85Kr source with CuO. In order to find the optimum conditions for this purification prior to hot run, preliminary investigations were carried out about the effect of various factors (temperature, gas circulation, amount of used CuO, mode of reaction and so on) on the decomposition of CH3OCH3 with CuO using the mixtures of Ar-Ch3OCH3. The concentration of CH3OCH3 in the 85Kr source fell to 152 ppm from 38.3% by this purification. The purified 85Kr gas could be used repeatedly as radiation source for chemical reactions. It is considered that this purification method is effective for the removal of hydrocarbons (component of low boiling point) in the 85Kr source. (author)

  4. RECOVERY OF MORE THAN 10 YEARS-DRYING m o N ascus CULTURES AND ITS PURIFICATION METHODS FROM FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    NANDANG SUHARNA

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the recovery capability of more than 10 years- drying Monascus cultures. A new simple purification technique from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment was also reported as a part of this study. The result showed that all drying cultures were recovered well and retained their characters such as good growth, pigmen-tation and production of fruit bodies (ascomata), sexual spores (ascospores) and asexual spores. Several cultures showed its...

  5. 质谱图筛选红曲红色素纯化方法%MS Methods Assist Separation and Purification of A New Kind of Monasucs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立增; 孟宪昉; 白正晨; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    以商品化的红曲米为原料,利用质谱图定性分析,考察在红曲红色素提取过程中冷冻,索氏提取,溶剂,柱色谱,薄层色谱等因素对分离效果的影响,筛选并分离得到一种分子离子峰为332.6红曲红色素分子。研究结果表明该红曲红色素分子的纯化条件依次为:以甲醇为淋洗剂对红曲米进行柱色谱分离,以正己烷、乙酸乙酯和甲醇为萃取剂进行一次索氏提取,以CH2Cl2∶CH3OH=1∶1为展开剂进行薄层色谱分离,收集Rf=0.8的色带,以CH3CH2OH∶CCl4=9∶1为展开剂进行第二次薄层色谱分离,收集Rf=0.8的色带为目标分子,收率为0.0126%。%Commercial monascus red pigments were used as the raw material , the influence of the freezing temperature, Soxhlet extraction, solvents, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography separation process assisted by the use of mass methods were studied in details. A new kind of monasucs was screened out from the raw materials, the molecular ion peak located at 332.5. The experimental conditions for the purification of the monascus was:Before the Soxhlet extraction which hexane , ethyl acetate and methanol as the separated solvents, the red yeast rice subjected to column chromatography by the methanol used as the eluent. Then CH2Cl2∶CH3OH=1∶1 were used as the eluent for the thin layer chromatography ( Rf=0.8). Finally, a second thin layer chromatography were carried out to collect the the target molecule bond (Rf= 0.8) in which the CH3CH2OH∶CCl4=9∶1 were used as the corresponding eluents, yield 0.0126%.

  6. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  7. Expression and purification of GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S; Speicher, D W

    2001-05-01

    An increasingly common strategy for expressing proteins and large peptides in prokaryotic systems is to express the protein of interest connected to a "tag" that provides the basis for rapid high-affinity purification. This unit describes the expression and purification of fusion proteins containing the 26-kDa glutathione-S-transferase protein as well as methods for cleaving the affinity tag and repurifying the target protein. Advantages of this popular fusion protein system include high protein yields, high-affinity one-step protein purification of the fusion protein, existence of several alternative protease cleavage sites for removing the affinity tag when required, and ease of removal of the cleaved affinity tag. PMID:18429193

  8. Water purification in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances

  9. A method with high yield for isolation and purification of rat islets%高产率大鼠胰岛分离纯化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阳; 徐靖; 王志梁; 陈丽; 黄莹; 王西墨

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一种高效、稳定的大鼠胰岛分离纯化方法.方法 选取41只体质量150~380 g的成年雄性SD大鼠,按体质量分成4组,采用改进后的方法进行胰岛分离纯化,双硫腙染色计数胰岛、鉴定纯度,吖啶橙-碘化丙锭染色判断胰岛活性,葡萄糖刺激实验检测胰岛功能.结果 41只大鼠的胰岛产率为(1056±357)个/只,各组间产率差异无统计学意义[A组(932±542)个/只,B组(1036±339)个/只,C组(1142±305)个/只,D组(1108±178)个/只,P>0.05].胰岛纯度在90%以上,活率超过90%,胰岛刺激指数为2.08 ±0.10.结论 应用改进的分离纯化方法,能在不同体质量水平大鼠间获得稳定的胰岛高产率,胰岛的纯度、活性和功能可靠.%Objective To set up an effective and stabile method for isolation and purification of rat islets.Methods Forty-one adult male SD rats weighing 150-380 g were used as organ donors.All donors were divided into 4 groups by body weight.Islets were isolated using digestion at 37℃ by ductal injection of collagenase with sampling timely to determine when to stop digestion,and purified by centrifugation of discontinuous Ficoll density gradient.The identification of purified islets was evaluated by dithizone staining.The viability of islet was assessed by fluorescence staining of aridine orange and propidium iodide.The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test.Results The total number of purified islets in one pancreas was 1056 ± 357.There was no significant difference among the islet yields of the 4 groups with different body weight (for groups A,B,C and D:932 ± 542,1036 ± 339,1142±305,and 1108 ± 178,respectively,P >0.05).The purity of islets was more than 90%.The viability of islets was more than 90%.The simulation index was 2.08 ± 0.10.Conclusion Using the modified method,the islet isolated and purified from rats with different weight had stable high yield,high purity

  10. QuEChERS-based purification method coupled to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yanping; Dong, Hao; Wu, Yuluan; Guo, Xindong; Hou, Xiangchang; Wang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    QuEChERS-based purification coupled with UPLC-MS/MS method, was developed for six quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) determination in dairy products. Powder samples were firstly dispersed by water. Protein in liquid milk was precipitated and sample solution was extracted by acetonitrile. QuEChERS-based purification was used to purify the solution. QACs were finally separated by HILIC column and detected in MRM mode of MS/MS under ESI(+). The stable isotope benzyl-2,3,4,5,6-d5-dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide (C14-BAC-d5) was used as an internal standard. This method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy. Linear relations were favorable for QACs over the selected concentration ranges of 0.2-50μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.4-14.5μg/kg. Recoveries were between 91.2% and 115% with RSDs of 2.8-7.5% for intra-day precision and 3.7-6.7% for inter-day precision. This validated method was successfully applied to determine the QACs concentrations in dairy products. PMID:27374511

  11. Production and purification of scandium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of production of pure scandium trifluoride from scandium oxide are developed and tested. The first of these methods used ammonium hydrodifluoride. The second method used hydrofluoric acid. It is shown that the first methods doesn't allow to obtained scandium purification from metal dopants and is hardly realized in a large scale. Usage of treatment in fluorine stream at the finishing technological stage allowed to get scandium trifluoride with low oxygen content (0.1 - 0.5 mass %)

  12. Comparison of different anticoagulation methods in blood purification in severe patients%重症患者血液净化不同抗凝方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何润芝; 邓湘辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较重症患者血液净化中不同抗凝方式:低分子肝素抗凝(A 组)、局部枸橼酸抗凝(B 组)的效果及安全性。方法:回顾性分析我科自2014年10月至2015年03月行血液净化的27例重症患者资料,其中 A 组19例,B 组8例,比较两组患者在血液净化效果(血液净化前后血清肌酐下降值),安全性(出血、凝血事件,凝血功能)及死亡率等方面的差异。结果:两组患者在溶质清除率(血液净化前后血清肌酐下降值)、凝血功能方面无统计学差异,皆无明显出血事件,死亡率(A:26.32%与 B:37.5%)差异可能与原发病有关,凝血事件方面 B 组优于 A 组。结论:血液净化中用局部枸橼酸抗凝安全、可行、有效,局部枸橼酸抗凝在重症患者尤其是高危出血风险的患者中具有良好的应用前景。%Objective:To compare the effects and safety of different anticoagulant Methods low molecular weight heparin(A group)and regional citrate anti-coagulation (B group)in severe patients in blood purification.Methods:We analyzed retrospectively 27 cases of critically ill patients in our department from Oc-tober in 2014 to March in 2015 for blood purification,including 19 cases of A group,8 cases of B group ,the purification effects (the decline in value of serum creatinine before and after blood purification ),safety (hemorrhage,coagulant events,blood coagulate function ) and the mortality of two groups were compared.Results:There was no significant difference in two groups in the solute clearance rate (the decline in value of serum creatinine before and after blood purification),and blood coagulate function.There were no hemorrhage.Differences of mortality(A:26.32% and B:37.5%)may be related to the primary dis-ease.B group surpass than A group in coagulant events.Conclusion:Blood purification with regional citrate anticoagulation is safe,feasible,effective,there was a good

  13. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  14. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author)

  15. Evaluation of separation and purification processes in the antibiotic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Lee, D.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    The different separation and purification processes for three major types of antibiotics, Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Tetracyclines will be discussed. All antibiotic, processing plants contain two majors sections, a relatively small and highly specialized fermentation section and a very large (60-80% of the plant) separation and purification section. The fermentation sections for the different antibiotics are essentially identical, except for differences in growth media and operating variables, but there are vast differences in the separation and purification sections. Several different separation methods are used including filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, precipitation, extraction, chromatography and various membrane methods. Variables affecting the specific separation and purification configurations include final fermentation broth concentration, by-product formed during fermentation, the physical properties and molecular structure of the various antibiotics and special purification requirements. Necessary reductions in the separation and purification processes required for rebuilding the antibiotic industry after a national emergency are discussed along with several relatively new separation/purification methods that hold great promise for effecting these reductions, chromatography, supercritical fluid extraction (SCF), and membranes. 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis of the...... role of the category manager in purchasing....

  17. 不同血液净化方法对肾性骨病相关因子的影响%Effect on the Related Factors of Renal Osteopathy of Different Blood Purification Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可荣; 成世立; 邹进益

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同血液净化方法对肾性骨病相关因子的影响。方法:选取本院收治进行血液透析的肾性骨病患者326例并分为两组。对照组采用普通血液透析方式进行治疗;观察组采用联合式血液净化方式进行治疗。比较两组患者治疗前后各项指标的变化,同时计算钙磷乘积。结果:观察组临床治疗效果显著高于对照组,不良反应显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用联合式血液净化方式可以更好地清除患者体内甲状旁腺激素和β2-微球蛋白,并修复患者体内钙磷代谢紊乱的现象。%Objective:To analyze the effect on the related factors of renal osteopathy of different blood purification method.Method:From January 2009 to August 2014,a total of 326 patients with renal osteopathy treated in our hospital by blood dialysis were randomly divided into two groups.163 cases of patients in the control group were treated using common blood purification method;163 cases of patients in the observation group were treated with combined-type blood purification methods.The blood blood calcium,phosphorus,parathyroid hormone,the change of the beta 2-microglobulin and the calcium-phosphorus product in the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Result:After treatment,blood calcium content of the patients in the observation group significantly increased(P<0.05), and the blood phosphorus,parathyroid hormone,beta 2-microglobulin and calcium-phosphorus product significantly decreased(P<0.05).But all the indexes of patients of the control group changed non-significantly.Clinical therapeutic effect of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group,but the adverse reaction was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effects on the related factors of renal osteopathy of different blood purification methods are different.Combined-type blood purification methods can better remove

  18. Separation and Purification of Fissiogenic Ruthenium From Irradiated Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ruthenium is an important fission product. Its isotopic composition may reflect the burnup or the initial uranium enrichment of nuclear fuel. So the separation and purification method of fission products of Ruthenium from irradiated uranium was studied and established.

  19. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  20. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, Oksana; Gay, Angela; Yakovleva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keyw...

  1. Purification of crime scene DNA extracts using centrifugal filter devices

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Lina; Hedell, Ronny; Ansell, Ricky; Hedman, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of forensic DNA analysis is limited by the size, quality and purity of biological evidence found at crime scenes. Sample impurities can inhibit PCR, resulting in partial or negative DNA profiles. Various DNA purification methods are applied to remove impurities, for example, employing centrifugal filter devices. However, irrespective of method, DNA purification leads to DNA loss. Here we evaluate the filter devices Amicon Ultra 30 K and Microsep 30 K with respect to re...

  2. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  3. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  4. Simplicial Lusternik-Schnirelmann category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ternero, Desamparados; Macías-Virgós, Enrique; Minuz, Erika; Vilches, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The simplicial LS-category of a finite abstract simplicial complex is a new invariant of the strong homotopy type, defined in purely combinatorial terms, that generalizes to arbitrary simplicial complexes the well known notion of arboricity of a graph, and that allows to develop all the machinery of algebraic topology which is costumary in the classical theory of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category.

  5. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1996, Evans 2009). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss...... or construction in the process of verbal communication (in the tradition of the Prague School). I will argue that (a) functional categorization is methodologically prior to formal and semantic categorization (functional categories include semantic and formal categories) and (b) functional categories...... give better cross-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological...

  6. Distributors on a tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBARA, D.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\cA$ be a tensor category and let $\\cV$ denote the category of vector spaces. A distributor on $\\cA$ is a functor $\\cA^{\\op}\\times \\cA\\to \\cV$. We are concerned with distributors with two-sided $\\cA$-action. Those distributors form a tensor category, which we denoted by ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$. The functor category $\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV)$ is also a tensor category and has the center $\\bZ(\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV))$. We show that if $\\cA$ is rigid, then ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$ and $\\...

  7. Affinity based and molecularly imprinted cryogels: Applications in biomacromolecule purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Müge; Galaev, Igor Yu; Denizli, Adil

    2016-05-15

    The publications in macro-molecularly imprinted polymers have increased drastically in recent years with the development of water-based polymer systems. The macroporous structure of cryogels has allowed the use of these materials within different applications, particularly in affinity purification and molecular imprinting based methods. Due to their high selectivity, specificity, efficient mass transfer and good reproducibility, molecularly imprinted cryogels (MICs) have become attractive for researchers in the separation and purification of proteins. In this review, the recent developments in affinity based cryogels and molecularly imprinted cryogels in protein purification are reviewed comprehensively. PMID:26454622

  8. Category analysis: from biochemical mechanics to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main goals of this report is to bridge the gap between computer modelling and group analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. But we can work with a category of groups rather than a Lie group. In view of the experience of the past development of the relation between mathematics, mechanics and physics, the categorical extension may be justified that one day categoric structures will be as important as groups are today. Also our aim is the application of the same category-theoretic methods in biochemical mechanics and astrophysics. As examples we consider the category analysis of material models for concrete, wood and reinforcing or prestressing steel, on the one hand, and process of the linear and circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the quantum effects of electromagnetic field in anisotropic Bianchi-type cosmological models, on the other hand. (author)

  9. The neurobiology of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F Gregory; Spiering, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    Many recent studies have examined the neural basis of category learning. Behavioral neuroscience results suggest that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia play important category-learning roles; neurons that develop category-specific firing properties are found in both regions, and lesions to both areas cause category-learning deficits. Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories. The cognitive neuroscience literature on category learning appears contradictory until the results are partitioned according to the type of category-learning task that was used. Three major tasks can be identified: rule based, information-integration, and prototype-distortion. Recent results are consistent with the hypotheses that (a) learning in rule-based tasks requires working memory and executive attention and is mediated by frontal-striatal circuits, (b) learning in information-integration tasks requires procedural memory and is mediated primarily within the basal ganglia, and (c) learning in prototype-distortion tasks depends on multiple memory systems, including the perceptual representation system. PMID:15537987

  10. 采用类别相似度聚合的关联文本分类方法%Associative Rule-Based Text Categorization Method Using Category Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 桂小林; 杨攀; 王刚; 郭岳龙

    2012-01-01

    Conventional association rule-based categorization methods have bottleneck in improving classifier's accuracy, since these methods only consider the rule confidence degree and use the pruning technique. A novel method to solve this problem is proposed, and is called associative rule-based classifier aggregating with category similarity (AACS). The method adopts the modified chi-square statistical technique to extract feature terms from each category, and employs the CR-tree to store classification rules. Algorithms to construct and to match CR-tree are proposed. Inner-product is used to calculate the similarity between the category sub vector of the text and the category feature vector, and then is aggregated with the rules' confidence degree to serve as the foundation of text categorization. Experimental results show that the method presented achieves a micro-average value of categorization 92. 42% with extracting only 30 feature terms, which is better than the results of AWOPR, KNN, and Bayes classifiers. And the time complexity of the method is the same as that of AWOPR, indicating that the cost to calculate both the similarity and the aggregation is acceptable.%针对基于关联规则的分类方法在分类时仅考虑规则的置信度并使用规则修剪技术,导致分类器的分类精度难以进一步提高的问题,提出了一种基于类别相似度聚合的关联文本分类方法.该方法采用修改的x2统计技术提取各类别的特征词;为保证规则匹配的精度和速度,使用CR-tree存储分类规则,并给出了CR-tree的构建与匹配算法;采用向量内积来计算文本类别分量与类别标志向量的相似度,进而使用规则置信度和类别相似度的聚合值作为文本分类的依据.基于实际网络文本的实验表明,该方法仅需提取30个特征词,分类结果的微平均值即可达到92.42%,优于未经剪枝的ARGBC分类器及KNN、Bayes分类器;在分类耗时方面,该方法与未经

  11. Evaluation of five commercial methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from human faecal samples for downstream molecular detection of the enteric protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Silvia; Mateo, Marta; de Lucio, Aida; Hernández-de Mingo, Marta; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fuentes, Isabel; Mateo, María; Carmena, David

    2016-08-01

    High quality, pure DNA is required for ensuring reliable and reproducible results in molecular diagnosis applications. A number of in-house and commercial methods are available for the extraction and purification of genomic DNA from faecal material, each one offering a specific combination of performance, cost-effectiveness, and easiness of use that should be conveniently evaluated in function of the pathogen of interest. In this comparative study the marketed kits QIAamp DNA stool mini (Qiagen), SpeedTools DNA extraction (Biotools), DNAExtract-VK (Vacunek), PowerFecal DNA isolation (MoBio), and Wizard magnetic DNA purification system (Promega Corporation) were assessed for their efficacy in obtaining DNA of the most relevant enteric protozoan parasites associated to gastrointestinal disease globally. A panel of 113 stool specimens of clinically confirmed patients with cryptosporidiosis (n=29), giardiasis (n=47) and amoebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica (n=3) or E. dispar (n=10) and apparently healthy subjects (n=24) were used for this purpose. Stool samples were aliquoted in five sub-samples and individually processed by each extraction method evaluated. Purified DNA samples were subsequently tested in PCR-based assays routinely used in our laboratory. The five compared methods yielded amplifiable amounts of DNA of the pathogens tested, although performance differences were observed among them depending on the parasite and the infection burden. Methods combining chemical, enzymatic and/or mechanical lysis procedures at temperatures of at least 56°C were proven more efficient for the release of DNA from Cryptosporidium oocysts. PMID:27241828

  12. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  13. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  14. 海洋底泥环境DNA提取与纯化方法比较研究%Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from marine sediment samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 黄李淑馨; 白凤武; 杜昱光

    2014-01-01

    In order to seek an effective extraction and purification method of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples,the metagenomic DNA was extracted by CTAB plus SDS method,CTAB plus glass beads method,SDS plus proteinase K method and SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method,respectively.The metagenomic DNA was purified by column humic clear kit method and electroelution.The quality and quantity of the extracted metagenomic DNA are compared.The highest extracted rate and integrity are obtained by SDS plus proteinase K method, next are SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method and CTAB plus SDS method;CTAB plus glass beads method has severe degradation;and electroelution produces the purest metagenomic DNA and large fragments with more than 42 kb.The research results show that SDS plus proteinase K method and electroelution are the optimum extraction and purification methods of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples compared with other methods.%为了探索有效的海洋底泥宏基因组DNA提取与纯化方法,分别采用CTAB结合SDS法、CTAB结合玻璃珠法、SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和 SoilMasterTM试剂盒法提取海洋底泥宏基因组DNA,用柱式腐殖酸清除试剂盒法与电洗脱法纯化宏基因组 DNA,并对宏基因组 DNA的产量与纯度进行评价。结果表明:SDS 结合蛋白酶 K 法提取率最高,DNA 片段完整;SoilMasterTM试剂盒法与 CTAB结合 SDS法次之;CTAB结合玻璃珠法有严重降解;电洗脱法可以得到高纯度、大于42 kb宏基因组DNA片段。因此,SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和电洗脱法提取纯化海洋近海底泥宏基因组DNA优于其他方法。

  15. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from marine sediment samples%海洋底泥环境DNA提取与纯化方法比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 黄李淑馨; 白凤武; 杜昱光

    2014-01-01

    In order to seek an effective extraction and purification method of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples,the metagenomic DNA was extracted by CTAB plus SDS method,CTAB plus glass beads method,SDS plus proteinase K method and SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method,respectively.The metagenomic DNA was purified by column humic clear kit method and electroelution.The quality and quantity of the extracted metagenomic DNA are compared.The highest extracted rate and integrity are obtained by SDS plus proteinase K method, next are SoilMasterTM DNA Extraction Kit method and CTAB plus SDS method;CTAB plus glass beads method has severe degradation;and electroelution produces the purest metagenomic DNA and large fragments with more than 42 kb.The research results show that SDS plus proteinase K method and electroelution are the optimum extraction and purification methods of metagenomic DNA from marine sediment samples compared with other methods.%为了探索有效的海洋底泥宏基因组DNA提取与纯化方法,分别采用CTAB结合SDS法、CTAB结合玻璃珠法、SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和 SoilMasterTM试剂盒法提取海洋底泥宏基因组DNA,用柱式腐殖酸清除试剂盒法与电洗脱法纯化宏基因组 DNA,并对宏基因组 DNA的产量与纯度进行评价。结果表明:SDS 结合蛋白酶 K 法提取率最高,DNA 片段完整;SoilMasterTM试剂盒法与 CTAB结合 SDS法次之;CTAB结合玻璃珠法有严重降解;电洗脱法可以得到高纯度、大于42 kb宏基因组DNA片段。因此,SDS结合蛋白酶 K 法和电洗脱法提取纯化海洋近海底泥宏基因组DNA优于其他方法。

  16. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  17. Generalized Tambara-Yamagami categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liptrap, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Fusion rules generalize groups by allowing multivalued multiplication. Groups are fusion rules of simple current index 1. We classify nilpotent (in the sense of Gelaki and Nikshych) fusion rules of simple current index 2, and characterize the associated fusion categories.

  18. Health physics system scheme for the uranium purification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the two uranium purification processes used in the Chemical Engineerring Division of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, it is examined the possible hazards and methods to control or eliminate them. Since these purification process present several stages, in each one of them it is evaluated the hazards and tried to give adequate solutions to protect both, personnel and installations, from the potential radiation hazards

  19. Development and monitoring of a novel monoclonal antibody purification strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Capito, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The studies presented in the cumulative part of this thesis illustrate the different steps to develop a polymer-driven antibody purification process. These peer-reviewed reports show in detail fundamental research, additional method development useful in the development of such a purification process as well as implementation of the final process. A strategy for analyzing copolymers, synthesized by a lab in house, was implemented with particular emphasis on copolymer composition analysis. Thi...

  20. Reverse calcium affinity purification of Fab with calcium derivatized hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Pete; Cheung, Chia-wei; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces the application of calcium-derivatized hydroxyapatite for purification of Fab. Fab binds to native hydroxyapatite but fails to bind to the calcium derivatized form. IgG, Fc, and most other protein contaminants bind to the calcium form. This supports Fab purification by a simple flow-through method that achieves greater than 95% purity from papain digests and mammalian cell culture supernatants. Alternatively, Fab can be concentrated on native hydroxyapatite then eluted s...

  1. 'Protestantism' as a historical category.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrie, Alec

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘Protestant’ itself is a historical accident, but the category of western Christians who have separated from Rome since 1517 remains a useful one. The confessionalisation thesis, which has dominated recent Reformation historiography, instead posits the two major Protestant confessions and Tridentine Catholicism as its categories, but this can produce a false parallelism in which the nature of relationship between the confessions is oversimplified. Instead, this paper proposes we thin...

  2. Sulla categoria delle categorie esatte

    OpenAIRE

    Margiocco, Marco; Mora, Fulvio

    1981-01-01

    In questo lavoro si studiano alcune proprietà della categoria ex e, in particolare, si costruisce l’esattizzazione di una sottocategoria di una categoria esatta, caratterizzandola mediante una opportuna proprietà universale. In this work we study some properties of the category ex, and construct the «exactization» of a subcategory of an exact category caracterized by an «universal property».

  3. A Convenient Category of Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of topological domains, whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual ω-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, can be used as the basis for a theory of computability, and provides a model of parametric polymorphism.

  4. A convenient category of domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of "topological domains", whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual $omega$-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, provides a model of parametric polymorphism, and can be used as the basis for a theory of computab...

  5. Neural correlates of colour categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Davidoff, Jules B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an electrophysiological marker of visual detection to investigate adults' processing of colour difference. Event-related potentials were collected from the identical colour (green: G0) presented as the frequent or infrequent stimulus within different colour contexts. Critically, we compared differences within the same colour category (G0 vs. green: G1) to differences between colour categories (G0 vs. blue and G0 vs. red). All differences showed a change-related positivity with...

  6. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Liang, E-mail: kong.fan.liang@gmail.com [Institute for Advanced Study (Science Hall), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit) A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  7. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  8. Research on wet purification method of metal tantalum powders by water and acid washing%金属钽粉湿法提纯的水洗和酸洗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包玺芳; 马跃忠; 王治道; 李仲香

    2012-01-01

    A wet purification method of refining metal tantalum powder was researched.After sodium reduction,the primary tantalum powder particles was washed by water and by mixed acid,and other impurities content,such as oxygen,carbon,Si,Fe,Ni and Cr in tantalum powder,were reduced significantly,the target arrived.%研究了一种金属钽粉的湿法提纯方法,即用钠还原后的原生钽粉粒子经水洗和混合酸酸洗,使钽粉中的O,C,Si及Fe,Ni,Cr等杂质质量分数明显降低,达到金属钽粉精炼提纯的目的.

  9. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  10. Condensate purification in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations made by the VGB task group on 'condensate purification for PWR reactors' 1976 are discussed in detail. Techniques and circuiting possibilities of condensate purification for BBR steam generators (forced circulation) and KWU steam generators (U tube with blow-down) are mentioned. (HP)

  11. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  12. Purification of nanoparticles by hollow fiber diafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow Fiber Diafiltration (Hollow Fiber Tangential Flow Filtration) is an efficient and rapid alternative to traditional methods of nanoparticle purification such as ultracentrifugation, stirred cell filtration, dialysis or chromatography. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be used to purify a wide range of nanoparticles including liposomes, colloids, magnetic particles and nanotubes. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration is a membrane based method where pore size determines the retention or transmission of solution components. It is a flow process where the sample is gently circulated through a tubular membrane. With controlled replacement of the permeate or (dialysate), pure nanoparticles can be attained. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be directly scaled up from R and D volumes to production. By adding more membrane fibers and maintaining the operating parameters, large volumes can be processed in the same time with the same pressure, and flow dynamics as bench-scale volumes. Keywords: hollow fiber, Diafiltration, filtration, purification, tangential flow filtration.

  13. Purification of nanoparticles by hollow fiber diafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, J.

    2012-09-01

    Hollow Fiber Diafiltration (Hollow Fiber Tangential Flow Filtration) is an efficient and rapid alternative to traditional methods of nanoparticle purification such as ultracentrifugation, stirred cell filtration, dialysis or chromatography. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be used to purify a wide range of nanoparticles including liposomes, colloids, magnetic particles and nanotubes. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration is a membrane based method where pore size determines the retention or transmission of solution components. It is a flow process where the sample is gently circulated through a tubular membrane. With controlled replacement of the permeate or (dialysate), pure nanoparticles can be attained. Hollow Fiber Diafiltration can be directly scaled up from R&D volumes to production. By adding more membrane fibers and maintaining the operating parameters, large volumes can be processed in the same time with the same pressure, and flow dynamics as bench-scale volumes. Keywords: hollow fiber, Diafiltration, filtration, purification, tangential flow filtration.

  14. Water Purification Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  15. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  16. Post deposition purification of PTCDA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules during evaporation of unpurified raw material in ultra high vacuum was studied. The fragments were identified by mass spectrometry and the influence of these fragments and further contaminations of the raw material on the electronic structure of PTCDA thin films was measured by photoemission spectroscopy. Annealing of contaminated PTCDA films was tested as cheap and easy to perform method for (partial) post deposition purification of the contaminated films

  17. Improved native affinity purification of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Batey, Robert T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. R...

  18. Probabilistic purification of noisy coherent states

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2007-01-01

    A basic feasible probabilistic purification of unknown noisy coherent states, outgoing from different state preparations with unknown mean number of thermal photons, is proposed. The scheme is based only on a linear-optical network with an avalanche photo-diode or heterodyne (homodyne) detection used to post-select a successful processing. The suggested probabilistic method can produce an output state with a lower noise than both quantum deterministic and classical probabilistic distillation ...

  19. Purification of metal-organic framework materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-06-30

    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  20. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    OpenAIRE

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe Tange

    2010-01-01

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of ...

  1. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  2. The application of modified montmorillonite in the processes of baromembrane purification of water from U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of uranium-containing water purification by ultra- and nanofiltration methods combined with the use of montmorillonite modified by polyethyleneimine are studied. It is shown that the application of montmorillonite allows one to obtain the high indices of the uranium-containing water purification by baromembrane methods.

  3. Incremental Interpretation of Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a parser for Categorial Grammar which provides fully word by word incremental interpretation. The parser does not require fragments of sentences to form constituents, and thereby avoids problems of spurious ambiguity. The paper includes a brief discussion of the relationship between basic Categorial Grammar and other formalisms such as HPSG, Dependency Grammar and the Lambek Calculus. It also includes a discussion of some of the issues which arise when parsing lexicalised grammars, and the possibilities for using statistical techniques for tuning to particular languages.

  4. A new cellulose purification approach for higher degree of polymerization: Modeling, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivechi, Ahmad; Bahrami, S Hajir

    2016-11-01

    Degree of polymerization (DP) is an important factor which is affected by purification process. In this study, a new purification process is proposed in which cellulose DP is preserved. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the purification conditions. Purification process of biomass at 100°C in 10g/L sodium hydroxide and 30g/L sodium dithionite, is reported as the optimum condition of this treatment. DP, purity, weight reduction and yellowness index were 6012, 98.10%, 8.46% and 25.22 respectively. TGA, IR, XRD and SEM techniques were used to compare both this new approach and conventional purification treatments. The results showed that this proposed purification process can produce cellulose with higher degree of polymerization compare to the conventional method. PMID:27516274

  5. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Abe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  6. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Tina; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Lindholt, Jes S; Christiansen, Gunna

    2003-01-01

    Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA samples and on whole C. pneumoniae EB. Recovery of DNA was measured with a C. pneumoniae-specific quantitative real-time PCR. A DNA extraction method based on DNA-binding to spin columns with a silica-gel membrane (DNeasy Tissue kit) showed the highest recovery rate for the tissue samples and pure DNA samples. However, an automated extraction method based on magnetic glass particles (MagNA Pure) performed best on intact EB and atherosclerotic tissue spiked with EB. The DNeasy Tissue kit and MagNA Pure methods and the highly sensitive real-time PCR were subsequently used on 78 atherosclerotic tissue samples from Danish patients undergoing vascular repair. None of the samples were positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. The atherosclerotic samples were tested for inhibition by spiking with two different, known amounts of C. pneumoniae DNA and no samples showed inhibition. Conclusion As a highly sensitive PCR method and an optimised DNA extraction method were used, non-detection in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population was probably not caused by use of inappropriate methods. However, more samples may need to be analysed per patient to be completely certain on this. Possible methodological and epidemiological reasons for non-detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population are discussed. Further testing of DNA extraction methods is needed as this study has shown considerable intra- and inter-method variation in DNA recovery. PMID:12952556

  7. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  8. Purification to locally maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multipartite purification protocol for a certain class of multipartite entangled quantum states, the so-called locally maximally entangled (LME) states. The LME states form a large class of multipartite entangled quantum states which can for example be used to encode optimally the maximal number of classical bits and which contains prominent subclasses such as stabilizer states and graph states. There exist already multipartite purification protocols for graph and stabilizer states. However, since the stabilizer of the LME states are in general non-local we had to develop new methods which go beyond the commonly used CNOT-procedure. One of the main challenges was to find protocols to access and process the non-local information contained in the states using only local operations and classical communication.

  9. Brazilian quartz purification by leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity quartz powder presents an increasing demand for the production of silica glass, widely used for semiconductor processing, particularly for photo-voltaic solar cells manufacturing. Motivated by the huge natural quartz potential of this country, the present paper studied the cleansing effect of acid leaching on Brazilian quartz powder, investigating the following parameters: type of solvent, temperature and leaching time. Still, aqueous leaching tests with ultrasound activation were also performed in order to verify its efficiency. The ideal conditions found for leaching,with a 74,2% purification degree, were achieved using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid with hydrochloric acid at 100 deg C for 6 hours. A leaching procedure longer than 6 hours is not necessary, since Fe, Ca, K and Mg amounts do not show significant variation after such time. Also, aqueous leaching caused purification rates higher than 30% for most of the impurities tested, proving itself as a effective leaching method (author)

  10. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  11. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  12. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...

  13. Nel's category theory based differential and integral Calculus, or did Newton know category theory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2005-01-01

    In a series of publications in the early 1990s, L D Nel set up a study of non-normable topological vector spaces based on methods in category theory. One of the important results showed that the classical operations of derivative and integral in Calculus can in fact be obtained by a rather simple construction in categories. Here we present this result in a concise form. It is important to note that the respective differentiation does not lead to any so called generalized derivatives, for inst...

  14. Extraction purification of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentiality of a through extractional purification of scandium from small amounts of impurities (1%) using acid nitrate media and non-diluted tributylphosphate has been studied. Yb and Zr were considered as imitators of impurity element groups. The obtained isotherms of Sc extraction in case of initial acidity of HNO3 of approximately 8 mol/l and 11.5 mol/l in the presence of impurity elements, for which the distribution factors have been defined, are presented. On the basis of the data obtained a two-cascade extractional refining process has been formed and its process parameters have been calculated (and given for one of the cascades). 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Purification of retrovirus genomic RNA suitable for chemical radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for the purification of genomic RNA from the retrovirus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, is described. The method utilizes proteinase K, extraction with sodium perchlorate and chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose and results in highly purified RNA capable of being chemically iodinated with Na125I to high specific radioactivity. The iodinated RNA exhibits 80-90% precipitability in 5% trichloroacetic acid and is >= 99% sensitive to hydrolysis by ribonuclease. Several alternative methods which are effective for the preparation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA are unreliable for purification of retrovirus RNA suitable for radioiodination. (Auth.)

  16. 大孔吸附树脂纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮的工艺研究%Purification technology of total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb.with macroporous resin method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓林; 钟方丽; 刘延超; 薛健飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the optimum purification conditions of total flavonoida in Clematis flanda Thunb. With macroporous resin method. Methods The technological conditions of purification were examined by the static adsorption and desorption experiments as well as dynamic adsorption and desorption tests, and took desorption rate as the main indicator. Results Total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb. Could be well purified with D-101 macroporous resin. On the condition that the concentration of total flavonoids was equal to the 0.2 g/ml raw material, the adsorption rate was 2 BV/h, concentration of ethanol was 95 % , desorption rate was 2 BV/h, and the pH value was 4, the content of eluant was 8 times of the raw material. After purified with macroporous resin method, the purity of Clematis florida Thunb. Was improved from 8.39% to 24.66%. Conclusion The results showed that total flavonoids in Clematis florida Thunb- can be well purified with D-101 macroporous resin.%目的 筛选适合纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮的大孔吸附树脂工艺.方法 采用静态吸附/解吸与动态吸附/解吸相结合的方法,以解吸率为主要指标考察各因素对东北铁线莲总黄酮大孔吸附树脂纯化工艺的影响.结果 6种树脂中D-101型大孔吸附树脂最适合纯化东北铁线莲总黄酮,其最佳工艺为:上样药液东北铁线莲总黄酬浓度相当于原生药0.2g/ml,吸附速率为2 BV/h,解吸液乙醇浓度为95%,解吸速率为2 BV/h,最佳上柱药液pH值为4,洗脱剂用量为8倍柱体积.经大孔吸附树脂分离纯化后,东北铁线莲总黄酮的纯度由8.39%提高到24.66%.结论 D-101型大孔吸附树脂对东北铁线莲总黄酮具有较好的纯化效果.

  17. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  18. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION, CLEANING AND PURIFICATION METHODS OF AFLATOXINS FOR HPLC ANALYSIS AVALIAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO, LIMPEZA E PURIFICAÇÃO DE AFLATOXINAS PARA ANÁLISE EM CROMATOGRAFIA LÍQUIDA DE ALTA EFICIÊNCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Regina Ramos; Edward Madureira Brasil; Robson Maia Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation process was carried out between two methods of aflatoxins extraction, cleaning, and purification, for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The first one is the physical-chemical method, based on chemical reactions for all the stages, and the second mak...

  19. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  20. Cluster algebras and derived categories

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This is an introductory survey on cluster algebras and their (additive) categorification using derived categories of Ginzburg algebras. After a gentle introduction to cluster combinatorics, we review important examples of coordinate rings admitting a cluster algebra structure. We then present the general definition of a cluster algebra and describe the interplay between cluster variables, coefficients, c-vectors and g-vectors. We show how c-vectors appear in the study of quantum cluster algebras and their links to the quantum dilogarithm. We then present the framework of additive categorification of cluster algebras based on the notion of quiver with potential and on the derived category of the associated Ginzburg algebra. We show how the combinatorics introduced previously lift to the categorical level and how this leads to proofs, for cluster algebras associated with quivers, of some of Fomin-Zelevinsky's fundamental conjectures.

  1. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ahmetagić; Blaženka Piuković; Dušan Lukić

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in ...

  2. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  3. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  4. Fusion categories and homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Ostrik, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We apply the yoga of classical homotopy theory to classification problems of G-extensions of fusion and braided fusion categories, where G is a finite group. Namely, we reduce such problems to classification (up to homotopy) of maps from BG to classifiying spaces of certain higher groupoids. In particular, to every fusion category C we attach the 3-groupoid BrPic(C) of invertible C-bimodule categories, called the Brauer-Picard groupoid of C, such that equivalence classes of G-extensions of C are in bijection with homotopy classes of maps from BG to the classifying space of BrPic(C). This gives rise to an explicit description of both the obstructions to existence of extensions and the data parametrizing them; we work these out both topologically and algebraically. One of the central results of the paper is that the 2-truncation of BrPic(C) is canonically the 2-groupoid of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center Z(C) of C. In particular, this implies that the Brauer-Picard group BrPic(C) (i.e., the grou...

  5. Analysis of purification of slightly mineralized natural waters from radioactive pollution of nuclear-energetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of purification at sorption pilot plant of fresh water of Ladoga lake contaminated by radionuclides are represented. It is substantiated the purification technology perfecting by means of addition membrane methods to adsorption ones taking into account man-caused pollutions (petroleum derivatives and corrosion products)

  6. A Versatile and Inexpensive Enzyme Purification Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Shawn O.; Choo, Darryl

    1989-01-01

    Develops an experiment that could be done in two- to three-hour blocks and does not rely on cold room procedures for most of the purification. Describes the materials, methods, and results of the purification of bovine heart lactate dehydrogenase using ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis, and separation using affinity chromatography and…

  7. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  8. (Co)homology of Spectral Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we develop the cotangent complex and (co)homology theories for spectral categories. Along the way, we reproduce standard model structures on spectral categories. As applications, we show that the invariants to descend to stable $\\infty$-categories and we prove a stabilization result for spectral categories.

  9. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  10. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  11. Mapping spaces in Quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Dwyer-Kan theory of homotopy function complexes in model categories to the study of mapping spaces in quasi-categories. Using this, together with our work on rigidification from [DS1], we give a streamlined proof of the Quillen equivalence between quasi-categories and simplicial categories. Some useful material about relative mapping spaces in quasi-categories is developed along the way.

  12. Regular Functors and Relative Realizability Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Stekelenburg, Wouter Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Relative realizability toposes satisfy a universal property that involves regular functors to other categories. We use this universal property to define what relative realizability categories are, when based on other categories than of the topos of sets. This paper explains the property and gives a construction for relative realizability categories that works for arbitrary base Heyting categories. The universal property shows us some new geometric morphisms to relative realizability toposes too.

  13. Novel electrokinetic approaches to improve purification processes with monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Faude, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This work was focussed on mAb separations using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Methods to accelerate long winded development strategies of purification processes with monoclonal antibodies were developed facilitated by further improvement of understanding the basic adsorption mechanisms of proteins on chromatographic resins. The new experimental electrokinetic methods introduced are zeta potential determination with proteins via laser light scattering and electro-...

  14. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author)

  15. A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-Methoxy-2H-1,4-Benzoxazin-3(4H)-One (DIMBOA) from Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LIU Xin-gang; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; GUO Li-qun; KONG Zhi-qiang; TIAN Ying-ying; WU Yan-bin; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2013-01-01

    2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), the dominant benzoxazinoid hydroxamic acid in maize (Zea Mays L.), serves as important factors of resistance against insects and microbial diseases, allelochemicals used in competition with other plants. In this paper, a novel and simple method for the isolation and purification of DIMBOA from maize seedlings was developed. Frozen shoots from 7-d-old maize seedlings (1 000×g) were firstly defrosted and then were directly homogenized and extracted with ethyl acetate. The macerate was allowed to stand at room temperature (25±2)°C for 1 h to allow enzymatic release of DIMBOA from DIMBOA-glucoside. Then the ethyl acetate phase was filtered, dried and evaporated to dryness. The resulting light-tan, semicrystalline residue was stored at -20°C for 24 h. Upon recrystallization from acetone-hexane, a relative higher yield (0.58 g) of pure DIMBOA crystals was obtained compared with the yield afforded by Woodward methodology (0.26 g).

  16. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  17. 简便快捷的小鼠胰岛分离纯化方法研究%A Convenient and Efficient Method of Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    合湫; 苏恒; 李超; 沈涛; 严新民; 薛元明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨小鼠胰岛分离与纯化的方法.方法 采用多点注射灌注胶原酶法消化胰腺,不连续密度梯度离心联合人工挑取的方法分离、纯化胰岛.双硫腙特异性染色后计算胰岛产量及纯度.葡萄糖刺激后测定培养上清液胰岛素水平检测胰岛功能.结果 (1)每只小鼠采用上述分离、纯化法平均得到(114±15)个胰岛,平均纯度为(77.12±3.23)%,胰岛细胞存活率>90%; (2)分离、纯化的胰岛培养上清液中胰岛素水平在无糖、低糖(2.8 mmol/L)和高糖(22.2 mmol/L)刺激下分别为(23.80±3.52) mIU/L、 (67.57 ±4.04) mIU/L和(164.32±10.75) mIU/L,各组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两两比较,低糖组的胰岛素水平为无糖组的2.84倍(P< 0.05),高糖组的胰岛素水平为低糖组的2.43倍(P<0.05),高糖组的胰岛素水平为无糖组的6.90倍(P<0.05).结论 采用多点注射灌注胶原酶法消化胰腺,不连续密度梯度离心联合人工挑取的方法分离、纯化的小鼠胰岛产量及纯度较高,形态完整,不同浓度葡萄糖刺激后胰岛素分泌反应良好,是一种简便、快捷的小鼠胰岛分离方法.%Objective To investigate a convenient and efficient method of mouse pancreatic islets isolation and purification. Methods The isolation of mouse pancreatic islets was carried out by stationary digestion after multi-point injection of collagenase IV solution into the pancreas. A discontinuous Histopaque solution (1119, 1110, 1080 and 1060) was applied for the purification of the islets. Islet cell purity and viability were determined by dithizone ( DTZ) and Trypan blue staining. The islets were cultured overnight and stimulated with different concentration of glucose (0, 2.8 and 22.2mmol/L) for 1 hour. Supernatants were collected for insulin assays by an insulin RIA kit. Results (1) By this optimized islets isolation and purification protocol, each mouse pancreas could yield (114 ± 15) islets, with an

  18. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a

  19. Purification and Characterization of Abrus precatorius Agglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Absar, Nural; Funatsu, Gunki

    1984-01-01

    Abrus pvecatorius agglutinin (APA) has been purified by a new purification procedure from the seeds of semen jequiriti produced in Bangladesh and Taiwan. The method was accomplished by 33-50% saturation ammonium sulfate fraction from 1% acetic acid extract of the seeds of semen jequiriti using gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 126,000 and 122,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 for Bangladesh-APA and ...

  20. Environment purification technology using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation technologies for environment conservation are useful for purification of pollutants contained in flue gas or wastewater at very low concentration which is difficult to perform by conventional methods: removal using fine filter or charcoals and decomposition using catalysis at high temperature, etc. This paper reviews some examples of radiation application to removal of SO2 and NOx from coal-combustion flue gases, decomposition of dioxin in gas emitted through the incinerator, decomposition of gaseous toxic volatile organic compounds in off gas, reuse of agricultural wastes. (author)

  1. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vovk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keywords: biological pollutants, disinfection, effective microorganisms, EM-technology, treatmentfacilities, wastewaters.

  2. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831

  3. Popular Computational Methods to Assess Multiprotein Complexes Derived From Label-Free Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) Experiments*

    OpenAIRE

    Armean, I. M.; Lilley, K.S.; Trotter, M. W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in sensitivity, resolution, mass accuracy, and throughput have considerably increased the number of protein identifications made via mass spectrometry. Despite these advances, state-of-the-art experimental methods for the study of protein-protein interactions yield more candidate interactions than may be expected biologically owing to biases and limitations in the experimental methodology. In silico methods, which distinguish between true and false interactions, have been developed a...

  4. Purification and concentration of DNA from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Dowhan, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    This unit presents basic procedures for manipulating solutions of single- or double-stranded DNA through purification and concentration steps. These techniques are useful when proteins or solute molecules need to be removed from aqueous solutions, or when DNA solutions need to be concentrated. The Basic Protocol, using phenol extraction and ethanol (or isopropanol) precipitation, is appropriate for purification of DNA from small volumes (DNA using butanol, and extract residual organic solvents with ether, respectively. An alternative to these methods is nucleic acid purification using glass beads, and this technique is also presented. These protocols may also be used for purifying RNA. The final two alternate protocols are used for concentrating RNA and extracting and precipitating DNA from larger volumes and from dilute solutions, and for removing low-molecular-weight oligonucleotides and triphosphates. PMID:21948158

  5. Different options in purification of polluted water volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor accidents result usually in pollution of water volumes in reactor cooling circuits and pools, with radioactive and/or inactive solutes. Effective methods of water purification consist in the application of different ion-exchanger filters built-in in technological circuits, spare filters aimed to work only in accident conditions, as well as transportable filter units. The last can be conveniently fitted for actual tasks, e.g. for selective removal of given radionuclides from aqueous solution. In this connection, main dynamic approaches to the problem of reactor coolant water purification are discussed. This talk includes also discussion on the use of built-in and transportable filter units in different water-purification courses, with regard to actual problems, met u.a. during operation of polish experimental nuclear reactors

  6. Purification of thyrotropin from human hypophysis: preliminary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of stored crude preparations for isolation of human tyrotropin (TSH) was evaluated according to Ross et al from a side fraction obtained during the purification of growth hormone from frozen pituitaries (SOMATORMON). Six crude TSH preparations were stored at - 200C during several years for further purification. One of these preparations was purified by sucessive chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, hydroxylapatite and SP-Sephadex C50. The TSH content present in the chromatographic fractions and in the pools was assayed by specific radioimmunoassay developed at our laboratory. The protein determination of the fractions and pools was performed by absorbance at 280 nm and by the method of Lowry at al, respectively. The TSH activity increased eight times during the purification and the TSH purified had a radioimmunological potency around half that de scribed by Roos at al. The results suggest the fitness of long time stored preparations in the attainment of pure TSH. (author)

  7. Recovery of americium-241 from raffinates of plutonium purification columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery and purification of americium from ion exchange raffinates generated during purification of aged plutonium is described. The method consists of the following stages: (i) co-precipitation of americium with kilogramme quantities of rare earth oxalates, (ii) destruction of oxalate and removal of residual plutonium from nitric acid medium using anion exchange process, (iii) preliminary separation of americium making use of its preferential uptake on an anion exchange column from thiocyanate medium and (iv) extraction of americium and remaining rare earths into di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid followed by preferential back washing of americium by lactic acid medium containing DTPA. (author)

  8. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  9. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models

  10. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...... of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of...... the differences, which one also finds between them. The paper ends with an examination of the behavioural consequences of these institutional arrangements, which one also finds elsewehre, i.e. ion Estonia, Iceland, Norway and New Zealand (in the new electoral system currently being implemented there)....

  12. Popular computational methods to assess multiprotein complexes derived from label-free affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armean, Irina M; Lilley, Kathryn S; Trotter, Matthew W B

    2013-01-01

    Advances in sensitivity, resolution, mass accuracy, and throughput have considerably increased the number of protein identifications made via mass spectrometry. Despite these advances, state-of-the-art experimental methods for the study of protein-protein interactions yield more candidate interactions than may be expected biologically owing to biases and limitations in the experimental methodology. In silico methods, which distinguish between true and false interactions, have been developed and applied successfully to reduce the number of false positive results yielded by physical interaction assays. Such methods may be grouped according to: (1) the type of data used: methods based on experiment-specific measurements (e.g., spectral counts or identification scores) versus methods that extract knowledge encoded in external annotations (e.g., public interaction and functional categorisation databases); (2) the type of algorithm applied: the statistical description and estimation of physical protein properties versus predictive supervised machine learning or text-mining algorithms; (3) the type of protein relation evaluated: direct (binary) interaction of two proteins in a cocomplex versus probability of any functional relationship between two proteins (e.g., co-occurrence in a pathway, sub cellular compartment); and (4) initial motivation: elucidation of experimental data by evaluation versus prediction of novel protein-protein interaction, to be experimentally validated a posteriori. This work reviews several popular computational scoring methods and software platforms for protein-protein interactions evaluation according to their methodology, comparative strengths and weaknesses, data representation, accessibility, and availability. The scoring methods and platforms described include: CompPASS, SAINT, Decontaminator, MINT, IntAct, STRING, and FunCoup. References to related work are provided throughout in order to provide a concise but thorough introduction to a

  13. On generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ for a quiver variety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a method for relating the generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ defined by the author and collaborators to explicit finitely presented algebras, and apply this to quiver varieties. This allows us to describe combinatorially not just the structure of these category $\\mathcal{O}$'s but also how certain interesting families of derived equivalences, the shuffling and twisting functors, act on them. In the case of Nakajima quiver varieties, the algebras that appear are weighted...

  14. Membrane Separation for Biogas Purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Lenka; Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Šimčík, Miroslav; Vejražka, Jiří; Izák, Pavel

    Praha : Česká společnost průmyslové chemie, 2015, s. 28 /p65./. ISBN 978-80-86238-73-9. [mezinárodní chemicko-technologická konference (ICCT 2015) /3./. Mikulov (CZ), 13.04.2015-15.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : membrane separation * biogas purification * biogas purification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Locally finitely presented categories and functor rings

    OpenAIRE

    García, J L; Gómez Sánchez, P.L.; J. Martínez Hernández

    2005-01-01

    By using the correspondence between locally finitely presented additive categories and rings with enough idempotents, we study several properties of such rings in terms of the associated categories, and conversely. In particular, it is shown that a ring $R$ (with enough idempotents) is right perfect and the categories of finitely presented right and left $R$-modules are dual to each other if and only if the categories of projective and of injective right $R$-modules are equi...

  16. Abelian crossed modules and strict Picard categories

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen Tien; Phung, Che Thi Kim; Tung, Ngo Sy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we state the notion of morphisms in the category of abelian crossed modules and prove that this category is equivalent to the category of strict Picard categories and regular symmetric monoidal functors. The theory of obstructions for symmetric monoidal functors and symmetric cohomology groups are applied to show a treatment of the group extension problem of the type of an abelian crossed module.

  17. Compact generators in categories of matrix factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dyckerhoff, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We study the category of matrix factorizations associated to the germ of an isolated hypersurface singularity. This category is shown to admit a compact generator which is given by the stabilization of the residue field. We deduce a quasi-equivalence between the category of matrix factorizations and the differential graded (dg) derived category of an explicitly computable dg algebra. Building on this result, we employ a variant of Toën's derived Morita theory to identify continuous functors b...

  18. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  19. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zande, P.; Jesse, A.; Cutler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment ...

  20. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septimiu Crivei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of , called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover.

  1. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  2. 双向差速法制备高纯度雪旺细胞的实验研究%Novel method of Schwann cell purification by differential velocity of cell attachment and detachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炎; 彭江; 卢世壁; 张莉; 宫旭; 陈继凤; 王玉; 赵斌; 任志午; 詹胜峰; 许文静

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To establish a novel efficient method of Schwann cell purification by the characteristic that there has been a different velocity of attachment and detachment between Schwann cells and fibroblast. [ Method] Postnatal SD rat's(3 day old) sciatic nerve segments were harvested and epinuims were striped off aseptically under a dissecting microscope. The nerve segments were digested by Collagenase NB4 at a concentratin of 0.2% with a rotator for 15 min. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation,the cell digest was allowed to settle on polylysine-coated flasks for 30 min with intermittent shaking,and then the suspended cells were transferred to new flasks. After 48h primary culture,culture media was replaced with the 0. 05% collagenase. After incubation at 37 t for 30 min, the flasks were shaked horizontally to release rounded up or detaching cells after another 48h culture. The final purified cells were identified with immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. [ Result] After two rounds of attach and detach purification the number of Schwann cells reached about (117. 2 ± 3.4) x 104 per 25 cm2 and purity was a-chieved 97.9%. [ Conclusion] A large number of purified Schwann cells can be obtained by our simple,fast and safe method within only 72h,and might be valuable for studies related to basic science of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.%[目的]利用乳鼠的雪旺细胞与成纤维细胞贴壁及复合酶消化分离速度不同的特点,建立简单而快速提取和纯化雪旺细胞的方法.[方法]取3 dSD大鼠双侧坐骨神经,在解剖镜下剥离去除神经外膜,剪碎后用0.2%复合胶原酶( Collagenase NB4)消化,细胞悬液接种于预先用多聚赖氨酸包被的培养瓶差速贴壁30 rain,然后将细胞悬液移入一新的培养瓶培养48 h;用0.05%复合胶原酶37℃消化30 min,振荡分离雪旺细胞与成纤维细胞,培养48 h后在相差显微镜下观察细胞形态;计数、纯度测定;免

  3. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    This study describes easy purification methods for mink IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins. IgG and IgM were purified from normal mink serum, while IgA was purified from mink bile from healthy animals. By SDS-polyacrylamid-gel-electrophoresis  (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting under reducing conditions...

  4. Modified normal-phase ion-pair chromatographic methods for the facile separation and purification of imidazolium-based ionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, ND; Schenkel, MR; Robertson, LA; Noble, RD; Gin, DL

    2012-07-04

    lmidazolium- and oligo(imidazolium)-based ionic organic compounds are important in the design of room-temperature ionic liquid materials; however, the chromatographic analysis and separation of such compounds are often difficult. A convenient and inexpensive method for effective thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and column chromatography separation of imidazolium-based ionic compounds is presented. Normal-phase ion-pair TLC is used to effectively analyze homologous mixtures of these ionic compounds. Subsequent separation of the mixtures is performed using ion-pair flash chromatography on normal-phase silica gel, yielding high levels of recovery. This method also results in a complete exchange of the counter anion on the imidazolium compounds to the anion of the ion-pair reagent. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  6. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide γ-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of γ-radiation;· low dose rate ∼10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature

  7. Microscale purification of proteins by line immunoelectrophoresis: application of the technique in protein biogenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale version of line immunoelectrophoresis in combination with immunoprecipitate excision is described as a rapid and convenient technique to purify proteins on a micro scale in biogenesis studies. In the purification and to result in a higher state of purity than an isolation procedure...... using protein A-Sepharose. Since the method furthermore allows a simultaneous purification of several different protein antigens from the same sample, it may be of interest as an alternative method to other procedures in the purification of proteins on a micro scale....

  8. An analysis of main factors in electron beam flue gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam flue gas purification method is developing very quickly in recent years. Based on the experiment setting for electron beam flue gas purification in Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsinghua University, how the technique factors affect the ratio of desulphurization and denitrogenation are described. Radiation dose (D), temperature (T), humidity (H), pour ammonia quantity (α) and initial concentration of SO2 (CSO2) and NOx (CNOx ) are main factors influencing flue gas purification. Using the methods of correlation analysis and regression analysis, the primary effect factors are found out and the regression equations are set to optimize the system process, predigest the system structure and to forecast the experimental results. (authors)

  9. Optimization of the Purification Process of Anthocyanin from Lonicera edulis by Response Surface Method%响应面法优化蓝靛果花色苷分离纯化工艺1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬华; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that anthocyanins have significant therapeutic effect of the eye disease ,the an‐thocyanin purity of Lonicera edulis by macro‐porous resin purification by conventional method is 14%‐18% ,it is difficult to reach more than 24% for anthocyanin purity as medicinal need of the EU regula‐tions .In this experiment ,Lonicera edulis anthocyanin which is purified by X‐5 as raw material ,polyam‐ide as chromatographic media ,single factor experiments were carried out by purity and recovery rate as index ;based on these experiments ,concentration of sample ,sample volume ,elution velocity as variables , anthocyanin purity as response value ,using the Box‐Benhnken principle for central composite design and response surface analysis method ,the prediction model of two the regression equation was received by simulation ,optimum conditions to get the chromatography :concentration of sample 3 .0mg/mL ,sample volume was 25mL ,the ratio of diameter to length is 1∶ 15 ,the concentration of ethanol eluent was 60% ,the eluent flow rate is 2mL/min ,the purity of the purified anthocyanins under these conditions reached 34 .85% ,and the predicted value of 34 .47% ,shows that the model has certain practical signifi‐cance .Anthocyanin purity is doubled of anthocyanin by micro‐porous resin purification ,about 14 times of unpurified anthocyanin extracts .%  研究表明,花色苷具有显著的治疗眼疾的效果,常规法用大孔树脂纯化的蓝靛果花色苷纯度大概在14%~18%,很难达到欧盟规定的药用的花色苷纯度需达到24%以上。实验以X‐5纯化后的蓝靛果花色苷为原料,以聚酰胺作为层析介质,以纯度和回收率为指标进行单因素实验,在此基础上,以上样浓度、上样体积、洗脱流速为自变量,花色苷的纯度为响应值,利用Box‐Benhnken中心组合设计原理及响应面分析法,模拟得到二次回归方程的预测模型,获得层析的最

  10. The balanced tensor product of module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Christopher L.; Schommer-Pries, Christopher; Snyder, Noah

    2014-01-01

    The balanced tensor product M (x)_A N of two modules over an algebra A is the vector space corepresenting A-balanced bilinear maps out of the product M x N. The balanced tensor product M [x]_C N of two module categories over a monoidal linear category C is the linear category corepresenting C-balanced right-exact bilinear functors out of the product category M x N. We show that the balanced tensor product can be realized as a category of bimodule objects in C, provided the monoidal linear cat...

  11. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  12. A Method for Multiple Mycotoxin Analysis in Wines by Solid Phase Extraction and Multifunctional Cartridge Purification, and Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method using two solid phase extractions and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 mycotoxins (patulin, deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisins B1, B2, B3, and ochratoxin A in domestic and imported wines. Mycotoxins were purified with an Oasis HLB cartridge, followed by a MultiSepTM #229 Ochra. As a result, sufficient removal of the pigments and highly polar matrices from the red wines was achieved. UHPLC conditions were optimized, and 14 mycotoxins were separated in a total of 13 min. Determinations performed using this method produced high correlation coefficients for the 14 mycotoxins (R > 0.990 and recovery rates ranging from 76 to 105% with good repeatability (relative standard deviation RSD < 12%. Twenty-seven samples of domestic and imported wines were analyzed using this method. Although ochratoxin A (OTA and fumonisins (FMs were detected in several samples, the FM levels were less than limits of quantification (LOQs (1 μg/L, and even the largest of the OTA levels was below the EU regulatory level (2 μg/L. These results suggest that the health risk posed to consumers from the wines available in Japan is relatively low.

  13. Small-scale purification of butyrylcholinesterase from human plasma and implementation of a μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS method to detect its organophosphorus adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Schmidt, Christian; Mizaikoff, Boris; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2015-10-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a serine hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.8) present in all mammalian tissues and the bloodstream. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme reacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) like nerve agents or pesticides that cause enzyme inhibition (BChE adducts). These adducts represent valuable biomarkers for analytical verification of OP exposure. For establishment of these mass spectrometry based methods sufficient amounts of hBChE in high purity are required. Unfortunately, commercial lots are of inappropriate purity thus favouring in-house isolation. Therefore, we developed a small scale procedure to isolate hBChE from citrate plasma. After precipitation by polyethylene glycol (8% w/v and 20% w/v PEG 6000) hBChE was purified from plasma by four consecutive chromatographic steps including anion exchange, affinity extraction and size exclusion. Protein elution was monitored on-line by UV-absorbance (280 nm) followed by continuous fractionation for off-line analysis of (1) hBChE enzyme activity by Ellman assay, (2) protein purity by gel electrophoresis, and (3) protein identity by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Numerous major impurities separated from hBChE were identified. The purified material was used for in vitro incubation with diverse OP to establish a μ-liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection/electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometric method (μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS) for detection of hBChE adducts suitable for verification analysis. Analytical data for diverse OP pesticides including deuterated analogues as well as G- and V-type nerve agents and their precursor are summarized. This method was successfully applied to plasma samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for the 4th Biomedical Exercise. PMID:25828536

  14. Studies on the gonococcal IgA1 protease II. Improved methods of enzyme purification and production of monoclonal antibodies to the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M S; Eastby, C

    1991-11-22

    Two types of extremely active proteases that cleave human IgA1 are produced by pathogenic Neisseria in minute concentrations. To study the antigenicity of these enzymes, a simplified method is described to purify these enzymes from large batch cultures to obtain a sufficient quantity of these IgA1 proteases to study these characteristics. In addition, we describe the production of both rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies to one of these enzymes. One such monoclonal antibody seemed directed toward the active site of the IgA1 protease and inhibited its enzymatic activity. PMID:1960418

  15. The Chinese Text Categorization System with Category Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Chao Keh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of text categorization involves some understanding of the content of the documents and/or some previous knowledge of the categories. For the content of the documents, we use a filtering measure for feature selection in our Chinese text categorization system. We modify the formula of Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF to strengthen important keywords’ weights and weaken unimportant keywords’ weights. For the knowledge of the categories, we use category priority to represent the relationship between two different categories. Consequently, the experimental results show that our method can effectively not only decrease noise text but also increase the accuracy rate and recall rate of text categorization.

  16. Nanotitania Oxide for Water Purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywetta; Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Kaštánek, František

    Colombo: International Institute of Knowledge Management , 2015 - (Nalin de Silva, K.), s. 17 ISBN 978-955-4903-32-6. [International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - 2015 /2./. Colombo (LK), 02.09.2015-04.09.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titanium dioxide * endocrine disruptors * water purification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  18. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  19. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  20. Establishing Efficient Purification Method of Recombinant Interleukin -2%重组白细胞介素-2高效纯化方法建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤; 李海涛; 张润祥; 朱言柱; 刘艳环; 冯卓; 苗利光

    2014-01-01

    依次通过离子交换法、凝胶过滤法纯化重组白细胞介素-2(IL-2)粗品,利用SDS-PAGE电泳和hIL-2 Elisa kit检测纯化后重组IL-2的纯度和浓度。结果表明,纯化后的重组IL-2纯度和浓度高。本纯化方法简单、稳定、纯化效果好,可为重组IL-2的生产工艺提供技术支持和依据。%The sample of recombinant interleukin -2was purified by Ion exchange method and Gel filtration respectively .The purity and the concentration of RIL -2 were determined by SDS -Page and hIL-2 Elisa kit .The results showed that purity and the concentration of RIL -2 were high .This method is simple and stable ,and the efficient purity of RIL -2 can be obtained .It can provide evidence to produce RIL -2 for industry .

  1. Approximation in quantale-enriched categories

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Our work is a fundamental study of the notion of approximation in V-categories and in (U,V)-categories, for a quantale V and the ultrafilter monad U. We introduce auxiliary, approximating and Scott-continuous distributors, the way-below distributor, and continuity of V- and (U,V)-categories. We fully characterize continuous V-categories (resp. (U,V)-categories) among all cocomplete V-categories (resp. (U,V)-categories) in the same ways as continuous domains are characterized among all dcpos. By varying the choice of the quantale V and the notion of ideals, and by further allowing the ultrafilter monad to act on the quantale, we obtain a flexible theory of continuity that applies to partial orders and to metric and topological spaces. We demonstrate on examples that our theory unifies some major approaches to quantitative domain theory.

  2. Purification of U and Pu from Bulk Environmental Samples for Analysis by MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure gives the methods used at LLNL for the purification of uranium and plutonium from bulk environmental samples provided by the IAEA through the DOE Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL)

  3. Purificação parcial, por dois diferentes métodos cromatográficos, da lipase produzida por Rhizopus sp. Partial purification of the lipase from Rhizopus sp by two different chromatographic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipases, especialmente as de origem microbiana, são largamente utilizadas em processos e na obtenção de produtos para as indústrias química, cosmética, farmacêutica e alimentícia. A produção de enzimas de elevada pureza é importante, principalmente, do ponto de vista do controle dos processos (ausência de interferentes, porém as etapas necessárias à purificação, em geral, provocam perdas na atividade das enzimas e aumentam seu custo final. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a melhor metodologia de purificação para a lipase de Rhizopus sp. através do teste de dois diferentes métodos cromatográficos (troca iônica e interação hidrofóbica e, ainda verificar o melhor planejamento estatístico para caracterização bioquímica da mesma. Foi possível purificar parcialmente a lipase de Rhizopus sp. com o uso de coluna de DEAE Sepharose (troca aniônica e de FENIL Sepharose (interação hidrofóbica. A primeira, embora mais seletiva para a enzima em questão, parece provocar redução de sua atividade. A presença de maiores concentrações de íons Na+1 na fração purificada por FENIL Sepharose parece contribuir para o aumento de atividade da lipase. Embora os resultados obtidos por análise multivariável para determinação das características bioquímicas da lipase sejam compatíveis com a análise univariável, aquele planejamento não foi considerado indicado no presente caso.Lipases, especially of microbial origin, are widely applied in processes and in the production of insumesfor the chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. To produce highly pure enzyme is important to process control (absence of interferentes. However the necessary stages to the purification, in general, cause losses of activity and increases enzyme final cost. The aim of this work was to consider the best methodology of purification for the Rhizopus sp. lipase through the test of two different chromatographic methods (ion exchange

  4. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  5. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  6. Purification of plutonium obtained during the lean organic treatment steps in CORAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is optimized for the purification of impure plutonium oxide obtained during in the spent solvent treatment cycles by ammonium carbonate or hydrazine carbonate. In the present method uranium is removed by washing with 4 N nitric acid and HBDP oxidized products by washing with ammonium hydroxide. The other metallic impurities are removed by total dissolution of plutonium oxide followed by oxalate precipitation and calcination. The plutonium product after the purification was found to meet the specification required for fuel fabrication. (author)

  7. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  8. The Purification of Yttrium by Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification of yttrium by extraction process in the solution of nitric acid rare earth with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) have been investigated. Feed as nitric acid rare earth solution was prepared by method digestion of xenotime sand. The contents of yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) rare earth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence. The purification was done by liquid-liquid extraction process from the feed mixture of rare earth. Variable that effect the distribution of rare earth as function of concentration of nitric acid in the aqueous phase, the concentration of organic phase in kerosene, and time of extraction. The best results at the separation was obtained as follows : concentration of nitric acid = 0.5 M, the concentration of organic phase = 30% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in kerosene, and time of extraction = 15 minutes. At this condition were the value of the separation factor of Y-La 126.9403 and separation factor of Y-Ce = 89.7923. (author)

  9. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  10. Purification of uranium from fission products by ammonium uranyl carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of the oxalate filtrate generated in plutonium reconversion laboratory involves recovery of plutonium by uranous oxalate carrier precipitation and uranium by ammonium diuranate precipitation. The ammonium di-uranate precipitate generally carries most of the fission products which are high energy gamma emitters. Purification of uranium from the fission products has been investigated employing ammonium carbonate which dissolves the slurry and re-precipitates uranium as ammonium uranyl carbonate. Fission product decontamination factor has been evaluated, which indicate the possibility of 99.6% recovery and purification of uranium from fission products. This method simplifies the purification process with less man-rem exposure and high quality end product. (author)

  11. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification

  12. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, P.P.; Humbel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification.

  13. Clinical observation of curative effects of different blood purification methods on restless legs syndrome%不同血液净化方式治疗不安腿综合征的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊峰; 肖秋霞; 李宏辉; 李小艳; 汪俊超; 钟小燕; 吴任远; 陈科

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察血液灌流(HP)串联血液透析(HD)治疗不安腿综合征的临床疗效,探讨不同血液净化方式治疗不安腿综合征的优越性.方法 将26例有不安腿综合征的长期维持血液透析的病人随机分为治疗组(13例)和对照组(13例),对照组常规行血液透析治疗,治疗组行血液灌流串联血液透析(HP+HD)治疗(1次/w),连续2个月.观察2组治疗2个月前后临床表现及血清甲状旁腺激素(PTH)浓度变化.结果 治疗组总有效率84.62%,治疗后PTH浓度明显下降(P<0.01).对照组治疗后临床症状及PTH均无明显变化,总有效率23.07%,低于治疗组的总有效率(P<0.01).结论 HP+HD治疗不安腿综合征明显优于单独使用HD治疗.%Objective To observe the clinical effects of hemoperfusion ( HP ) combined with hemodialysis ( HD ) on restless leg syndrome, and discuss the advantages of different blood purification methods for this syndrome. Methods 26 patients with restless leg syndrome and receiving long - term maintenance - hemodialysis were randomly divided into treatment group ( 13 cases ) and control group ( 13 cases ). The control group only received HD,while the treatment group received HP combined with HD once a week for two successive months. Changes of clinical manifestation and concentration of serum parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) of the two groups were observed before and after the treatment. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 84.62%. After the treatment,the concentration of PTH decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ). The total effective rate of the control group was 23.07% , which was lower than that of the treatment group ( P < 0.01 ). There were no obvious changes of the clinical manifestation and PTH in the control group after the treatment. Conclusion The curative effect of HP combined with HD for restless leg syndrome is obviously better than that of HD alone.

  14. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  15. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, that is as deductive systems which take advantage of the linear order of the syntactic categories. In Chapter 4 they are formulated as polynomial parsing algorithms. An important aspect is the formul...

  16. The category demand effects of price promotions.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijs, VR; Dekimpe, Marnik; Steenkamp, J.; Hanssens, DM

    1999-01-01

    Although price promotions have increased in both commercial use and quantity of academic research over the last decade, most of the attention has been focused on their effects on brand choice and brand sales. By contrast, little is known about the conditions under which price promotions expand short-run and long-run category demand, even though the benefits of category expansion can be substantial to manufacturers and retailers alike. This paper studies the category-demand effects of consumer...

  17. Process for fine purification of fission molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with a method for the fine purification of fission molybdenum, dissolved in anionic form together with the anions of the fission products of J, Sn, Ce, Ru, and Zr in an aqueous mineral acid solution; in this process the fission molybdenum is a) fixed on a metal oxide in a sorption step and b) released again in a desorption step. By the invention, a method shall be created, which is, under less favourable working conditions, almost insusceptible to failure and can be safely carried out with low expenditure of operation time, working equipment and handling technique and which delivers a highly pure Mo-99 product with a decreased volume of radioactive waste at the same time. (orig./RB)

  18. Stable Postnikov data of Picard 2-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gurski, Nick; Johnson, Niles; Osorno, Angélica M.; Stephan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Picard 2-categories are symmetric monoidal 2-categories with invertible 0-, 1-, and 2-cells. The classifying space of a Picard 2-category $\\mathcal{D}$ is an infinite loop space, the zeroth space of the $K$-theory spectrum $K\\mathcal{D}$. This spectrum has stable homotopy groups concentrated in levels 0, 1, and 2. In this paper, we describe part of the Postnikov data of $K\\mathcal{D}$ in terms of categorical structure. We use this to show that there is no strict skeletal Picard 2-category who...

  19. Methods for Pseudopodia Purification and Proteomic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Shi-Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Feng; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2007-08-21

    Directional cell migration (chemotaxis) plays a central role in a wide spectrum of physiological and pathological processes, including embryo development, wounding healing, immunity, and cancer metastasis (1, 2). The process of chemotaxis is characterized by the sustained migration of cells in the direction of an increasing concentration of chemoattractant and/or ECM protein. Upon sensing the chemoattractant cells response with localized amplification of signals on the side facing the gradient (3-7). The spatial signal propagation facilitates reorganization of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton leading to extension of a dominant pseudopodium (PD) only in the direction of chemoattractant (7-10). While it is clear that localized signaling is critical for pseudopodium formation and chemotaxis, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this response remain poorly defined. To investigate mechanisms of pseudopodia formation, we recently described a novel approach to separate the PD and cell body (CB) compartments for large scale proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses using chambers equipped with microporous filters (Fig. 1) (3, 7, 11). This in vitro system recapitulates physiological events associates with pseudopodial protrusion through small openings in the ECM and the vessel wall during immune cell intravasation and cancer cell metastasis (12, 13). The model system has been used to reveal important signaling pathways and novel proteins that mediate cell migration. This model, combined with the state-of-the-art proteomics and phosphoproteomics technology, will provide an effective approach to systematically analyze the proteins that differentially localized or phosphorylated in the front and the back of polarized migrating cells. In the following sections, we will describe in detail the protocols used to purify the PD and CB compartments for large-scale proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses using mass spectrometry.

  20. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  1. The Protein Maker: an automated system for high-throughput parallel purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Protein Maker instrument addresses a critical bottleneck in structural genomics by allowing automated purification and buffer testing of multiple protein targets in parallel with a single instrument. Here, the use of this instrument to (i) purify multiple influenza-virus proteins in parallel for crystallization trials and (ii) identify optimal lysis-buffer conditions prior to large-scale protein purification is described. The Protein Maker is an automated purification system developed by Emerald BioSystems for high-throughput parallel purification of proteins and antibodies. This instrument allows multiple load, wash and elution buffers to be used in parallel along independent lines for up to 24 individual samples. To demonstrate its utility, its use in the purification of five recombinant PB2 C-terminal domains from various subtypes of the influenza A virus is described. Three of these constructs crystallized and one diffracted X-rays to sufficient resolution for structure determination and deposition in the Protein Data Bank. Methods for screening lysis buffers for a cytochrome P450 from a pathogenic fungus prior to upscaling expression and purification are also described. The Protein Maker has become a valuable asset within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) and hence is a potentially valuable tool for a variety of high-throughput protein-purification applications

  2. Experimental studies on islets isolation, purification and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinlu; Xue, Wujun; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Teng, Yan; Ding, Xiaoming; Pan, Xiaoming; Guo, Qi; He, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a simple and effective method of islet isolation and purification in rats. Collagenase P was injected into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath to digest the pancreas and isolate islet, then discontinuous gravity gradient purification was used to purify the islet. The purified islets were identified by dithizone staining. The viability of islets was assessed by fluorescence staining of acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test and transplantation of rat with streptozocin-induced diabetes. 738±193 islets were recovered after purification. The average purity was 77±13%, the viability of islets was more than 95%. When inspected by glucose stimulation, the secreted insulin concentration was 24.31±5.47 mIU/L when stimulated by low concentration glucose and 37.62±4.29 mIU/L by high concentration glucose. There was significant difference between the two phases (Pmethod of injecting collagenase into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath and purification using discontinuous gravity gradient. PMID:26885021

  3. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez; Persson, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-ass...

  4. Purification of radiolabeled RNA products using denaturing gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Hironori; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This unit discusses a basic method for purification of radiolabeled RNAs using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method consists of a number of experimental procedures, including total RNA preparation from yeast cells, isolation of a specific RNA from total yeast RNA, RNA 3' terminal labeling using nucleotide (5’[32P]pCp) addition (via ligation), denaturing (8 M urea) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and RNA extraction from the gel slice. Key points for achieving good elec...

  5. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ahmetagić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in establishing an effective organization of business processes. The definition of gap existing between the current approach to organizing business activities and the need to establish an approach based on knowledge, information technologies, and effective business process management points to the necessity for organization redesign and standard definition in business process management. Sewage purification business process management in Vojvodina, the Republic of Serbia has been elaborated through theoretical presentation and a practical example realized by electronic ISO 9001:2008 system of quality management in public water utility company JKP "Vodokanal" Sombor.

  6. A highly efficient group-assisted purification method for the synthesis of poly-functionalized pyrimidin-5-yl-pyrroles via one-pot four-component domino reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommaraju, Yuvaraj; Prajapati, Dipak

    2015-02-01

    A highly efficient, catalyst-free group-assisted purification chemical protocol for the construction of pyrimidine containing poly-functionalized pyrroles from a four-component domino reaction of acyclic-1,3-dicarbonyls or electron deficient alkynes, aromatic amines, barbituric acid and arylglyoxal hydrates under mild reaction conditions has been developed. The prominent features of the present protocol are environmentally benign, mild reaction conditions, atom economy, no column chromatography separation, easy isolation of products and excellent yields. PMID:25173493

  7. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  8. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  9. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  10. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687. ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  11. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  12. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  13. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  14. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  15. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  16. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed...

  17. Monoidal category of operad of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Maria Ernestina Chavez

    2011-01-01

    Usually a name of the category is inherited from the name of objects. However more relevant for a category of objects and morphisms is an algebra of morphisms. Therefore we prefer to say a category of graphs if every morphism is a graph. In a monoidal category every morphism can be seen as a graph, and a partial algebra of morphisms possesses a structure of an operad, operad of graphs. We consider a monoidal category of operad of graphs with underlying graphical calculus. If, in particular, there is a single generating objects, then each morphism is a bi-arity graph. The graphical calculus, multi-grafting of morphisms, is developed ab ovo. We interpret algebraic logic and predicate calculus within a monoidal category of operad of graphs, and this leads to the graphical logic. A logic based on a braided monoidal category is said to be the braided logic. We consider a braided monoidal category generated by one object. We are demonstrating how the braided logic is related to implicative algebra and to the Heytin...

  18. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  19. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  20. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  1. Rapid purification of radiodinated glucagon with Sep-PakR reversed phase cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid method is described for the purification of radioiodinated glucagon for use in radioimmunoassay. Samples of the radioiodinated hormone, before and after purification are analysed on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 125I incorporation in these samples is also checked through thrichloroacetic acid precipitation. The usefulness of this labeled glucagon in radioimmunoassay is demonstrated by its biding to specific antibodies. (M.A.C.)

  2. Effects of Two Purification Pretreatments on Electroless Copper Coating over Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Zheng; Lianjie Li; Shijie Dong; Anchun Xiao; Shixuan Sun; Sinian Li

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the reinforcement of copper matrix composite by single-walled carbon nanotubes, a three-step-refluxing purification of carbon nanotubes sample with HNO3-NaOH-HCl was proposed and demonstrated. A previously reported purification process using an electromagnetic stirring with H2O2/HCl mixture was also repeated. Then, the purified carbon nanotubes were coated with copper by the same electroless plating process. At the end, the effects of the method on carbon nanotubes themselves and o...

  3. Partial purification and characterization of alpha-amylases from Abrus precatorius, Burnatia enneandra and Cadaba farinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Klang, M.J.; Talamond, Pascale; Djidimbele, N.; Tavea, F.; Ndjouenkeu, R.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Abrus precatorius, tubers of Burnatia enneandra and stems of Cadaba farinosa are used in savannah regions of Cameroon in traditional food processing, particularly in sweetening and liquefaction of gruels. α-amylase was extracted and partially purified from these plants using conventional methods of protein purification including ammonium sulfate fractionation and two steps of gel filtration. Purification achieved 58, 61 and 46 fold respectively for A. precatorius, B. enneandra ...

  4. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  5. Silver nanocluster catalytic microreactors for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, B.; Habibi, M.; Ognier, S.; Schelcher, G.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Khalesifard, H. R. M.; Tatoulian, M.; Bonn, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the elaboration of a novel type of catalytic microsystem with a high specific area catalyst is developed. A silver nanocluster catalytic microreactor was elaborated by doping a soda-lime glass with a silver salt. By applying a high power laser beam to the glass, silver nanoclusters are obtained at one of the surfaces which were characterized by BET measurements and AFM. A microfluidic chip was obtained by sealing the silver coated glass with a NOA 81 microchannel. The catalytic activity of the silver nanoclusters was then tested for the efficiency of water purification by using catalytic ozonation to oxidize an organic pollutant. The silver nanoclusters were found to be very stable in the microreactor and efficiently oxidized the pollutant, in spite of the very short residence times in the microchannel. This opens the way to study catalytic reactions in microchannels without the need of introducing the catalyst as a powder or manufacturing complex packed bed microreactors.

  6. Is Expressive Language Disorder an Accurate Diagnostic Category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To propose that the diagnostic category of "expressive language disorder" as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Method: Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language…

  7. Prediction of human protein function according to Gene Ontology categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    developed a method for prediction of protein function for a subset of classes from the Gene Ontology classification scheme. This subset includes several pharmaceutically interesting categories-transcription factors, receptors, ion channels, stress and immune response proteins, hormones and growth factors...

  8. Improving Classification Performance with Single-category Concept Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Discarding more and more complicated algorithms, this paper presents a new classification algorithm with singlecategory concept match. It also introduces the method to find such concepts, which is important to the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can improve classification precision and accelerate classification speed to some extent.

  9. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine...... time interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is...

  10. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can be...

  11. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... complex cystic lesions in the kidney (n = 550 in the same number of patients) were reclassified according to the Bosniak classification by two radiologists in consensus. If a patient had more than one lesion, only the highest Bosniak category was recorded. All Bosniak IIF lesions with ≥2-year follow...

  12. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  13. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  14. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  15. Comparing operadic theories of $n$-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    We give a framework for comparing on the one hand theories of n-categories that are weakly enriched operadically, and on the other hand n-categories given as algebras for a contractible globular operad. Examples of the former are the definition by Trimble and variants (Cheng-Gurski) and examples of the latter are the definition by Batanin and variants (Leinster). We will show how to take a theory of n-categories of the former kind and produce a globular operad whose algebras are the n-categories we started with. We first provide a generalisation of Trimble's original theory that allows for the use of other parametrising operads in a very general way, via the notion of categories weakly enriched in V where the weakness is parametrised by an operad P in the category V. We define weak n-categories by iterating the weak enrichment construction using a series of parametrising operads P_i. We then show how to construct from such a theory an n-dimensional globular operad for each $n \\geq 0$ whose algebras are precis...

  16. Robotic high-throughput purification of affinity-tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, Simone C; Weinzierl, Robert O J

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification of recombinant proteins has become the method of choice to obtain good quantities and qualities of proteins for a variety of downstream biochemical applications. While manual or FPLC-assisted purification techniques are generally time-consuming and labor-intensive, the advent of high-throughput technologies and liquid handling robotics has simplified and accelerated this process significantly. Additionally, without the human factor as a potential source of error, automated purification protocols allow for the generation of large numbers of proteins simultaneously and under directly comparable conditions. The delivered material is ideal for activity comparisons of different variants of the same protein. Here, we present our strategy for the simultaneous purification of up to 24 affinity-tagged proteins for activity measurements in biochemical assays. The protocol described is suitable for the scale typically required in individual research laboratories. PMID:25749949

  17. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  18. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... of perceptual organization, visual object recognition and category-specificity....

  19. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where the...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  20. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity...... are discussed with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  1. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  2. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  3. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko R.S.; Barabash A.S.; Belli P.; Bernabei R.; Cappella F.; Cerulli R.; Danevich F.A.; Incicchitti A.; Laubenstein M.; Mokina V.M.; Nisi S.; Poda D.V.; Polischuk O.G.; Tretyak V.I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical an...

  4. Optimal probabilistic cloning and purification of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the probabilistic cloning and purification of quantum states. The performance of these probabilistic operations is quantified by the average fidelity between the ideal and actual output states. We provide a simple formula for the maximal achievable average fidelity and we explictly show how to construct a probabilistic operation that achieves this fidelity. We illustrate our method on several examples such as the phase covariant cloning of qubits, cloning of coherent states, an...

  5. PURIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER OIL in PT. PJB UP PAITON

    OpenAIRE

    Gusti Wahdaniyah*, Purnomo Tri Prasetyo, Arif Setiabudi, Totok R. Biyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the filtration or purification of transformer oil. One of the main equipment in coal-fired power generation unit is transformer. When the transformer fail to operate properly, the continuity of distribution system become interrupted. As a part of transformer, transformer oil contribute the failure of transformer due to the aging. To solve this problem, several methods is applied starting from dehydration process, degasification process, oxidation remov...

  6. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercial enzyme preparation (Rapidase) to calcium alginate beads. Approximately 75% of the various polygalacturonase activities from Rapidase can be adsorbed at pH 4.4 by calcium alginate beads as well as...

  7. Purification of an acidic recombinant protein from transgenic tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco has been studied as a host for producing recombinant therapeutic proteins on a large-scale, commercial basis. However, the proteins expressed in tobacco usually need to be purified to high yield and purity from large amounts of biomass in order for their production to be commercially viable. The methods needed to purify proteins from tobacco are very challenging and not well studied. The objective of this research was to develop a process for the purification of the acidic model pr...

  8. Streamlined Purification of Plasmid DNA From Prokaryotic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Pueschel, Laura; Li, Hongshan; Hymes, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We describe the complete process of AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates for 96 plasmid preparations, starting from prokaryotic culture and ending with high purity DNA. Based on multi-well filtration for bacterial lysate clearance and DNA purification, this method creates a streamlined process for plasmid preparation. Filter plates containing silica-based media can easily be processed by vacuum filtration or centrifuge to yield appreciable quantities of plasmid DNA. Quantitative analyses determine ...

  9. Purification and characterization of tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zekiri, Florime; Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan G.; Michael, Claudia; Mayer, Rupert L.; Gerner, Christopher; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a type-3 copper enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to their quinone derivates, which are further converted to melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. In this study a plant originated tyrosinase was isolated from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) and biochemically characterized. It was possible to isolate and purify the enzyme by means of an aqueous two-phase extraction method followed by chromatographic purification and identification. Int...

  10. Optimization and design of impeller shape by centrifugal method for industrial waste oil purification%离心法净化工业油雾中叶轮的形状优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎娜; 李志峰

    2015-01-01

    叶轮是离心设备中重要的组成部件,提高叶轮的工作效率是工业油雾净化的一个重要目标。为了改善工业生产环境,对离心叶轮的形状优化设计过程进行研究,对叶轮叶片翼型截面形状的设计与性能进行分析。利用CATIA软件建立叶轮的结构几何模型,由MATLAB计算得到叶轮叶片截面形状。计算结果表明,对离心叶轮的优化有效减轻了叶轮叶片工作时的噪音,提高了使用寿命,使升阻比提高了0.8%,净化效率进一步提升。%Impeller is the key part of centrifugal reactor for industrial waste oil purification and its high efficiency is an important target of the reactor for industrial waste oil purification .In order to improve the envi-ronment for industrial production , the shape optimization design process of centrifugal impeller is studied with a great focus being laid on an analysis of the shape design and performance of the impeller blade airfoil sec -tion.CATIA software is used to establish the structure of the impeller geometric model , and shape of the im-peller blade section are obtained by MATLAB .The calculation results show that the optimized design of the centrifugal impeller can effectively reduce the impeller blade noise at work , improve service life , increase lift-to-drag ratio by 0.8%, thus greatly improve the purification efficiency .

  11. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments. PMID:16639536

  12. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  13. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  14. Compactly accessible categories and quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Compact categories have lately seen renewed interest via applications to quantum physics. Being essentially finite-dimensional, they cannot accomodate (co)limit-based constructions. For example, they cannot capture protocols such as quantum key distribution, that rely on the law of large numbers. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of a compactly accessible category, relying on the extra structure of a factorisation system. This notion allows for infinite dimension while retaining key properties of compact categories: the main technical result is that the choice-of-duals functor on the compact part extends canonically to the whole compactly accessible category. As an example, we model a quantum key distribution protocol and prove its correctness categorically.

  15. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  16. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    neurologically intact subjects and functional imaging studies, it is argued that PACE can account for category-effects at both behavioural and neural levels in patients and neurologically intact subjects. The theory also accounts for the way in which category-effects are affected by different task parameters...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... (the degree of perceptual differentiation called for), stimulus characteristics (whether stimuli are presented as silhouettes, full line-drawings, or fragmented forms), stimulus presentation (stimulus exposure duration and position) as well as interactions between these parameters....

  17. Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David

    2015-10-01

    Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.

  18. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  19. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Todd

    2004-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...

  20. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology o...

  1. Modelling the acquisition of syntactic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F.; Pine, J M

    1997-01-01

    This research represents an attempt to model the child’s acquisition of syntactic categories. A computational model, based on the EPAM theory of perception and learning, is developed. The basic assumptions are that (1) syntactic categories are actively constructed by the child using distributional learning abilities; and (2) cognitive constraints in learning rate and memory capacity limit these learning abilities. We present simulations of the syntax acquisition of a single subject, where t...

  2. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    OpenAIRE

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ER...

  3. Analysis of N Category Privacy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available File sharing becomes popular in social networking and the disclosure of private information without user’s consent can be found easily. Password management becomes increasingly necessary for maintaining privacy policy. Monitoring of violations of a privacy policy is needed to support the confidentiality of information security. This paper extends the analysis of two category confidentiality model to N categories, and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transitions in the information security privacy modeling.

  4. RETIN AL: An Active Learning Strategy for Image Category Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2004-01-01

    International audience Active learning methods have been considered with an increasing interest in the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) community. In this article, we propose an effi- cient method based on active learning strategy to retrieve large image categories. At each feedback step, the system optimizes the image set presented to the user in order to speed up the retrieval. Experimental tests on COREL photo database have been carried out.

  5. Morita homotopy theory of C*-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Ambrogio, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In this article we establish the foundations of the Morita homotopy theory of C*-categories. Concretely, we construct a cofibrantly generated simplicial symmetric monoidal Quillen model structure M_Mor on the category C*cat1 of small unital C*-categories. The weak equivalences are the Morita equivalences and the cofibrations are the *-functors which are injective on objects. As an application, we obtain an elegant description of the Brown-Green-Rieffel Picard group in the associated Morita homotopy category Ho(M_Mor). We then prove that the Morita homotopy category is semi-additive. By group completing the induced abelian monoid structure at each Hom-set we obtain an additive category Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} and a canonical functor C*cat1 {\\to} Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} which is characterized by two simple properties: inversion of Morita equivalences and preservation of all finite products. Finally, we prove that the classical Grothendieck group functor becomes co-represented in Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} by the tensor unit object.

  6. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  7. Air purification techniques for radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified air purifier to filter air was built to reduce radon daughter concentrations in uranium mines, and thus reduce exposure of miners. The main experimental results for the purifiers are presented for several levels: individual purification; secondary ventilation; purification; and primary ventilation purification. The study concentrates on secondary ventilation purification. For this case the electrostatic technique is preferred

  8. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  9. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  10. Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffen, Karin; Bart, Eugene; Brady, Mark; Kersten, Daniel; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively study object perception, be it perception by biological systems or by machines, one needs to create objects and object categories with precisely definable, preferably naturalistic, properties1. Furthermore, for studies on perceptual learning, it is useful to create novel objects and object categories (or object classes) with such properties2. Many innovative and useful methods currently exist for creating novel objects and object categories3-6 (also see refs. 7,8). ...

  11. Uranium hexafluoride purification; Purificacao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-07-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF{sub 6}-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF{sub 6}-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  12. Radiation purification of waste water of polyvinylacetate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for purification of sewage of polyvinylacetate production is suggested, which enables simultaneously to purify completely sewage of vinylacetate and copolymer of ethanol and vinylacetate and to reduce the content of acetic acid by 42%. Sewage was irradiated by 60Co #betta#-radiation with the absorbed dose rate (Nsub(D)) of 0.136-3.3 Gy/s. The integral absorbed dose (Isub(D)) was 0.0002-0.15 MGy. At Isub(D) approximately 0.029 MGy the solution is completely purified of vinylacetate regardless of the Nsub(D) value, but the effect of purification of copolymer increases with decreasing Nsub(D) and is 97.6% at Nsub(D)=0.46 Gy/s

  13. Expression and purification of soluble recombinant Hexastatin in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To construct the expression vector of Hexastatin gene, to express and to purify the recombinant protein for further activity research. Methods: The human Hexastatin gene was isolated by RTPCR from EC9706 cells total RNA and cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing. Then the Hexastatin gene was subcloned into pMAL-c4x expression vector and induced to express by IPTG. The recombinant fusion protein was purified with Amylose Resin Heads. Results: RT-PCR product was about 687 bp and its sequence was the same as that of Hexastatin reported. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 with high level and the soluble protein accounted for 24.8% of the total bacterial protein. The purification of recombinant protein purified with Amylose Resin Heads reached more than 90%. Conclusion: The cloning, expression and purification of human Hexastatin have laid a foundation for its anti-angiogenesis therapy for tumor. (authors)

  14. A step ahead: combining protein purification and correct folding selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Marco Ario

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of recombinant protein expression seems unpredictable and even good yields of soluble proteins do not guarantee the correct folding. The search for soluble constructs can be performed by exploiting libraries and speeded up by automation, but these approaches are money and time consuming and the tags used for affinity purification can mask the real stability of the target proteins. The ideal purification protocol would include the structure quality control. A recent paper commented in this article describes a phage-display method to screen for antibodies that are able to re-fold after heat-denaturation and can be selectively affinity-purified only if monodispersed. It turned out that the proteins with high recovery performance after heat-shock were also suitable for efficient recombinant expression.

  15. Optimization of conditions for the single step IMAC purification of miraculin from Synsepalum dulcificum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuxing; Tan, Joo Shun; Lai, Oi Ming; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2015-08-15

    In this study, the methods for extraction and purification of miraculin from Synsepalum dulcificum were investigated. For extraction, the effect of different extraction buffers (phosphate buffer saline, Tris-HCl and NaCl) on the extraction efficiency of total protein was evaluated. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with nickel-NTA was used for the purification of the extracted protein, where the influence of binding buffer pH, crude extract pH and imidazole concentration in elution buffer upon the purification performance was explored. The total amount of protein extracted from miracle fruit was found to be 4 times higher using 0.5M NaCl as compared to Tris-HCl and phosphate buffer saline. On the other hand, the use of Tris-HCl as binding buffer gave higher purification performance than sodium phosphate and citrate-phosphate buffers in IMAC system. The optimum purification condition of miraculin using IMAC was achieved with crude extract at pH 7, Tris-HCl binding buffer at pH 7 and the use of 300 mM imidazole as elution buffer, which gave the overall yield of 80.3% and purity of 97.5%. IMAC with nickel-NTA was successfully used as a single step process for the purification of miraculin from crude extract of S. dulcificum. PMID:25794715

  16. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  17. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  18. Nonlinear electrophoresis for purification of soil DNA for metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Katja; Pinnell, Lee; Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C; Neufeld, Josh D

    2012-01-01

    Purification of microbial DNA from soil is challenging due to the co-extraction of humic acids and associated phenolic compounds that inhibit subsequent cloning, amplification or sequencing. Removal of these contaminants is critical for the success of metagenomic library construction and high-throughput sequencing of extracted DNA. Using three different composite soil samples, we compared a novel DNA purification technique using nonlinear electrophoresis on the synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) instrument with alternate purification methods such as direct current (DC) agarose gel electrophoresis followed by gel filtration or anion exchange chromatography, Wizard DNA Clean-Up System, and the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Both nonlinear and DC electrophoresis were effective at retrieving high-molecular weight DNA with high purity, suitable for construction of large-insert libraries. The PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit and the nonlinear electrophoresis had high recovery of high purity DNA suitable for sequencing purposes. All methods demonstrated high consistency in the bacterial community profiles generated from the DNA extracts. Nonlinear electrophoresis using the SCODA instrument was the ideal methodology for the preparation of soil DNA samples suitable for both high-throughput sequencing and large-insert cloning applications. PMID:22056233

  19. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov-Raz Gal; Mashiach-Arazi Yael; Nouriel Ariella; Raz Raanan; Constantini Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided i...

  20. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  1. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  2. GST-His purification: a two-step affinity purification protocol yielding full-length purified proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Ranjan; Pauty, Joris; Krietsch, Jana; Buisson, Rémi; Genois, Marie-Michelle; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Key assays in enzymology for the biochemical characterization of proteins in vitro necessitate high concentrations of the purified protein of interest. Protein purification protocols should combine efficiency, simplicity and cost effectiveness. Here, we describe the GST-His method as a new small-scale affinity purification system for recombinant proteins, based on a N-terminal Glutathione Sepharose Tag (GST) and a C-terminal 10xHis tag, which are both fused to the protein of interest. The latter construct is used to generate baculoviruses, for infection of Sf9 infected cells for protein expression. GST is a rather long tag (29 kDa) which serves to ensure purification efficiency. However, it might influence physiological properties of the protein. Hence, it is subsequently cleaved off the protein using the PreScission enzyme. In order to ensure maximum purity and to remove the cleaved GST, we added a second affinity purification step based on the comparatively small His-Tag. Importantly, our technique is based on two different tags flanking the two ends of the protein, which is an efficient tool to remove degraded proteins and, therefore, enriches full-length proteins. The method presented here does not require an expensive instrumental setup, such as FPLC. Additionally, we incorporated MgCl2 and ATP washes to remove heat shock protein impurities and nuclease treatment to abolish contaminating nucleic acids. In summary, the combination of two different tags flanking the N- and the C-terminal and the capability to cleave off one of the tags, guaranties the recovery of a highly purified and full-length protein of interest. PMID:24193370

  3. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of capital category. 6.3 Section 6.3... Capital Categories § 6.3 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of...

  4. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  5. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  6. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist....... The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be....

  7. Nb purification by Ti gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity niobium is required for superconducting RF cavities in order to achieve high accelerating fields. Ti gettering at high temperature in a vacuum furnace appears to be a nice way to get rid of light elements (O, C and N). Using this technique, residual resistance ratio (RRR) as high as 2000 can be obtained from standard 160 RRR niobium samples. Results of heat treatment applied to low RRR samples are shown. The influence of metallic impurities is also discussed. Another important feature to point out for that kind of purification is the sample thickness dependence. An experimental profile of the local RRR as a function of depth is drawn. Finally, the improvement of the accelerating field obtained on heat treated cavities is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  8. Nb purification by Ti gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity niobium is required for SRF cavities in order to achieve high accelerating fields. Ti gettering at high temperature in a vacuum furnace appears to be a nice way to get rid of light elements (O, C and N). Using this technique, RRR as high as 2000 can be obtained from standard 160 RRR niobium samples. Results of heat treatment applied to low RRR samples are shown. The influence of metallic impurities is also discussed. Another important feature to point out for that kind of purification is the sample thickness dependence. An experimental profile of the local RRR as a function of depth is drawn. Finally, the improvement of the accelerating field obtained on heat treated cavities is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  9. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  10. Joins of DGA modules and sectional category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Suárez, Lucía; Ghienne, Pierre; Kahl, Thomas; Vandembroucq, Lucile

    2009-01-01

    We construct an explicit semifree model for the fiber join of two fibrations p: E --> B and p': E' --> B from semifree models of p and p'. Using this model, we introduce a lower bound of the sectional category of a fibration p which can be calculated from any Sullivan model of p and which is closer to the sectional category of p than the classical cohomological lower bound given by the nilpotency of the kernel of p^*: H^*(B;Q) --> H^*(E;Q). In the special case of the evaluation fibration X^I ...

  11. Dewey, Peirce, and the Categories of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcikiewicz, Steven K

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey proposes the “educative” experience as the goal of instruction. Yet, in focusing on the educative experience, Dewey may discount other sorts of learning which occur in school, and indeed in life. This piece proposes a recapitulation of Dewey’s theory through Peirce’s categorical system of experience, leading to three categories of learning. The three proposed categories, “accepting,” “analytical,” and “evaluative,” correspond roughly to learning “what”, learning “how”, and learning...

  12. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  13. Toward a Category Theory Design of Ontological Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Glazunov, Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    I discuss (ontologies_and_ontological_knowledge_bases / formal_methods_and_theories) duality and its category theory extensions as a step toward a solution to Knowledge-Based Systems Theory. In particular I focus on the example of the design of elements of ontologies and ontological knowledge bases of next three electronic courses: Foundations of Research Activities, Virtual Modeling of Complex Systems and Introduction to String Theory.

  14. Analysis of technologies of polluted water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The present work analyses up to date and applied in different fields of industry technologies of polluted water purification. Chemical, biochemical and physical technologies are considered, comparison of its technical characteristics is carried out, its limitations and advantages are shown and application efficiency is evaluated. It is shown that the radiation chemical purification is more topical from both ecological and economical points of view

  15. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 104 m2/ kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (102 m2/ kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M-32P, M-131I, M-99Mo+99mTc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu2+) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr6+). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134, 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co and 129I in presence of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  16. Studies on separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed for separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium–aluminum alloy. Alkali dissolution of the irradiated target (100 mg) results in aluminum along with 99Mo and a few fission products passing into solution, while most of the fission products, activation products and uranium remain undissolved. Subsequent purification steps involve precipitation of aluminum as Al(OH)3, iodine as AgI/AgIO3 and molybdenum as Mo-α-benzoin oxime. Ruthenium is separated by volatilization as RuO4 and final purification of 99Mo was carried out using anion exchange method. The radiochemical yield of fission 99Mo was found to be >80% and the purity of the product was in conformity with the international pharmacopoeia standards. - Highlights: • 99Mo separation, purification method developed from neutron activation of 100 g U–Al alloy. • Uranium, fission, activation product decontamination by alkali dissolution of activated target. • Purification by Al(OH)3, AgI/AgIO3, Mo-α-benzoin oxime precipitation and anion exchange. • Very high decontamination factors for alpha activity obtained. • Final 99Mo product (recovery >80%) complied with international pharmacopoeia standards

  17. Towards electrochemical purification of chemically reduced graphene oxide from redox accessible impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Ambrosi, Adriano; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2014-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of graphene are highly sensitive to residual metallic impurities that persist despite various purification efforts. To accurately evaluate the electrochemical performance of graphene, highly purified materials free of metallic impurities are required. In this study, the partial purification of chemically reduced graphene oxides prepared via Hummers (CRGO-HU) and Staudenmaier (CRGO-ST) oxidation methods was performed through cyclic voltammetric (CV) scans executed in nitric acid, followed by CV measurements of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). The purification of graphene was monitored by the changes in the peak current and potential of CHP which is sensitive to iron impurities. The CRGOs were characterised by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CV. The micrographs revealed CRGOs of similar morphologies, but with greater defects in CRGO-HU. The dependencies of CHP peak current and peak potential on the number of purification cycles exhibit greater efficiency of removing iron impurities from CRGO-HU than CRGO-ST. This can be attributed to the oxidative method that is used in CRGO-HU production, which exposes more defect sites for iron impurities to reside in. This facile electrochemical purification of graphenes can be utilised as a routine preparation and cleaning method of graphene before electrochemical measurements for analytes that show exceptional sensitivity towards electrocatalytic metallic impurities in sp(2) nanocarbon materials. PMID:24615543

  18. Presence of Acanthamoeba spp.in water purification plants in southern England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuganathan V; Khan NA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To identify the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in drinking water treatment plants during the course of the purification processes.Methods:Samples were taken from two drinking water purification plants and moni-tored for the presence of Acanthamoeba in order to estimate the removal capacity of treatment methods em-ployed.Water samples were collected at each step in the purification,during the one year survey,and ana-lysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp.by plating on bacterial-seeded plates.Results:The results showed that amoebae were present in surface raw waters in 100 % of the samples tested.Acanthamoeba spp.were iso-lated from 71 % and 57 % of the water samples collected from post flat-bottom clarifier 1 and post-sedimenta-tion plant respectively.Considering the outflow drinking waters,the removal capacity was 100 % in both puri-fication plants monitored.The occurrence of Acanthamoeba was not associated with seasonality.Conclusion:These findings confirm that water purification plants employing methods of flocculation,sedimentation,and fil-tration in combination with activated charcoal filtration,ozonisation and chlorination exhibited sufficient Acan-thamoeba removal capacity and the presence of amoebae in the tap water may be due to older plumbing,water storage tanks,tap water hygiene,and /or environmental settings.

  19. Development of a production scale purification of Ge-68 from irradiated gallium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target and purified by organic extraction. The Ge-68 can be used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 (Ga-68) which can be used to radiolabel PET imaging agents. The emerging use of Ge-68 in the Ga-68 medical isotope generator has caused us to develop a new purification method for Ge-68 that does not use toxic solvents. The purpose of this work was to develop a production scale separation of Ge-68 that utilizes a leaching step to remove a bulk of the gallium metal, followed by purification with Sephadex {sup copyright} G25. Production scale (300 mCi) purification was performed with the new method. The purified Ge-68 contained the highest radioactivity concentration of Ge-68 produced at BNL; the sample meet Department of Energy specifications and the method had an excellent recovery of Ge-68.

  20. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  1. High-throughput protein production and purification at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the standard SSGCID protein-purification protocol is given and success rates and cleavage alternatives are discussed. The establishment of an efficient and reliable protein-purification pipeline is essential for the success of structural genomic projects. The SSGCID Protein Purification Group at the University of Washington (UW-PPG) has established a robust protein-purification pipeline designed to purify 400 proteins per year at a rate of eight purifications per week. The pipeline was implemented using two ÄKTAexplorer 100s and four ÄKTAprimes to perform immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size-exclusion chromatography. Purifications were completed in a period of 5 d and yielded an average of 53 mg highly purified protein. This paper provides a detailed description of the methods used to purify, characterize and store SSGCID proteins. Some of the purified proteins were treated with 3C protease, which was expressed and purified by UW-PPG using a similar protocol, to cleave non-native six-histidine tags. The cleavage was successful in 94% of 214 attempts. Cleaved proteins yielded 2.9% more structures than uncleaved six-histidine-tagged proteins. This 2.9% improvement may seem small, but over the course of the project the structure output from UW-PPG is thus predicted to increase from 260 structures to 318 structures. Therefore, the outlined protocol with 3C cleavage and subtractive IMAC has been shown to be a highly efficient method for the standardized purification of recombinant proteins for structure determination via X-ray crystallography

  2. Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...

  3. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  4. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  5. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  6. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  7. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  8. Embedded Cobordism Categories and Spaces of Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Galatius, Madsen, Tillmann, and Weiss [7] have identified the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism category with objects (d -1)-dimensional manifolds embedded in R8. In this paper we apply the techniques of spaces of manifolds, as developed by the author and Galatius in [8], to...

  9. Traces on ideals in pivotal categories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Virelizier, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We extend the notion of an ambidextrous trace on an ideal (developed by the first two authors) to the setting of a pivotal category. We show that under some conditions, these traces lead to invariants of colored spherical graphs (and so to modified 6j-symbols).

  10. The Space Category in Medieval Japanese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    GOREGLIAD, Vladislav N.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the fictional space in literary work depends on the correlations between on the one hand the world of ideas and emotions, and on the other hand the world of things, and in the final analysis on the ideological categories of the work.

  11. Isolation and Preparative Purification for Ginkgolides A and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金玉; 王华; 常贺英; 褚巧伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple preparative method for isolation and purification of ginkgolides A and B was developed,As starting material,a commercially available standardized ginkgo extract (EGb761,containing 24% flavonoid and 6% terpene trilactones) was used,After a pretreatment step,optimized by the uniform design method ,the concentrated intermediate extract with high content of GA and gb(+90%) was separated into the individual terpenes by preparative liquid chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-ethylacetate,Analysis of products was carried out by means of HPLC-ELSD(evaporative light -scattering detector),The results show that ginkgolides A and B are obtained in higher yield and better purity.

  12. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  13. Isolation and purification of beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjit Aich; Subhasis Batabyal; Siddhartha Narayan Joardar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to standardize a convenient method for isolation and purification of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) from cow milk keeping its antigenicity intact, so that the purified β-lg can be used for detection of cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Materials and Methods: Raw milk was collected from Gir breed of cattle reared in Haringhata Farm, West Bengal. Milk was then converted to skimmed milk by removing fat globules and casein protein was removed by acidification to p...

  14. Unified Model of Purification Units in Hydrogen Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思东; 王彧斐; 冯霄

    2014-01-01

    Purification processes are widely used in hydrogen networks of refineries to increase hydrogen reuse. In refineries, hydrogen purification techniques include hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide and CO removal units. In addi-tion, light hydrocarbon recovery from the hydrogen source streams can also result in hydrogen purification. In order to simplify the superstructure and mathematical model of hydrogen network integration, the models of different pu-rification processes are unified in this paper, including mass balance and the expressions for hydrogen recovery and impurity removal ratios, which are given for all the purification units in refineries. Based on the proposed unified model, a superstructure of hydrogen networks with purification processes is constructed.

  15. Calotropis procera (Sodom apple)--a potential material for enzyme purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, S O; Akpan, I; Osho, M B

    2003-03-01

    A simple method based on precipitation with Calotropis procera latex was developed for the purification of crude enzyme from fermentation broth. C. procera latex (10(-2) dilution) clarified and concentrated the crude amylase of Aspergillus oryzae 4-fold with 97% recovery of the initial amylase activity in the filtrate in a single step operation. The latex was stable at pH < or = 4.5 and there was no significant difference (P < or = 0.05) in the purification potential of the latex at 4 and 28 degrees C. This method could prove useful to developing economies of the tropics where ambient temperature is around 28 degrees C. PMID:12733587

  16. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties

  17. A multidimensional platform for the purification of non-coding RNA species

    OpenAIRE

    Chionh, Yok Hian; Ho, Chia-Hua; Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; I. Ramesh Babu; Ng, Chee Sheng; Hia, Fabian; McBee, Megan E.; Su, Dan; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; Gu, Chen; Dong, Hongping; Prestwich, Erin G.; Shi, Pei-Yong; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Alonso, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    A renewed interest in non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has led to the discovery of novel RNA species and post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications, and an emerging appreciation for the role of ncRNA in RNA epigenetics. Although much can be learned by amplification-based analysis of ncRNA sequence and quantity, there is a significant need for direct analysis of RNA, which has led to numerous methods for purification of specific ncRNA molecules. However, no single method allows purification of th...

  18. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a patient is ill, age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle serve as contextualization cues, often including widespread results from epidemiological research about groups of patients at higher or lower risk for cardiac disease. These categories work as shortcut reasoning to nudge interpretations in a certain direction, legitimize decisions, and strengthen arguments. In general, studying the descriptions of patients/clients/students provides an entrance to professional methods of reasoning, including their implicit moral assumptions.

  19. Study of some physical parameters for a novel TOPO purification tec hnic using zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the optimization study of certain parameters necessary to the development of a novel method of purification which can be applied for tri-n-octyl phosphine oxyde in synthetic mixtures. The procedure is based on the study of process extraction -reextraction of zinc by TOPO. This method allows yields as high as 98 mass%

  20. Simulation study for the purification of depleted uranium product in FBTR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for the purification of depleted uranium product obtained after partitioning of uranium and plutonium in the third cycle of FBTR fuel reprocessing. Uranium and plutonium were partitioned and recovered by AUC method. It is observed from the study that plutonium recovery is quantitative (100%) if Pu concentration is 0.6 g/L. (author)