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Sample records for catecholamine secretion markers

  1. Effect of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

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    Fisher-Wellman Kelsey H

    2009-08-01

    (p ®. No sex × condition × time interactions were noted for any variable (p > 0.05. Conclusion Ingestion of Meltdown® results in an increase in catecholamine secretion, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in young men and women, with a similar response for both sexes. Meltdown® may prove to be an effective intervention strategy for fat loss, assuming individuals are normotensive and their treatment is monitored by a qualified health care professional.

  2. Possible modulatory effect of endogenous islet catecholamines on insulin secretion

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    Gagliardino Juan J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possible participation of endogenous islet catecholamines (CAs in the control of insulin secretion was tested. Methods Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in the presence of 3-Iodo-L-Tyrosine (MIT, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, in fresh and precultured islets isolated from normal rats. Incubated islets were also used to measure CAs release in the presence of low and high glucose, and the effect of α2-(yohimbine [Y] and idazoxan [I] and α1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin [P] and terazosin [T] upon insulin secretion elicited by high glucose. Results Fresh islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose released significantly more insulin in the presence of 1 μM MIT (6.66 ± 0.39 vs 5.01 ± 0.43 ng/islet/h, p Conclusion Our results suggest that islet-originated CAs directly modulate insulin release in a paracrine manner.

  3. Ketamine inhibits 45Ca influx and catecholamine secretion by inhibiting 22Na influx in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takara, Hiroshi; Wada, Akihiko; Arita, Masahide; Izumi, Futoshi; Sumikawa, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic, on 22 Na influx, 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion were investigated in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Ketamine inhibited carbachol-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with a similar potency. Ketamine also reduced veratridine-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. The influx of 22 Na caused by carbachol or by veratridine was suppressed by ketamine with a concentration-inhibition curve similar to that of 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. Inhibition by ketamine of the carbachol-induced influx of 22 Na, 45 Ca and secretion of catecholamines was not reversed by the increased concentrations of carbachol. These observations indicate that ketamine, at clinical concentrations, can inhibit nicotinic receptor-associated ionic channels and that the inhibition of Na influx via the receptor-associated ionic channels is responsible for the inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. (Auth.)

  4. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

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    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetal adaptations in insulin secretion result from high catecholamines during placental insufficiency.

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    Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR. We propose that sustained high catecholamine concentrations observed in the IUGR fetus produce developmental adaptations in pancreatic β-cells that impair fetal insulin secretion. Experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis shows that chronic elevation in circulating catecholamines in IUGR fetuses persistently inhibits insulin concentrations and secretion. Elevated catecholamines also allow for maintenance of a normal fetal basal metabolic rate despite low fetal insulin and glucose concentrations while suppressing fetal growth. Importantly, a compensatory augmentation in insulin secretion occurs following inhibition or cessation of catecholamine signalling in IUGR fetuses. This finding has been replicated in normally grown sheep fetuses following a 7-day noradrenaline (norepinephrine) infusion. Together, these programmed effects will potentially create an imbalance between insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the neonate which probably explains the transient hyperinsulinism and hypoglycaemia in some IUGR infants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  6. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei; Niu, Zichang; Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiu Mei

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p + (p + induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol may have anti-stress and the potential anti-depression-like effects

  7. Effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells.

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    Wang, C K; Hwang, L S

    1997-10-01

    Health damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in Taiwan. Many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. In this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red time paste) in betel quid. Physiological effects of cardioacceleration, a slightly drunk feeling, sweating and salivation occurred during the chewing of betel quid (a mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red lime paste) and a mixture of areca fruit and red lime paste. Both induced much more basal catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells than did other ingredients and combinations of ingredients. It was evident that the responses in the sympathetic model system were closely correlated with the physiological feeling of well-being. The inhibitory effects of all the chewing juices on catecholamine secretion evoked by carbachol and a high concentration of potassium (high K+) showed that they perhaps affected the calcium influx through voltage-sensitive channels or the steps involved in secretion after calcium entry to stimulate basal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

  8. Bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol, an estrogenic-like compound, on catecholamine secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Haoping; Wang, Hong; Ma, Shangwei; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Niu, Zichang [First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Gao, Xiu Mei, E-mail: gaoxiumei@tjutcm.edu.cn [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae (China); Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China)

    2014-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of catecholamine (CA) secretion was related with several diseases. Recently, estrogen and phytoestrogens were reported to regulate the activity of CA system. Bakuchiol is a phytoestrogen isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae) which has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic or aphrodisiac. In the present study, bovine adrenal medullary cells were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of bakuchiol on the regulation of CA secretion. Further, its anti-depressant like and anti-stress effects were evaluated by using behavioral despair and chronic immobilization stress models. Our results indicated that bakuchiol showed bidirectional regulation on CA secretion. It stimulated basal CA secretion in a concentration dependent manner (p < 0.01), while it reduced 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) (p < 0.01), 100 μM veratridine (Ver) (p < 0.01) and 56 mM K{sup +} (p < 0.05) induced CA secretion, respectively. We also found that the stimulation of basal CA secretion by bakuchiol may act through estrogen-like effect and the JNK pathway in an extra-cellular calcium independent manner. Further, bakuchiol elevated tyrosine hydroxylase Ser40 and Ser31 phosphorylation (p < 0.01) through the PKA and ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Bakuchiol inhibited ACh, Ver and 56 mM K{sup +} induced CA secretion was related with reduction of intracellular calcium rise. In vivo experiments, we found that bakuchiol significantly reduced immobilization time in behavioral despair mouse (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in chronic immobilization stress (p < 0.05). Overall, these results present a bidirectional regulation of bakuchiol on CA secretion which indicated that bakuchiol may exert anti-stress and the potential anti-depressant-like effects. - Highlights: • Bakuchiol stimulated basal catecholamine secretion. • Bakuchiol inhibited various secretagogues induced catecholamine secretion

  9. The affection of APA microcapsulation on catecholamine and leucine-enkephalin secretion from the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shuilong; Cui Xin; Luo Yun; Xue Yilong

    2002-01-01

    The affection of alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) microcapsulation on catecholamine (CA) and leucine-enkephalin (L-EK) secretion from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells was analysed. Encapsulating BCCs with the APA microcapsulation, the secretion of CA and L-EK in encapsulated BCCs was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. There is little difference between the encapsulated BCCs and the non-encapsulated BCCs in the secretion of epinephrine (E) and noradrenaline (NE) but the secretion of dopamine (DA) and L-EK in several points decline. The studies indicated that APA microcapsulation of BCCs didn't affect the secretion of E and NE, but did the secretion DA and L-EK in forepart

  10. Ciguatoxin-induced catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells: mechanism of action and reversible inhibition by brevenal.

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    Nguyen-Huu, Truong D; Mattei, César; Wen, Peter J; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Lewis, Richard J; Benoit, Evelyne; Baden, Daniel G; Molgó, Jordi; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, belongs to the family of polyether neurotoxins responsible for the neurological poisoning disorder ciguatera. Although it is the most widespread marine-borne disease affecting humans, there is no current FDA-approved treatment available except for symptomatic therapies. In this paper, we report that P-CTX-1B promotes catecholamine secretion from bovine chromaffin cells, an effect that is insensitive to concomitant activation of capacitative Ca(2+) entry. Moreover, we confirm that brevenal, a polyether from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, blocks P-CTX-1B-induced catecholamine secretion. This effect is partially reversible. Our results therefore raise the prospect of finding functional antagonists for P-CTX-1B that could be useful for the treatment of ciguatera. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase in swimming endurance capacity of mice by capsaicin-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

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    Kim, K M; Kawada, T; Ishihara, K; Inoue, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-10-01

    Increase in endurance swimming capacity caused by capsaicin (CAP), a pungent component of red pepper, -induced increase of fat metabolism in mice was investigated using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice administered CAP via a stomach tube, showed longer swimming time until exhaustion than the control group of mice, in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect was observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg while more than 15 mg/kg had no effect. The increase of endurance was observed only when CAP was administered two hours before swimming. After the administration of CAP, the serum glucose concentration rapidly increased and then decreased within 60 min, while the concentration of serum-free fatty acids gradually increased through 3 hours. The residual glycogen concentration of the gastrocnemius muscle after 30 min of swimming was significantly higher in the CAP-administered mice than in control mice, suggesting that use of the serum free fatty acids spared muscle glycogen consumption. The serum adrenaline concentration significantly increased with twin peaks at 30 min and two hours after administration of CAP. An experiment using adrenalectomized mice was done to confirm that the effect of CAP is due to increased energy metabolism through the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal gland. The swimming endurance capacity of the adrenalectomized mice was not increased by CAP administration, although adrenaline injection induced a 58% increase in the endurance time. These results suggest that the increase of swimming endurance induced by CAP in mice is caused by an increase in fatty acid utilization due to CAP-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

  12. Genetic regulation of catecholamine synthesis, storage and secretion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, M. L.; Friese, R. S.; Mahapatra, N. R.; Mahata, M.; Taupenot, L.; Mahata, S. K.; Křen, V.; Zídek, Václav; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Ziegler, M. G.; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T. J.; Schork, N. J.; O´Connor, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 13 (2010), s. 2567-2580 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Grant - others:HHMI(US) HHMI Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * catecholamines * blood pressure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.058, year: 2010

  13. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion.7. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte...... composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO(3). The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked...... unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  14. Catecholamine secretion by chemical hypoxia in guinea-pig, but not rat, adrenal medullary cells: differences in mitochondria.

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    Harada, K; Endo, Y; Warashina, A; Inoue, M

    2015-08-20

    The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (CN(-), a complex IV inhibitor and CCCP, protonophore) on catecholamine (CA) secretion and mitochondrial function were explored functionally and biochemically in rat and guinea-pig adrenal chromaffin cells. Guinea-pig chromaffin cells conspicuously secreted CA in response to CN(-) or CCCP, but rat cells showed a little, if any, secretory response to either of them. The resting metabolic rates in rat adrenal medullae did not differ from those in guinea-pig adrenal medullae. On the other hand, the time course of depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in guinea-pig chromaffin cells in response to CN(-) was slower than that in rat chromaffin cells, and this difference was abolished by oligomycin, an F1F0-ATPase inhibitor. The extent of CCCP-induced decrease in cellular ATP in guinea-pig chromaffin cells, which was indirectly measured using a Mg(2+) indicator, was smaller than that in rat chromaffin cells. Relative expression levels of F1F0-ATPase inhibitor factor in guinea-pig adrenal medullae were smaller than in rat adrenal medullae, and the opposite was true for F1F0-ATPase α subunit. The present results indicate that guinea-pig chromaffin cells secrete more CA in response to a mitochondrial inhibitor than rat chromaffin cells and this higher susceptibility in the former is accounted for by a larger extent of reversed operation of F1F0-ATPase with the consequent decrease in ATP under conditions where ΔΨm is depolarized. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of night-flight noise on sleep and catecholamine secretion. Der Einfluss von Nachtfluglaerm auf den Schlaf und die Katecholaminausscheidung

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    Maschke, C; Breinl, S [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Akustik; Grimm, R; Ising, H [BGA, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1992-03-01

    The influence of noise from night flying on electro-bioligical reactions and on the secretion of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) was studied in eight healthy adults whose place of residence exposes them to day-time aircraft noise. The inter-relationships were then analysed, with daytime noise exposure, personality traits and general day-to-day condition reflected in control variables. The subjects were each observed during five nights without noise exposure (Leq=dB(A)) and five nights with noise exposure (Leq=36 to 56 dB(A)), when the following factors were varied: frequency of nocturnal flights; and sound level. All these flights were transmitted via a sound system between the third and sixth hour of the night. In the case of adrenaline, the original data already showed a significant increase with noise exposure. Taking various day-time exposures into account, significant mean value differences between noisy and peaceful nights were assessed in 8-hour collected urine for both catecholamines. Furthermore, catecholamine concentration increases with sound level. (orig.).

  16. Effects of agmatine on secretion of interferon tau and catecholamines and expression of genes related to production of polyamines by ovine trophectoderm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis, Yasser Y; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Tang, Wanjin; Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W

    2016-10-01

    Embryonic survival requires histotrophic nutrition, including molecules secreted or transported into the uterine lumen by uterine epithelia. L-Arginine (Arg) is a common substrate for synthesis of nitric oxide, ornithine, proline, glutamate, creatinine, urea, polyamines and agmatine. Agmatine (Agm) is a product of arginine decarboxylation and it is a substrate for agmatinase for synthesis of putrescine and other polyamines in the ovine conceptus. Polyamines are essential for conceptus development. Therefore, this study compared effects of Arg and Agm on the behavior of ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells cultured in vitro. Arg, but not Agm, increased proliferation and migration of oTr1 cells, but neither Arg nor Agm affected cell adhesion. The total amount of IFNT in culture medium of oTr1 cells was increased by Arg, but Agm increased the IFNT production per oTr1 cell. Arg and Agm plus Arg decreased secretion of dopamine and norepinephrine by oTr1 cells. Agm upregulates expression of mRNAs SLC7A1, agmatinase and OAZ2 while the combination of Arg and Agm decreased expression of mRNAs for ODC1, SLC7A1, OAZ1 and OAZ3 by oTr1 cells. Although Agm does not stimulate proliferation, migration or adhesion of oTr1 cells or their secretion of catecholamines, Agm did increase transcription of SLC7A1, agmatinase and OAZ2 genes which would increase the capacity of oTr1 cells to produce polyamines. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for Arg and Agm in the regulation of transport of basic amino acids (including Arg), polyamine synthesis, and secretion of catecholamines by oTr1 cells.

  17. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings.

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    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-11-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal target, song control region area X, in the regulation of individual differences in the motivation to sing. We used high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure dopamine, norepinephrine and their metabolites in micropunched samples from VTA, GCt, and area X in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We categorized males as sexually motivated or non-sexually motivated based on individual differences in song produced in response to a female. Dopamine markers and norepinephrine in VTA and dopamine in area X correlated positively with sexually-motivated song. Norepinephrine in area X correlated negatively with non-sexually-motivated song. Dopamine in GCt correlated negatively with sexually-motivated song, and the metabolite DOPAC correlated positively with non-sexually-motivated song. Results highlight a role for evolutionarily conserved dopaminergic projections from VTA to striatum in the motivation to communicate and highlight novel patterns of catecholamine activity in area X, VTA, and GCt associated with individual differences in sexually-motivated and non-sexually-motivated communication. Correlations between dopamine and norepinephrine markers also suggest that norepinephrine may contribute to individual differences in communication by modifying dopamine neuronal activity in VTA and GCt. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  19. Unexpected visitor on FDG PET/CT--brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mesentery in a case of retroperitoneal extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma: is the BAT activation secondary to catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh Vijay; Lele, Vikram Ramchandra

    2012-05-01

    Fused positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) technology has enabled the determination that nonmalignant fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT). FDG uptake in BAT is a known potential source of false-positive interpretations for PET. The typical locations of BAT include neck, supraclavicular area, mediastinum, and paravertebral intercostal spaces. Examples of atypical locations for BAT include posterior neck, left paratracheal area, axillae, perirenal area, and retrocrural area. We report PET/CT findings in a young male patient with malignant retroperitoneal extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, who demonstrated FDG uptake in BAT at multiple locations including mesenteric BAT. We also propose catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma as a possible cause of BAT activation in our case.

  20. Evaluation of the marker technique for measurement of exocrine pancreatic secretion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rune, S.J.; Worning, H.

    1985-01-01

    A secretin-cholecystokinin test was performed in 103 patients, representing both normal and reduced exocrine pancreatic function. The duodenum was intubated with a triple-lumen tube. The gastric and duodenal contents were aspirated separately and sampled in 10-min. periods. An inert, water-soluble marker ( 58 Co-vitamin B 12 dissolved in isotonic saline) was infused at a constant rate into the duodenum. Exocrine panreatic secretion was stimulated by continuous intravenous infusion of secretin for 60 min. and a combination of secretin and cholecystokinin for another 60 min. The total recovery of the infused marker was 80%. The concentration of marker in the aspriate did not vary significantly between consecutive 10-min. periods during the last 20 min. of the secretin stimulation period, or during the last 50 min. of the combined secretin-cholecystokinin stimulation period, indicating a steady secretion rate into the duodenum. By means of the marker, concentrations in the aspirate, the duodenal volumes were calculated and found to vary significantly less than the aspirated volumes. This finding demonstrates that the duodenal volume calculated from the recovery of an inert marker, is a closer estimate of the true volume than that obtained by the usual apsiration technique without a volume indicator

  1. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  2. Single Cell Assay for Analyzing Single Cell Exosome and Endocrine Secretion and Cancer Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Jui

    To understand the inhomogeneity of cells in biological systems, there is a growing demand for the capability to characterize the properties of individual single cells. Since single cell studies require continuous monitoring of the cell behaviors instead of a snapshot test at a single time point, an effective single-cell assay that can support time lapsed studies in a high throughput manner is desired. Most currently available single-cell technologies cannot provide proper environments to sustain cell growth and cannot provide, for appropriate cell types, proliferation of single cells and convenient, non-invasive tests of single cell behaviors from molecular markers. In this dissertation, I present a highly versatile single-cell assay that can accommodate different cellular types, enable easy and efficient single cell loading and culturing, and be suitable for the study of effects of in-vitro environmental factors in combination with drug screening. The salient features of the assay are the non-invasive collection and surveying of single cell secretions at different time points and massively parallel translocation of single cells by user defined criteria, producing very high compatibility to the downstream process such as single cell qPCR and sequencing. Above all, the acquired information is quantitative -- for example, one of the studies is measured by the number of exosomes each single cell secretes for a given time period. Therefore, our single-cell assay provides a convenient, low-cost, and enabling tool for quantitative, time lapsed studies of single cell properties.

  3. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

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    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  4. Secreted cerberus1 as a marker for quantification of definitive endoderm differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.

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    Hidefumi Iwashita

    Full Text Available To date, CXCR4 and E-cadherin double-positive cells detected by flow cytometry have been used to identify the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells into definitive endoderm (DE lineages. Quantification of DE differentiation from ES/iPS cells by using flow cytometry is a multi-step procedure including dissociation of the cells, antibody reaction, and flow cytometry analysis. To establish a quick assay method for quantification of ES/iPS cell differentiation into the DE without dissociating the cells, we examined whether secreted Cerberus1 (Cer1 protein could be used as a marker. Cer1 is a secreted protein expressed first in the anterior visceral endoderm and then in the DE. The amount of Cer1 secreted correlated with the proportion of CXCR4+/E-Cadherin+ cells that differentiated from mouse ES cells. In addition, we found that human iPS cell-derived DE also expressed the secreted CER1 and that the expression level correlated with the proportion of SOX17+/FOXA2+ cells present. Taken together, these results show that Cer1 (or CER1 serves as a good marker for quantification of DE differentiation of mouse and human ES/iPS cells.

  5. Catecholamine induced cardiomyopathy in pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Thomas Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamine induced cardiomyopathy in the setting of pheochromocytoma is an unusual clinical entity. Earlier studies have reported left ventricular dysfunction in around 10% of subjects with pheochromocytoma. [1] Catecholamine induced vasoconstriction, direct toxic effect of byproducts of catecholamine degradation and direct receptor-mediated mechanisms are thought to contribute to cardiomyopathy in subjects with pheochromocytoma. The presentation remains a diagnostic challenge as patients may already have hypertensive heart disease and acute coronary syndrome on account of uncontrolled secondary hypertension. We report a case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with features of pheochromocytoma induced cardiomyopathy.

  6. Transdifferentiation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-secreting mesenchymal stem cells significantly enhance BDNF secretion and Schwann cell marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein De la Rosa, Metzere; Sharma, Anup D; Mallapragada, Surya K; Sakaguchi, Donald S

    2017-11-01

    The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration. In this study, we have taken a novel approach by combining these two unique strategies and evaluated the impact of transdifferentiating genetically modified MSCs into a Schwann cell-like phenotype. After 8 days in transdifferentiation media, approximately 30-50% of transdifferentiated BDNF-secreting cells immunolabeled for Schwann cell markers such as S100β, S100, and p75 NTR . An enhancement was observed 20 days after inducing transdifferentiation with minimal decreases in expression levels. BDNF production was quantified by ELISA, and its biological activity tested via the PC12-TrkB cell assay. Importantly, the bioactivity of secreted BDNF was verified by the increased neurite outgrowth of PC12-TrkB cells. These findings demonstrate that not only is BDNF actively secreted by the transdifferentiated BDNF-MSCs, but also that it has the capacity to promote neurite sprouting and regeneration. Given the fact that BDNF production remained stable for over 20 days, we believe that these cells have the capacity to produce sustainable, effective, BDNF concentrations over prolonged time periods and should be tested within an in vivo system for future experiments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Overnight changes of immune parameters and catecholamines are associated with mood and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Mills, Paul J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G; Pung, Meredith A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a nocturnal decrease of secretion of inflammation markers and catecholamines would be associated with mood and stress variables even after controlling for objective sleep variables. A total of 130 healthy volunteers participated in this study, spending 2 nights in the Gillin Laboratory of Sleep and Chronobiology at the University of California, San Diego, General Clinical Research Center. Blood samples were obtained before sleep (10:30 PM) and after awakening (6:30 AM) on the first day, and these samples were assayed for inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines. On the second night, polysomnographic records were scored for objective sleep variables, e.g., total sleep time and wake after sleep onset. Self-rating scales for mood, stress, depression, and daily hassles were administered the second day. The nocturnal decrease in interleukin-6 was smaller in people who reported more negative mood or fatigue and greater in those who reported more uplift events (e.g., with Profile of Mood States fatigue r(p) = -.25 to -.30). People with high stress or high depression levels had smaller nocturnal decreases of epinephrine. That relationship was even stronger when partial correlations were used to control for morning level and sleep variables. The associations between nocturnal changes of C-reactive protein, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I, and norepinephrine with psychological states were nonremarkable. The analyses of nocturnal change scores (difference scores) add substantial information compared with the traditional analyses of morning levels of immune variables and catecholamines alone. Subjective well-being is significantly associated with a greater nocturnal decrease of interleukin-6 and epinephrine. More research on nocturnal adaptation processes is warranted.

  8. Role of Catecholamine in Tumor Angiogenesis Linked to Capacitance Relaxation Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue SHI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the CgA level during metastasis linked with Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in cancer cell. CgA co-stored and correlated by exocytosis with catecholamines is a precursor to peptides that exert feedback regulatory control on catecholamine secretion. It is to be noted that CgA was the most sensitive marker for detecting patients with tumor angiogenesis. The progressive rise in CgA increases with the tumor size and this fact has been correlated with the Capacitance relaxation phenomenon (T. K. Basak, US patent No. 5691178, 1997 in different stages. The experimental results of Capacitance relaxation phenomenon were given as inputs to a model for correlation with the CgA level. This model is a control system model, the output of which is the CgA level. It is to be noted that the model is simulated in MATLAB. The expression of tumorogenisis in prostate and liver is also linked to Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in respect of its correlation with the CgA level.

  9. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  10. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  11. Perioperative management of paraganglioma and catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy in child- a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xixi; Guo, Xiangyang; Zheng, Qing

    2017-10-17

    Paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglia. Perioperative mortality of children with paraganglioma is high, but preoperative therapy and anesthetic management of paraganglioma resection are controversial in children. The literatures on catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy are limited to several case reports,with few reports of studies on children. Here we report the anesthetic management of a child with paraganglioma and catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, and the possible perioperative anesthesia problems of the paraganglioma resection are discussed. Preoperative and intraoperative anesthetic management of Pheochromocytomas children should follow the same principles as for adults, The most important aspects are the control of blood pressure liability and maintenance of adequate blood volume. Pheochromocytomas patient may have cardiomoyopathy due to myocardial toxicity of excessive circulating catecholamines level. The perioperative management of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy should include lowering sympathetic activation by means of α-and β-adrenergic receptor blocker and diuretics administration in case of volume overload.

  12. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  13. Plasma endocannabinoid levels in lean, overweight and obese humans: relationships with intestinal permeability markers, inflammation and incretin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Cvijanovic, Nada; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Argueta, Donovan A; Rayner, Christopher K; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L

    2018-02-13

    Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion. 20 lean, 18 overweight and 19 obese participants underwent intraduodenal Intralipid® infusion (2 kcal/min) with collection of endoscopic duodenal biopsies and blood. Plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA (HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (multiplex), and duodenal expression of occludin, zona-occludin-1 (ZO-1), intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase (IAP), and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) (RT-PCR), were assessed. Fasting plasma AEA was increased in obese, compared with lean and overweight (Plean (Plean and overweight. The relationships between plasma AEA with duodenal ZO-1 and IAP, and GIP, suggest that altered endocannabinoid signalling may contribute to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and incretin release in human obesity.

  14. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  15. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamine levels when swimming and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezennec, C Y; Defer, G; Cazorla, G; Sabathier, C; Lhoste, F

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and catecholamines to two graded exercises differing by posture. Seven male subjects (19-25 years) performed successively a running rest on a treadmill and a swimming test in a 50-m swimming pool. Each exercise was increased in severity in 5-min steps with intervals of 1 min. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate, measured every 5 min, showed a similar progression in energy expenditure until exhaustion, but there was a shorter time to exhaustion in the last step of the running test. PRA, PAC and catecholamines were increased after both types of exercise. The PRA increase was higher after the running test (20.9 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1) than after swimming (8.66 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1). The PAC increase was slightly greater after running (123 pg X ml-1) than swimming (102 pg X ml-1), buth the difference was not significant. Plasma catecholamine was higher after the swimming test. These results suggest that the volume shift induced by the supine position and water pressure during swimming decreased the PRA response. The association after swimming compared to running of a decreased PRA and an enhanced catecholamine response rule out a strict dependence of renin release under the effect of plasma catecholamines and is evidence of the major role of neural pathways for renin secretion during physical exercise.

  16. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  17. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ayadhi MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the principal causes of biochemical abnormalities and the best endocrine markers for PCOS have not been fully identified.Subjects and methods: Serum levels of insulin, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone-binding capacity (SHBG, and other related indices such as homeostasis model assessment, insulin glucose ratios, LH/FSH ratios, and the free androgen index (FAI were determined and compared in women with PCOS (n = 50 and women without PCOS (n = 50.Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, among all insulin resistance indices, only hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–5.2; P = 0.008 was significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for body mass index (BMI, hyperandrogenemia, and LH/FSH ratios. The LH/FSH ratio (OR = 5.4; CI: 1.2–23.0, P = 0.03 was the only marker among those indices for inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion that significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. Among those indices for hyperandrogenemia, FAI (OR = 1.1; CI: 1.0–2.7; P = 0.02 and SHBG (OR = 1.2; CI: 1.2–3.4; P = 0.03 were significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best predictive markers for PCOS were insulin (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.944; CI: 0.887–0

  18. 1-Hour OGTT Plasma Glucose as a Marker of Progressive Deterioration of Insulin Secretion and Action in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ghio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering old GDM diagnostic criteria, alterations in insulin secretion and action are present in women with GDM as well as in women with one abnormal value (OAV during OGTT. Our aim is to assess if changes in insulin action and secretion during pregnancy are related to 1-hour plasma glucose concentration during OGTT. We evaluated 3 h/100 g OGTT in 4,053 pregnant women, dividing our population on the basis of 20 mg/dL increment of plasma glucose concentration at 1 h OGTT generating 5 groups (<120 mg/dL, =661; 120–139 mg/dL, =710; 140–159 mg/dL, =912; 160–179 mg/dL, =885; and ≥180 mg/dL, =996. We calculated incremental area under glucose (AUCgluc and insulin curves (AUCins, indexes of insulin secretion (HOMA-B, and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-R, AUCins/AUCgluc. AUCgluc and AUCins progressively increased according to 1-hour plasma glucose concentrations (both <0.0001 for trend. HOMA-B progressively declined (<0.001, and HOMA-R progressively increased across the five groups. AUCins/AUCgluc decreased in a linear manner across the 5 groups (<0.001. Analysing the groups with 1-hour value <180 mg/dL, defects in insulin secretion (HOMA-B: −29.7% and sensitivity (HOMA-R: +15% indexes were still apparent (all <0.001. Progressive increase in 1-hour OGTT is associated with deterioration of glucose tolerance and alterations in indexes of insulin action and secretion.

  19. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  20. Catecholamine-based treatment in AD patients: Expectations and delusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eStefani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer disease, the gap between excellence of diagnostics and efficacy of therapy is wide. Despite sophisticated imaging and biochemical markers, the efficacy of available therapeutic options is limited.Here we examine the possibility that assessment of endogenous catecholamine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF may fuel new therapeutic strategies.In reviewing the available literature, we consider the effects of levodopa, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI, and noradraneline (NE modulators, showing disparate results. We present a preliminary assessment of CSF concentrations of dopamine (DA and NE, determined by HPLC, in a small dementia cohort of either Alzheimer’s disease (AD or frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients, compared to control subjects. Our data reveal detectable levels of DA, NE in CSF, though we found no significant alterations in the dementia population as a whole. AD patients exhibit a small impairment of the DA axis and a larger increase of NE concentration, likely to represent a compensatory mechanism.While waiting for preventive strategies, a pragmatic approach to AD may re-evaluate catecholamine modulation, possibly stratified to dementia subtypes, as part of the therapeutic armamentarium.

  1. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  2. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  3. Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary free catecholamines using on-line solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kema, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) in plasma and urine is used for diagnosis and treatment of catecholamine-producing tumors Current analytical techniques for catecholamine quantification are laborious, time-consuming and technically demanding Our aim was to

  4. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  5. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-01-01

    matter were found to contain catecholamines. In the dorsal horn the most intense fluorescence was seen in the superficial layers. The motoneuron neuropil exhibited the most prominent catecholamine-fluorescence of the ventral horn layers. In the sixth lumbar segment, which contains the motor nuclei....... In the intermediate gray the intermediolateral nucleus in thoracic and upper lumbar segments was the most heavily innervated area, followed by the medial lumbar sympathetic group, which contains the majority of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the pelvic organs. The parasympathetic intermediolateral...... nucleus in the upper sacral segments received a catecholamine innervation of moderate density. The catecholamine innervation pattern is discussed in relation to the patterns of other putative transmitters. The distribution of catecholamine fluorescence in relation to nuclei that control the pelvic organs...

  7. Effects of 12 weeks' treatment with a proton pump inhibitor on insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, K D; Brøns, Charlotte; Færch, Kai Erik Vinther

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor treatment may increase insulin secretion and improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. In a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial study, we examined the effect of esomeprazole on insulin secretion, HbA(1c...

  8. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  9. Impaired Sympathoadrenal Axis Function Contributes to Enhanced Insulin Secretion in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Andreazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.

  10. Catecholamines and obesity: effects of exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhal, Hassane; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Casazza, Gretchen A; Jabbour, Georges

    2013-07-01

    Excess body fat in obese individuals can affect the catecholamine response to various stimuli. Indeed, several studies report lower plasma catecholamine concentrations in obese subjects compared with nonobese subjects in response to submaximal or maximal exercise. This low catecholamine response reflects decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Although the relationship between the SNS and obesity is not well established, some authors have suggested that low SNS activity may contribute to the development of obesity. A decreased catecholamine response could affect α- and β-adrenoceptor sensitivity in adipose tissue, reducing lipolysis and increasing fat stores. Few studies have examined the effects of obesity on the plasma catecholamine response at rest and during exercise in adolescents. It is interesting to note that the effects of age, sex, and degree of obesity and the impact of very intense exercise on the catecholamine response have not yet been well examined. Moreover, the hormonal concentrations measured in the majority of obesity studies did not take into account plasma volume changes. This methodological factor can also undoubtedly influence plasma catecholamine results.

  11. Studies on catecholamine function in human fat cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lena

    1996-01-01

    Catecholamine function in human fat cells Lena Hellström, Centre for Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden Human adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ as regards metabolism. The effects of catecholamines, the main lipolytic hormones in man vary considerably in different regions. Fat cell lipolysis also changes in a number of physiological and pathophysiological states...

  12. Radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkov, Yu.Yu.; Malatsidze, M.A.; Sobolev, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    On cultivated in vitro Chinese hamster fibroblasts radioprotective properties of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoproterenol in different concentrations are studied. Isoproterenol radiopreventive effect is clearly manifested with its concentration being 1x10 -8 M; adrenaline and noradrenaline are efficient in higher concentrations. Propranolol, blocking β-adrenergic receptors, completely presents radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cells. β-adrenergic mechanism of catecholamine radioprotective effect on Mammalia cells is discussed

  13. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  14. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secreting Pheochromocytoma Underlying Glucocorticoid Induced Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil A. Geva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pheochromocytomas are hormone secreting tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands found in 0.1–0.5% of patients with hypertension. The vast majority of pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines, but they have been occasionally shown to also secrete interleukins, calcitonin, testosterone, and in rare cases adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life threatening event in which high levels of catecholamines cause a systemic reaction leading to organ failure. Case Description. A 70-year-old man was admitted with acute myocardial ischemia following glucocorticoid administration as part of an endocrine workup for an adrenal mass. Cardiac catheterization disclosed patent coronary arteries and he was discharged. A year later he returned with similar angina-like chest pain. During hospitalization, he suffered additional events of chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations following administration of glucocorticoids as preparation for intravenous contrast administration. Throughout his admission, the patient demonstrated both signs of Cushing’s syndrome and high catecholamine levels. Following stabilization of vital parameters and serum electrolytes, the adrenal mass was resected surgically and was found to harbor an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma. This is the first documented case of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma complicated by glucocorticoid induced pheochromocytoma crisis. Conclusion. Care should be taken when administering high doses of glucocorticoids to patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, even in a patient with concomitant Cushing’s syndrome.

  15. Plasma catecholamine content using radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masaru; Togashi, Hiroko; Koike, Yuichi; Shimamura, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Noriko

    1980-01-01

    Catecholamine (CA) contents in blood plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human blood plasma were measured by radioenzymatic assay (REA) and trihydroxyindol (THI) fluorescent method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and both measurement methods were compared. The standard curve of REA showed a good linear relationship between total CA contents and separated CA contents. Though there was a danger of exposure to β-ray when REA was performed, this method was useful for measurement of CA contents in blood of small animals and small quantity of blood because CA content of only 50 μg of blood plasma could be measured by this method. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) contents in men with normal blood pressure measured by REA was 250 +- 61 pg/ml and 37 +- 22 pg/ml, respectively. NE and E contents in patients with mild hypertension were 460 +- 128 pg/ml and 50 +- 20 pg/ml, respectively. There was not a significant difference between NE and E contents in men with normal blood pressure and those in patients with mild hypertension. Total CA content in blood plasma of SHR killed by decapitation was 5,000 +- 1,131 pg/ml, which was 5 times NE and E contents in blood plasma obtained from femoral vein of anesthetized SHR (816 +- 215 pg/ml and 209 +- 44 pg/ml). Total CA content in the same sample was measured by REA and HPLC. As a result, total CA content measured by REA was higher than that measured by HPLC, but there was a good relationship between total CA content measured by REA and that measured by HPLC. NE content in men with normal blood pressure measured by HPLC was elevated significantly according to an increase in their age, but this tendency was not observed in patients with hypertension. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Type III secretion system and virulence markers highlight similarities and differences between human- and plant-associated Pseudomonads related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P-putida

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crepin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicre-Gibouin, Maité; Plesiat, Patrick; Lemanceau, Philippe; Latour, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this se...

  17. Phentolamine tests and catecholamine levels in normotensive CVA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R

    1974-11-01

    Ten normotensive patients diagnosed as having a CVA had Regitine tests and urinary VMA and catecholamine determinations during the first day of hospitalization. The VMA and catecholamine levels were all within normal limits (except for one elevated VMA level) but did not correlate well with each other. The average response to phentolamine was an average drop in blood pressure of 30mm. Hg systolic and 19 mm. Hg diastolic. Mechanisms by which hypertensive states or cerebral damage might effect blood pressure are discussed. It is suggested that CNS damage might induce a vasolabile or hypersensitive state via connections and consequent alterations in the autonomic vasomotor system.

  18. Reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy due to pheochromocytoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satendra, Milan; de Jesus, Cláudia; Bordalo e Sá, Armando L; Rosário, Luís; Rocha, José; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Correia, Maria José; Nunes Diogo, António

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor originating from chromaffin tissue. It commonly presents with symptoms and signs of catecholamine excess, such as hypertension, tachycardia, headache and sweating. Cardiovascular manifestations include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, which may present as severe left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. We report a case of pheochromocytoma which was diagnosed following investigation of dilated cardiomyopathy. We highlight the dramatic symptomatic improvement and reversal of cardiomyopathy, with recovery of left ventricular function after treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Are Associated With Spontaneous Postnatal Growth and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Short SGA Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix

    2015-01-01

    with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele......PURPOSE: The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. METHOD: Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism......; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0...

  20. Evaluation of the potential interaction between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion using metformin, an in vivo marker of renal organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus, Karen J; Alvey, Christine; Li, Lei; Feng, Bo; Wang, Rong; Kaplan, Irina; Shi, Haihong; Dowty, Martin E; Krishnaswami, Sriram

    2014-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion was evaluated using metformin as a probe transporter substrate, and genotyping for organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 polymorphisms. Twenty-four healthy male subjects completed this open-label, fixed-sequence study. Subjects were administered a single oral metformin 500 mg dose on Days 1 and 4, and multiple oral tofacitinib 30 mg twice daily doses on Days 2, 3, and 4. Subjects underwent serial blood and urine samplings (Days 1 and 4) to estimate metformin pharmacokinetics. A single blood sample for tofacitinib was collected 2 hours after the morning dose (Day 4). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve and renal clearance of metformin, with and without tofacitinib, were contained within the 80-125% acceptance range commonly used to establish a lack of DDI. No deaths, serious adverse events (AEs), severe AEs or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. The study confirms tofacitinib is unlikely to impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion, and concurs with its weak in vitro OCT2 inhibitory profile. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on catecholamine release in the pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, C J; McKendry, J; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The interaction between homologous C-type natriuretic peptide (dfCNP) and catecholamine release in cardiovascular control was assessed in the marine dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This was accomplished by evaluation of the dynamics of the dfCNP-elicited secretion of catecholamines in situ and in vivo. With an in situ saline-perfused postcardinal sinus preparation, it was demonstrated that perfusion with saline containing dfCNP (10(-9) mol x L(-1)) did not affect the secretion of either noradrenaline or adrenaline. However, the presence of dfCNP in the perfusate significantly enhanced carbachol-evoked secretion of noradrenaline. In vivo, intravascular injection of dfCNP (10(-9) mol x kg(-1)) caused a biphasic pressor-depressor response consisting of a brief increase in caudal artery blood pressure (P(CA)) followed by a prolonged reduction in P(CA). Furthermore, although systemic resistance initially increased, it was subsequently maintained at baseline values in the face of persistent decreases in both P(CA) and cardiac output. Bolus injection of dfCNP elicited significant increases in plasma noradrenaline levels that peaked within 10 min; plasma adrenaline levels were unaffected. The release of noradrenaline elicited by dfCNP was unaffected by prior blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril) or by pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium. The delayed decrease in P(CA) was not observed in the hexamethonium-treated fish. Prior blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors (with sotalol) or alpha-adrenoreceptors (with prazosin) either significantly reduced (sotalol) or abolished (prazosin) the increase in plasma noradrenaline levels after dfCNP injection. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels observed in vivo following dfCNP injection is not caused by a direct effect of dfCNP on catecholamine secretion from axillary body chromaffin cells

  2. Electrochemical Investigation of the Interaction between Catecholamines and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleat, Zahra; Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Machado, José D; Dunevall, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G; Borges, Ricardo

    2018-02-06

    The study of the colligative properties of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and catecholamines has received the attention of scientists for decades, as they could explain the capabilities of secretory vesicles (SVs) to accumulate neurotransmitters. In this Article, we have applied electrochemical methods to detect such interactions in vitro, at the acidic pH of SVs (pH 5.5) and examined the effect of compounds having structural similarities that correlate with functional groups of ATP (adenosine, phosphoric acid and sodium phosphate salts) and catecholamines (catechol). Chronoamperometry and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) provide evidence compatible with an interaction of the catechol and adenine rings. This interaction is also reinforced by an electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of ATP and the protonated ammonium group of catecholamines. Furthermore, chronoamperometry data suggest that the presence of ATP subtlety reduces the apparent diffusion coefficient of epinephrine in aqueous media that adds an additional factor leading to a slower rate of catecholamine exocytosis. This adds another plausible mechanism to regulate individual exocytosis events to alter communication.

  3. Catecholamine function, brain state dynamics, and human cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink R.L.,

    2017-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) is a nucleus in the brainstem, and projects widely to the forebrain where it releases norepinephrine (NE). Catecholamines such as NE do not have a unitary effect on their target neurons, but instead influence the function of other neurotransmitters, a process that is known

  4. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h...

  5. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affect their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CAT's) are considered as indicators of stress, ...

  6. Type III secretion system and virulence markers highlight similarities and differences between human- and plant-associated pseudomonads related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick; Lemanceau, Philippe; Latour, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Nitric oxide inhibits the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated adrenomedullary catecholamine release but has no effect on adrenal blood flow response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallegue, Ali; Yamaguchi, Nobuharu

    2005-06-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in bradykinin (BK)-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion still remains obscure. The present study was to investigate whether an inhibition of NO synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) would modulate BK-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion (ACS) and adrenal vasodilating response (AVR) in anesthetized dogs. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined with an HPLC coupled with an electrochemical detector. All drugs were locally administered to the left adrenal gland via intra-arterial infusion. BK dose-dependently increased both ACS and AVR. Hoe-140, a selective B(2) antagonist, significantly blocked the BK-induced increases in both ACS and AVR. In the presence of L-NAME, the BK-induced ACS was significantly enhanced, while the simultaneous AVR remained unaffected. These results suggest that the both BK-induced ACS and AVR are primarily mediated by B(2) receptors in the canine adrenal gland. Our results also suggest that the enhanced ACS in response to BK in the presence of L-NAME may have resulted from a specific inhibition of NO formation in the adrenal gland. It is concluded that the BK-induced NO may play an inhibitory role in the B(2)-receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating ACS, while it may not be implicated in the B(2)-receptor-mediated AVR under in vivo conditions.

  8. Role of alpha-crystallin, early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10 as novel diagnostic markers in osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Rizvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarticular tuberculosis constitutes about 3% of all tuberculosis cases. Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging problem especially in the case of osteoarticular tuberculosis owing to the lower number of bacilli. However, an accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease results in an improved efficacy of the given treatment. Besides the limitations of conventional methods, nowadays molecular diagnostic techniques have emerged as a major breakthrough for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Alpha-crystallin is a dominantly expressed protein responsible for the long viability of the pathogen during the latent phase under certain stress conditions such as hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. Two other proteins—early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10—show high expression in the active infective phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this article, we focus on the different proteins expressed dominantly in latent/active tuberculosis, and which may be further used as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculosis, both in latent and active phases.

  9. Salivary surrogates of plasma nitrite and catecholamines during a 21-week training season in swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mauricio Díaz Gómez

    Full Text Available The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA, chromogranin A (sCgA, and the concentration of total protein (sTP as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2 in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2, respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

  10. Plasma catecholamine responses to physiologic stimuli in normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, W M; Mujais, S K; Zinaman, M; Bravo, E L; Lindheimer, M D

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic response of the sympathoadrenal system was evaluated during and after pregnancy in 13 healthy women with a protocol that compared cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine levels during the basal state, after postural maneuvers, and following isometric exercise. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were similar during and after gestation when the women rested on their sides, but heart rate was greater in pregnancy. Ten minutes of supine recumbency produced minimal changes, but attenuation of the anticipated increases in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels during standing and isometric exercise were observed during pregnancy. In contrast, alterations in plasma epinephrine appeared unaffected by gestation. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were, as expected, greater during pregnancy; however, increments in response to upright posture were similar in pregnant and postpartum women. To the extent that circulating catecholamines may be considered indices of sympathoadrenal function, these data suggest that normal pregnancy alters cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system responses to physiologic stimuli.

  11. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2008-09-01

    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  12. The catecholamine response to spaceflight: role of diet and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a similar sexual dimorphism was found in the response to spaceflight. To do so, we compared catecholamine excretion by male and female astronauts from two similar shuttle missions, Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS1, 1991) and 2 (SLS2, 1993) for evidence of sexual dimorphism. To evaluate the variability of the catecholamine response in men, we compared catecholamine excretion from the two SLS missions against the 1996 Life and Microgravity Sciences Mission (LMS) and the 1973 Skylab missions. RESULTS: No gender- or mission-dependent changes were found with epinephrine. Separating out the SLS1/2 data by gender shows that norepinephrine excretion was essentially unchanged with spaceflight in women (98 +/- 10%; n = 3) and substantially decreased with the men (41 +/- 9%; n = 4, P gender-specific effects. We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent. Men show the greater response, with at least three factors being involved, a response to microgravity, energy balance, and the ratio of carbohydrate to fat in the diet.

  13. Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

  14. [Premature immunosenescence in catecholamines syntesis deficient mice. Effect of social environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Antonio; Cruces, Julia; Iriarte, Idoia; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; de Pablo, Flora; de la Fuente, Mónica

    Healthy state depends on the appropriate function of the homeostatic systems (nervous, endocrine and immune systems) and the correct communication between them. The functional and redox state of the immune system is an excellent marker of health, and animals with premature immunosenescence show a shorter lifespan. Since catecholamines modulate the function of immune cells, the alteration in their synthesis could provoke immunosenescence. The social environment could be a strategy for modulating this immunosenescence. To determine if an haploinsufficiency of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the limiting enzyme of synthesis of catecholamines, may produce a premature immunosenescence and if this immunosenescence could be modulated by the social environment. Adult (9±1 months) male ICR-CD1 mice with deletion of a single allele (hemi-zygotic: HZ) of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme (TH-HZ) and wild-type (WT) mice were used. Animals were housed in four subgroups: WT>50% (in the cage, the proportion of WT mice was higher than 50% in relation to TH-HZ), WT50%. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected and phagocytosis, chemotaxis and proliferation of lymphocytes in the presence of lipopolysaccharide were analyzed. Glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio were studied. TH-HZ>50% mice showed a deteriorated function and redox state in leukocytes respect to WT>50% and similar to old mice. However, TH-HZ<50% animals had similar values to those found in WT<50% mice. The haploinsufficiency of TH generates premature immunosenescence, which appears to be compensated by living together with an appropriate number of WT animals. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Catecholamine-resistant hypotension and myocardial performance following patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noori, S

    2014-08-14

    Objective:We performed a multicenter study of preterm infants, who were about to undergo patent ductus arteriosus ligation, to determine whether echocardiographic indices of impaired myocardial performance were associated with subsequent development of catecholamine-resistant hypotension following ligation.Study Design:A standardized treatment approach for hypotension was followed at each center. Infants were considered to have catecholamine-resistant hypotension if their dopamine infusion was >15 μg kg(-1)min(-1). Echocardiograms and cortisol measurements were obtained between 6 and 14 h after the ligation (prior to the presence of catecholamine-resistant hypotension).Result:Forty-five infants were enrolled, 10 received catecholamines (6 were catecholamine-responsive and 4 developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension). Catecholamine-resistant hypotension was not associated with decreased preload, shortening fraction or ventricular output. Infants with catecholamine-resistant hypotension had significantly lower levels of systemic vascular resistance and postoperative cortisol concentration.Conclusion:We speculate that low cortisol levels and impaired vascular tone may have a more important role than impaired cardiac performance in post-ligation catecholamine-resistant hypotension.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 14 August 2014; doi:10.1038\\/jp.2014.151.

  16. Effects of catecholamines on rat myocardial metabolism. II. Influence of catecholamines on 32p-incorporation into rat myocardial adenylic nucleotides and their turn-over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouze, P; Gaudemer, Y; Gautheron, D

    1975-01-01

    1. The influence of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on 32Pi incorporation into intracellular phosphate and adenylic nucleotides has been studied on rat myocardium slices; consequently, the turn-over of nucleotides could be determined and compared under the influence of these two hormones. 2. In order to specify the site of action of these catecholamines, several inhibitors and activators of energetic metabolism were included in the incubation medium: 3'5'-AMP, caffein, ouabain, oligomycin, rotenone + antimycin. 3. Both catecholamines favour Pi exchanges between intra and extracellular spaces; ATP turn-over is greatly increased, while ADP turn-over is slightly decreased, and 32P-incorporation into ADP is increased. 4. 3'5'-AMP and caffein are without effect on Pi penetration; however, caffein increases catecholamine effects on this penetration. ATP turn-over is slightly increased by 3'5'-AMP or caffein. 5. Ouabain decreases ATP turn-over but does not prevent the adrenaline induced acceleration. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport decrease ATP-turn-over severely; this inhibition is not released by catecholamines. 6. It is concluded that the catecholamine effects observed are dependent on the oxidative phosphorylations process. The increase of Pi exchange by catecholamines may be related to the increase of extracellular space and cation translocations we observed with the hormones.

  17. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  18. The nature of catecholamine-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system in relationship with organogenesis, normal human anatomy and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, G; Ryskalin, L; Busceti, C L; Biagioni, F; Fornai, F

    2017-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells. This is finalized to regulate gastrointestinal secretion, absorption and motility. In particular, this network is organized in several plexuses each one providing quite autonomous control of gastrointestinal functions (hence the definition of "second brain"). The similarity between ENS and CNS is further substantiated by the presence of local sensitive pseudo- unipolar ganglionic neurons with both peripheral and central branching which terminate in the enteric wall. A large variety of neurons and neurotransmitters takes part in the ENS. However, the nature of these neurons and their role in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions is debatable. In particular, the available literature reporting the specific nature of catecholamine- containing neurons provides conflicting evidence. This is critical both for understanding the specific role of each catecholamine in the gut and, mostly, to characterize specifically the enteric neuropathology occurring in a variety of diseases. An emphasis is posed on neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, which is associated with the loss of catecholamine neurons. In this respect, the recognition of the nature of such neurons within the ENS would contribute to elucidate the pathological mechanisms which produce both CNS and ENS degeneration and to achieve more effective therapeutic approaches. Despite a great emphasis is posed on the role of noradrenaline to regulate enteric activities only a few

  19. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Domenico; Busceti, Carla L; Calierno, Maria T; Di Pietro, Paola; Madonna, Michele; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  20. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA-, norepinephrine (NE-, and epinephrine (E-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  1. Augmentation of catecholamine release elicited by an Eugenia punicifolia extract in chromaffin cells

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    Ricardo de Pascual

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth DC., Myrtaceae, are used in Amazon region of Brazil to treat diarrhea and stomach disturbances, and as hypoglycemic medicine. We have recently shown that an aqueous extract of E. punicifolia augmented cholinergic neurotransmission in a rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission, the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell. EPEX augmented the release of catecholamine triggered by acetylcholine (ACh pulses but did not enhance ACh-evoked inward currents, which were inhibited by 30%. Since EPEX did not cause a blockade of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase, it seems that EPEX is not directly activating the cholinergic system. EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole-cell inward calcium current. This novel and potent effect of EPEX in enhancing exocytosis might help to identify the active component responsible for augmenting exocytosis. When elucidated, the molecular structure of this active principle could serve as a template to synthesise novel compounds to regulate the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters.

  2. Catecholamines of the body tissues and radiosensitivity of rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayevskaya, V M; Zolotariova, N N [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Morfologii Zhivotnykh

    1975-01-01

    Various species of rodents are distinguished by their radiosensitivity (increasing): bank vole < Wistar rat < wild mouse < CC/sub 57/Br mouse < golden hamster < BALB mouse < guinea pig. There is a positive correlation between radiosensitivity of these species and catecholamines content in the adrenals, urea and blood; and negative correlation between radiosensitivity and adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations in liver and spleen cells. Presumable causes of this correlation, and the possibility of application of the index under study for predicting the organism radiosensitivity and forecasting the outcome of radiation damage are discussed.

  3. Catecholamines of the body tissues and radiosensitivity of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayevskaya, V.M.; Zolotariova, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    Various species of rodents are distinguished by their radiosensitivity (increasing): bank vole 57 Br mouse < golden hamster < BALB mouse < guinea pig. There is a positive correlation between radiosensitivity of these species and catecholamines content in the adrenals, urea and blood; and negative correlation between radiosensitivity and adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations in liver and spleen cells. Presumable causes of this correlation, and the possibility of application of the index under study for predicting the organism radiosensitivity and forecasting the outcome of radiation damage are discussed

  4. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory---USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  5. Regulation of chick bone growth by leptin and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, L J; Wenzel, S J; Sindberg, G M

    2010-04-01

    Leptin and the sympathetic nervous system have a unique role in linking nutritional status to skeletal metabolism in mammals. Such a regulatory mechanism has not been identified in birds but would be beneficial to signal information about energy reserves to an organ system essential for locomotion, reproduction, and survival. To explore this potential role of leptin and the sympathetic nervous system in birds, an ex vivo chick tibiotarsal model was used to test the effects of leptin and sympathetic activity on longitudinal bone growth and the expression of chondrocyte markers. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed the expression of chicken leptin receptor mRNA as well as both alpha-adrenergic (alpha1A, alpha2A, alpha2B, alpha2C) and beta adrenergic (beta1, beta2) receptor subtype mRNA in the whole bone. Incubation with norepinephrine (NE; 0, 10, or 100 microM for 4 d) caused a significant increase in distal condyle length as compared with vehicle-treated, contralateral tibiotarsi. In contrast, no change in condyle length was detected after leptin treatment (0 or 10 nM or 1 microM for 4 d). Analysis of cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation revealed no increase in bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the condyles in response to leptin or NE treatments. Real-time PCR analysis showed that NE enhanced type X collagen mRNA expression, a marker of mature hypertrophic chondrocytes, with no effect on type II collagen mRNA, the matrix protein secreted by proliferating chondrocytes. Leptin treatment had no effect on the expression of either matrix protein. Treatment with agonists specific for alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors indicates that the activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors is most likely responsible for the sympathetic effect on type X collagen gene expression. These results suggest that NE and other sympathetic agonists have positive effects on bone elongation and the changes in critical genes associated with this process. These

  6. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  7. Effects of catecholamines on rat myocardial metabolism. I. Influence of catecholamines on energy-rich nucleotides and phosphorylated fraction contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouze, P; Gaudemer, Y

    1975-01-01

    1. The influence of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on energy metabolism of the rat myocardium has been studied by incubating slices of this tissue with these hormones and by following the levels of the different phosphorylated fractions and adenylic nucleotides. 2. Similar effects are obtained with both hormones, adrenaline being more effective. 3. Catecholamines decrease significantly the total amount of phosphate while Pi content increases during the first 10 minutes of incubation; labile and residual phosphate contents increase at the beginning of incubation and decrease to the initial values afterwards. 4. ATP and ADP levels decrease significantly with both hormones; however, the effect of noradrenalin on the ATP level needs a longer time of incubation. The ATP/ADP ratios decrease after 5 minutes incubation and the total adenylic nucleotide content is severely decreased (35 per cent with adrenalin, after 20 minutes incubation). 5. Similar results have been obtained with other tissues; these results can explain the decrease of aerobic metabolism we observed under the same conditions.

  8. A Population Based Study of the Genetic Association between Catecholamine Gene Variants and Spontaneous Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Reaction Time.

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    Jojanneke A Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available The catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in reaction time, which are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and subclinical attentional problems. The molecular genetic substrates of these behavioral phenotypes, which reflect frequency ranges of intrinsic neuronal oscillations (Slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; Slow-5: 0.010-0.027 Hz, have not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed regression analyses with an additive model to examine associations between low-frequency fluctuations in reaction time during a sustained attention task and genetic markers across 23 autosomal catecholamine genes in a large young adult population cohort (n = 964, which yielded greater than 80% power to detect a small effect size (f(2 = 0.02 and 100% power to detect a small/medium effect size (f(2 = 0.15. At significance levels corrected for multiple comparisons, none of the gene variants were associated with the magnitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Given the study's strong statistical power and dense coverage of the catecholamine genes, this either indicates that associations between low-frequency fluctuation measures and catecholamine gene variants are absent or that they are of very small effect size. Nominally significant associations were observed between variations in the alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A and the Slow-5 band. This is in line with previous reports of an association between ADRA2A gene variants and general reaction time variability during response selection tasks, but the specific association of these gene variants and low-frequency fluctuations requires further confirmation. Pharmacological challenge studies could in the future provide convergent evidence for the noradrenergic modulation of both general and time sensitive measures of intra-individual variability in reaction time.

  9. Beta-blockers influence the short-term and long-term prognostic information of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines in chronic heart failure independent from specific agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Nelles, Manfred; Slavutsky, Maxim; Schellberg, Dieter; Doesch, Andreas; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew; Zugck, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), the physiologic effects of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines are interdependent. Furthermore, reports state an agent-dependent effect of individual beta-blockers on biomarkers. Data on the short-term and long-term predictive power comparing these biomarkers as well as accounting for the influence of beta-blocker treatment both on the marker or the resultant prognostic information are scarce. We included 513 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, measured atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), noradrenaline, and adrenaline, and monitored them for 90 +/- 25 months. Death or the combination of death and cardiac transplantation at 1 year, 5 years, and overall follow-up were considered end points. Compared with patients not taking beta-blockers, patients taking beta-blockers had significantly lower levels of catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. Only for adrenaline was the amount of this effect related to the specific beta-blocker chosen. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy for NTproBNP both at the 1- and 5-year follow-up compared with ANP, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. In multivariate analysis including established risk markers (New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak oxygen uptake, and 6-minute walk test), of all neurohumoral parameters, only NTproBNP remained an independent predictor for both end points. Long-term beta-blocker therapy is associated with decreased levels of plasma catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. This effect is independent from the actual beta-blocker chosen for natriuretic peptides and noradrenaline. In multivariate analysis, both for short-term and long-term prediction of mortality or the combined end point of death and cardiac transplantation, only NTproBNP remained independent from established clinical risk markers.

  10. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad eNoudoost

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, To date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory.

  11. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L.; Noudoost, Behrad

    2014-01-01

    While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, to date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory. PMID:24782714

  12. Inhibition of radioemesis by disruption of catecholamines in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthra, Y.K.; Mattsson, J.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dogs were treated 30 min to 1 h before x irradiation with α-methyl-p-tyrosine or 6-hydroxydopamine. A third group of dogs was given a known antiradioemetic drug, haloperidol to verify the sensitivity of the procedure. Irradiated but untreated controls were also used. Light methoxyflurane anesthesia was used for restraint during the exposure. Exposure dose was 800 rad kerma delivered at 50 rad/min to a 10 x 10-cm area covering the abdominal area from xiphoid to pubis. Haloperidol and 6-hydroxydopamine significantly reduced the number of emetic episodes and delayed the onset time to the first episode, α-Methyl-p-tyrosine caused no significant changes. The effectiveness of 6-hydroxydopamine indicates that catecholaminergic neurons are involved in radioemesis, whereas haloperidol and phenothiazine-derivative tranquilizers inhibit radiomesis by blocking catecholamine receptor neurons

  13. Catecholamine responses to changes in posture during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, P G; Gerrard, J; Lind, T

    1985-06-01

    Human pregnancy may induce changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to endogenous catecholamines. This was investigated in multigravid women with little likelihood of unsuspected vascular disease. The responses of blood pressure, pulse rate, plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline to a change in posture from semi-recumbency to standing were assessed in six normotensive women at 36 weeks gestation and in six non-pregnant control subjects. Standing for 10 min caused a surge in blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma noradrenaline in non-pregnant women. The pregnant women, whose basal levels of noradrenaline were higher than those in non-pregnant women, showed a slower noradrenergic response to postural change, and this response had less effect upon the cardiovascular indices. Blood pressure dropped immediately on standing and pulse rate remained unaffected throughout. It is suggested that some women may maintain a non-pregnant level of pressor sensitivity during pregnancy and thereby become hypertensive.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of catecholamine using vanadium and eriochrome cyanine r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghallab Saeed; Gowda, Avinask K.

    2011-01-01

    highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the analysis of catecholamine drugs; L-dopa and methyldopa, is described. The analysis is based on the reaction of drug molecules with vanadium (V) which is reduced to vanadium (IV) and form complex with eriochrome cyanine R to give products having maximum absorbance (λ max ) at 565 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.028-0.84 and 0.099-0.996 μg mL -1 for L-dopa and methyldopa, respectively. The statistical analysis as well as comparison with reported methods demonstrated high precision and accuracy of the proposed method. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. (author)

  15. Clozapine response and plasma catecholamines and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A I; Alam, M Y; Sobieraj, J T; Pappalardo, K M; Waternaux, C; Salzman, C; Schatzberg, A F; Schildkraut, J J

    1993-02-01

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine has an unusual profile of clinical effects and a distinctive spectrum of pharmacological actions. Plasma measures of catecholamines and their metabolites have been used in the past to study the action of typical neuroleptics. We obtained longitudinal assessments of plasma measures of dopamine (pDA), norepinephrine (pNE), and their metabolites, homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG), in eight treatment-resistant or treatment-intolerant schizophrenic patients who were treated with clozapine for 12 weeks following a prolonged drug-washout period. Our findings from the study of these eight patients suggest the following: Plasma levels of HVA and possibly NE derived from the neuroleptic-free baseline period may predict response to clozapine; plasma levels of HVA and MHPG decrease during the initial weeks of treatment in responders but not in nonresponders; and plasma levels of DA and NE increase in both responders and nonresponders to clozapine.

  16. On-column reduction of catecholamine quinones in stainless steel columns during liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Huang, X; Kramer, K J; Hawley, M D

    1995-10-10

    The chromatographic behavior of quinones derived from the oxidation of dopamine and N-acetyldopamine has been studied using liquid chromatography (LC) with both a diode array detector and an electrochemical detector that has parallel dual working electrodes. When stainless steel columns are used, an anodic peak for the oxidation of the catecholamine is observed at the same retention time as a cathodic peak for the reduction of the catecholamine quinone. In addition, the anodic peak exhibits a tail that extends to a second anodic peak for the catecholamine. The latter peak occurs at the normal retention time of the catecholamine. The origin of this phenomenon has been studied and metallic iron in the stainless steel components of the LC system has been found to reduce the quinones to their corresponding catecholamines. The simultaneous appearance of a cathodic peak for the reduction of catecholamine quinone and an anodic peak for the oxidation of the corresponding catecholamine occurs when metallic iron in the exit frit reduces some of the quinones as the latter exits the column. This phenomenon is designated as the "concurrent anodic-cathodic response." It is also observed for quinones of of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and probably occurs with o- or p-quinones of other dihydroxyphenyl compounds. The use of nonferrous components in LC systems is recommended to eliminate possible on-column reduction of quinones.

  17. Plasma and erythrocyte relationship of catecholamines in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dziedzic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of the autonomic nervous system is based on reciprocal interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts, most frequently in the form of antagonistic action on target organs. The main mediators of the sympathetic nervous system in the effectors part are catecholamines (CA, which are involved in various physiological processes. Moreover, CA also has a profound effect on the kidneys, being factors that impact on renal haemodynamics, and have been reported to be altered in pathological disorders, e.g. extracellular volume expression, hypertension and cardiovascular complications. The increased sympathetic nerve activity, at least in part, can explain the raised in plasma CA observed in chronic kidney diseases. Furthermore, plasma CA levels in ureamic patients cannot be considered a reliable index of sympathetic activity, due to existence of many factors which may affect their values. In addition, CA released into the circulation, as one of many substances, may penetrate across the cellular membranes of erytrocytes (RBC. Taking these observations together, the aim of the presented study was to investigate for the first time the plasma and erythrocyte relationship of catecholamines in haemodialysis. The studies were performed among 37 haemodialysed patients who were inhabitants of the Lublin commune. Plasma and intracellular concentration of CA were measured prior to and following haemodialysis by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The results suggest that RBC are able to accumulate CA at the stage of terminal renal failure; in addition, the levels of adrenaline and dopamine in RBC depend on the accumulation of urea in plasma. It was also found that the dynamic changes in concentration of RBC adrenaline are an independent predictor of mortality in haemodialysis patients.

  18. Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Activate Orexin Neurons During Systemic Glucoprivation in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Elsarelli, Megan M; Brown, R Lane; Ritter, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required for elicitation of feeding responses to glucose deficit, but the forebrain circuitry required for these responses is incompletely understood. Here we examined interactions of catecholamine and orexin neurons in eliciting glucoprivic feeding. Orexin neurons, located in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH), are heavily innervated by hindbrain catecholamine neurons, stimulate food intake, and increase arousal and behavioral activation. Orexin neurons may therefore contribute importantly to appetitive responses, such as food seeking, during glucoprivation. Retrograde tracing results showed that nearly all innervation of the PeFLH from the hindbrain originated from catecholamine neurons and some raphe nuclei. Results also suggested that many catecholamine neurons project collaterally to the PeFLH and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Systemic administration of the antiglycolytic agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, increased food intake and c-Fos expression in orexin neurons. Both responses were eliminated by a lesion of catecholamine neurons innervating orexin neurons using the retrogradely transported immunotoxin, anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase saporin, which is specifically internalized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing catecholamine neurons. Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in transgenic rats expressing Cre recombinase under the control of tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, catecholamine neurons in cell groups A1 and C1 of the ventrolateral medulla were activated selectively by peripheral injection of clozapine-N-oxide. Clozapine-N-oxide injection increased food intake and c-Fos expression in PeFLH orexin neurons as well as in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus neurons. In summary, catecholamine neurons are required for the activation of orexin neurons during glucoprivation. Activation of orexin neurons may contribute to appetitive responses required for glucoprivic feeding.

  19. Catecholamines and in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria: enhancement of growth varies greatly among bacterial species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that supplementation of bacterial cultures in minimal medium with norepinephrine or epinephrine did not result in increased growth of bacteria. Positive controls involving treatment of Escherichia coli with catecholamines did result in increased growth of that bacterial species. The results of the present study extend previous observations that showed differential capability of catecholamines to enhance bacterial growth in vitro.

  20. Aortoarteritis: Could it be a form of catecholamine-induced vasculitis?

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    Vijaya Sarathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamine-induced vasculitis is a well known but rarely described entity. However, aortoarteritis as a manifestation of catecholamine-induced vasculitis is not described in the literature. We have reported two patients in whom pheochromocytoma coexisted with aortoarteritis. Both patients were young females with history of bilateral pheochromocytomas in more than one first-degree relative. Both patients also had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas (second patient also had paraganglioma at left renal hilum with elevation of plasma free normetanephrine levels. We conclude that there may be an association between pheochromocytoma and aortoarteritis, and that catecholamine excess may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of aortoarteritis in these patients.

  1. Aortoarteritis: Could it be a form of catecholamine-induced vasculitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar R.; Shah, Nalini S.

    2013-01-01

    Catecholamine-induced vasculitis is a well known but rarely described entity. However, aortoarteritis as a manifestation of catecholamine-induced vasculitis is not described in the literature. We have reported two patients in whom pheochromocytoma coexisted with aortoarteritis. Both patients were young females with history of bilateral pheochromocytomas in more than one first-degree relative. Both patients also had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas (second patient also had paraganglioma at left renal hilum) with elevation of plasma free normetanephrine levels. We conclude that there may be an association between pheochromocytoma and aortoarteritis, and that catecholamine excess may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of aortoarteritis in these patients. PMID:23776874

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  3. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  4. Estimation of systemic catecholamine levels, in the Edible frog, using a radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Philippe; Dupont, Willy; Vaillant, Rene

    1978-01-01

    We have developed a radio-enzymatic assay for systemic catecholamines in the Frog. Such are its specificity and sensibility that adrenaline and noradrenaline may be measured in 50 μl of plasma samples, the withdrawal of which strongly influenced the results. The smaller values were obtained in plasma withdrawn from canulated animals. In this case, adrenaline was the major catecholamine in the plasma: 190 +- 55 ng/100 ml versus 35 +- 18 ng/100 ml for noradreline [fr

  5. Hyperadrenergic syndrome in severe tetanus: extreme rise in catecholamines responsive to labetalol.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenighetti, G M; Savary, G; Stricker, H

    1984-01-01

    The hyperadrenergic syndrome that occurs in tetanus is characterised by hypertension, tachycardia, and increased systemic arteriolar resistance. A 74 year old man with tetanus was found to have very high catecholamine concentrations--as high as those in phaeochromocytoma--and the fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate were measured to see whether they paralleled changes in the catecholamine values. A labetalol infusion of 0.25-1 mg/min gradually stabilised the cardiovascular disturbanc...

  6. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  7. Admission biomarkers of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury predict adverse cardiac events and are associated with plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathar, Sriveena; De'Ath, Henry D; Wall, Johanna; Brohi, Karim

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cardiac injury and dysfunction may be important contributors to poor outcomes in trauma patients, but the pathophysiology and clinical impact remain unclear. Early elevations in cardiac injury markers have been associated with the development of adverse cardiac events (ACEs), prolonged intensive care unit stays, and increased mortality. Studies of preinjury β-blocker use suggest a potential protective effect in critically ill trauma patients. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association of early biomarker evidence of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) and ACEs and to examine the potential contribution of circulating catecholamines to its pathophysiology. Injured patients who met the study criteria were recruited at a single major trauma center. A blood sample was collected immediately on arrival. Serum epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and cardiac biomarkers including heart-related fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were assayed. Data were prospectively collected on ACEs. Of 300 patients recruited, 38 (13%) developed an ACE and had increased mortality (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.01) and longer intensive care unit stays (13 days, p < 0.001). H-FABP was elevated on admission in 56% of the patients, predicted the development of ACE, and was associated with higher mortality (14% vs. 5%, p = 0.01). Admission E and NE levels were strongly associated with elevations in H-FABP and ACEs (E, 274.0 pg/mL vs. 622.5 pg/mL, p < 0.001; NE, 1,063.2 pg/mL vs. 2,032.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Catecholamine effect on the development of TISCI or ACEs was not statistically independent of injury severity or depth of shock. Admission levels of H-FABP predict the development of ACEs and may be useful for prognosis and stratification of trauma patients. The development of TISCI and ACEs was associated with high admission levels of catecholamines, but their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical trials of adrenergic blockade may have the potential to

  8. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardinal symptom of Attenion Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the Default Mode Network (DMN. Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic-phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produce an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits.

  9. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  10. Distribution of catecholamines and serotonin in the rat cerebral cortex:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The rat cerebral cortex was dissected in five regions and analyzed for the catecholamines noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine, and for the indoleamine seroton in using sensitive radioenzymatic assay methods with thin-layer-chromatography. The noradrenaline concentration was highest in the ventral cortex, lateral to the hypothalamus, had intermediate values for the prefrontal, frontal and parietal cortical areas and was lowest in the occipital cortex. Dopamine levels were also highest in the cortex lateral to the hypothalamus, and moderate in the prefrontal and frontal cortical areas, with the lowest values measured for the occipital cortex. The ratios dopamine/noradrenaline further support the hypothesis that they are independent transmitters. Traces of adrenaline were measured in all regions examined. The serotonin distribution was found to be non-homogeneous, with the highest values for the prefrontal cortex and ventral cortex lateral to the hypothalamus. The functional significance of these amines and their ratios are discussed in relation to their role as putative modulators of cortical neuronal excitability. (author)

  11. Haloperidol response and plasma catecholamines and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A I; Alam, M Y; Boshes, R A; Waternaux, C; Pappalardo, K M; Fitzgibbon, M E; Tsuang, M T; Schildkraut, J J

    1993-06-01

    Eleven acutely psychotic patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder underwent a 5-7 day drug-washout period (with lorazepam allowed) prior to participating in a 6-week controlled dose haloperidol trial. Patients were evaluated longitudinally with clinical ratings and with plasma measures of the catecholamines dopamine (pDA) and norepinephrine (pNE) and their metabolites, homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG). All patients exhibited clinical improvement with haloperidol; the decrease in their Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores ranged from 32 to 89%. Measures of pHVA increased within the first week of treatment and returned to baseline by week 5. The pattern of change of pDA resembled that of pHVA. The pattern of change of pNE and pMHPG revealed a decrease over the course of treatment. The early increase and the subsequent decrease in pHVA were strongly correlated with improvement in positive symptoms on the BPRS. These data are consistent with previous reports on the change in pHVA and pMHPG during clinical response to haloperidol. The data on change of pDA and pNE further describe the nature of the biochemical response to this drug.

  12. Altered β1-3-adrenoceptor influence on α2-adrenoceptor-mediated control of catecholamine release and vascular tension in hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill eBerg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available α2- and β-adrenoceptors (AR reciprocally control catecholamine release and vascular tension. Disorders in these functions are present in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The present study tested if α2AR dysfunctions resulted from altered α2AR/βAR interaction. Blood pressure was recorded through a femoral artery catheter and cardiac output by an ascending aorta flow probe. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR was calculated. Norepinephrine release was stimulated by a 15-min tyramine-infusion, which allows presynaptic release-control to be reflected as differences in overflow to plasma. Surgical stress activated some secretion of epinephrine. L-659,066 (α2AR-antagonist enhanced norepinephrine overflow in normotensive controls (WKY but not SHR. Nadolol (β1+2 and ICI-118551 (β2, but not atenolol (β1 or SR59230A (β(3/1L prevented this increase. All βAR antagonists allowed L-659,066 to augment tyramine-induced norepinephrine overflow in SHR and epinephrine secretion in both strains. Inhibition of cAMP-degradation with milrinone and β3AR agonist (BRL37344 enhanced the effect of L-659,066 on release of both catecholamines in SHR and epinephrine in WKY. β1/2AR antagonists and BRL37344 opposed the L-659,066-dependent elimination of the TPR-response to tyramine in WKY. α2AR/βAR antagonists had little influence on the TPR-response in SHR. Milrinone potentiated the L-659,066-dependent reduction of the TPR-response to tyramine. Conclusions: β2AR activity was a required substrate for α2AR auto inhibition of norepinephrine release in WKY. β1+2AR opposed α2AR inhibition of norepinephrine release in SHR and epinephrine secretion in both strains. βAR-α2AR reciprocal control of vascular tension was absent in SHR. Selective agonist provoked β3AR-Gi signaling and influenced the tyramine-induced TPR-response in WKY and catecholamine release in SHR.

  13. Accelerated oxygen consumption by catecholamines in the presence of aromatic nitro and nitroso compounds. Implications and neurotoxicity of nitro compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.

    1981-01-01

    The interactions of catecholamines with nitro and nitroso compounds are studied in view of the possible involvement of catecholamine type neurotransmitters in neurotoxicity caused by hypoxic cell sensitizers. The data reported suggest that neurotoxicity of nitro compounds may be due to depletion of oxygen, catecholamines and ascorbate in nerve tissue with concomitant generation of toxic species such as hydroxyl, hydronitroxyl and superoxide free radicals as well as nitroso and quinonoid derivatives. 5 references, 1 figure

  14. Acute myocardial infarction is associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage and a parallel increase in circulating catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Pedersen, Sune H; Jensen, Jan S

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Excessive sympathoadrenal activation in critical illness contributes directly to organ damage, and high concentrations of catecholamines damage the vascular endothelium. This study investigated associations between potential drivers of sympathoadrenal activation, circulating...... catecholamines and biomarkers of endothelial damage and outcome in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients, hypothesizing that the catecholamine surge would reflect shock degree and correlate with biomarkers of endothelial damage. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 678 consecutive STEMI...

  15. Biocompatible Poly(catecholamine)-Film Electrode for Potentiometric Cell Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, Taira; Yanagimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Akiko; Sakata, Toshiya

    2018-02-23

    Surface-coated poly(catecholamine) (pCA) films have attracted attention as biomaterial interfaces owing to their biocompatible and physicochemical characteristics. In this paper, we report that pCA-film-coated electrodes are useful for potentiometric biosensing devices. Four different types of pCA film, l-dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, with thicknesses in the range of 7-27 nm were electropolymerized by oxidation on Au electrodes by using cyclic voltammetry. By using the pCA-film electrodes, the pH responsivities were found to be 39.3-47.7 mV/pH within the pH range of 1.68 to 10.01 on the basis of the equilibrium reaction with hydrogen ions and the functional groups of the pCAs. The pCA films suppressed nonspecific signals generated by other ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) and proteins such as albumin. Thus, the pCA-film electrodes can be used in pH-sensitive and pH-selective biosensors. HeLa cells were cultivated on the surface of the pCA-film electrodes to monitor cellular activities. The surface potential of the pCA-film electrodes changed markedly because of cellular activity; therefore, the change in the hydrogen ion concentration around the cell/pCA-film interface could be monitored in real time. This was caused by carbon dioxide or lactic acid that is generated by cellular respiration and dissolves in the culture medium, resulting in the change of hydrogen concentration. pCA-film electrodes are suitable for use in biocompatible and pH-responsive biosensors, enabling the more selective detection of biological phenomena.

  16. Reactivity of catecholamine-driven Fenton reaction and its relationships with iron(III) speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Victoria; Henríquez, Adolfo; Freer, Juanita; Contreras, David

    2015-03-01

    Fenton reaction is the main source of free radicals in biological systems. The reactivity of this reaction can be modified by several factors, among these iron ligands are important. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) are able to form Fe(III) complexes whose extension in the coordination number depends upon the pH. Fe(III)-catecholamine complexes have been related with the development of several pathologies. In this work, the ability of catecholamines to enhance the oxidative degradation of an organic substrate (veratryl alcohol, VA) through Fenton and Fenton-like reactions was studied. The initial VA degradation rate at different pH values and its relationship to the different iron species present in solution were determined. Furthermore, the oxidative degradation of VA after 24 hours of reaction and its main oxidation products were also determined. The catecholamine-driven Fenton and Fenton-like systems showed higher VA degradation compared to unmodified Fenton or Fenton-like systems, which also showed an increase in the oxidation state of the VA degradation product. All of this oxidative degradation takes place at pH values lower than 5.50, where the primarily responsible species would be the Fe(III) mono-complex. The presence of Fe(III) mono-complex is essential in the ability of catecholamines to increase the oxidative capacity of Fenton systems.

  17. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  18. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to det...

  19. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (psymptoms (psymptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  1. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  2. Methylphenidate during early consolidation affects long-term associative memory retrieval depending on baseline catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Bovy, Leonore; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval. Additionally, we tested if this effect was modulated by individual differences in a cognitive proxy measure of baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Fifty-three healthy males underwent a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure across 2 days. On day 1, subjects studied and retrieved object-location associations and received 20 mg of methylphenidate or placebo. Drug intake was timed so that methylphenidate was expected to affect early consolidation but not encoding or retrieval. Memory was tested again while subjects were scanned three days later. Methylphenidate did not facilitate memory performance, and there was no significant group difference in activation during delayed retrieval. However, memory representations differed between groups depending on baseline catecholamines. The placebo group showed increased activation in occipito-temporal regions but decreased connectivity with the hippocampus, associated with lower baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. The methylphenidate group showed stronger activation in the postcentral gyrus, associated with higher baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Altogether, methylphenidate during early consolidation did not foster long-term memory performance, but it affected retrieval-related neural processes depending on individual levels of baseline catecholamines.

  3. Copper-mediated oxidative degradation of catecholamines and oxidative damage of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, P.R.; Harria, M.I.N.; Felix, J.M.; Hoffmann, M.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Degradative oxidation of catecholamines has been a matter of large interest in recent years due to the evidences associating their autoxidation with the etiology of neurotoxic and cardiotoxic processes. In this work we present data on the degradative oxidation of catecholamines of physiological importance: isoproterenol (IP), epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NEP), deoxyepinephrine (DEP) and dopamine (DA). The degradative oxidation of the catecholamines was followed by measurement of spectral changes and oxygen consumption by neutral aqueous solutions. The data show that Cu{sup 2+} strongly accelerated the rate of catecholamine oxidation, following the decreasing order; EP>DEP>IP>NEP>DA. The production of superoxide anion radical during catecholamine oxidation was very slow, even in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}. The ability of IP to induce damages on bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined by measuring the formation of carbonyl-groups in the protein, detected by reduction with tritiated Na BH{sub 4}. The incubation of BSA with IP (50-500{mu}M), in the presence of 100{mu}M Cu{sup 2+} leaded to an increased and dose dependent {sup 3} H-incorporation by the oxidized protein. The production of oxidative damage by IP/Cu{sup 2+} was accompanied by marked BSA fragmentation, detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel dependent (25-400{mu}M IP) des appearance of the original BSA band and appearance of smaller fragments spread in the gel, when incubation has been done in the presence of 100{mu}M Cu{sup 2+}. These results suggest that copper-catalysed oxidative degradation of proteins induced by catecholamines might be critically involved in the toxic action of these molecules

  4. (3H)-dihydrotestosterone in catecholamine neurons of rat brain stem: combined localization by autoradiography and formaldehyde-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritage, A.S.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Grant, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    A combined formaldehyde-induced fluorescence (FIF)-autoradiography procedure was used to determine how and where the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is associated with catecholamine systems in the rat brain. With this dual localization method, ( 3 H)-DHT target sites can be visualized in relation to catecholamine perikarya and terminals. In the hindbrain, catecholamine neurons adjacent to the fourth ventricle (group A4), the nucleus (n.) olivaris superior (group A5), the n. parabranchialis medialis (group A7), and in the locus coeruleus (group A6) and subcoeruleal regions, as well as in the substantia grisea centralis, concentrate ( 3 H)-DHT in their nuclei. ( 3 H)-DHT target neurons appear to be innervated by numerous catecholamine terminals in the following hindbrain regions: n. motorius dorsalis nervi vagi, n. tractus solitarii, n. commissuralis, n. raphe pallidus, n. olivaris inferior, the ventrolateral portion of the substantia grisea centralis, n. cuneiformis, and the ventrolateral reticular formation in the caudal mesencephalon. In the forebrain, ( 3 H)-DHT concentrates in nuclei of catecholamine neurons located in the n. arcuatus and n. periventricularis (group A12). In addition, ( 3 H)-DHT target neurons appear to be innervated by numerous catecholamine terminals in the following forebrain regions: n. periventricularis rotundocellularis, n. paraventricularis, n. dorsomedialis, n. periventricularis, area retrochiasmatica, n. interstititalis striae terminalis (ventral portion), and n. amygdaloideus centralis. The disclosure of a morphologic association between ( 3 H)-DHT target sites and certain brain catecholamine systems suggests a close functional interdependence between androgens and catecholamines

  5. Catecholamine crisis during induction of general anesthesia : A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntagbauer, M; Koch, A; Strouhal, U; Zacharowski, K; Weber, C F

    2018-03-01

    Catecholamine crises associated with pheochromocytoma may cause life-threatening cardiovascular conditions. We report the case of a 75-year-old male who developed a hypertensive crisis during induction of general anesthesia for elective resection of a cervical neuroma due to an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. Hemodynamic instability occurred immediately after the injection of fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium, prior to laryngoscopy and in the absence of any manipulation of the abdomen. In this case report, we present the management of this incident and discuss the underlying pathophysiology triggering a catecholamine crisis.

  6. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.

  7. Effect of β-endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus

  8. Determination of the changes of the plasma catecholamine level by radioenzymatic method following noise-exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Cs.; Vincze, I.

    1982-01-01

    A new method was applied for the determination of plasma catecholamine levels: all the catecholamines were methylated in the presence of S-adenosyl-1-methyl 3 H-methyonine and the radioactivity of the components - separated with thin-layer chromatography - was measured by liquid scintillation. It is concluded that noise exposition for one hour per day significantly increases the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and dopamine whereas the adrenaline-level shows biphasic change: after a short increase it decreases. (L.E.)

  9. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  10. Role of catecholamines and nitric oxide on pigment displacement of the chromatophores of freshwater snakehead teleost fish, Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Palande, Nikhil V

    2014-04-01

    We are reporting for the first time that the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) inhibit the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on melanosome dispersion in freshly isolated scales of the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa punctatus. We studied the effect of NO and catecholamines on the pigment displacement by observing the changes in the melanophore index. The scales when treated with solution containing NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) showed dispersion of melanosomes, whereas NO synthase blocker N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine suppresses this action of SNP. Treatment with adrenaline and noradrenaline on the isolated scales caused aggregation of melanosomes. Scales treated with solution containing catecholamines and SNP resulted in aggregation of melanosomes suggesting that catecholamines mask the effect of SNP. These results suggest that the catecholamines are inhibiting the effect of NO and causing the aggregation of the melanosomes may be via surface receptors.

  11. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, facilitates tyrosine hydroxylase transcription and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression to enhance catecholamine synthesis and its nicotine-evoked elevation in PC12D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells. Yet, the impacts of imidacloprid on the catecholaminergic function of the chromaffin cells remain to be evaluated. In this study using PC12D cells, a catecholaminergic cell line derived from the medulla chromaffin-cell tumors of rat adrenal gland, we examined whether imidacloprid itself could impact the catecholamine-synthesizing ability. Imidacloprid alone did facilitate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcription via activation of α3β4 nAChR and the α7 subunit-comprising receptor. The insecticide showed the TH transcription-facilitating ability at the concentrations of 3 and 30 μM, at which acetylcholine is known to produce physiological responses, including catecholamine secretion through the nAChRs in adrenal chromaffin cells. The insecticide-facilitated TH transcription was also dependent on PKA- and RhoA-mediated signaling pathways. The insecticide coincidentally raised levels of TH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA, and as a consequence, increased catecholamine production, although the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was lesser than that of nicotine, indicating its partial agonist-like action. Intriguingly, in cultured rat adrenal chromaffin cells, imidacloprid did increase levels of TH and PNMT protein. When the chromaffin cells were treated with nicotine in the presence of the insecticide, nicotine-elevated adrenaline production was enhanced due to facilitation of nicotine-increased TH and PNMT

  12. Seasonal prolactin secretion and its role in seasonal reproduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlewis, J D

    1992-01-01

    The majority of seasonally breeding mammals show a seasonal pattern of prolactin secretion with peak concentrations in spring or summer and a nadir in autumn or winter. Photoperiod influences prolactin secretion via its effects on the secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. Preliminary evidence suggests that the effects of melatonin on both prolactin and gonadotrophin secretion are via a common target area, possibly within the anterior hypothalamus, and that differences in response to photoperiod may be due to differences in the processing and/or interpretation of the melatonin signal. In contrast to seasonal gonadotrophin secretion, the seasonal changes in prolactin are not due to changes in the sensitivity of a feedback loop and so must be due to direct effects on the hypothalamic pathways that control prolactin secretion. Little else can be said with confidence about the neuroendocrine mechanisms that lead to the seasonal changes in prolactin secretion. Dopamine and noradrenaline turnover in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence decrease under short daylength. If catecholamine turnover in these structures is positively correlated with catecholamine concentrations in the long or short hypophysial portal vessels, it is unlikely that the decrease in prolactin concentration in winter is due to the effects of increased concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline in the portal vessels. There is, however, evidence for increased pituitary sensitivity to dopamine under short daylength, so increased dopamine concentrations may not be required for suppression of prolactin secretion at this time. In addition to the diminished secretion of prolactin under short daylength, rate of prolactin synthesis and pituitary content of prolactin also decline although the mechanisms that regulate these changes are poorly understood. Although all seasonal breeders show a seasonal change in prolactin secretion, there are continuously breeding species in which prolactin secretion is

  13. Catecholamine-related gene expression in blood correlates with tic severity in tourette syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther, Joan; Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Lit, Lisa; Corbett, Blythe; Ander, Brad; Zhan, Xinhua; Jickling, Glen; Bos-Veneman, Netty; Liu, Da; Hoekstra, Pieter; Sharp, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable disorder characterized by tics that are decreased in some patients by treatment with alpha adrenergic agonists and dopamine receptor blockers. Thus, this study examines the relationship between catecholamine gene expression in blood and tic severity. TS

  14. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  15. Toluene-induced, Ca2+-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952; Vijverberg, H.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068856474

    2002-01-01

    Acute effects of toluene on vesicular catecholamine release from intact PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells have been investigated using carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. The frequency of vesicles released is low under basal conditions and is enhanced by depolarization. Toluene causes an increase in

  16. Potentiometric and NMR complexation studies of phenylboronic acid PBA and its aminophosphonate analog with selected catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Tomasz; Młynarz, Piotr; Dobosz, Agnieszka; Rydzewska, Agata; Prokopowicz, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Boronic acids are a class of intensively explored compounds, which according to their specific properties have been intensively explored in last decades. Among them phenylboronic acids and their derivatives are most frequently examined as receptors for diverse carbohydrates. In turn, there is a large gap in basic research concerning complexation of catecholamines by these compounds. Therefore, we decided to undertake studies on interaction of chosen catecholamines, namely: noradrenaline (norephinephrine), dopamine, L-DOPA, DOPA-P (phosphonic analog of L-DOPA) and catechol, with simple phenyl boronic acid PBA by means of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, the binding properties of recently synthesized phenylboronic receptor 1 bearing aminophosphonate function in meta-position were investigated and showed promising ability to bind catecholamines. The protonation and stability constants of PBA and receptor 1 complexes were examined by potentiometry. The obtained results demonstrated that PBA binds the catecholamines with the following affinity order: noradrenaline ⩾ dopamine ≈ L-DOPA > catechol > DOPA-P, while its modified analog 1 reveals slightly different preferences: dopamine > noradrenaline > catechol > L-DOPA > DOPA-P.

  17. Role of catecholamines in maternal-fetal stress transfer in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Bischoff, Sabine; Schiffner, Rene; Haase, Michelle; Rupprecht, Sven; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Nijland, Mark J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Schwab, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate whether in addition to cortisol, catecholamines also transfer psychosocial stress indirectly to the fetus by decreasing uterine blood flow (UBF) and increasing fetal anaerobic metabolism and stress hormones. Seven pregnant sheep chronically instrumented with uterine ultrasound flow probes and catheters at 0.77 gestation underwent 2 hours of psychosocial stress by isolation. We used adrenergic blockade with labetalol to examine whether decreased UBF is catecholamine mediated and to determine to what extent stress transfer from mother to fetus is catecholamine dependent. Stress induced transient increases in maternal cortisol and norepinephrine (NE). Maximum fetal plasma cortisol concentrations were 8.1 ± 2.1% of those in the mother suggesting its maternal origin. In parallel to the maternal NE increase, UBF decreased by maximum 22% for 30 minutes (P Fetal NE remained elevated for >2 hours accompanied by a prolonged blood pressure increase (P fetal NE and blood pressure increase and the shift toward anaerobic metabolism. We conclude that catecholamine-induced decrease of UBF is a mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. It may explain the influence of maternal stress on fetal development and on programming of adverse health outcomes in later life especially during early pregnancy when fetal glucocorticoid receptor expression is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Catecholamine Responses to Virtual Combat: Implications for Post-Traumatic Stress and Dimensions of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Beth Highland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PTSD symptoms can result in functional impairment among service members (SMs, even in those without a clinical diagnosis. The variability in outcomes may be related to underlying catecholamine mechanisms. Individuals with PTSD tend to have elevated basal catecholamine levels, though less is known regarding catecholamine responses to trauma-related stimuli. We assessed whether catecholamine responses to a virtual combat environment impact the relationship between PTSD symptom clusters and elements of functioning. Eighty-seven clinically healthy SMs, within 2 months after deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, completed self-report measures, viewed virtual-reality (VR combat sequences, and had sequential blood draws. Norepinephrine responses to VR combat exposure moderated the relationship between avoidance symptoms and scales of functioning including physical functioning, physical-role functioning, and vitality. Among those with high levels of avoidance, norepinephrine change was inversely associated with functional status, whereas a positive correlation was observed for those with low levels of avoidance. Our findings represent a novel use of a virtual environment to display combat-related stimuli to returning SMs to elucidate mind-body connections inherent in their responses. The insight gained improves our understanding of post-deployment symptoms and quality of life in SMs and may facilitate enhancements in treatment. Further research is needed to validate these findings in other populations and to define the implications for treatment effectiveness.

  19. The effect of ionizing irradiation on the catecholamine levels in pituitary gland of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Stanikova, A.; Maracek, I.; Danko, J.

    2004-01-01

    The changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the pituitary gland of sheep after all-body irradiation with 60 Co at the total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The power input per hour of irradiation source was 0.039 Gy. The catecholamines were determined after having been isolated from the tissues and determined by the method of spectral fluorimetry. After all-body exposition to gamma-radiation L-DOPA dropped in pituitary gland in comparison with the control group of sheep most significantly by 66.7% (P < 0,001). A similar drop like in the case of adrenaline was also observed in epinephrine (P < 0,05). On basis of the results we presume that the all-body irradiation of sheep by results a significant decrease in the content of catecholamines in pituitary gland, which is probably in relation with failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and with total organism injury. (authors)

  20. Experience affects exercise-induced changes in catecholamines, glucose, and FFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, A.J.W.; Steffens, A.B.; Dreteler, G.H.; Benthem, L.; Bruntink, R.

    The interference of the experimental conditions on the exercise-induced alterations in plasma catecholamines, plasma free fatty acids, and glucose and insulin concentrations was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent (0.22 m/s) for 15 min in a pool

  1. Determination of catecholamines and their metabolites by radioisotopic techniques, value in pharmacology and physiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comoy, E.; Bohuon, C.

    1980-01-01

    At present the only way to estimate catecholamines and similar compounds at concentrations between 10 and 100 femtomoles is by the use of radioenzymatic techniques. Such methods are all based in practice on the enzymatic transformation of these substrates, in the presence of labelled S-adenosylmethionine, under the action of catechol-O-methyltrans-ferase (COMT) or phenylethanol-amine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which means that molecules suitable for such determinations must possess either a catechol group (catecholamines, dihydroxyphenylalanine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) or a phenylethanolamine group (noradrenaline, methoxynoradrenaline). At present the largest number of molecules may be estimated by methods based on the principle of O-methylation by COMT. The main processes described in the literature are examined, with special reference to the proposed means of solving problems which arise at various stages of the determination, mention is made of the many difficulties inherent in this kind of manipulation and of the limits to be expected of these tests. The immunological aspect of quantitative research on catecholamines and their derivatives is mentioned, work in this direction at present being based on radioimmunology. As a practical illustration of the many methodological studies mentioned, the application of radioisotopic techniques to in vitro exploration of the catecholamine metabolism is discussed; the contribution of these new techniques is shown particularly in the physiopathological study of certain metabolic disorders observed in man, in the pharmacodynamic study of certain molecules and in experimental studies on the central nervous system [fr

  2. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  3. Neural response to catecholamine depletion in remitted bulimia nervosa: Relation to depression and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stefanie Verena; Mihov, Yoan; Federspiel, Andrea; Wiest, Roland; Hasler, Gregor

    2017-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa has been associated with a dysregulated catecholamine system. Nevertheless, the influence of this dysregulation on bulimic symptoms, on neural activity, and on the course of the illness is not clear yet. An instructive paradigm for directly investigating the relationship between catecholaminergic functioning and bulimia nervosa has involved the behavioral and neural responses to experimental catecholamine depletion. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrate of catecholaminergic dysfunction in bulimia nervosa and its relationship to relapse. In a randomized, double-blind and crossover study design, catecholamine depletion was achieved by using the oral administration of alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) over 24 h in 18 remitted bulimic (rBN) and 22 healthy (HC) female participants. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using a pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) sequence. In a follow-up telephone interview, bulimic relapse was assessed. Following AMPT, rBN participants revealed an increased vigor reduction and CBF decreases in the pallidum and posterior midcingulate cortex (pMCC) relative to HC participants showing no CBF changes in these regions. These results indicated that the pallidum and the pMCC are the functional neural correlates of the dysregulated catecholamine system in bulimia nervosa. Bulimic relapse was associated with increased depressive symptoms and CBF reduction in the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus following catecholamine depletion. AMPT-induced increased CBF in this region predicted staying in remission. These findings demonstrated the importance of depressive symptoms and the stress system in the course of bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  5. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  6. Catecholamines, cardiac natriuretic peptides and chromogranin A: evolution and physiopathology of a 'whip-brake' system of the endocrine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-09-15

    In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used

  7. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  8. [Changes in the secretion of somatotropin and insulin in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnini, F; Peracchi, M; Panerai, A E; Pinto, M

    1975-06-01

    Twenty hyperthyroid patients were investigated for growth hormone (GH) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) secretion in response to insulin hypoglycaemia, arginine infusion and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. GH response to either insulin hypoglycaemia or arginine infusion was significantly reduced in these patients compared with 20 normal subjects. Thyrotoxic patients also displayed an abnormal GH pattern after a 100 g oral glucose load: in fact, serum GH underwent a paradoxical increase in spite of abnormally high levels attained by blood glucose. IRI secretion was also clearly reduced in response to arginine infusion and moderately blunted after oral glucose. In a group of patients re-evaluated under euthyroid conditions, a fair increase of GH response to the provocative stimuli jointly with the restoration of a normal suppressibility of serum GH by glucose were noted; by contrast, no significant change of IRI response to arginine or glucose took place. Likewise, the impairment of glucose tolerance was not improved. These findings indicate that an impairment of GH and IRI secretion is present in hyperthyroidism. The possibility that a potentiation of the catecholamine effects caused by the thyroid hormones is involved in this alteration deserves consideration.

  9. Irradiation induced changes in endogenous regional distribution of catecholamines in rat brain and possible control through combined radioprotective treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.; Elsayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Maklaad, Y.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study has been conducted aiming to evaluate the protective role of imidazole serotonin or their combination, on the radiation induced changes in the endogenous catecholamine contents in various areas of rat's brain : cortex, striatum, cerebellum, pons and medulla and thalamus and hypothalamus. Whole body gamma-irradiation (6 Gy) resulted in significant progressive decreases of catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) contents, as investigated one and seven days post exposure. Administration of imidazole or serotonin showed to control radiation induced changes in catecholamine contents. Higher protection with lower potential risk of toxicity could be achieved by administration of lower doses of combined agents. The data suggest that, the endogenous concentration of catecholamines in the brain may play an important role in diagnosing the radiation hazard and evaluating the protective capacity of pharmacologic radioprotective. 2 figs

  10. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-01-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure “quantal” catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines...

  11. Reversibility of increased formation of catecholamines in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Reisenauer, C.; Biermann, J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While chronic alcohol abuse has been shown to be associated with increased production of catecholamines, little is known about the reversibility of this increased sympathetic activity and the influence of severity of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The aim of the present study...... was to investigate whether the increase in urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of catecholamines in alcohol-abusing patients are reversible during prolonged abstinence, especially with respect to the severity of ALD. METHODS: Urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A...... concentrations of NA and A were increased in ALD1 and ALD2 about 2-fold, while those of DA were elevated only moderately compared to HC. During exercise under a load of 100 watts, the increases in plasma levels of NA and A with reference to the resting values were nearly identical in all three groups. Already...

  12. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of 3 H-NA and the intensity of 3 H-Na and 3 H-DA synthesis from 3 H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS

  14. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adrenal Vein Catecholamine Levels and Ratios: Reference Intervals Derived from Patients with Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Candy W C; O'Toole, Samuel Matthew; Tirador, Roger Kent; Akker, Scott A; Matson, Matthew; Perry, Leslie; Druce, Maralyn Rose; Dekkers, Tanja; Deinum, Jaap; Lenders, Jacques W M; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Drake, William Martyn

    2017-06-01

    Phaeochromocytoma localisation is generally reliably achieved with modern imaging techniques, particularly in sporadic cases. On occasion, however, there can be diagnostic doubt due to the presence of bilateral adrenal abnormalities, particularly in patients with mutations in genes predisposing them to the development of multiple phaeochromocytomas. In such cases, surgical intervention is ideally limited to large or functional lesions due to the long-term consequences associated with hypoadrenalism. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for catecholamines has been used in this situation to guide surgery, although there are few data available to support diagnostic thresholds. Retrospective analyses of AVS results from 2 centres were carried out. A total of 172 patients (88 men, 84 women) underwent AVS under cosyntropin stimulation for the diagnosis of established primary aldosteronism (PA) with measurement of adrenal and peripheral venous cortisol, aldosterone and catecholamines. Six patients (3 men, 3 women) with phaeochromocytoma underwent AVS for diagnostic purposes with subsequent histological confirmation. Reference intervals for the adrenal venous norepinephrine to epinephrine ratio were created from the PA group. Using the 97.5th centile (1.21 on the left, 1.04 on the right), the false negative rate in the phaeochromocytoma group was 0%. In conclusion, this study describes the largest dataset of adrenal venous catecholamine measurements and provides reference intervals in patients without phaeochromocytoma. This strengthens the certainty with which conclusions related to adrenal venous sampling for catecholamines can be drawn, acknowledging the procedure is not part of the routine diagnostic workup and is an adjunct for use only in difficult clinical cases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Catecholamine-o-methyltransferase polymorphisms are associated with postoperative pain intensity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT), μ-opioid receptor and GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) have been linked to acute and chronic pain states. COMT polymorphisms are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and a chronic pain state. No such association has been identified perioperatively. We carried out a prospective observational clinical trial to examine associations between these parameters and the development of postoperative pain in patients undergoing third molar (M3) extraction.

  17. Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Powers, Bethany R; Ritter, Sue

    2014-02-15

    Previous work has shown that hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required components of the brain's glucoregulatory circuitry. However, the mechanisms and circuitry underlying their glucoregulatory functions are poorly understood. Here we examined three drugs, glucosamine (GcA), phloridzin (Phl) and 5-thio-d-glucose (5TG), that stimulate food intake but interfere in different ways with cellular glucose utilization or transport. We examined feeding and blood glucose responses to each drug in male rats previously injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin (DSAP), a retrogradely transported immunotoxin that selectively lesions noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons, or with unconjugated saporin (SAP) control. Our major findings were 1) that GcA, Phl, and 5TG all stimulated feeding in SAP controls whether injected into the lateral or fourth ventricle (LV or 4V), 2) that each drug's potency was similar for both LV and 4V injections, 3) that neither LV or 4V injection of these drugs evoked feeding in DSAP-lesioned rats, and 4) that only 5TG, which blocks glycolysis, stimulated a blood glucose response. The antagonist of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade, U0126, attenuated GcA-induced feeding, but not Phl- or 5TG-induced feeding. Thus GcA, Phl, and 5TG, although differing in mechanism and possibly activating different neural populations, stimulate feeding in a catecholamine-dependent manner. Although results do not exclude the possibility that catecholamine neurons possess glucose-sensing mechanisms responsive to all of these agents, currently available evidence favors the possibility that the feeding effects result from convergent neural circuits in which catecholamine neurons are a required component.

  18. Demonstration of β-adrenergic receptors and catecholamine-mediated effects on cell proliferation in embryonic palatal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisano, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of catecholamines to modulate cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis in other systems, and modulate adenylate cyclase activity in the developing palate during the period of cellular differentiation, made it of interest to determine their involvement in palatal ontogenesis. Catecholamines exert their physiologic effects via interaction with distinct membrane-bound receptors, one class being the B-adrenergic receptors which are coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase and the generation of cAMP. A direct radioligand binding technique utilizing the B-adrenergic antagonist [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol ([ 3 H]-DHA) was employed in the identification of B-adrenergic receptors in the developing murine secondary palate. Specific binding of [ 3 H]-DHA in embryonic (day 13) palatal tissue homogenates was saturable and of high affinity. The functionality of B-adrenergic receptor binding sites was assessed from the ability of embryonic palate mesenchmyal cells in vitro to respond to catecholamines with elevations of cAMP. Embryonic palate mesenchymal cells responded to various B-adrenergic catecholamine agonists with significant, dose-dependent accumulations of intracellular cAMP. Embryonic (day 13) maxillary tissue homogenates were analyzed for the presence of catecholamines by high performance liquid chromatography and radioenzymatic assay. Since normal palatal and craniofacial morphogenesis depends on proper temporal and spatial patterns of growth, the effect of B-adrenergic catecholamines on embryonic palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was investigated

  19. The effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on plasma catecholamines and metanephrines in patients without phaeochromocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, M R; Walker, D; Maher, K T; Dodzo, K; Perry, L; Ball, S; Peaston, R; Chew, S L; Drake, W M; Akker, S A; Grossman, A B

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of steroid administration under standardised conditions in a range of patients both normal and with adrenal pathologies and to review the impact on plasma catecholamines and metanephrines. Corticosteroid administration has been linked to the development of hypertensive crises in patients with phaeochromocytoma, however a mechanism for this is not fully understood. We aimed to add useful information about the effect of steroids on levels of these hormones under usual circumstances. A prospective, observational cohort study of 50 patients undergoing the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) was undertaken. Additional blood samples were taken at the start and end of the standard LDDST. Biochemical analysis was carried out for plasma catecholamines and plasma free metanephrines. Demographic and hormonal data were acquired from review of the notes or measured at baseline. No significant changes in plasma catecholamines or metanephrines were seen at the end of the LDDST compared to baseline. This was also true of subgroup analysis, divided by age, gender, or type of underlying pathology. Our results suggest that hypertensive reaction responses, rare as they are, are unlikely to be related to normal adrenal physiology. Thus LDDST is likely to be safe under most circumstances, however caution should be exercised in patients with adrenal masses with imaging characteristics compatible with phaeochromocytoma. It may be prudent to defer glucocorticoid administration until functioning phaeochromocytoma has been excluded biochemically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of Mind-Body Training on Cytokines and Their Interactions with Catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Lee, Ui Soon; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-07-01

    Mind-body training (MBT) may control reactions to stress and regulate the nervous and immune systems. The present study was designed to assess the effects of MBT on plasma cytokines and their interactions with catecholamines. The study group consisted of 80 subjects who practice MBT and a control group of 62 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine, NE; epinephrine, E; and dopamine, DA) and cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10) levels were measured, and the differences between the MBT and control groups and the interactions of cytokines with catecholamines were investigated. A significant increase in IL-10+IFN-gamma was found in females of the MBT group compared with controls. Also, a significant increase of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) in the MBT group was shown in a specific condition in which TNF-alpha and IL-6 (pro-inflammatory cytokines) are almost absent (≤1 ng/L) compared with controls. In the MBT group, significant positive correlations were found between IL-10 and the NE/E ratio and between IL-10 and the DA/E ratio, whereas the control group did not show any such correlations. MBT may increase IL-10, under specific conditions such as a decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines or E, which may regulate the stress response and possibly contribute to effective and beneficial interactions between the nervous and immune systems.

  1. Dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells modulate calcium uptake and catecholamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigornia, L; Suozzo, M; Ryan, K A; Napp, D; Schneider, A S

    1988-10-01

    The presence of dopamine-containing cells in sympathetic ganglia, i.e., small, intensely fluorescent cells, has been known for some time. However, the role of dopamine as a peripheral neurotransmitter and its mechanism of action are not well understood. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of D2 dopamine receptors on the surface of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using radioligand binding methods and dopamine receptor inhibition of catecholamine release from perfused adrenal glands. In the present study, we provide evidence confirming a role of dopamine receptors as inhibitory modulators of adrenal catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cell cultures and further show that the mechanism of modulation involves inhibition of stimulated calcium uptake. Apomorphine gave a dose-dependent inhibition (IC50 = 1 microM) of 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by either nicotine (10 microM) or membrane depolarization with an elevated K+ level (60 mM). This inhibition was reversed by a series of specific (including stereospecific) dopamine receptor antagonists: haloperidol, spiperone, sulpiride, and (+)-butaclamol, but not (-)-butaclamol. In addition, the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 was used to stimulate uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin cells, and this uptake was also inhibited by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The combined results suggest that dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells alter Ca2+ channel conductance, which, in turn, modulates catecholamine release.

  2. Multifunctional Polyphenols- and Catecholamines-Based Self-Defensive Films for Health Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Chetna; Harini, Sriram; Venkatesh, Mayandi; Dwivedi, Neeraj; Ng, Alice; Liu, Shouping; Verma, Navin Kumar; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Beuerman, Roger W; Loh, Xian Jun; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2016-01-20

    In an era of relentless evolution of antimicrobial resistance, there is an increasing demand for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings or surfaces for food, biomedical, and industrial applications. This study reports the laccase-catalyzed room-temperature synthesis of mechanically robust, thermally stable, broad spectrum antimicrobial films employing interfacial interactions between poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and 14 naturally occurring catecholamines and polyphenols. The oxidative products of catecholamines and polyphenols reinforce the PVA films and also alter their surface and bulk properties. Among the catecholamines-reinforced films, optimum surface and bulk properties can be achieved by the oxidative products of epinephrine. For polyphenols, structure-property correlation reveals an increase in surface roughness and elasticity of PVA films with increasing number of phenolic groups in the precursors. Interestingly, PVA films reinforced with oxidized/polymerized products of pyrogallol (PG) and epinephrine (EP) display potent antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, whereas hydroquinone (HQ)-reinforced PVA films display excellent antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive bacteria only. We further demonstrate that HQ and PG films retain their antimicrobial efficacy after steam sterilization. With an increasing trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, our results have the potential as durable self-defensive antimicrobial surfaces/films for advanced healthcare and industrial applications.

  3. Analysis of catecholamines in urine by unique LC/MS suitable ion-pairing chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marianne L; Sadjadi, Seyed; Schmedes, Anne

    2017-07-01

    The catecholamines, epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) are small polar, hydrophilic molecules, posing significant challenges to liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method development. Specifically, these compounds show little retention on conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns. This work presents development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determining catecholamines in urine, based on a new approach to ion-pairing chromatography (IPC), in which the ion-pairing reagent (IPR), 1-Heptane Sulfonic Acid (HSA), is added to the extracted samples instead of the mobile phases. A Hamilton STARlet workstation carried out the solid phase extraction of urine samples. The extracted samples were diluted with 60mmol/L HSA and injected on a Kinetex core-shell biphenyl column with conventional LC-MS/MS suitable mobile phases. Chromatographic separation of E and NE was achieved successfully with very stable retention times (RT). In 484 injections, the RTs were steady with a CV of less than ±4%. Furthermore, HSA was separated from E and NE, allowing HSA to be diverted to waste instead of entering the mass spectrometer ion chamber. The method was validated with good analytical performance, and even though the analysis for urinary catecholamines is increasingly being replaced by plasma free metanephrines in diagnosing pheochromocytomas, this work represents the application of a new analytical technique that can be transferred to other small polar molecules, that are difficult to chromatograph on traditional reversed phase columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NEUROANATOMICAL ASSOCIATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC HSD2-CONTAINING NEURONS WITH ERα, CATECHOLAMINES, OR OXYTOCIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegan L. Askew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the possibility that hypothalamic neurons that contain 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2 are involved in the control of feeding by rats via neuroanatomical associations with the α subtype of estrogen receptor (ERα, catecholamines, and/or oxytocin. An aggregate of HSD2-containing neurons is located laterally in the hypothalamus, and the numbers of these neurons were greatly increased by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rats compared to numbers in male rats and in ovariectomized rats that were not given estradiol. However, HSD2-containing neurons were anatomically segregated from ERα-containing neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Arcuate Nucleus. There was an absence of oxytocin-immunolabeled fibers in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons. Taken together, these findings provide no support for direct associations between hypothalamic HSD2 and ERα or oxytocin neurons in the control of feeding. In contrast, there was catecholamine-fiber labeling in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons, and these fibers occasionally were in close apposition to HSD2-labeled neurons. Therefore, we cannot rule out interactions between HSD2 and catecholamines in the control of feeding; however, given the relative sparseness of the appositions, any such interaction would appear to be modest. Thus, these studies do not conclusively identify a neuroanatomical substrate by which HSD2-containing neurons in the hypothalamus may alter feeding, and leave the functional role of hypothalamic HSD2-containing neurons subject to further investigation.

  5. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  6. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of simplified analysis system by using bio-markers of internal secretion disturbing substances - environmental hormone acting substances); 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu (kankyo hormone sayo busshitsu) no bio marker ni yoru kanben bunseki system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using the vitellogenin levels in male fishes as a parameter of pollution caused by internal secretion disturbing substances would allow collective measurement of compounding action of pollutants, acquisition of time averaged values, and large reduction in analysis cost. The present research and development works are intended to put such technological seeds into practical use, and promote its proliferation. The following subjects were implemented: (1) fabrication of effective anti-bodies, (2) their application to fresh water fishes, salmon, and trout, (3) their application to sea water fishes, (4) effects on mummichog and medaka, (5) correlation between spawning actions and vitellogenin manifestation in male fish, (6) discussions on chemical analysis methods and the correlativity therewith, and (7) establishment of methods for field investigation and evaluation. In Item (1), an ELISA system using vitellogenin anti-bodies of different fishes was established. A universal anti-body reacting commonly to all of fish vitellogenins was developed. In Items (2), (3) and (4), an evaluation system was established on actions of internal secretion disturbing substances on sea water fish and fresh water fish by using fish vitellogenins. In Item (5), effects on spawning of medaka, and effects on procreation activities (sterility) were evaluated by using vitellogenin. (NEDO)

  7. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  8. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  9. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  10. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  11. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-01-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal ...

  12. Catecholamine levels in the brain of rats exposed by inhalation to benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiercz, Radosław; Grzelińska, Zofia; Gralewicz, Sławomir; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain quantitative data on the effect of inhalation exposure to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the concentration of catecholamines and their metabolites in selected brain structures. Additionally, concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in plasma was estimated. Wistar rats were subjected to a single (6-hour) or repeated (3 days, 6 h/day) exposure to BAC aerosol at ca. 30 mg/m3. The Waters integrated analytical system of HPLC was used to determine the plasma corticosterone. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of catecholamines and their metabolites: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) and homovanillic (HVA) acids were performed with the use of the Waters integrity HPLC. The determinations have shown that in the BAC-exposed rats the plasma CORT concentration was several times higher than in the control rats. A significant increase of the concentration of dopamine (DA) (striatum and diencephalon) and noradrenaline (NA) (hippocampus and cerebellum) and a significant reduction of adrenaline (A) level (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and mesencephaloon) was found to occur in the brain of rats exposed to BAC compared to control. In the animals exposed to BAC, the concentration of DOPAC, a DA metabolite, was significantly reduced, but the change occurred mainly in the striatum. This resulted in a significant decrease of the DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA metabolic ratio in this structure. It is assumed that the alterations in the concentration of catecholamines and their metabolites in the BAC-exposed rats were related to the unexpectedly strong and persistent activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis evidenced by the high plasma CORT concentration.

  13. On the distribution of catecholamines in Promesostoma balticum (Turbellaria, Neorhabdocoela, Promesostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, B I

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of putative catecholamines has been previously studied in the nervous system of three Promesostoma species using the glyoxylic-acid-induced fluorescence (GAIF) method. In this communication, the results are reported of a similar study of Promesostoma balticum, which is classified to another group of species in the genus. Promesostoma species from two different species groups differed in the position of neurons associated with the ventral and lateral cords. All the studied species of Promesostoma demonstrated doubled dorsal neurons in so called anterior complex (AnDo), a character which differentiates this genus from the other studied Typhloplanoida.

  14. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position...

  15. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  16. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... analysis was in general agreement with PCoA in discrimi- nating the cultivars. Conclusions. Estimation of morphological diversity may provide addi- tional information on the present finding. Nonetheless, the 29 SSR markers provided considerable genetic reso- lution and this genetic diversity analysis ...

  17. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... India and the country is currently the leading producer, consumer and exporter of ... registration with the competent authority for plant variety protection. Conventionally ... detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in .... allelic patterns as revealed by the current set of SSR markers.

  18. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  1. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  2. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  3. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  4. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  5. The role of BDNF, leptin, and catecholamines in reward learning in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-12-07

    A relationship between bulimia nervosa and reward-related behavior is supported by several lines of evidence. The dopaminergic dysfunctions in the processing of reward-related stimuli have been shown to be modulated by the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hormone leptin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, a reward learning task was applied to study the behavior of 20 female subjects with remitted bulimia nervosa and 27 female healthy controls under placebo and catecholamine depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). The plasma levels of BDNF and leptin were measured twice during the placebo and the AMPT condition, immediately before and 1 hour after a standardized breakfast. AMPT-induced differences in plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the AMPT-induced differences in reward learning in the whole sample (P=.05). Across conditions, plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels were higher in remitted bulimia nervosa subjects compared with controls (diagnosis effect; P=.001). Plasma BDNF and leptin levels were higher in the morning before compared with after a standardized breakfast across groups and conditions (time effect; Pbulimia nervosa and controls. A role of leptin in reward learning is not supported by this study. However, leptin levels were sensitive to a depletion of catecholamine stores in both remitted bulimia nervosa and controls. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Sustained exposure to catecholamines affects cAMP/PKA compartmentalised signalling in adult rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Laura A; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    In the heart compartmentalisation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling is necessary to achieve a specific functional outcome in response to different hormonal stimuli. Chronic exposure to catecholamines is known to be detrimental to the heart and disrupted compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling has been associated to heart disease. However, in most cases it remains unclear whether altered local cAMP signalling is an adaptive response, a consequence of the disease or whether it contributes to the pathogenetic process. We have previously demonstrated that isoforms of PKA expressed in cardiac myocytes, PKA-I and PKA-II, localise to different subcellular compartments and are selectively activated by spatially confined pools of cAMP, resulting in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Here we investigate cAMP signalling in an in vitro model of hypertrophy in primary adult rat ventricular myocytes. By using a real time imaging approach and targeted reporters we find that that sustained exposure to catecholamines can directly affect cAMP/PKA compartmentalisation. This appears to involve a complex mechanism including both changes in the subcellular localisation of individual phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms as well as the relocalisation of PKA isoforms. As a result, the preferential coupling of PKA subsets with different PDEs is altered resulting in a significant difference in the level of cAMP the kinase is exposed to, with potential impact on phosphorylation of downstream targets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of minimal medium inoculated with bacterial cultures with norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, or isoproterenol resulted in marked increases in growth compared to controls. Norepinephrine and dopamine had the greatest enhancing effects on growth of cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while epinephrine and isoproterenol also enhanced growth to a lesser extent. The growth of Escherichia coli in the presence of norepinephrine was greater than growth in the presence of the three other neurochemicals used in the study. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus was also enhanced in the presence of norepinephrine, but not to the same degree as was the growth of gram negative bacteria. Addition of culture supernatants from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine was able to enhance the growth of K. pneumoniae. Addition of the culture supernatant fluid culture from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine did not enhance growth of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. Culture supernatant fluids from bacteria other than E. coli grown in the presence of norepinephrine were not able to enhance the growth of any bacteria tested. The results suggest that catecholamines can enhance growth of pathogenic bacteria, which may contribute to development of pathogenesis; however, there is no uniform effect of catecholamines on bacterial growth.

  8. Brain manganese, catecholamine turnover, and the development of startle in rats prenatally exposed to manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontur, P.J.; Fechter, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) can be neurotoxic when present in high concentrations. Neonatal animals show differential absorption, accumulation, and excretion of Mn relative to adults. If similar kinetic differences exist during gestation, then fetal animals may be susceptible to Mn neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to examine maternal-fetal Mn transfer and the susceptibility of prenatal animals to Mn neurotoxicity. This was approached by studying the ability of Mn to cross the placenta and reach the fetal central nervous system using radiotracer and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. Manganese is thought to disrupt catecholamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. This was examined in newborn rats by alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine induced catecholamine turnover and the development of the acoustic startle response. The results suggest that there are limits on fetal Mn accumulation under conditions of both normal and excessive dietary Mn levels. Manganese accumulation in the fetal brain after exposure to increased dietary Mn does not alter either dopamine or norepinephrine turnover or the development of the acoustic startle response. Excess Mn does not appear to be neurotoxic to fetal rats in spite of its limited accumulation in nervous tissue after gestational exposure

  9. Neuroanatomical Evidence for Catecholamines as Modulators of Audition and Acoustic Behavior in a Vocal Teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a well-studied model to understand the neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying vocal-acoustic communication across vertebrates. It is well established that steroid hormones such as estrogen drive seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity in female Porichthys in order to better encode the male's advertisement call. However, little is known of the neural substrates that underlie the motivation and coordinated behavioral response to auditory social signals. Catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, are good candidates for this function, as they are thought to modulate the salience of and reinforce appropriate behavior to socially relevant stimuli. This chapter summarizes our recent studies which aimed to characterize catecholamine innervation in the central and peripheral auditory system of Porichthys as well as test the hypotheses that innervation of the auditory system is seasonally plastic and catecholaminergic neurons are activated in response to conspecific vocalizations. Of particular significance is the discovery of direct dopaminergic innervation of the saccule, the main hearing end organ, by neurons in the diencephalon, which also robustly innervate the cholinergic auditory efferent nucleus in the hindbrain. Seasonal changes in dopamine innervation in both these areas appear dependent on reproductive state in females and may ultimately function to modulate the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system as an adaptation to the seasonally changing soundscape. Diencephalic dopaminergic neurons are indeed active in response to exposure to midshipman vocalizations and are in a perfect position to integrate the detection and appropriate motor response to conspecific acoustic signals for successful reproduction.

  10. Catecholamine-related gene expression in blood correlates with tic severity in tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Joan; Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Lit, Lisa; Corbett, Blythe; Ander, Brad; Zhan, Xinhua; Jickling, Glen; Bos-Veneman, Netty; Liu, Da; Hoekstra, Pieter; Sharp, Frank

    2012-12-30

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable disorder characterized by tics that are decreased in some patients by treatment with alpha adrenergic agonists and dopamine receptor blockers. Thus, this study examines the relationship between catecholamine gene expression in blood and tic severity. TS diagnosis was confirmed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and tic severity measured using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for 26 un-medicated subjects with TS. Whole blood was collected and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) processed on Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) identified 3627 genes correlated with tic severity (pdisorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Correlation of gene expression in peripheral blood with tic severity may allow inferences about catecholamine pathway dysfunction in TS subjects. Findings built on previous work suggest that at least some genes expressed peripherally are relevant for central nervous system (CNS) pathology in the brain of individuals with TS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  12. Natalizumab Modifies Catecholamines Levels Present in Patients with Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Begona M; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Bahamonde, Carmen; Conde, Cristina; Lillo, Rafael; Sanchez-Lopez, Fernando; Giraldo, Ana I; Cruz, Antonio H; Luque, Evelio; Gascon, Felix; Aguera, Eduardo; Tunez, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the effect of natalizumab on the levels of circulating catecholamines and indolamine and their possible relation with MS. For this purpose, 12 healthy individuals (control group) and 12 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients (RR-MS) were selected. The patients were treated with 300 mg of natalizumab during 56 weeks (1 dose/4 weeks) (MS-56). This selection was based on the McDonalds revision criterion and scheduled to star treatment with natalizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment (basal level) and after 56 weeks of using natalizumab. Melatonin was measured in serum and in plasma, catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), carbonylated proteins, 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8OH-dG) and the ratio reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The epinephrine and dopamine levels diminished in the basal group with respect to the control and did not recover normal levels with the treatment. The melatonin was decreased in RR-MS patients and went back to its normal levels with natalizumab. Norepinephrine was increased in RR-MS and decreased in MS-56 until it equalled the control group. Natalizumab normalizes altered melatonin and norepinephrine levels in MS.

  13. Effect of α-bungarotoxin and etorphine on acetylcholine-evoked release of endogenous and radiolabeled catecholamines from primary culture of adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, H.; Guidotti, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cell cultures of adrenal medulla have become an important research tool to study basic processes that regulate catecholamine storage, release and synthesis. Release has been studied either by labeling with [ 3 H]norepinephrine and measuring release of radioactivity or by measuring the endogenous catecholamines released with HPLC. Acetylcholine (5X10 -6 -10 -4 M) appears to release preferentially norepinephrine, although the cells store more epinephrine than norepinephrine. Etorphine and α-bungarotoxin antagonize the release of catecholamines elicited by acetylcholine. This inhibitory action appears to be greater when the measurement of endogenous catecholamines rather than radioactive norepinephrine is used to monitor the action of acetylcholine. The data suggest that the measurement of endogenous catecholamines by HPLC is preferable to the [ 3 H]NE loading and release technique, especially when analyzing the effects of low concentrations of drugs that are thought to affect nicotinic receptor function. (Auth.)

  14. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  15. Marker lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    A marker lamp is described which consists of a block of transparent plastics material encapsulated in which is a radioactive light source. These lights comprise a small sealed glass capsule, the hollow inside surface of which is coated with phosphor and which contains tritium or similar radioactive gas. The use of such lamps for identification marking of routes, for example roads, and for identification of underwater oil pipelines is envisaged. (U.K.)

  16. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  18. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  19. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  20. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of catecholamine metabolites in Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann Andersen, Andreas; Binzer, Michael; Stenager, Egon

    -dyskinetic PD patients and controls. Method: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 6 age-matched controls and 16 PD patients, (11 receiving levodopa, 6 dyskinetic and 6 not receiving levodopa), was analysed for catecholamines and metabolites by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Samples were collected after overnight...

  2. Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol : a systematic literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, J.K; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Meijman, T.F.; van der Beek, A.J.

    Objectives-To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports Literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Methods-A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as

  3. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  4. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronjak, S; Gavrilovic, L

    2006-06-01

    Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days) and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4 degrees C, 2 h), were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(3H-methyl)-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to 3H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18%) and hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39%) in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  5. Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronjak S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4ºC, 2 h, were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(³H-methyl-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to ³H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18% and hippocampal dopamine (about 20% stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39% in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20% as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.

  6. Study of the excretion of catecholamines in the Kozloduj NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.; Topalova, M.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in catecholamine excretion are determined in dynamics in 9 persons from the reactor hall, having received cumulative individual doses 0.022 - 0.50 Gy and exposed to thermal, sound and psycho-emotional impact. As controls 10 workers from a thermal power plant have been studied having a similar working conditions but without ionizing radiation. The noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) excretion have been determined in urine, collected in the beginning of the shift (8-11 a.m.) and in the end of the working day (1-4 p.m.). Statistically significant increase in the values of A and NA are established in NPP personnel in the beginning of the working day; they retain increased also later. The changes are interpreted as activation of sympathico-adrenaline system - a part of developing of common adaptation syndrome, connected with the labour activity in NPP. 2 tabs

  7. Sequential analysis: manganese, catecholamines, and L-dopa induced dyskinesia. [Cat's brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, P S; Miller, S T; Cotzias, G C; Kraner, H W; Hsieh, R S

    1975-01-01

    The paper specifies methodology for the sequential determination of manganese and catecholamines in selfsame brain samples and shows correlations between them. Small samples were obtained from five regions of brain of cats that had received either saline or levodopa. The doses of levodopa were varied so that although all animals reacted, some developed dyskinesia while others did not. Each sample was first analyzed nondestructively for manganese and then destructively for dopa and dopamine; thus errors inherent in analyzing separate samples, due to the structural heterogeneity of the brain, were avoided. Statistically significant correlations were found (1) between levodopa-induced dyskinesia and the concentrations of dopamine and manganese in some of the regions analysed, and (2) between the concentrations of dopamine and of manganese in the caudates of the cats receiving the highest doses of levodopa. (auth)

  8. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position....... The orthostatic drop in systolic blood pressure was in most cases only moderately increased after ingestion of imipramine, but in three subjects pronounced orthostatic hypotension developed when the sodium balance was low, whereas no clinical symptoms were seen in the same subjects when tested after imipramine...

  9. Luminescent properties of terbium complexes with catecholamines and their application in analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, T.B.; Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kononenko, L.I.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    Tb complexing with a representative of catecholamines - adrenaline - is studied using the luminescence method. It is found, that the complexing takes place in alkaline medium (pH 12.0). To prevent from compound oxidation with air oxygen and to create the necessary pH in solution sodium borohydride is used. The highest luminescence intensity is achieved when the reaction occurs in aqueous-isopropanol solutions. It is established that in the complexes formed the ratio of components is the following: Tb:adrenaline=1:3. Luminescent properties of Tb complex with adrenaline are used to determine the latter. The least detectable amount of adrenaline constitutes 0.02 μg, the determination error does not exceed 5.5% [ru

  10. Effect of intracerebral administration of catecholamines and subsequent x-irradiation on brain metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikulev, A.T.; Khripchenko, I.P.; Kukulyanskaya, M.F.; Chernoguzov, V.M.; Lavrova, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of X-radiation in a relatively small dose on the content of glutamic acid and enzyme activity related to its exchange, as well as on certain links of carbohydrate - energy exchange in rat brain, was studied. It is shown that changes in the activity of hexokinase at the background of intercerebral administration of adrenaline prior to irradiation are related to the switching on of nonspecific regulation mechanisms. The detected single direction of changes in hexokinase activity, level of aminoacids and enzymes of reamination in subcellar fractions of brain in intact and irradiated rats both in case of intracerebral and intraperitoneal administration of catecholamines permits to consider that the realization of nonspecific component of ionizing radiation proceeds via changes in hormonal status of organism and changes in the functions of mediator systems

  11. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  12. Decontamination of Metal Ions in Soil by Supercritical CO{sub 2} Extraction with Catecholamine Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Kim, Hakwon; Park, Kwangheon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The role of fuel cladding and reactor vessels is to help prevent the leakage of radioactive materials, including the fission products. However, if these shielding materials are damaged by a severe disaster such as the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials could leak outside of a power plant site. Indeed, after the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials have been detected in air and water samples. The air and water pollution lead to soil pollution, which is particularly difficult to decontaminate, as soil pollution has several types that vary according to the characteristics of a pollutant or its area. The existing decontamination methods generate a secondary waste owing to use of chemical toxicity solvents. It is also disadvantageous due to the additional cost of handling them. Therefore, new effective decontamination methods that reduce the use of toxicity solvents are necessary. For example, using supercritical CO{sub 2} has been studied as a new decontamination method. This study examines the method of decontaminating metallic ions inside of the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and a catecholamine compound. This study examined the effects of extracting metallic ions inside the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and catecholamine as the ligand. Based on these results, it is evident that when only the extraction agent was used, there was no extraction effect and that only when the ligand, co-ligand, and additive were used together was there an extraction effect. Following this, the optimal extraction-agent ratio was confirmed using varying amounts of extraction agents. The most effective extraction ratio of ligand to co-ligand was 1:2 in E-9 when 0.3 ml of H{sub 2}O were added.

  13. Functional brown adipose tissue limits cardiomyocyte injury and adverse remodeling in catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Ernande, Laura; Cheng, Juan; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Yao, Vincent; Miranda-Bezerra, Alexandre; Chen, Chan; Chao, Wei; Panagia, Marcello; Sosnovik, David E; Puppala, Dheeraj; Armoundas, Antonis A; Hindle, Allyson; Bloch, Kenneth D; Buys, Emmanuel S; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has well recognized thermogenic properties mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1); more recently, BAT has been demonstrated to modulate cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate whether BAT also affects myocardial injury and remodeling, UCP1-deficient (UCP1(-/-)) mice, which have dysfunctional BAT, were subjected to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. At baseline, there were no differences in echocardiographic parameters, plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or myocardial fibrosis between wild-type (WT) and UCP1(-/-) mice. Isoproterenol infusion increased cTnI and myocardial fibrosis and induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in both WT and UCP1(-/-) mice. UCP1(-/-) mice also demonstrated exaggerated myocardial injury, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as decreased survival. Transplantation of WT BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice prevented the isoproterenol-induced cTnI increase and improved survival, whereas UCP1(-/-) BAT transplanted to either UCP1(-/-) or WT mice had no effect on cTnI release. After 3 days of isoproterenol treatment, phosphorylated AKT and ERK were lower in the LV's of UCP1(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Activation of BAT was also noted in a model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, and was correlated to LV dysfunction. Deficiency in UCP1, and accompanying BAT dysfunction, increases cardiomyocyte injury and adverse LV remodeling, and decreases survival in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Myocardial injury and decreased survival are rescued by transplantation of functional BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice, suggesting a systemic cardioprotective role of functional BAT. BAT is also activated in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preservation of urine free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites with citric acid as an alternative to hydrochloric acid for LC-MS/MS-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Pelzel, Daniela; Lattke, Peter; Siegert, Gabriele; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of urinary fractionated metadrenalines provide a useful screening test to diagnose phaeochromocytoma. Stability of these compounds and their parent catecholamines during and after urine collection is crucial to ensure accuracy of the measurements. Stabilisation with hydrochloric acid (HCl) can promote deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metadrenalines, indicating a need for alternative preservatives. Urine samples with an intrinsically acidic or alkaline pH (5.5-6.9 or 7.1-8.7, respectively) were used to assess stability of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites over 7 days of room temperature storage. Stabilisation with HCl was compared with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite and monobasic citric acid. Catecholamines and metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Free catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites were stable in acidic urine samples over 7 days of room temperature storage, independent of the presence or absence of any stabilisation method. In contrast, free catecholamines, but not the free O-methylated metabolites, showed rapid degradation within 24 h and continuing degradation over 7 days in urine samples with an alkaline pH. Adjustment of alkaline urine samples to a pH of 3-5 with HCl or 4.8-5.4 with citric acid completely blocked degradation of catecholamines. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite, although reducing the extent of degradation of catecholamines in alkaline urine, was largely ineffectual as a stabiliser. Citric acid is equally effective as HCl for stabilisation of urinary free catecholamines and minimises hazards associated with use of strong inorganic acids while avoiding deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metabolites during simultaneous LC-MS/MS measurements of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites.

  15. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  16. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  17. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  18. Glucagon and plasma catecholamines during beta-receptor blockade in exercising man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Holst, Janett; Christensen, N J

    1976-01-01

    Seven men ran at 60% of individual maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion during beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (P), during lipolytic blockade with nicotinic acid (N), or without drugs (C). The total work times (83 +/- 9 (P), 122 +/- 8 (N), 166 +/- 10 (C) min, mean and SE) differed signif...... determinants for the exercise-induced glucagon secretion in man. It is suggested that decreased glucose availability enhances the secretion of glucagon and epinephrine during prolonged exercise....

  19. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  20. Endocrine determinants of changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during a weight cycle in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Karschin

    Full Text Available Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear.In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2 followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF, 3wks of caloric restriction (CR containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO and 2wks of refeeding (RF with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI, insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion were assessed.IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05. Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05 whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05 and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only. After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant.Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major

  1. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  2. Dissociation of changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier from catecholamine-induced changes in blood pressure of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, R.; Domer, F.R.; Taylor, B.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have studied the effects of the pressor catecholamine, dopamine, and the depressor catecholamine, isoproterenol, on the systemic blood pressure and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to albumin in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. The permeability of the BBB to protein was measured by the extravasation of radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA). The permeability was decreased by both catecholamines despite the dose-dependent, yet opposite, changes in blood pressure in the WKY rats. The blood pressure response to both of the catecholamines was enhanced in the SHR rats. Isoproterenol caused a decrease in the permeability of the BBB in the SHR but dopamine did not. Results with both WKY and SHR rats are suggestive of an adrenergically-mediated decrease in movement across the BBB of compounds of large molecular weight, regardless of changes in blood pressure

  3. ISOTOPE-DILUTION AMMONIA CHEMICAL-IONIZATION MASS FRAGMENTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF URINARY 3-O-METHYLATED CATECHOLAMINE METABOLITES - RAPID SAMPLE CLEANUP BY DERIVATIZATION AND EXTRACTION OF LYOPHILIZED SAMPLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; MEIBORG, G; NAGEL, GT; STOB, GJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    We developed a method for simultaneous quantification of the urinary 3-O-methylated catecholamine metabolites 3-methoxytyramine, normetanephrine and metanephrine by stable isotope-dilution ammonia chemical ionization mass fragmentography. Prepurification of lyophilized samples was done by

  4. Data on Na,K-ATPase in primary cultures of renal proximal tubule cells treated with catecholamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Taub

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article is concerned with chronic regulation of Na,K-ATPase by catecholamines. After a chronic treatment, inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity was observed in cultures with dopamine, while a stimulation was observed in cultures treated with norepinephrine. Following a chronic incubation with guanabenz, an α adrenergic agonist, an increase in Na,K-ATPase α and β subunit mRNAs was observed. This data supports the research article entitled, “Renal proximal tubule Na, K-ATPase is controlled by CREB regulated transcriptional coactivators as well as salt inducible kinase 1” (Taub et al. 2015 [1]. Keywords: Catecholamines, Kidney, Proximal tubule, Na,K-ATPase, Chronic

  5. Catecholamine and electrolyte content in the animal vascular wall in radiation sickness and during administration of radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of adrenaline upon the balance of catecholamines and electrolytes in blood vessels in different time periods after whole-body X-ray irradiation and also under conditions of prophylactic prescription of cystamine is studied. The work is conducted in 90 adult cats of both sexes with the mass 2-4 kg. The whole-body X-ray irradiation is carried out at a dose of 400 R. It is shown that X-ray irradiation depending on the stage of radiaiton sickness causes quantitative and qualitative changes of normal biochemical response of vessel tissue for the introduction of different doses of adrenaline. Cystamine decreses the expression of quantitative changes and frequency of qualitative non-adequate changes of electrolyte composition and balance of catecholamines in vessel tissue of irradiated animals when introducing adrenaline in a dose of 15 μg/kg

  6. Effects of acupuncture on peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulation and amounts of cerebral catecholamines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, M; Toriizuka, K; Iijima, K; Haruyama, K; Ishino, S; Cyong, J C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations and cerebral catecholamines. In order to examine the effects of acupuncture, two experiments were performed. Experiment 1: Eighteen female mice (strain; C57BL/6) at the age of 7 weeks were divided three groups, (a) sham operated (control; n=6), (b) ovariectomized (OVX; n=6), and (c) ovariectomized and stimulated by subcutaneous needles on acupuncture point, Shenshu (BL23) at the both sides of the back for 20 days (OVX+Acu; n=6). These animals were sacrificed at 20 days after needle insertion, and the splenic lymphoid cells were examined by two-color flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the cell surface antigens, CD3, CD4, CD8a and NK1.1 (CD56). In the ovariectomized (OVX) group, the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly increased and the ratio of natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-NK1.1+; CD3 negative, NK1.1 positive) to T lymphocytes was decreased compared to the sham control group. In the ovariectomized with needle insertion (OVX+Acu) group, the CD4/CD8 ratio was reduced, but the NK cells ratio was not changed compared to the OVX group. Experiment 2: To investigate the acute effects of subcutaneous needle insertion, male C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were used (n=6, each group). The acupuncture points Shen-shu (BL23) on the backs of the male mice were also stimulated by subcutaneous needles for 3 and 7 days. As a result, the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased at day 3 and day 7, compared to the control group. On the other hand the NK cells ratio and activated T-cells were increased at day 7. The mitogenic activities in the splenic lymphocytes were also increased by acupuncture stimulation at day 3. Catecholamine contents in the hippocampus were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with the electro-chemical detector (ECD-HPLC) method. No significant change was observed in either dopamine contents or norepinephrine; however

  7. Catecholamines promote the expression of virulence and oxidative stress genes in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, T S; Closs, P; Poppi, T; Franco, G C; Cortelli, J R; Groppo, F C; Cogo, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of many infectious diseases, including periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative oral anaerobic bacterium, is considered an important pathogen in chronic periodontitis. Microorganisms, including P. gingivalis, that participate in infectious diseases have been shown to respond to catecholamines released during stress processes by modifying their growth and virulence. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the growth, antimicrobial susceptibility and gene expression in P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis was incubated in the presence of adrenaline and noradrenaline (100 μm) for different time-periods in rich (Tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract, 5 μg/mL of hemin and 1 μg/mL of menadione) and poor (serum-SAPI minimal medium and serum-SAPI minimal medium supplemented with 5 μg/mL of hemin and 1 μg/mL of menadione) media, and growth was evaluated based on absorbance at 660 nm. Bacterial susceptibility to metronidazole was examined after exposure to adrenaline and noradrenaline. The expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, stress oxidative protection and virulence were also evaluated using RT-quantitative PCR. Catecholamines did not interfere with the growth of P. gingivalis, regardless of nutritional or hemin conditions. In addition, bacterial susceptibility to metronidazole was not modified by exposure to adrenaline or noradrenaline. However, the expression of genes related to iron acquisition (hmuR), oxidative stress (tpx, oxyR, dps, sodB and aphC) and pathogenesis (hem, hagA and ragA) were stimulated upon exposure to adrenaline and/or noradrenaline. Adrenaline and noradrenaline can induce changes in gene expression related to oxidative stress and virulence factors in P. gingivalis. The present study is, in part, a step toward understanding the stress-pathogen interactions that may

  8. [The catecholamine content of the hypothalamus during the modelling of the ulcer process in the gastroduodenal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemel'ianenko, I V; Sultanova, I D; Voronych, N M

    1995-01-01

    The content of catecholamines in rat hypothalamus in experimental ulcer process in gastroduodenal region has been studied in experiments on rats. It was determined that under these conditions the content of hypothalamus adrenalin increases and the content of noradrenalin decreases. The level of dofamin and DOFA in this brain structure changes in phases. The mentioned shifts depended on the duration and character of the pathological process in the gastroduodenal region.

  9. Rapid reversal of heart failure in a patient with pheochromocytoma and catecholamine-induced myocarditis/cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Sankaran, R.; Al-Addad, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is rare and usually presents as paroxysal or sustained hypertension, nonetheless, it can also cause severe acute pulmonary edema in normotensive individuals. We present a case with pheochromocytoma and severe left ventricular failure caused by catecholamine induced myocarditis/cardiomyopathy. Severe left ventricular failure resolved rapidly and left ventricular systolic function became normal within two weeks of medical treatment. Later, patient underwent elective and uneventful surgical removal of pheochromocytoma. (author)

  10. Radio-prophylactic treatment with imidazole and/or Serotonin for Modulation of Tissue Catecholamines in whole body gamma irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Maklaad, Y.A.; El-Sayed, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to evaluate the radioprotective effects of imidazole, serotonin and their combination on radiation induced reduction in catecholamine contents of the heart and adrenal glands in albino rat. The contribution of catecholamines in the radioprotective role of these agents has been evaluated. Whole-body gamma-irradiation (6 Gy) induced a significant reduction in heart and adrenal glands contents of catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) one day post irradiation. Such reduction in catecholamine contents was more pronounced on the seventh day post exposure. Administration of imidazole (350 mg kg-1) or serotonin. (15 mg. kg-1) controlled the radiation induced reduction in catecholamine contents of heart as well as adrenal glands. Whereas, combination of imidazole (17 mg kg-1) serotonin (15 mg. kg-1) afforded a better protection than either agent given alone, in view that all the measured parameters could be fully restored to the values pre-irradiation. This study appreciate the usage of such combination as a prophylactic treatment for controlling the stress-state induced by irradiation which is associated with disturbed level of endogenous catecholamine contents in those sensitive patients undergoing radiotherapy. 2 tabs

  11. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  12. EPR studies of chromium(V) intermediates generated via reduction of chromium(VI) by DOPA and related catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Lay, P A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    The reductions of K2Cr2O7 by catecholamines, DOPA, DOPA-beta,beta-d2, N-acetyl-DOPA, alpha-methyl-DOPA, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, catechol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC), produce a number of Cr(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. These s......The reductions of K2Cr2O7 by catecholamines, DOPA, DOPA-beta,beta-d2, N-acetyl-DOPA, alpha-methyl-DOPA, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, catechol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC), produce a number of Cr(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals...... deuteration or enrichment with 15N), and simulation of the signals, show that the superhyperfine couplings originate from the side chain protons, confirming that the catecholamine ligands are cyclized. At pH 3.5, a major short-lived EPR signal is observed for many of the substrates at g(iso) approximately 1......) species with a sixth ligand (e.g. H2O). Addition of catalase or deoxygenation of the solutions did not affect the main EPR signals. When the substrates were in excess (pH > 4.5), primary and secondary (cyclized) semiquinones were also detected. Semiquinone stabilization by Zn(II) complexation yielded...

  13. Arterial bicarbonate may be a useful indicator of inadequate cortisol response in children with catecholamine resistant septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Maralihalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical and biochemical parameters that can predict cortisol insufficiency in children with septic shock. Design: prospective, observational study. Setting: tertiary health-care center. Patients/Subjects: Fifty children admitted with the catecholamine resistant septic shock to a tertiary health-care center. Materials and Methods: At the time of hospitalization all patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation including, history and physical examination, evaluation with the complete blood count, serum cortisol, renal function tests, liver function tests, prothrombin time activated partial thromboplastin time, arterial blood gas analysis, urine analysis, chest roentgenogram, ultrasonography of the abdomen and chest, urine, and blood culture for bacteria and fungi. Results: Out of 50 children with the catecholamine resistant septic shock, seven had adrenal insufficiency (serum cortisol <18 μg/dl. Of all parameters studied, only arterial bicarbonate at the time of admission to intensive care predicted adrenal insufficiency. On Receptor operative characteristic curve analysis, a bicarbonate level of 10.9 mEq/L had the best accuracy to predict adrenal insufficiency. Conclusion: Arterial bicarbonate may be used as a rapid test for provisional identification of adrenal insufficiency among children with the catecholamine resistant septic shock.

  14. Changes of blood levels of several hormones, catecholamines, prostaglandins, electrolytes and cAMP in man during emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Orloff, L L; Kalita, N F; Davydova, N A; Pavlova, E A

    1980-01-01

    The levels of several hormones (ACTH, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, parathyroid hormone--PTH, insulin, thyroxine--T4, triiodothyronine--T3, cortisol, testosterone, aldosterone, renin), catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamin), prostaglandins (F1 alpha, F2 alpha, A + E), electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg), cAMP and glucose in blood were measured before and immediately after the examination in 15 male students aged 28 to 35 years. Simultaneously the blood pressure was measured and hemodynamic measures were registered with the aid of echocardiography. A remarkable increase of catecholamines, ACTH, renin, T3, PTH, cAMP, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha and Ca was found before the examination together with the increase of blood pressure. After the examination the levels of catecholamines, renin, aldosterone, T3, PTH, GH, FSH, LH, testosterone, PG A + E, glucose and Ca were found to be increased, while these of insulin, Na, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha were decreased. The decrease of blood pressure was also found.

  15. L-DOPA therapy interferes with urine catecholamine analysis in children with suspected neuroblastoma: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alison U; Srivastava, Rajeev; Dow, Ellie; Davidson, D Fraser

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignancy diagnosed in childhood. Clinical presentation is variable, and metastatic disease is common at diagnosis. Analyses of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites are commonly requested as a first-line investigation when clinical suspicion exists. Levodopa (L-Dopa) therapy is utilized as a treatment for a number of disorders in childhood, including Dopa-responsive dystonia. Neuroblastoma may mimic some of the clinical features of this disorder. L-Dopa can interfere with analysis of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites and complicate the interpretation of results. We present the cases of three children who were prescribed L-dopa at the time of analysis of urinary catecholamines and metabolites as a screen for neuroblastoma, but who did not have the disease. Comparison of their results with those from cases with true neuroblastoma reveal that it is impossible to reliably distinguish true neuroblastoma from L-Dopa therapy using these tests. We recommend that patients should be off L-dopa therapy, if possible when these tests are performed. These cases illustrate the importance of providing clinical details and drug history to the laboratory in order to avoid diagnostic confusion.

  16. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  17. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  18. Novel double-isotope technique for enzymatic assay of catecholamines, permitting high precision, sensitivity and plasma sample capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Jenner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A novel use of a double-isotope method is described which allows radioenzymatic assays to combine precision and sensitivity. In the catechol O-methyltransferase assay separate portions of each plasma sample are incubated with either S-[ 3 H]- or S-[ 14 C]-adenosyl-L-methionine. Standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the latter portions and are thus converted into standards of [ 14 C]metadrenalines. These are added to the 3 H-labelled portions after the incubation, where they function as tracers. The final recovery of 14 C radioactivity corrects for (a) the efficiency of methylation in the plasma sample concerned and (b) the recovery of metadrenalines during the extraction procedures. The 3 H/ 14 C ratio is constant in each assay for a given catecholamine concentration and is determined for samples to which standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the 3 H- (as well as the 14 C-) labelled portions before the initial incubation. The sensitivity of the assay is increased by using high specific radioactivity S-[ 3 H]adenosyl-L-methionine, and low backgrounds are maintained by catecholamine depletion in vivo in the rats used for enzyme preparation. Both catecholamines (1.5 pg/ml; 10 pmol/l) may be detected; the coefficients of variation are 3.0 and 3.2% for noradrenaline and adrenaline respectively (intra-assay) and 4.6 and 5.0% (inter-assay). (author)

  19. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  20. Catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction is sensitive to carbonic anhydrase I activation

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    Puscas I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. Kinetic studies were performed. Adrenergic agonists increased erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase as follows: adrenaline by 75%, noradrenaline by 68%, isoprenaline by 55%, and orciprenaline by 62%. The kinetic data indicated a non-competitive mechanism of action. In clinical studies carbonic anhydrase I from erythrocytes increased by 87% after noradrenaline administration, by 71% after orciprenaline and by 82% after isoprenaline. The increase in carbonic anhydrase I paralleled the increase in blood pressure. Similar results were obtained in vessel studies on piglet vascular smooth muscle. We believe that adrenergic agonists may have a dual mechanism of action: the first one consists of a catecholamine action on its receptor with the formation of a stimulus-receptor complex. The second mechanism proposed completes the first one. By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors, so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction.

  1. Use of deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine in the study of catecholamine and aromatic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtius, H.C.; Redweik, U.; Steinmann, B.; Leimbacher, W.; Wegmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Deuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine have been used for the study of their respective metabolism in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in healthy persons. Urinary excretion of dopamine and its metabolites was studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deuterated L-tyrosine in 2 patients with PKU and in normal controls at low and high plasma phenylalanine levels. From these studies it seemed that the in vivo tyrosine 3-hydroxylase activity and thus the formation of L-dopa depend on the phenylalanine concentration in plasma and also in tissues. After loading 3 mentally retarded patients with 3,5-[ 2 H 2 ]-4-hydroxyphenylalanine, we found, among others, excretion of deuterated m-hydroxyphenyl-hydracrylic acid, p-hydroxymandelic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyhippuric acid, benzoic acid and hippuric acid. An intramolecular rearrangement is postulated. Deuterated phenylalanine was used to investigate phenylalanine and dopa metabolism in PKU. In addition, one untreated person with PKU of normal intelligence and normal excretion of catecholamines at high plasma phenylalanine concentration was investigated in order to see whether there exists an alternative metabolic pathway from phenylalanine to dopa formation

  2. Catecholamine stimulation, substrate competition, and myocardial glucose uptake in conscious dogs assessed with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhige, M.E.; Ekas, R.; Mossberg, K.; Taegtmeyer, H.; Gould, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of radiolabelled deoxyglucose out of proportion to reduced coronary flow demonstrated by positron emission tomography has been used to identify reversibly ischemic, viable myocardium. For this concept to be applied reliably in the clinical setting, factors that may depress glucose availability independent of tissue viability, such as adrenergic stimulation and substrate competition, must be examined. Accordingly, we studied the effect of catecholamine stimulation by dopamine on myocardial glucose uptake in vivo using chronically instrumented, intact dogs and positron emission tomography. We measured myocardial activity of [2- 18 F]-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 82 Rb in glucose-loaded animals randomly studied during dopamine infusion, during insulin infusion, and then during their combined infusion. Myocardial FDG uptake was significantly decreased when animals were treated with dopamine, compared with treatment in the same animals with insulin. When insulin was added to the dopamine infusion, myocardial FDG uptake was restored. In contrast, myocardial activity of 82 Rb, which is taken up in proportion to coronary flow, was similar under all three experimental conditions. Plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and lactate concentrations were determined before and during each infusion. The depression of myocardial FDG activity seen during dopamine infusion and its reversal with addition of insulin can be explained on the basis of effects of these hormones on substrate availability and competition

  3. Postnatal development of EEG patterns, catecholamine contents and myelination, and effect of hyperthyroidism in Suncus brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Sitizyo, K; Harada, E

    1998-03-01

    The postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) in house musk shrew in the early stage of maturation was studied. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) in association with catecholamine contents and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity were carried out from the 1st to the 20th day of postnatal age. Different EEG patterns which were specific to behavioral states (awake and drowsy) were first recorded on the 5th day, and the total power which was obtained by power spectrum analysis increased after this stage. The latencies of all peaks in VEP markedly shortened between the 5th and the 7th day. Noradrenalin (NA) content of the brain showed a slight increase after the 3rd day, and reached maximum levels on the 7th day, which was delayed a few days compared to dopamine (DA). In hyperthyroidism, the peak latency of VEP was shortened and biosynthesis of NA in cerebral cortex and DA in hippocampus was accelerated. The most obvious change in MBP-immunoreactivity of the telencephalon occurred from the 7th to the 10th day. These morphological changes in the brain advanced at the identical time-course to those in the electrophysiological development and increment of DA and NA contents.

  4. Catecholamine levels in a Ramadan fasting model in rats: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Gamze Erten Bucaktepe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits as well as physical exercise are very important for a healthy lifespan. Ramadan-type fasting, which is food and water avoidance during the daylight period for four weeks, has drawn attention due to its positive impacts on metabolism and health. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and urine catecholamine (CA levels in fasting and non-fasting rats, in terms of stress response. A total of 20 male rats were randomly divided into a fasting group and a control group. Four weeks later, blood and urine samples were taken after decapitation. Analysis of CAs was done using high-performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection (HPLC-FLD. The dopamine (DA, adrenaline (ADR and noradrenaline (NA blood and urine concentrations were found to be higher in the fasting group compared to the control group, but the difference was statistically significant only for the blood DA levels (p < 0.05. In the fasting group, the blood values of ADR and NA correlated with each other but not with the DA levels, whereas there was correlation among the urine levels of DA, ADR and NA. In the control group, the blood and urine values of DA, ADR and NA correlated with each other. The differences observed in the blood and urine CAs indicate a specific regulation of CAs in Ramadan-type fasting, which needs to be investigated thoroughly in future studies.

  5. Effects of CO2-HCO3- on catecholamine efflux from cat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, R; Alcayaga, J

    1998-01-01

    Using a chronoamperometric technique with carbon-fiber microelectrodes and neural recordings, we simultaneously measured the effects of the following procedures on catecholamine efflux (delta CA) and frequency of chemosensory discharges (fx) from superfused cat carotid body: 1) the addition of CO2-HCO3- to Tyrode solution previously buffered with N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane-sulfonic acid, maintaining pH at 7.40; 2) hypercapnia (10% CO2, pH 7.10); 3) hypoxia (PO2 h approximately 40 Torr) with and without CO2-HCO3-; and 4) the impact of several boluses of dopamine (DA; 10-100 micrograms) on hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. With CO2-HCO3-, hypoxia increased fx which preceded delta CA increases, whereas hypercapnia raised fx but did not consistently increase delta CA. Repeated stimuli induced similar fx increases, but attenuated delta CA. After DA, hypoxia produced larger delta CA, which preceded chemosensory responses. Without CO2-HCO3-, hypoxia produced a similar pattern of delta CA and fx responses. Switching to Tyrode solution with CO2-HCO3- at pH 7.40 raised fx but did not increase delta CA. With CO2-HCO3- and after DA, hypoxic-induced delta CAs were larger than in its absence. Results suggest that DA release is not essential for chemosensory excitation.

  6. Is the excess cardiovascular morbidity in pheochromocytoma related to blood pressure or to catecholamines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Roeland F; Bakx, Carel; Mulder, Jan; Timmers, Henri J L M; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-03-01

    It is generally accepted that pheochromocytoma is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This is however not based on studies with an appropriate control group of patients with essential hypertension. We examined whether patients with pheochromocytoma have an excess cardiovascular morbidity as compared to hypertensive patients. In a retrospective case-control study we reviewed the medical charts of 109 pheochromocytoma patients for cardiovascular events within 5 years prior to the diagnosis. These patients were matched to control patients with essential hypertension for gender and year of birth and diagnosis. Outcome variables were ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and transient ischemic attacks. Classical cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed. A significantly higher rate of patients with pheochromocytoma suffered a cardiovascular event (13.8%; 95% confidence interval: 7.9%-21.6%) as compared to hypertensive patients (1.1%, 95% confidence interval: 0.1%-3.9%) (P risk factors. Pheochromocytoma patients have a clearly higher rate of cardiovascular events than patients with essential hypertension. This cannot be attributed to differences in blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors. The most likely explanation for the excess event rate is the prolonged exposure to the toxic effects of tumoral catecholamines. These data underpin the importance of a timely diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma.

  7. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the reaction between biological catecholamines and chlorinated methylperoxy radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimić, Dušan S.; Milenković, Dejan A.; Marković, Jasmina M. Dimitrić; Marković, Zoran S.

    2018-05-01

    The antiradical potency of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, L-DOPA), metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and catechol towards substituted methylperoxy radicals is investigated. The thermodynamic parameters, together with the kinetic approach, are used to determine the most probable mechanism of action. The natural bond orbital and quantum theory of atoms in molecules are utilised to explain the highest reactivity of trichloromethylperoxy radical. The preferred mechanism is dependent both on the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters . The number of chlorine atoms on radical, the presence of intra-molecular hydrogen bond and number of hydroxy groups attached to the aromatic ring significantly influence the mechanism. The results suggest that sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) is the most probable for reaction with methylperoxy and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) for reaction with trichloromethylperoxy radicals, with a gradual transition between SPLET and HAT for other two radicals. Due to the significant deprotonation of molecules containing the carboxyl group, the respective anions are also investigated. The HAT and SPLET mechanisms are highly competitive in reaction with MP radical, while the dominant mechanism towards chlorinated radicals is HAT. The reactions in methanol and benzene are also discussed.

  9. L-Tyrosine availability affects basal and stimulated catecholamine indices in prefrontal cortex and striatum of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnik, Zachary D; Double, Manda; España, Rodrigo A; Jaskiw, George E

    2017-09-01

    We previously found that L-tyrosine (L-TYR) but not D-TYR administered by reverse dialysis elevated catecholamine synthesis in vivo in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and striatum of the rat (Brodnik et al., 2012). We now report L-TYR effects on extracellular levels of catecholamines and their metabolites. In MPFC, reverse dialysis of L-TYR elevated in vivo levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (L-TYR 250-1000 μM), homovanillic acid (HVA) (L-TYR 1000 μM) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) (L-TYR 500-1000 μM). In striatum L-TYR 250 μM elevated DOPAC. We also examined L-TYR effects on extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels during two 30 min pulses (P2 and P1) of K+ (37.5 mM) separated by t = 2.0 h. L-TYR significantly elevated the ratio P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 125 μM) and NE (L-TYR 125-250 μM) in MPFC but lowered P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 250 μM) in striatum. Finally, we measured DA levels in brain slices using ex-vivo voltammetry. Perfusion with L-TYR (12.5-50 μM) dose-dependently elevated stimulated DA levels in striatum. In all the above studies, D-TYR had no effect. We conclude that acute increases within the physiological range of L-TYR levels can increase catecholamine metabolism and efflux in MPFC and striatum. Chronically, such repeated increases in L-TYR availability could induce adaptive changes in catecholamine transmission while amplifying the metabolic cost of catecholamine synthesis and degradation. This has implications for neuropsychiatric conditions in which neurotoxicity and/or disordered L-TYR transport have been implicated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hydrocortisone Therapy in Catecholamine-Resistant Pediatric Septic Shock: A Pragmatic Analysis of Clinician Practice and Association With Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Blake; Kubis, Sherri; Hewlett, Jennifer; Yehya, Nadir; Srinivasan, Vijay

    2017-09-01

    The 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign pediatric guidelines recommend stress dose hydrocortisone in children experiencing catecholamine-dependent septic shock with suspected or proven absolute adrenal insufficiency. We evaluated whether stress dose hydrocortisone therapy in children with catecholamine dependent septic shock correlated with random serum total cortisol levels and was associated with improved outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Non-cardiac PICU. Critically ill children (1 mo to 18 yr) admitted between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2013, with catecholamine dependent septic shock who had random serum total cortisol levels measured prior to potential stress dose hydrocortisone therapy. None. The cohort was dichotomized to random serum total cortisol less than 18 mcg/dL and greater than or equal to 18 mcg/dL. Associations of stress dose hydrocortisone with outcomes: PICU mortality, PICU and hospital length of stay, ventilator-free days, and vasopressor-free days were examined. Seventy children with catecholamine-dependent septic shock and measured random serum total cortisol levels were eligible (16% PICU mortality). Although 43% (30/70) had random serum total cortisol less than 18 μg/dL, 60% (42/70) received stress dose hydrocortisone. Children with random serum total cortisol less than 18 μg/dL had lower severity of illness and lower Vasopressor Inotrope Scores than those with random serum total cortisol greater than or equal to 18 μg/dL (all p stress dose hydrocortisone had higher severity of illness and PICU mortality than those without stress dose hydrocortisone (all p stress dose hydrocortisone (21.1 vs 18.7 μg/dL; p = 0.69). In children with random serum total cortisol less than 18 μg/dL, stress dose hydrocortisone was associated with greater PICU and hospital length of stay and fewer ventilator-free days (all p stress dose hydrocortisone was associated with greater PICU mortality and fewer ventilator-free days and vasopressor-free days (all

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase and changes in catecholamine levels in brain during ontogeny and after sex steroid analogues exposure in the catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Sajwan Khatri; Raghuveer, Kavarthapu; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Rajakumar, Anbazhagan; Basavaraju, Yaraguntappa; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine (CA) biosynthesis and is considered to be a marker for CA-ergic neurons, which regulate the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in brain and gonadotropins in the pituitary. In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of Th from the catfish brain and evaluated its expression pattern in the male and female brain during early development and after sex-steroid analogues treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. We measured the CA levels to compare our results on Th. Cloned Th from catfish brain is 1.591 kb, which encodes a putative protein of 458 amino acid residues and showed high homology with other teleosts. The tissue distribution of Th revealed ubiquitous expression in all the tissues analyzed with maximum expression in male and female brain. Copy number analysis showed two-fold more transcript abundance in the female brain when compared with the male brain. A differential expression pattern of Th was observed in which the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females compared with males, during early brain development. CAs, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, and norepinephrine levels measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in the developing male and female brain confirmed the prominence of the CA-ergic system in the female brain. Sex-steroid analogue treatment using methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol confirmed our findings of the differential expression of Th related to CA levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  13. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  14. The effects of stress-induced blood components on protein synthesis and secretion in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of stress-induced blood components were examined, specifically adrenaline and noradrenaline, in the presence and absence of rabbit serum or foetal calf serum, on soluble protein synthesis and secretion by isolated hepatocytes maintained in monolayer culture. Rabbit serum and low doses of adrenaline stimulated soluble protein synthesis and secretion whereas foetal calf serum and high doses of noradrenaline were inhibitory. The effect of noradrenaline on soluble protein synthesis and secretion ocurred in the first 12 hours of incubation. The stimulatory effect of adrenaline was still present after 24 hours of incubation. Preloading of the medium with [ 3 H]-leucine i.e. before the addition of sera and/or catecholamines, showed the [ 3 H]-leucine uptake to have occured to a large extent within the first hour of incubation. Noradrenaline supplementation of the medium at two hourly intervals showed no effect on protein synthesis and secretion. The stability of the cetecholamines and the status of the receptors need to be determined for the effective analysis of the results at any point during the incubation. 17 figs., 15 tabs., 83 refs

  15. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, L.G.; Wright, J.R.; Hawgood, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Venstrom, K.; Nellenbogen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC 50 of 0.1 μg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 100 0 C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control

  16. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny eMomboisse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1 is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 µM in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress.

  17. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  18. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  19. Brain catecholamine depletion and motor impairment in a Th knock-in mouse with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Germaine; Noain, Daniela; Ying, Ming; Hole, Magnus; Flydal, Marte I; Scherer, Tanja; Allegri, Gabriella; Rassi, Anahita; Fingerhut, Ralph; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Pillai, Samyuktha; Wueest, Stephan; Konrad, Daniel; Lauber-Biason, Anna; Baumann, Christian R; Bindoff, Laurence A; Martinez, Aurora; Thöny, Beat

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive dystonia, also termed type A, to complex encephalopathy with perinatal onset, termed type B. We generated homozygous Th knock-in mice with the mutation Th-p.R203H, equivalent to the most recurrent human mutation associated with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (TH-p.R233H), often unresponsive to l-DOPA treatment. The Th knock-in mice showed normal survival and food intake, but hypotension, hypokinesia, reduced motor coordination, wide-based gate and catalepsy. This phenotype was associated with a gradual loss of central catecholamines and the serious manifestations of motor impairment presented diurnal fluctuation but did not improve with standard l-DOPA treatment. The mutant tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme was unstable and exhibited deficient stabilization by catecholamines, leading to decline of brain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in the Th knock-in mice. In fact the substantia nigra presented an almost normal level of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase protein but distinct absence of the enzyme was observed in the striatum, indicating a mutation-associated mislocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal pathway. This hypomorphic mouse model thus provides understanding on pathomechanisms in type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and a platform for the evaluation of novel therapeutics for movement disorders with loss of dopaminergic input to the striatum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Catecholamine up-regulates MMP-7 expression by activating AP-1 and STAT3 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ming

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress, anxiety and depression can cause complex physiological and neuroendocrine changes, resulting in increased level of stress related hormone catecholamine, which may constitute a primary mechanism by which physiological factors impact gene expression in tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of catecholamine stimulation on MMP-7 expression in gastric cancer cells and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of the up-regulation of MMP-7 level by catecholamine through an adrenergic signaling pathway. Results Increased MMP-7 expression was identified at both mRNA and protein levels in the gastric cancer cells in response to isoproterenol stimulation. β2-AR antigonist effectively abrogated isoproterenol-induced MMP-7 expression. The activation of STAT3 and AP-1 was prominently induced by isoproterenol stimulation and AP-1 displayed a greater efficacy than STAT3 in isoproterenol-induced MMP-7 expression. Mutagenesis of three STAT3 binding sites in MMP-7 promoter failed to repress the transactivation of MMP-7 promoter and silencing STAT3 expression was not effective in preventing isoproterenol-induced MMP-7 expression. However, isoproterenol-induced MMP-7 promoter activities were completely disappeared when the AP-1 site was mutated. STAT3 and c-Jun could physically interact and bind to the AP-1 site, implicating that the interplay of both transcriptional factors on the AP-1 site is responsible for isoproterenol-stimulated MMP-7 expression in gastric cancer cells. The expression of MMP-7 in gastric cancer tissues was found to be at the site where β2-AR was overexpressed and the levels of MMP-7 and β2-AR were the highest in the metastatic locus of gastric cancer. Conclusions Up-regulation of MMP-7 expression through β2-AR-mediated signaling pathway is involved in invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer.

  1. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  2. Effect of oral propranolol administration on azygos, renal and hepatic uptake and output of catecholamines in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J; Sørensen, T I

    1991-01-01

    Circulating catecholamines are increased in cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and increase further after propranolol. In 23 cirrhotic patients, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine were determined in an artery, the azygos vein, the right renal vein and a hepatic vein before and after an oral 80...... to the circulation) and clearance of epinephrine remained unaltered. Hepatointestinal clearance showed no significant change for norepinephrine, but showed a borderline-significant decrease for epinephrine (-23%, p = 0.08). Our results show a net production of norepinephrine in the prehepatic splanchnic area drained...

  3. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  4. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Watery diarrhea syndrome in an adult with ganglioneuroma-pheochromocytoma: identification of vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin, and catecholamines and assessment of their biologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, D L; Livingston, J N; Baylin, S B

    1977-10-01

    A case of adult ganglioneuroma-pheochromocytoma with an associated watery diarrhea syndrome is reported. High levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were found in preoperative serum and in tumor tissue. The serum VIP levels fell to normal, and the watery diarrhae syndrome completely ceased following removal of the tumor. In addition to containing VIP, the tumor was rich in catecholamines, and calcitonin. Peptide hormone-containing extracts and catecholamine extracts from the tumor both activated the adenyl cyclase system and increased lipolytic activity in a preparation of isolated rat fat cells. The findings in this patient further link VIP with neural crest tissues, and suggest the importance of determining catecholamine levels in patients with the watery diarrhea syndrome.

  6. Urinary catecholamines, plasma insulin and environmental factors in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, D L; Bergstrom, R W; Shuman, W P; Wahl, P W; Jenner, D A; Harrison, G A; Fujimoto, W Y

    1991-05-01

    The relationship of body fat distribution to insulin and the catecholamines, hormones that affect lipolysis differentially by fat site, was examined within an environmental context, including factors of medication use, physical activity, dietary intake, educational attainment, and age. Four cross-sectional body fat areas (cm2) were determined by three computed tomography (CT) scans (subcutaneous chest fat at the level of the nipples, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus, and subcutaneous left mid-thigh fat) in 191 second-generation Japanese-American men aged 45-74 years. The site-specific fat measurements were first examined in relation to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists, then to fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels and to urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels from a 24-h urine collection made during usual daily activities. Greater fat stores in the intra-abdominal area, even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI, weight/height2) and presence of coronary heart disease, were found to be related to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists. In men taking no adrenergic antagonists (n = 157), after adjustment for BMI, truncal fat measurements of the chest (partial r = -0.16, P less than 0.05) and intra-abdominal area (partial r = -0.21, P less than 0.05) were found to be inversely related to epinephrine, and intra-abdominal fat (partial r = 0.25, P less than 0.01) alone was directly related to fasting plasma insulin. With respect to other environmental variables, the significant inverse relationship of intra-abdominal fat (adjusted for BMI) with physical activity (partial r = -0.17, P less than 0.05) and the significant difference in intra-abdominal fat by educational attainment (college 102.3 +/- 5.7 vs no college 115.7 +/- 6.1 cm2, P = 0.03) became non-significant with adjustment, using multiple regression analysis, for insulin in the case of physical activity and epinephrine in the case of educational attainment. Thus

  7. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  8. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  9. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  10. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  11. The choice of catecholamines in septic shock: more and more good arguments to strengthen the known position, but don't lose the faith!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Hellmann, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The choice of catecholamines for hemodynamic stabilisation in septic shock patients has been an ongoing debate for several years. Several studies have investigated the regional effects in septic patients. Because of an often very small sample size, because of inconsistent results and because of methodical problems in the monitoring techniques used in these studies, however, it is not possible to provide clear recommendations concerning the use of catecholamines in sepsis. Prospective and adequate-sized studies are necessary because outcome data are completely lacking.

  12. Night-rest urinary catecholamine excretion in relation to aspects of free time, work and background data in a teacher group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, U; Vihko, V

    1991-01-01

    Free time, work and background data were related to night-rest catecholamine excretion rates in a teacher group (n = 137) during an autumn term. The explained interindividual variance increased slightly towards the end of the term. Adrenaline excretion was predicted better than noradrenaline, notedly by coffee consumption, amount of physical activity, and subjective stress feelings which explained 16% of the variance in adrenaline excretion during night rest. However, the results indicated that the differences in catecholamine excretion during night rest remained mostly unpredictable.

  13. 'Like a Virgin': Hymenoplasty and Secret Marriage in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L L

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, women seek hymenoplasty to disguise evidence of premarital sexual intercourse. Physicians hide the fact that they perform the procedure, and laypeople condemn it as against religion and morality, a way of cheating men of knowledge of their wives' sexual history. Yet high-ranking religious leaders have condoned hymenoplasty. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, archival research, and formal interviews with laypeople and physicians, in this article, I investigate this discrepancy between religious and lay opinions. Many Egyptians believe women resort to hymenoplasty after contracting secret `urfi (customary) marriages, and I examine the relationship between hymenoplasty and extramarital and paramarital sexuality. Egyptian debates around hymenoplasty and marriage are concerned with the notion that women's sexual status must be socially visible, believing that doctors and kin have the ability and obligation to read women's sexual history through physiological markers and social rituals. Hymenoplasty and secret marriage render women's sexual histories illegible to observers.

  14. Extracellular vesicles secreted from cancer cell lines stimulate secretion of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and EMMPRIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina S Redzic

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are key contributors to cancer where they play an integral role in cell-cell communication and transfer pro-oncogenic molecules to recipient cells thereby conferring a cancerous phenotype. Here, we purified EVs using straightforward biochemical approaches from multiple cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized these EVs via multiple biochemical and biophysical methods. In addition, we used fluorescence microscopy to directly show internalization of EVs into the recipient cells within a few minutes upon addition of EVs to recipient cells. We confirmed that the transmembrane protein EMMPRIN, postulated to be a marker of EVs, was indeed secreted from all cell lines studied here. We evaluated the response to EV stimulation in several different types of recipient cells lines and measured the ability of these purified EVs to induce secretion of several factors highly upregulated in human cancers. Our data indicate that purified EVs preferentially stimulate secretion of several proteins implicated in driving cancer in monocytic cells but only harbor limited activity in epithelial cells. Specifically, we show that EVs are potent stimulators of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and induce the secretion of extracellular EMMPRIN, which all play a role in driving immune evasion, invasion and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, by using a comprehensive approach that includes biochemical, biological, and spectroscopic methods, we have begun to elucidate the stimulatory roles.

  15. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  16. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  17. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  18. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  19. Regulation of melatonin secretion in the pineal organ of the domestic duck--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusik, M; Lewczuk, B; Ziółkowska, N; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the mechanisms regulating melatonin secretion in the pineal organs of 1-day-old and 9-month-old domestic ducks. The pineals were cultured in a superfusion system under different light conditions. Additionally, some explants were treated with norepinephrine. The pineal glands of 1-day-old ducks released melatonin in a well-entrained, regular rhythm during incubation under a 12 hrs light:12 hrs dark cycle and adjusted their secretory activity to a reversed 12 hrs dark:12 hrs light cycle within 2 days. In contrast, the diurnal changes in melatonin secretion from the pineals of 9-month-old ducks were largely irregular and the adaptation to a reversed cycle lasted 3 days. The pineal organs of nestling and adult ducks incubated in a continuous light or darkness secreted melatonin in a circadian rhythm. The treatment with norepinephrine during photophases of a light-dark cycle resulted in: 1) a precise adjustment of melatonin secretion rhythm to the presence of this catecholamine in the culture medium, 2) a very high amplitude of the rhythm, 3) a rapid adaptation of the pineal secretory activity to a reversed light-dark cycle. The effects of norepinephrine were similar in the pineal organs of nestlings and adults. In conclusion, melatonin secretion in the duck pineal organ is controlled by three main mechanisms: the direct photoreception, the endogenous generator and the noradrenergic transmission. The efficiency of intra-pineal, photosensitivity-based regulatory mechanism is markedly lower in adult than in nestling individuals.

  20. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  1. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  2. Effects of low-sodium diet vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride (Cochrane Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids....

  3. Determination of catecholamine in human serum by a fluorescent quenching method based on a water-soluble fluorescent conjugated polymer-enzyme hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Fanping; Wang, Guannan; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Su, Xingguang

    2012-03-21

    In this paper, a sensitive water-soluble fluorescent conjugated polymer biosensor for catecholamine (dopamine DA, adrenaline AD and norepinephrine NE) was developed. In the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and H(2)O(2), catecholamine could be oxidized and the oxidation product of catecholamine could quench the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of poly(2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-phenylethynylenealt-1,4-poly(phenylene ethynylene)) (PPESO(3)). The quenching PL intensity of PPESO(3) (I(0)/I) was proportional to the concentration of DA, AD and NE in the concentration ranges of 5.0 × 10(-7) to 1.4 × 10(-4), 5.0 × 10(-6) to 5.0 × 10(-4), and 5.0 × 10(-6) to 5.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1), respectively. The detection limit for DA, AD and NE was 1.4 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The PPESO(3)-enzyme hybrid system based on the fluorescence quenching method was successfully applied for the determination of catecholamine in human serum samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery. The results were in good agreement with those provided by the HPLC-MS method.

  4. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  5. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of a...

  6. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in appropriate...

  7. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by...

  8. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  9. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved, or...

  10. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    David D. Friedman; William M. Landes; Richard A. Posner

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  11. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Weegee’s City Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTENBERG, Alan

    2011-01-01

    En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles e...

  13. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  14. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  15. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bilandžija

    Full Text Available Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish, albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  16. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  17. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ferulic acid with ascorbic acid synergistically extenuates the mitochondrial dysfunction during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-10-27

    Disruption of mitochondria and free radical mediated tissue injury have been reported during cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic catecholamine. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of ferulic acid (FA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the mitochondrial damage in ISO induced cardiotoxicity. Induction of rats with ISO (150 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) for 2 days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of respiratory chain enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c-oxidase), tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), mitochondrial antioxidants (GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, GSH), cytochromes (b, c, c1, aa3) and in the level of mitochondrial phospholipids. A marked elevation in mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were also observed in ISO intoxicated rats. Pre-co-treatment with the combination of FA (20 mg/kg b.wt.) and AA (80 mg/kg b.wt.) orally for 6 days significantly enhanced the attenuation of these functional abnormalities and restored normal mitochondrial function when compared to individual drug treated groups. Mitigation of ISO induced biochemical and morphological changes in mitochondria were more pronounced with a combination of FA and AA rather than the individual drug treated groups. Transmission electron microscopic observations also correlated with these biochemical parameters. Hence, these findings demonstrate the synergistic ameliorative potential of FA and AA on mitochondrial function during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity and associated oxidative stress in rats.

  20. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  1. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  2. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  3. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  4. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  5. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  6. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown

  7. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  8. Secretion of autoimmune antibodies in the human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Thaller, Seth; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2018-01-01

    The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we show that the SAT generates autoimmune antibodies. During the development of obesity, reduced oxygen and consequent hypoxia and cell death lead to further release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, "self" protein antigens, cell-free DNA and lipids. All these stimulate class switch and the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies which have been described to be pathogenic. In addition to hypoxia, we have measured cell cytotoxicity and DNA damage mechanisms, which may also contribute to the release of "self" antigens in the SAT. All these processes are significantly elevated in the SAT as compared to the blood. We definitively found that fat-specific IgG antibodies are secreted by B cells in the SAT and that B cells express mRNA for the transcription factor T-bet and the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. Finally, the SAT also expresses RNA for cytokines known to promote Germinal Center formation, isotype class switch, and plasma cell differentiation. Our results show novel mechanisms for the generation of autoimmune antibody responses in the human SAT and allow the identification of new pathways to possibly manipulate in order to reduce systemic inflammation and autoantibody production in obese individuals.

  9. Progress on macrophage's proinflammatory products as markers of acute endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Ziętek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide the review of the macrophage activity products as pathophysiological markers of endometriosis by literature survey (PubMed, Cochrane. Immunoreactive cells and several of their synthesis products concentrations are elevated in the serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis. The enhanced reactive proteins contributed to local inflammation and aggregation of endometriotic lesions. Immune response and immune surveillance of tissue play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis. Activated macrophages in peritoneal environment secrete immunoreactive cytokines which are responsible for inflammatory cascade of reactions. The immunoreactive cytokines should be a target not only as a disease marker but also as a part of therapeutic protocol.

  10. Urinary catecholamines in patients with acute stroke, in reference to CT scan findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kimiaki

    1985-01-01

    The amount of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) in the urine of 160 stroke patients were measured both at the acute stage and at the chronic stage (31 days or later) of the diseases and a CT scan was taken simultaneously. The urinary NE and E were separated by the high performance liquid chromatography and measured by trihydroxyindole method. Forty five healthy subjects were employed as a control group. The results were as follows: 1) In subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage the NE and E and in cerebral infarction the NE were significantly increased in the acute stage. But, when divided by CT scan findings, the group of intracerebral hemorrhage without perforation into the ventricles showed increases of NE only and those without deviation of midline showed no significant increase of the NE and E. In cases of large cerebral infarction, both NE and E were significantly increased. It is supposed that not only the type of the disease but also the facfors such as its size, perforation into the ventricles and deviation of the midline may change activities of secretion of NE and E. 2) The NE/E ratio was significantly low in the group of intracerebral hemorrhage with perforation into the ventricles (p < 0.001) and the ratio was significantly lower in the thalamic hemorrhage than in the putaminal hemorrhage (p < 0.02). The rate of perforation into the ventricles was significantly higher in the thalamic hemorrhage (78.6 %) than that of the putaminal hemorrhage (10.5 %). 3) In the chronic stage of the stroke, the NE and E (especially E) were decreased and showed a high NE/E. ratio. (author)

  11. Normal and abnormal secretion by haemopoietic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    STINCHCOMBE, JANE C; GRIFFITHS, GILLIAN M

    2001-01-01

    The secretory lysosomes found in haemopoietic cells provide a very efficient mechanism for delivering the effector proteins of many immune cells in response to antigen recognition. Although secretion shows some similarities to the secretion of specialized granules in other secretory cell types, some aspects of secretory lysosome release appear to be unique to melanocytes and cells of the haemopoietic lineage. Mast cells and platelets have provided excellent models for studying secretion, but recent advances in characterizing the immunological synapse allow a very fine dissection of the secretory process in T lymphocytes. These studies show that secretory lysosomes are secreted from the centre of the talin ring at the synapse. Proper secretion requires a series of Rab and cytoskeletal elements which play critical roles in the specialized secretion of lysosomes in haemopoietic cells. PMID:11380687

  12. On-line preconcentration of fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines in cerebrospinal fluid using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Gong, Maojun

    2016-06-10

    Flow-gated capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with microdialysis has become an important tool for in vivo bioanalytical measurements because it is capable of performing rapid and efficient separations of complex biological mixtures thus enabling high temporal resolution in chemical monitoring. However, the limit of detection (LOD) is often limited to a micro- or nano-molar range while many important target analytes have picomolar or sub-nanomolar levels in brain and other tissues. To enhance the capability of flow-gated CE for catecholamine detection, a novel and simple on-line sample preconcentration method was developed exclusively for fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines that were fluorogenically derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide. The effective preconcentration coupled with the sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection lowered the LOD down to 20pM for norepinephrine (NE) and 50pM for dopamine (DA) at 3-fold of S/N ratio, and the signal enhancement was estimated to be over 100-fold relative to normal injection when standard analytes were dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). The basic focusing principle is novel since the sample plug contains borate while the background electrolyte (BGE) is void of borate. This strategy took advantage of the complexation between diols and borate, through which one negative charge was added to the complex entity. The sample derivatization mixture was electrokinetically injected into a capillary via the flow-gated injection, and then NE and DA derivatives were selectively focused to a narrow zone by the reversible complexation. Separation of NE and DA derivatives was executed by incoming surfactants of cholate and deoxycholate mixed in the front BGE plug. This on-line preconcentration method was finally applied to the detection of DA in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via microdialysis and on-line derivatization. It is anticipated that the method would

  13. Multiple marker abundance profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooper, Cornelia M.; Stevens, Tim J.; Saukkonen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    proteins and the scoring accuracy of lower-abundance proteins in Arabidopsis. NPAS was combined with subcellular protein localization data, facilitating quantitative estimations of organelle abundance during routine experimental procedures. A suite of targeted proteomics markers for subcellular compartment...

  14. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Industry and Investment and Charles Sturt. University), P. O. Box 588 Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. 3Guangxi .... and obtain marker statistics. The exact order of the ...

  15. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  16. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  17. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  18. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  19. Thymidine secretion by hybridoma and myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Rise, Frode; Petersen, Dirk; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Secretion of thymidine appeared to be a common property of hybridoma and myeloma cells, but not of other cell types, which were tested. Of three hybridoma cell lines tested, all secreted thymidine in amounts resulting in the accumulation of thymidine to concentrations of 10-20 μM in the culture medium. Also three of five myeloma cell lines that were analyzed secrete thymidine, but none of the other cell types that were studied. Thymidine was purified to homogeneity (4 mg purified from 3 l of culture medium) and identified as such by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells that secreted thymidine showed high resistance to the growth inhibitory effect of thymidine

  20. Effect of chronic exposure to gamma radiation and of hormonal stimulation with serum gonadotropin on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenals of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects were studied of exposure to whole body continuous irradiation and of the administration of serum gonadotropin (SG) on the concentration of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenal glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized estrus. The first group (young barren ewes) and second group (older ewes) were exposed to continuous radiation of 60 Co for five days. The radiation was applied at a rate of 0.020 Gy per hour. After the termination of irradiation the ewes were subjected to hormonal stimulation by fractionated administration of 1500 I.U. SG. The third and fourth experimental groups of ewes were stimulated with 1500 I.U. SG without irradiation. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by adsorption chromatography and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation with SG reduced the concentration of norepinephrine in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of the adult ewes and in the rostral and caudal hypothalamus regions of the young ewes. A decrease in norepinephrine concentration, statistically significant in the caudal (P<0.01) and medial hypothalamus was recorded in the group of adult ewes after hormonal stimulation with SG without irradiation. The experimental group of young ewes responded to hormonal stimulation by a greater reduction of norepinephrine contents as compared with combined exposure to radiation and hormonal stimulation. It is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after hormonal stimulation with SG is associated with the increase in the contents of estrogens which act on the adrenergic receptors of the hypothalamus. (author). 4 figs., 21 refs

  1. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Critical study of common conditions of storage of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in 24-h urine collected during resting and exercising conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouarne, C; Foury, A; Duclos, M

    2004-10-01

    Except immediate freezing of the samples, no practical method has been validated for preservation of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in 24-h urine collection. Furthermore, the influence of urine storage at bladder temperature during periods of different lengths and the effect of prior exercise on preservation of these hormones in the bladder have not been investigated until now. Ten healthy volunteers collected their urine both after a resting and after an exercise session. Urine was aliquoted into tubes which were stored during 24 h in the presence or in the absence of preservatives and at different temperatures. Two samples were stored either 3 or 9 h at 37 degrees C (bladder temperature) without additive. When collecting 24-h urine samples for glucocorticoids determination, sample can be stored at room temperature during the 24-h collection period without compromising glucocorticoids preservation. When collecting 24-h urine samples for catecholamines determination, samples have to be chilled without preservative during the whole of the collection period. If the samples have to be stored at room temperature, HCl should be used. Moreover, we report for the first time that catecholamines can be degraded in the bladder and therefore that subjects should urinate every 3 h during either a resting or an exercising day.

  3. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a β 1 - and β 2 -selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of β-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an α7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and DβH expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on α7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and β-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role α7-nAChR and β-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer

  4. Determination of free and conjugated catecholamines and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in plasma and urine: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor in uraemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demassieux, S.; Corneille, L.; Lachance, S.; Carriere, S.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive, accurate and reproducible method has been developed for the determination of free and conjugated catecholamines and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in plasma and urine. The assay involves the enzymatic conversion of these compounds to their radio-labelled O-methylated derivatives using catechol-O-methyltransferase and S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. Recoveries of 75 +- 5% for dopamine, 70 +- 5% for adrenaline and 65 +- 5% for noradrenaline were obtained. The sensitivities were 0.5 pg for adrenaline and noradrenaline and 5-7 pg for dopamine and dihydroxyphenylalanine. Measurements of conjugated catecholamines were performed after mild acid hydrolysis for 20 min at 95 0 C. During this procedure no degradation of the catecholamines was observed. This assay led to the discovery of a dialyzable factor in the plasma of chronic uraemic patients which inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in vitro. The mean 22% inhibition observed for unhydrolyzed plasma increased to 42% after hydrolysis. The identity of this inhibitor which exists as an inactive conjugated form, probably a sulphate ester, and its implication in physiopathological disorders remain to be established. (Auth.)

  5. Electrical Stimulation at the ST36 Acupoint Protects against Sepsis Lethality and Reduces Serum TNF Levels through Vagus Nerve- and Catecholamine-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Villegas-Bastida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical vagus nerve (VN stimulation during sepsis attenuates tumor necrosis factor (TNF production through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which depends on the integrity of the VN and catecholamine production. To characterize the effect of electroacupuncture at ST36 (EA-ST36 on serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels and survival rates, based on VN integrity and catecholamine production, a sepsis model was induced in rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The septic rats were subsequently treated with EA-ST36 (CLP+ST36, and serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines levels. The serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels in the CLP+ST36 group were significantly lower compared with the group without treatment, the survival rates were significantly higher (P<0.05, and the acute organ injury induced by CLP was mitigated by EA-ST36; however, when subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed, the serum levels of TNF in the CLP+ST36 group did not show a significant difference compared with the group without electrostimulation, and, similarly, no significant difference in serum TNF levels was found under the pharmacological blockade of catecholamines. These results suggest that in rats with CLP sepsis models EA-ST36 reduces serum TNF levels through VN- and atecholamine-dependent mechanisms.

  6. Alterations in Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent release of catecholamines in preparations of rat brain produced by ethanol treatment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.A.; Pagonis, C.; Samuel, D.; Littleton, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared to preparations from control animals, superfused striatal slice preparations from brains of rats treated chronically with ethanol released a significantly greater fraction of stored [ 3 H] dopamine on depolarisation in 40 mM K + . Similarly, the electrically-evoked release of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine from cortical slices and of [ 3 H]-dopamine from striatal slices is also increased, although with this mechanism of depolarisation the change is significant only in the case of [ 3 H] norepinephrine release. In contrast to this tendency to enhancement of Ca 2+ -dependent depolarisation-induced release, a reduced fraction of stored [ 3 H]-catecholamines was released from these preparations by the indirect sympathomimetics tyramine and (+)-amphetamine. The catecholamine release induced by these indirect sympathomimetics is largely independent of external Ca 2+ and the results are interpreted as suggesting that chronic alcohol treatment changes the distribution of catecholamine neurotransmitters between storage pools in the nerve terminal which do or do not require Ca 2+ entry for release

  7. Halloysite clay nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid applied in the development of a catecholamine biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Daniela; Scheeren, Carla Weber; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2012-08-21

    Halloysite clay nanotubes were used as a support for the immobilization of the enzyme peroxidase from clover sprouts (Trifolium), and employed together with platinum nanoparticles in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (Pt-BMI·PF(6)) in the development of a new biosensor for the determination of catecholamines by square-wave voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the analytical curves showed detection limits of 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.12 μM for dopamine, isoproterenol, dobutamine and epinephrine, respectively. The biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long-term stability (18% decrease in response over 150 days). A recovery study of dopamine in pharmaceutical samples gave values from 97.5 to 101.4%. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical samples, with a maximum relative error of ±1.0% in relation to the standard (spectrophotometric) method. The good analytical performance of the proposed method can be attributed to the efficient immobilization of the peroxidase in the nanoclay, and the facilitation of electron transfer between the protein and the electrode surface due to the presence of the Pt nanoparticles and ionic liquid.

  8. Effects of catecholamine agonists and antagonists on alcohol uptake in rats with different stages of experimental alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Yu V; Varov, A I

    1985-02-01

    The effects of various catecholamine agonists and antagonists on 15% ethanol ingestion by outbred albino rats were studied in relation to the stage of experimental alcoholism. In animals with stage I and II alcoholism, alcohol intake was most profoundly inhibited by administration of alpha-adrenoblockers (AA), klofelin, and alpha-methyl-DOPA (AMD), while L-DOPA and cocaine stimulated a significant increase in ethanol ingestion. In stage III alcoholism, both AA and L-DOPA depressed alcohol intake, while AMD and haloperidol had a stimulatory effect. It appears, therefore, that different neurochemical mechanisms are involved in alcohol dependence in different stages of experimental alcoholism in the rat. Furthermore, it seems evident that alpha-adrenergic receptors have a key function in maintaining alcohol dependence. In well-established physical dependence, the importance of the noradrenergic system seems to diminish and dopaminergic mechanisms appear to become predominant. Consequently, in the initial stages of alcoholism, agents which depress the noradrenergic system seem indicated, while at the stage of physical dependence agents which normalize noradrenergic mechanisms and depress dopaminergic mechanisms should be considered. 13 references.

  9. The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassayova, M.; Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Pastorova, B.

    1995-01-01

    Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

  10. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  11. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  12. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  13. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  14. Dig It! The Secrets of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! The Secrets of Soil Come and Explore! Discover the amazing world of soils with images and information from the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural and new web content will be added over the coming months including a new soil blog. New Interactives

  15. Molecular markers in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  16. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  17. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Lotz, P.; Vogel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The death of Litvinenko has been reported by the media. It has raised the question whether this case had been unique. The fall of the wall has allowed a glimpse in the planning and comporting of a secret service. Material and method: Documents of the secret service of the former German democratic republic (GDR), books of defectors, and media reports about secret service actions with radiating substances have been analyzed. Results: Since decades, secret services have been using radioactive nuclides and radiation for their tasks. Several killings with radiation have been reported. A complicated logistic had been developed. Conclusion: Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance

  18. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. D. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation.

  19. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  20. Current Therapies That Modify Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Keating, Damien J.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-01-01

    and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. Recent Findings: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon...... may be involved in the drugs’ efficacy and safety profiles. Based on these findings, modulation of glucagon secretion seems to play a hitherto underestimated role in the efficacy and safety of several glucose-lowering drugs. Summary: Numerous drugs currently available to diabetologists are capable...... of altering glucagon secretion: metformin, sulfonylurea compounds, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and amylin mimetics. Their diverse effects on glucagon secretion are of importance for their individual efficacy...

  1. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  2. On Secret Sharing with Nonlinear Product Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiplicative linear secret sharing is a fundamental notion in the area of secure multiparty computation and, since recently, in the area of two-party cryptography as well. In a nutshell, this notion guarantees that the product of two secrets is obtained as a linear function of the vector......-necessarily-linear “product reconstruction function.” Is the resulting notion equivalent to multiplicative linear secret sharing? We show the (perhaps somewhat counterintuitive) result that this relaxed notion is strictly more general. Concretely, fix a finite field ${\\mathbb F}_q$ as the base field over which linear secret...... sharing is considered. Then we show there exists an (exotic) linear secret sharing scheme with an unbounded number of players $n$ such that it has $t$-privacy with $t = \\Omega(n)$ and such that it does admit a product reconstruction function, yet this function is necessarily nonlinear. In addition, we...

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  4. Loss of Cln3 impacts protein secretion in the social amoeba Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also referred to as Batten disease, is the most common form of childhood neurodegeneration. Mutations in CLN3 cause the most prevalent subtype of the disease, which manifests during early childhood and is currently untreatable. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is still not known, which has inhibited the development of targeted therapies. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of the CLN3 homolog, Cln3, reduces adhesion during early development, which delays streaming and aggregation. The results of the present study indicate that this phenotype may be at least partly due to aberrant protein secretion in cln3 - cells. It is well-established that Cln3 localizes primarily to the contractile vacuole (CV) system in Dictyostelium, and to a lesser extent, compartments of the endocytic pathway. Intriguingly, the CV system has been linked to the secretion of proteins that do not contain a signal peptide for secretion (i.e., unconventional protein secretion). Proteins that do contain a signal peptide are secreted via a conventional mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum, transport through the Golgi, and secretion via vesicle release. In this study, Cln3 was observed to co-localize with the Golgi marker wheat germ agglutinin suggesting that Cln3 participates in both secretion mechanisms. Chimeras of wild-type (WT) and cln3 - cells displayed delayed streaming and aggregation, and interestingly, cln3 - cells starved in conditioned media (CM) harvested from starving WT cells showed near normal timing of streaming and aggregation suggesting aberrant protein secretion in Cln3-deficient cells. Based on these observations, LC-MS/MS was used to reveal the protein content of CM from starved cells (mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004897). A total of 450 proteins were detected in WT and cln3 - CM, of which 3 were absent in cln3 - CM. Moreover, 12 proteins that were present in

  5. Genetic markers of insulin resistance in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vasil'evna Sebko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To search for genetic markers of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Materials and methods. A total of 100 healthy pregnant women and 185 patients with GDM were available for examination. 80 patients developedGDM during current pregnancy, in 105 it was diagnosed 4-19 years ago. 25 of the 105 GDM patients had a history of type 2 DM. The following parameterswere measured: beta-cell secretory activity (proinsulin, ITI, C-peptide, total cholesterol (CH, HDL and LDL CH, triglycerides, HbA1c,fasting glycemia. Molecular-genetic DNA testing using PCR included studies of KCNJ 11, TCF7L2, PPARG2, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2gene polymorphism. These genes were chosen based on the published data associating them with disturbed insulin secretion and sensitivity in DM2patient. Results. Pregnant women with GDM and obesity showed elevated IRI and leptin levels compared with controls. This rise was accompanied bymarked insulin resistance in 75% of these patients. In 50% of the healthy women proinsulin and insulin secretion decreased. Obesity in pregnantpatients was associated with significant elevation of proinsulin, IRI, and C-peptyide levels and GDM with Lys/Lys genotype of polymorphous markerGlu23k of KCNJ11 gene, pro and ala allele of polymorphous marker A219T of ADIPOR2 gene. These associations suggest specific genetic featuresof GDM related to impaired insulin secretion and sensitivity. Conclusion. Studies of common genetic nature of GDM and DM2 permit to identify risk groups at the preclinical stage, plan prevention and treatmentof these disorders.

  6. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  7. Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Haynes, Paul A; Breci, Linda; Francisco, Wilson A

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS techniques in proteomics make possible the identification of proteins from organisms with little or no genome sequence information available. Peptide sequences are obtained from tandem mass spectra by matching peptide mass and fragmentation information to protein sequence information from related organisms, including unannotated genome sequence data. This peptide identification data can then be grouped and reconstructed into protein data. In this study, we have used this approach to study protein secretion by Aspergillus flavus, a filamentous fungus for which very little genome sequence information is available. A. flavus is capable of degrading the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-glycoside), as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this continuing study, a proteomic analysis was used to identify secreted proteins from A. flavus when grown on rutin. The growth media glucose and potato dextrose were used to identify differentially expressed secreted proteins. The secreted proteins were analyzed by 1- and 2-DE and MS/MS. A total of 51 unique A. flavus secreted proteins were identified from the three growth conditions. Ten proteins were unique to rutin-, five to glucose- and one to potato dextrose-grown A. flavus. Sixteen secreted proteins were common to all three media. Fourteen identifications were of hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown functions. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive proteomic study conducted to identify the secreted proteins from a filamentous fungus.

  8. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, M; Fortunato, M; Molteni, L; Peretti, E; Mortini, P

    2008-12-01

    Central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism, representing 0.5-1.0% of all pituitary adenomas. The etiopathogenesis of TSH-secreting-adenomas is unknown and no definite role for various oncogenes has been proven. Patients with TSH-secreting adenoma usually present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism milder than those in patients with hyperthyroidism of thyroid origin, in addition to symptoms secondary to mass effects of the pituitary tumour. Mixed pituitary tumours co-secrete growth hormone and prolactin. The characteristic biochemical abnormalities are normal or high serum TSH concentrations in the presence of elevated total and/or free thyroid hormones concentrations. Measurement of markers of peripheral thyroid hormone action and dynamic tests may aid in the differential diagnosis with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. Neuroimaging is fundamental to visualize the pituitary tumor. Therapy of TSH-secreting adenomas can be accomplished by surgery, radiation therapies, and medical treatment with somatostatin analogs or dopamine agonists. Nowadays, and in contrast with the first reports on this rare disease, most patients are well controlled by current therapies.

  9. Huperzine A, but not tacrine, stimulates S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Paula; Nardin, Patrícia; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Abib, Renata; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2013-04-09

    The loss of cholinergic function in the central nervous system contributes significantly to the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and dementias. Huperzine A (HupA) is a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and has been shown to significantly reduce cognitive impairment in animal models of dementia. Based on the importance of astrocytes in physiological and pathological brain activities, we investigated the effect of HupA and tacrine on S100B secretion in primary astrocyte cultures. S100B is an astrocyte-derived protein that has been proposed to be a marker of brain injury. Primary astrocyte cultures were exposed to HupA, tacrine, cholinergic agonists, and S100B secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1 and 24h. HupA, but not tacrine, at 100μM significantly increased S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures. Nicotine (at 100 and 1000μM) was able to stimulate S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures. Our data reinforce the idea that AChE inhibitors, particularly HupA, do not act exclusively on the acetylcholine balance. This effect of HupA could contribute to improve the cognitive deficit observed in patients, which are attributed to cholinergic dysfunction. In addition, for the first time, to our knowledge, these data indicate that S100B secretion can be modulated by nicotinic receptors, in addition to glutamate, dopamine and serotonin receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  11. Paleoreconstruction by biological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W K; Moldowan, J M

    1981-06-01

    During diagenesis and conversion of the original lipid fraction of biological systems to petroleum hydrocarbons, the following four basic events needed for paleoreconstruction may be monitored by biological markers: (1) sourcing, (2) maturation, (3) migration and (4) biodegradation. Actual cases of applying biological markers to petroleum exploration problems in different parts of the world are demonstrated. Cretaceous- and Phosphoria-sourced oils in the Wyoming Thrust Belt can be distinguished from one another by high quality source fingerprinting of biomarker terpanes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Identification of recently discovered biological markers, head-to-head isoprenoids, allows source differentiation between some oils from Sumatra. The degree of crude oil maturation in basins from California, Alaska, Russia, Wyoming and Louisiana can be assessed by specific biomarker ratios (20S/20R sterane epimers). Field evidence from such interpretation is augmented by laboratory pyrolysis of the rock. Extensive migration is documented by biomarkers in several oils. Biological marker results are consistent with the geological setting and add a dimension in assisting the petroleum explorationist towar paleoreconstruction.

  12. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  13. Biliary and pancreatic secretions in abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Cionini, L.; Cappellini, M.; Atzeni, G.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary and pancreatic secretions have been determined in patients given pelvic or para-aortic irradiation, with a dose of 50 Gy in the former group and between 36 and 40 Gy in the latter. A test meal containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as reference substance was used. Each sample of the duodenal content was assayed for volume, PEG content, amylase and trypsin activity, pH and biliary secretion. No significant modifications of biliary and pancreatic secretions were demonstrated after irradiation, suggesting that these functions are not involved in the pathogenesis of the malabsorption radiation syndrome. (Auth.)

  14. [Secret drug tribulations and French legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Colette

    2002-01-01

    From an official Montpellier prefecture paper of 18th century, we are interested in a secret drug from Provence origin: the Irroë powder. This purgative will pass from "secret" drug status to "patent" drug. It's notoriety will come from its arrival to Paris. The law of 21th germinal year XI, the decret of 25 prairial year XIII and this of 18th 1810 imposed to give the drug composition to an official status; that examined and permit it's sale. This secret will be produce for half century.

  15. Air Force UAVs: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...opening phases of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. By Thomas P. Ehrhard a miTchEll insTiTuTE sTudy July 2010 Air Force UAVs The Secret History

  16. Male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2007-12-12

    The correlation between male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI, consisting of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC, consisting of non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control group. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. There were no differences between MIE rats and young controls in DA or NE tissue levels in these two brain areas. Furthermore, no differences were found between the MI and NC groups in DA or NE tissue levels in either the MPOA or ARN. DA tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN in the MI and NC groups were significantly lower than those in the MIE group. NE tissue levels in the MPOA of the NC group were significantly lower than those in the MIE group, but no differences in NE tissue levels in the ARN were seen between the four groups. These results suggest that, in male rats, complete male sexual performance is related to tissue levels of DA, but not of NE, in the MPOA and/or ARN. Furthermore, ejaculatory behavior might be associated with critical DA tissue levels in the MPOA and/or ARN in middle-aged rats.

  17. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Carmean

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT. Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  18. Effect of immobilization stress on gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in heart auricles of socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The sympathoneural system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function both in health and disease. In the present study, the changes in gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT and protein levels in the right and left heart auricles of naive control and long-term (12 weeks socially isolated rats were investigated by Taqman RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The response of these animals to additional immobilization stress (2 h was also examined. Long-term social isolation produced a decrease in TH mRNA level in left auricles (about 70% compared to the corresponding control. Expression of the DBH gene was markedly decreased both in the right (about 62% and left (about 81% auricles compared to the corresponding control, group-maintained rats, whereas PNMT mRNA levels remained unchanged. Exposure of group-housed rats to acute immobilization for 2 h led to a significant increase of mRNA levels of TH (about 267%, DBH (about 37% and PNMT (about 60% only in the right auricles. Additional 2-h immobilization of individually housed rats did not affect gene expression of these enzymes in either the right or left auricle. Protein levels of TH, DBH and PNMT in left and right heart auricles were unchanged either in both individually housed and immobilized rats. The unchanged mRNA levels of the enzymes examined after short-term immobilization suggest that the catecholaminergic system of the heart auricles of animals previously exposed to chronic psychosocial stress was adapted to maintain appropriate cardiovascular homeostasis.

  19. Refeeding-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Glycogen Hyper-Accumulation in Mice Is Mediated by Insulin and Catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Bobe, Alexandria M.; Yu, Justin C.; Volden, Paul A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4–12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology. PMID:23861810

  20. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit pancreatic secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Tozzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    +/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar...... of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3-, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3- secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition...

  1. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  2. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  3. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  4. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  5. Regulation of glucagon secretion by incretins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Christensen, M; Lund, A

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent...... studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but preserved suppression after isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, pointing to factors from the gut. Gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to oral glucose include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that strongly inhibits glucagon secretion......, and GLP-2 and GIP, both of which stimulate secretion. When the three hormones are given together on top of isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, glucagon suppression is delayed in a manner similar to that observed after oral glucose. Studies with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39, suggest...

  6. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  7. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  8. Cholecystokinin inhibits gastrin secretion independently of paracrine somatostatin secretion in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hansen, L; Hilsted, L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin inhibits the secretion of gastrin from antral G cells, an effect that is speculated to be mediated by D cells secreting somatostatin. The aim of the study was to test directly whether cholecystokinin inhibition of antral gastrin secretion is mediated by somatostatin....... METHODS: The effects of CCK on gastrin and somatostatin secretion were studied in isolated vascularly perfused preparations of pig antrum before and after immunoneutralization brought about by infusion of large amounts of a high affinity monoclonal antibody against somatostatin. RESULTS: CCK infusion...... at 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M decreased gastrin output to 70.5% +/- 7.6% (n = 8) and 76.3% +/- 3.6% (n = 7) of basal output, respectively. CCK at 10(-10) M had no effect (n = 6). Somatostatin secretion was dose-dependently increased by CCK infusion and increased to 268 +/- 38.2% (n = 7) of basal secretion...

  9. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    25 4.7 Computational Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Side-Channel Effect on Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) 31...improvements, and to build upon them to discuss the side-channel effects on the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ). The following questions are asked...secret sharing scheme? • Can the improvements to the current secret sharing scheme prove to be beneficial in strengthening/weakening AES encryption

  10. Matryoshka: Hiding Secret Communication in Plain Sight

    OpenAIRE

    Safaka, Iris; Fragouli, Christina; Argyraki, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We want to enable a pair of communicating users to exchange secret messages while hiding the fact that secret communication is taking place. We propose a linguistic steganography approach, where each human message is hidden in another human-like message. A hard open question is how to keep the steganographic message small -- existing related tools tend to blow up its size, thereby revealing the use of steganography. We encrypt by compressing each message, mapping it to a plausible sequence of...

  11. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  12. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    OpenAIRE

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks, more precisely the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a...

  13. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States) and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  14. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  15. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  16. IR, UV-Vis, magnetic and thermal characterization of chelates of some catecholamines and 4-aminoantipyrine with Fe(III) and Cu(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Zayed, M. A.; El-Dien, F. A. Nour; El-Nahas, Reham G.

    2004-07-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. α-Methyldopa (α-MD) in tablets is used in medication of hypertension. The Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of adrenaline hydrogen tartarate (AHT), levodopa (LD), α-MD and carbidopa (CD) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical methods like IR, magnetic and UV-Vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Fe(III) form 1:2 (M:catecholamines) chelates while Cu(II) form 1:1 chelates. Catecholamines behave as a bidentate mono- or dibasic ligands in binding to the metal ions. IR spectra show that the catecholamines are coordinated to the metal ions in a bidentate manner with O,O donor sites of the phenolic - OH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Fe(III) chelates in octahedral geometry while the Cu(II) chelates are square planar. The thermal decomposition of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The water molecules are removed in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the ligand molecules. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  17. An unexpected knock on Corrigan's secret door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woywodt, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Corrigan's secret door describes a metaphorical escape route for busy physicians. The term was derived from the successful and exceptionally busy professional life of Irish physician Dominic John Corrigan (1802-80). It is claimed that Corrigan's outpatient clinic was so busy that he required a secret door in his consulting rooms to escape from the ever-growing queue of eager patients. The origins of this charming story are unknown, and the door may have never existed. However, at present, Corrigan's secret door is often quoted when busy physicians have their own little ways in surviving a stressful professional life. Generations of British-trained doctors have grown up with Corrigan's secret door, as it was featured in the introduction of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Accordingly, trainees as well as more senior doctors are often reminded that having a 'secret door' is vital in surviving in the medical profession. My own escape is through classical music and the violoncello, in particular. As the name implies, my own secret door is normally invisible to colleagues and patients. This little article is about a patient who found me out, and a reflection on the role of classical music and the cello in my professional life.

  18. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  19. Central role for sodium in the pathogenesis of blood pressure changes independent of angiotensin, aldosterone and catecholamines in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E R; Deckert, T

    1987-01-01

    .41, p less than 0.01). Extracellular volume was increased in patients (p less than 0.05), whereas plasma volume was normal. Supine serum angiotensin II was suppressed in the patients (p less than 0.001). A negative correlation was found between mean blood pressure and supine serum aldosterone (n = 68, r...... = -0.24, p less than 0.05), and exchangeable sodium and aldosterone (n = 66, r = -0.36, p less than 0.002) in all patients. The catecholamine levels were also suppressed or normal in the patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  20. Parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamine responses following a single partial-body cryostimulation and a whole-body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC and a partial-body cryostimulation (PBC (i.e., not exposing the head to cold on indices of parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamines. Two groups of 15 participants were assigned either to a 3-min WBC or PBC session, while 10 participants constituted a control group (CON not receiving any cryostimulation. Changes in thermal, physiological and subjective variables were recorded before and during the 20-min after each cryostimulation. According to a qualitative statistical analysis, an almost certain decrease in skin temperature was reported for all body regions immediately after the WBC (mean decrease±90% CL, -13.7±0.7°C and PBC (-8.3±0.3°C, which persisted up to 20-min after the session. The tympanic temperature almost certainly decreased only after the WBC session (-0.32±0.04°C. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very likely increased after the WBC session, whereas these changes were trivial in the other groups. In addition, heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-10.9% and WBC (-15.2% sessions, in a likely greater proportion for WBC compared to PBC. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF were very likely increased after PBC (RMSSD: +54.4%, HF: +138% and WBC (RMSSD: +85.2%, HF: +632% sessions without any marked difference between groups. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations were likely to very likely increased after PBC (+57.4% and WBC (+76.2%, respectively. Finally, cold and comfort sensations were almost certainly altered after WBC and PBC, sensation of discomfort being likely more pronounced after WBC than PBC. Both acute cryostimulation techniques effectively stimulated the autonomic nervous system (ANS, with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation. The results of this study also suggest

  1. Age-Related Features of Reactive Catecholamine Shifts in the Spinal Cord in Acute Somatic Pain: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ovsyannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the age-related features of an adrenergic response of the central nervous system to acute somatic pain (ASP.Subjects and methods: The spinal cord (SC levels of adrenaline (A, noradrenaline (NA, and dopamine (DA were studied in albino male rats of five age groups: 1 neonatal (2—4-day rats; 2 17—18-day rats that began to see; 3 monthly rats; 4 sexually mature (3—4 month ones; and 5 old ones aged over 2 years. ASP was reproduced by electrodermal stimulation of the rat tail; the levels of catecholamines (CA were measured by spectrofluorimetric microassay.Results. During postnatal ontogenesis, the rats were found to have a phase pattern of physiological changes in the spinal concentrations of CA: a decrease in their high neonatal levels (due to DA by the time the animals began to see; their progressive increase by prepuberty (due to NA and in sexually maturity (due to A and DA, and a reduction in all CA fractions in old rats. ASP was attended by a rise in the SC concentration of CA in the neonatal animals and by clearly-cut reactive shifts in all fractions in the old ones. With A and DA increases, the SC concentrations of NA halved in the rats that began to see and had ASP; the amount of CA remained unchanged as compared with the controls. In prepubertal and sexually mature male rats, there was a reduction in the spinal CA pool, but due to different components: to A and NA in 35-day rats and to A and DA in 3-month ones.Conclusion. Age-related changes in the pattern of a spinal CA response in rats with ASP show a ontogenetic trend in the development of adrenal responsiveness from the immature generalized forms of an early postnatal period to the definitive differentiated economic reactions of the hypo-to-normergic type and then to the hyperergic destructive reactions of old age. 

  2. Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Jan; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2009-01-19

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in three-and four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number micro?= 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for micro= 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number micro= 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for micro?= 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  3. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskoaho, H.; Toth, M.; Lang, R.E.; Unger, Th.; Garten, D.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium, protein kinase C and adenylate cyclase in the ANP secretion, the secretory responses from isolated perfused rat hearts to a calcium channel activator, Bay k8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluomethylphenyl)-2-pyridine-5-carboxylate), the calcium ionophore (A23187), the phorbol ester (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA), and to forskolin were studied. ANP in perfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay 10 min before and during the infusion (30 min) of various agents at 2 min intervals. A23187 (5.7 x 10 -7 ) induced a sharp increase, whereas TPA (0.15 - 1.6 x 10 -7 ) caused a slowly progressive increase in ANP secretion. 4a-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, a non-active phorbol ester, had no effect on ANP secretion. Bay k8644 (4 x 10 -7 ) and forskolin (1 x 10 -6 ) alone caused small but sustained increase in ANP secretion. The combination of TPA with Bay k8644, forskolin or A23187 stimulated ANP secretion higher than the calculated additive value for each agent. Dibuturyl-cAMP (1.6 x 10 -4 ) pretreatment also enhanced TPA-induced ANP release. 8-Bromo-cGMP (1.3 x 10 -4 ) and sodium nitroprusside (9 x 10 -5 ) alone had no effect, but both attenuated the TPA-induced ANP secretion. The results suggest that atrial cardiocytes possess at least two different secretory pathways for ANP secretion, which are probably dependent on protein kinase C and cyclic AMP

  4. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  5. Secret-key rates and privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis both the generation of secret keys from biometric data and the binding of secret keys to biometric data are investigated. These secret keys can be used to regulate access to sensitive data, services, and environments. In a biometric secrecy system a secret key is generated or chosen

  6. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3–5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10–1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  7. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of protein synthesis and secretion by substratum in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakaran, P.R.; Stamatoglou, S.C.; Hughes, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by perfusion of adult rat liver and cultured on substrata consisting of one or more of the major components of the liver biomatrix (fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen) have been examined for the synthesis of defined proteins. Under these conditions, tyrosine amino transferase, a marker of hepatocyte function, is maintained at similar levels in response to dexamethasone over 5 days in culture on each substratum, and total cellular protein synthesis remains constant. By contrast, there is a rapid decrease in synthesis and secretion of albumin and a 3-7-fold increase in synthesis and section of α-fetoprotein which are most marked on a laminin substratum, but least evident on type IV collagen, and an increased synthesis of fibronectin and type IV collagen. The newly synthesized matrix proteins are present in the cell layer as well as in cell secretions. The enhanced synthesis of fibronectin is less in cells seeded onto a fibronectin substratum than on laminin or type IV collagen substrata. These results indicate that hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium on substrata composed of components of the liver biomatrix maintain certain functions of the differentiated state (tyrosine amino transferase), lose others (albumin secretion) and switch to increased synthesis of matrix components as well as fetal markers such as α-fetoprotein. The magnitude of these effects depends on the substratum on which the hepatocytes are cultured

  9. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  10. Role of adipose secreted factors and kisspeptin in the metabolic control of gonadotropin secretion and puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors secreted by adipose tissue continue to be discovered. Evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of a wide array of cytokines, neurotrophic factors, growth factors, binding proteins, and neuropeptides. These “adipokines” are linked to im...

  11. Shared Secrets versus Secrets Kept Private Are Linked to Better Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Keijsers, Loes

    2013-01-01

    It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch…

  12. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  13. Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are agonists of a rat trace amine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzow, J R; Sonders, M S; Arttamangkul, S; Harrison, L M; Zhang, G; Quigley, D I; Darland, T; Suchland, K L; Pasumamula, S; Kennedy, J L; Olson, S B; Magenis, R E; Amara, S G; Grandy, D K

    2001-12-01

    The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter and/or stimulate the efflux of transmitter from intracellular stores. Here we report the discovery and pharmacological characterization of a rat G protein-coupled receptor that stimulates the production of cAMP when exposed to the trace amines p-tyramine, beta-phenethylamine, tryptamine, and octopamine. An extensive pharmacological survey revealed that psychostimulant and hallucinogenic amphetamines, numerous ergoline derivatives, adrenergic ligands, and 3-methylated metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are also good agonists at the rat trace amine receptor 1 (rTAR1). These results suggest that the trace amines and catecholamine metabolites may serve as the endogenous ligands of a novel intercellular signaling system found widely throughout the vertebrate brain and periphery. Furthermore, the discovery that amphetamines, including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy"), are potent rTAR1 agonists suggests that the effects of these widely used drugs may be mediated in part by this receptor as well as their previously characterized targets, the neurotransmitter transporter proteins.

  14. A sensitive and selective quantification of catecholamine neurotransmitters in rat microdialysates by pre-column dansyl chloride derivatization using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Komarneni, Prashanth; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Boggavarapu, Rajeshkumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Benade, Vijay; Gorentla, Srinivasarao

    2013-01-15

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of catecholamine neurotransmitters in microdialysates was developed. The catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were pre-column derivatized with dansyl chloride and analyzed. A gradient elution method was used to separate the analytes from the interferences on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 outer porous micro particulate column. The method was robust and sensitive to determine with the lower limit of quantification value of 0.068pmol/mL and 0.059pmol/mL for DA and NE, respectively. It has acceptable precision and accuracy for concentrations over the standard curve range. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous quantitation of DA and NE in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) dialysates of rats obtained from a microdialysis study dosed with vehicle and atomoxetine through intra peritoneal (i.p.) route at a dose of 3mg/kg to monitor the change in extracellular concentrations. Thus, accomplishment of this method would facilitate the neurochemical monitoring for discovery of new chemical entities targeted for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Traumatic stress causes distinctive effects on fear circuit catecholamines and the fear extinction profile in a rodent model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Cheng; Tung, Che-Se; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner. For tissue levels, diminished DA and increased NE were both observed in the mPFC and AMYG. DA efflux and synaptosomal DA transporter were consistently reduced in the AMYG/vHPC, whereas SPS reduced NE efflux in the infralimbic cortex and synaptosomal NE transporter in the mPFC. Furthermore, a lower expression of synaptosomal VMAT2 was observed in the mPFC, AMYG, and vHPC after SPS. Finally, negative correlations were observed between retrieval freezing and DA in the mPFC/AMYG; nevertheless, the phenomena became invalid after SPS. Our results suggest that central catecholamines are crucially involved in the retrieval of fear extinction in which DA and NE play distinctive roles across the fear circuit areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. The challenges of treating paraganglioma patients with 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT: Catecholamine crises, tumor lysis syndrome and the need for modification of treatment protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makis, William; Mccann, Karey; Mcewan, Alexander J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of paragangliomas express somatostatin receptors that can be utilized for targeted radioisotope therapy. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the challenges of treating these tumors with 177 Lu-[DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) radioisotope therapy using established protocols. Three paraganglioma patients were treated with 4–5 cycles of 177 Lu-DOTATATE and were evaluated for side effects and response to therapy. Two of the three patients developed severe adverse reactions following their first 177 Lu-DOTATATE treatment. One patient developed a catecholamine crisis and tumor lysis syndrome within hours of treatment, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support, and another developed a catecholamine crisis 3 days after treatment, requiring hospitalization. The treatment protocols at our institution were subsequently modified by increasing the radioisotope infusion time from 15 to 30 min, as recommended in the literature, to 2–4 h and by reducing the administered dose of 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Subsequent 177 Lu-DOTATATE treatments utilizing the modified protocols were well tolerated, and response to therapy was achieved in all three patients, resulting in significantly improved quality of life. 177 Lu-DOTATATE is an exciting new therapeutic option in the management of paragangliomas; however, current treatment protocols described in the literature may need to be modified by lengthening the infusion time and/or lowering the initial treatment dose to prevent or reduce the severity of adverse reactions

  17. The challenges of treating paraganglioma patients with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE PRRT: Catecholamine crises, tumor lysis syndrome and the need for modification of treatment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William; Mccann, Karey; Mcewan, Alexander J. B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta (China)

    2015-09-15

    A high percentage of paragangliomas express somatostatin receptors that can be utilized for targeted radioisotope therapy. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the challenges of treating these tumors with {sup 177}Lu-[DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) radioisotope therapy using established protocols. Three paraganglioma patients were treated with 4–5 cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and were evaluated for side effects and response to therapy. Two of the three patients developed severe adverse reactions following their first {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. One patient developed a catecholamine crisis and tumor lysis syndrome within hours of treatment, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support, and another developed a catecholamine crisis 3 days after treatment, requiring hospitalization. The treatment protocols at our institution were subsequently modified by increasing the radioisotope infusion time from 15 to 30 min, as recommended in the literature, to 2–4 h and by reducing the administered dose of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Subsequent {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatments utilizing the modified protocols were well tolerated, and response to therapy was achieved in all three patients, resulting in significantly improved quality of life. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE is an exciting new therapeutic option in the management of paragangliomas; however, current treatment protocols described in the literature may need to be modified by lengthening the infusion time and/or lowering the initial treatment dose to prevent or reduce the severity of adverse reactions.

  18. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  19. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat......The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years....... Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies...

  20. Cell secretion machinery: Studies using the AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved

  1. Radioenzymatic test for catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.; Peuler, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to determine total endogenic epinephrine and norepinephrine in human and mammal systems consisting of a supernatant of deproteinated tissue homogenate, blood serum, or blood plasma. The method uses a tritium tracer technique where the epinephrine (norepinephrine) is reactet to O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine (norepinephrine) in an enzymatic reaction while the product is oxygenated to vanillin- 3 H and analyzed with the aid of a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Another patent claim deals with a method for the purification of the enzyme catechin-O-methyl transferase from rat liver and ways to optimize the enzymatic reaction as well as with a method of optimizing oxygenation to vanillin- 3 H, its isolation and measurements. (VJ) [de

  2. Photochemical decomposition of catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, N.J. de; Henegouwen, G.M.J.B. van; Gerritsma, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    During photochemical decomposition (lambda=254 nm) adrenaline, isoprenaline and noradrenaline in aqueous solution were converted to the corresponding aminochrome for 65, 56 and 35% respectively. In determining this conversion, photochemical instability of the aminochromes was taken into account. Irradiations were performed in such dilute solutions that the neglect of the inner filter effect is permissible. Furthermore, quantum yields for the decomposition of the aminochromes in aqueous solution are given. (Author)

  3. Micrologie de Chris Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Geneix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (E: Using "micrology", as set out by Adorno in Negative Dialectics, this paper tries to
    characterize a central feature of Chris Marker's approach, as iconographer and writer, namely the way
    in which he explores the echoes of history and culture in the singularity and rarity of the documentary.
    As traveller and photographer he catches and collects microcosmic fragments, tying them up and
    editing them in the various frames of the book, the film or the new media.
    Abstract (F: En s'appuyant sur la "micrologie" proposée par Adorno dans la Dialectique négative,
    cet article tente de caractériser un aspect de la démarche de Chris Marker, iconographe et écrivain.
    C'est en effet dans le singulier et la rareté documentaires que ce cinéaste sonde des échos historiques et
    culturels. Voyageur et photographe, il saisit et collectionne des fragments microcosmiques, les liant et
    les montant dans les cadres divers du livre, du film et des nouveaux médias.

  4. Adaptive Secret Sharing for Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A secret sharing model can secure a secret over multiple noise-like shadows and remain recoverable despite multiple shadow failures. Even if some of the shadows are compromised, the secret will not be revealed as long as the number of the compromised shadows is smaller than a pre-determined threshold. Moreover, there are some necessary details of concerns: the malicious tampering on shadows must be detectable; the shadows must be concealed in a camouflage image with adequate quality to reduce suspicion and possible attack; color image properties must be considered. In addition to these concerns, in this paper, an adaptable mechanism is further designed to balance the hiding quantity and the quality of camouflage images depending on different applications.This is an important and interesting aspect that has never been discussed in previous research.

  5. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  6. Quantum secret sharing with classical Bobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvzhou; Qiu Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Boyer et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 140501) proposed a novel idea of semi-quantum key distribution, where a key can be securely distributed between Alice, who can perform any quantum operation, and Bob, who is classical. Extending the ‘semi-quantum’ idea to other tasks of quantum information processing is of interest and worth considering. In this paper, we consider the issue of semi-quantum secret sharing, where a quantum participant Alice can share a secret key with two classical participants, Bobs. After analyzing the existing protocol, we propose a new protocol of semi-quantum secret sharing. Our protocol is more realistic, since it utilizes product states instead of entangled states. We prove that any attempt of an adversary to obtain information necessarily induces some errors that the legitimate users could notice. (paper)

  7. Standpoints and protection of business secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Bertoncelj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The human impact on an information system where data bases, containing business secretes, are stored is one of the most unreliable and unforeseeable factors. For this reason, it must not be underestimated. The results of this study indicate a correlation between behavioural intention and protection of business secretes. There is a statistically significant correlation between behavioural intention and behavioural supervision. This means that an increased level of perceived supervision over one's own behaviour is related to behavioural intention. A great majority of participants would not divulge a business secret due to internal moral factors, i.e., they possess the appropriate capabilities to determine the advantages of social moral values over personal values.

  8. Apical secretion of apolipoproteins from enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Poulsen, Mona Dam

    1993-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of apolipoproteins in pig small intestine was studied by pulse-chase labeling of jejunal segments, kept in organ culture. Apo A-1 and apo B-48 were the two major proteins released, constituting 25 and 10%, respectively, of the total amount of labeled protein in the mucosal...... in the soluble fraction, suggesting a basolateral secretion into the intercellular space, and both this accumulation and the release to the medium was prevented by culture at 20 degrees C. The specific radioactivity of apo A-1 and apo B-48 released to the medium was significantly higher than...... that enterocytes release most of their newly made free apo A-1 and a significant portion of apo B-48 by exocytosis via the brush border membrane into the intestinal lumen. Fat absorption reduced apolipoprotein secretion to the medium and induced the formation of chylomicrons, containing apo A-1 at their surface...

  9. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  10. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  11. Monocytes/macrophages support mammary tumor invasivity by co-secreting lineage-specific EGFR ligands and a STAT3 activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaicu, Philip; Mertins, Philipp; Mayr, Thomas; Widschwendter, Peter; Ataseven, Beyhan; Högel, Bernhard; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ullrich, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote malignant progression, yet the repertoire of oncogenic factors secreted by TAM has not been clearly defined. We sought to analyze which EGFR- and STAT3-activating factors are secreted by monocytes/macrophages exposed to tumor cell-secreted factors. Following exposure of primary human monocytes and macrophages to supernatants of a variety of tumor cell lines, we have analyzed transcript and secreted protein levels of EGFR family ligands and of STAT3 activators. To validate our findings, we have analyzed TAM infiltration levels, systemic and local protein levels as well as clinical data of primary breast cancer patients. Primary human monocytes and macrophages respond to tumor cell-derived factors by secreting EGFR- and STAT3-activating ligands, thus inducing two important oncogenic pathways in carcinoma cells. Tumor cell-secreted factors trigger two stereotype secretory profiles in peripheral blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages: monocytes secrete epiregulin (EREG) and oncostatin-M (OSM), while macrophages secrete heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and OSM. HB-EGF and OSM cooperatively induce tumor cell chemotaxis. HB-EGF and OSM are co-expressed by TAM in breast carcinoma patients, and plasma levels of both ligands correlate strongly. Elevated HB-EGF levels accompany TAM infiltration, tumor growth and dissemination in patients with invasive disease. Our work identifies systemic markers for TAM involvement in cancer progression, with the potential to be developed into molecular targets in cancer therapy

  12. Comment on "Dynamic quantum secret sharing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ci-Hong; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelish

    2013-10-01

    Hsu et al. (Quantum Inf Process 12:331-344,2013) proposed a dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS) protocol using the entanglement swapping of Bell states for an agent to easily join (or leave) the system. In 2013, Wang and Li (Quantum Inf Process 12(5):1991-1997, 2013) proposed a collusion attack on Hsu et al.'s DQSS protocol. Nevertheless, this study points out a new security issue on Hsu et al.'s DQSS protocol regarding to the honesty of a revoked agent. Without considering this issue, the DQSS protocol could be failed to provide secret sharing function.

  13. Analysis of Secreted Proteins Using SILAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Secreted proteins serve a crucial role in the communication between cells, tissues, and organs. Proteins released to the extracellular environment exert their function either locally or at distant points of the organism. Proteins are secreted in a highly dynamic fashion by cells and tissues...... in the body responding to the stimuli and requirements presented by the extracellular milieu. Characterization of secretomes derived from various cell types has been performed using different quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies, several of them taking advantage of labeling with stable...

  14. [Secretion of growth hormone in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Escobar Del Rey, F; Pozuelo, V

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied growth hormone (GH) secretion in a group of adult controls and another group of hyperthyroid patients after stimulation with intravenous insulin-induced (0,1 IU/kg) hypoglycemia, aiming to clear out the problem of discrepancies in literature concerning GH secretion in hyperthyroidism. They concluded that in this syndrome, GH levels are significantly higher than those of controls. The GH releasing response is normal, though it could be expected to be decreased due to decreased pituitary GH contents as a result of permanent somatotrophic cell stimulation.

  15. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  16. Impact of protein uptake and degradation on recombinant protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyo, Keith E. J.; Liu, Zihe; Magnusson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Protein titers, a key bioprocessing metric, depend both on the synthesis of protein and the degradation of protein. Secreted recombinant protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive platform as minimal media can be used for cultivation, thus reducing fermentation costs...... and transcriptomics, we identify metabolic and regulatory markers that are consistent with uptake of whole proteins by endocytosis, followed by intracellular degradation and catabolism of substituent amino acids. Uptake and degradation of recombinant protein products may be common in S. cerevisiae protein secretion...... and simplifying downstream purification, compared to other systems that require complex media. As such, engineering S. cerevisiae to improve titers has been then the subject of significant attention, but the majority of previous efforts have been focused on improving protein synthesis. Here, we characterize...

  17. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-04-09

    In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to March 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Studies randomising persons to low-sodium and high-sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters. Two review authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.3. A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level).The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP: mean difference (MD) -1.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.63 to -0.56; P = 0.0001); 89 studies, 8569 participants; DBP: + 0.03 mmHg (MD 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.43; P = 0.89); 90 studies, 8833 participants. High-quality evidence. Black people with normotension: SBP: MD -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37 to -0.68; P = 0.002); seven studies, 506 participants; DBP: MD -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37 to 0.35; P = 0.09); seven studies, 506 participants. Moderate-quality evidence. Asian people with normotension: SBP: MD -0.72 mmHg (95% CI: -3.86 to 2.41; P = 0.65); DBP: MD -1.63 mmHg (95% CI:-3.35 to 0

  18. Comparative study between 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and other tumor markers in diagnosis of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yoshihiro; Iwafuchi, Makoto; Odano, Ikuo; Yamagiwa, Iwao.

    1989-01-01

    In order to prove the clinical usefulness in diagnosis of neuroblastoma, comparative studies between iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) scintigraphy and other related tumor markers were attempted. Sixteen children diagnosed as having a neuroblastoma in recent 2 years were examined. In 5 postoperative patients in complete remission, who were negative to other tumor markers, showed no pathological accumulation of 131 I-MIBG (specificity 100%). In other 11 patients with remains of neuroblastoma, 131 I-MIBG was negative only in 2 patients (sensitivity 82%) and these 2 patients showed negative urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites (VMA). (Negative urinary VMA was proved in 3 of 11 patients). Serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was elevated in all 8 preoperative patients, but only in 2 of 11 postoperative patients. On the other hand 131 I-MIBG was positive in 9 among these 11 postoperative patients in whom neuroblastoma remained. Similar relationship was obtained between 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy and serum LDH. On the basis of our present experience, we like to regard 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy as one of the most sensitive parameters for neuroblastoma during a follow-up period after treatment. (author)

  19. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  20. Lower values of VEGF in endometrial secretion are a possible cause of subfertility in non-atopic asthmatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Using endometrial secretion analysis, we assessed whether altered inflammatory cytokine levels can be detected in the uterine environment in asthma patients, thereby providing a possible cause of reduced fertility in asthmatics. Methods: Forty-four unexplained infertile women...... no effect on VEGF levels in uteri. Serum high sensitivity CRP was negatively correlated with VEGF in endometrial secretions. No other significant correlations were observed between peripheral blood values and markers found in utero. Conclusion: Asthma is associated with lower values of VEGF in uterine...... endometrial secretions, which might affect the receptiveness of the endometrium and thereby increase time to pregnancy. The effect appears to be associated with non-atopic asthma with general increased systemic inflammation....

  1. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions in preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip Gül

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate beta-human corionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions as an early marker for preterm delivery.Methods: The study included 55 patients at 25-36 of gestational weeks with preterm delivery risk factors including a history of preterm labor in a previous pregnancy or history of second trimester abortion. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels of cervicovaginal secretions were measured in all patients by the radioimmunoassay method using a commercial kit.Results: Preterm delivery was observed in 25 patients and 30 patients gave term delivery. No significant differences were found between preterm and term delivery groups in age, gravidity and parity (P>0.05. APGAR scores and anthropometric measurements of newborns were significantly lower in preterm delivery group (P<0.001. Preterm delivery group had significantly higher cervicovaginal β-hCG levels compared with normal controls (94.7±37.7 vs. 35.5±14.8 mIU/ml, respectively, P<0.001. When 75 mIU/ml value of β-hCG level was taken as cut-off value; the sensitivity of the test was found as 76%, specifity 91.6%, positive predictive value 95.0% and negative predictive value as 79.9%.Conclusion: Concentrations of β-hCG in cervicovaginal secretions may be a useful early biochemical marker to detect preterm. Based on β-hCG levels in cervicovaginal secretions a closer follow-up may decrease some complications of preterm delivery. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(1: 16-20

  2. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  3. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  4. Secret Codes, Remainder Arithmetic, and Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lyman C.

    This pamphlet is designed for use as enrichment material for able junior and senior high school students who are interested in mathematics. No more than a clear understanding of basic arithmetic is expected. Students are introduced to ideas from number theory and modern algebra by learning mathematical ways of coding and decoding secret messages.…

  5. The Best Kept Secret in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvino, James

    2004-01-01

    It is perhaps one of the best-kept secrets in educating gifted high school youth, and yet for 45 years, Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership (HOBY) has been going strong, "Motivating Tomorrow's Leaders Today." After spending nine inspirational days in 1958 with Albert Schweitzer (Nobel Prize physician and philosopher) at his clinic in the African jungle,…

  6. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  7. Proprotein Convertases Process Pmel17 during Secretion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Vigneron, Nathalie; Rahner, Christoph; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited. Before being cleaved into smaller fibrillogenic fragments the protein undergoes processing by proprotein convertases, a class of serine proteases that typically recognize the canonical motif RX(R/K)R↓. The current model of Pmel17 maturation states that this processing step occurs in melanosomes, but in light of recent reports this issue has become controversial. We therefore addressed this question by thoroughly assessing the processing kinetics of either wild-type Pmel17 or a secreted soluble Pmel17 derivative. Our results demonstrate clearly that processing of Pmel17 occurs during secretion and that it does not require entry of the protein into the endocytic system. Strikingly, processing proceeds even in the presence of the secretion inhibitor monensin, suggesting that Pmel17 is an exceptionally good substrate. In line with this, we find that newly synthesized surface Pmel17 is already quantitatively cleaved. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pmel17 function is independent of the sequence identity of its unconventional proprotein convertase-cleavage motif that lacks arginine in P4 position. The data alter the current view of Pmel17 maturation and suggest that the multistep processing of Pmel17 begins with an early cleavage during secretion that primes the protein for later functional processing. PMID:21247888

  8. Secretion Of Methionine By Microorganisms Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methionine were secreted after 96 hours and 72 hours respectively by the lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp. Since lactic acid bacteria are micro-aerophilic, it is suggested that lactic acid bacteria (the two lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp.), which are the major organisms involved in cassava fermentation for garri production, ...

  9. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  10. Type V secretion: From biogenesis to biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ulsen, P.; Rahman, S.U.; Jong, W.S.P.; Daleke, M.H.; Luirink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The two membranes of Gram-negative bacteria contain protein machines that have a general function in their assembly. To interact with the extra-cellular milieu, Gram-negatives target proteins to their cell surface and beyond. Many specialized secretion systems have evolved with dedicated

  11. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  12. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  13. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...

  14. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  15. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  16. Effects of α-endorphin, β-endorphin and (des-tyr1)-γ-endorphin on α-MPT-induced catecholamine disappearance in discrete regions of the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, D.H.G.; Kloet, E.R. de; Wied, D. de

    1979-01-01

    Summary Following the intracerebroventricular administration of α-endorphin, β-endorphin and (des-tyrosine1)-γ-endorphin in a dose of 100 ng, the α-MPT-induced catecholamine disappearance was found to be altered in discrete regions of the rat brain. In the regions in which α-endorphin exerted an

  17. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Positron Emission Tomography Is Superior to Conventional Imaging with I-123-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy, Computer Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Localizing Tumors Causing Catecholamine Excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Pijl, Milan E. J.; Kema, Ido P.; de Jong, Johan R.; Jager, Pieter L.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Links, Thera P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Catecholamine excess is rare, but symptoms may be life threatening. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography (F-18-DOPAPET), compared with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123-MIBG)

  18. Glutamine Triggers and Potentiates Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion by Raising Cytosolic Ca2+ and cAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Tolhurst, Gwen; Zheng, Yue; Parker, Helen E.; Habib, Abdella M.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    L-glutamine stimulates glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in human subjects and cell lines. As recent advances have enabled the study of primary GLP-1–releasing L cells, this study aimed to characterize glutamine-sensing pathways in native murine L cells. L cells were identified using transgenic mice with cell-specific expression of fluorescent markers. Cells were studied in primary colonic cultures from adult mice, or purified by flow cytometry for expression analysis. Intracellular C...

  19. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  20. Molecular mechanisms involved in casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.Y.H.P.; Lee, W.H.; Parry, G.; Bissell, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMEC) secrete a group of milk-specific proteins including various caseins and whey proteins. Dissociated mammary epithelial cells maintain expression of most of their differentiated functions only if cells are plated on a suitable substratum. Casein production and section, cell morphology, and production of α-lactalbumin have been used as markers to assess the degree of differentiation of mammary cells in culture. The general consensus is that cells express their differentiated properties at high levels and for longer periods of time on such substrata. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that modulation of the expression of caseins by floating collagen gels is manifested at several regulatory points

  1. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  2. Single-Cell Detection of Secreted Aβ and sAPPα from Human IPSC-Derived Neurons and Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Chen; Muratore, Christina R; Gierahn, Todd M; Sullivan, Sarah E; Srikanth, Priya; De Jager, Philip L; Love, J Christopher; Young-Pearse, Tracy L

    2016-02-03

    identify a previously unappreciated subpopulation that secretes high levels of Aβ in the absence of detectable sAPPα. Further, we show that multiple cell types secrete high levels of Aβ and sAPPα, but cells expressing GABAergic neuronal markers are overrepresented. Finally, we show that astrocytes are competent to secrete high levels of Aβ and therefore may be a significant contributor to Aβ accumulation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361730-17$15.00/0.

  3. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  4. Golgi apparatus-localized synaptotagmin 2 is required for unconventional secretion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most secretory proteins contain signal peptides that direct their sorting to the ER and secreted via the conventional ER/Golgi transport pathway, while some signal-peptide-lacking proteins have been shown to export through ER/Golgi independent secretory pathways. Hygromycin B is an aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus that is active against both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG(R can phosphorylate and inactivate the hygromycin B, and has been widely used as a positive selective marker in the construction of transgenic plants. However, the localization and trafficking of HYG(R in plant cells remain unknown. Synaptotagmins (SYTs are involved in controlling vesicle endocytosis and exocytosis as calcium sensors in animal cells, while their functions in plant cells are largely unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYT2 was localized on the Golgi apparatus by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. Surprisingly, co-expression of SYT2 and HYG(R caused hypersensitivity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants to hygromycin B. HYG(R, which lacks a signal sequence, was present in the cytoplasm as well as in the extracellular space in HYG(R-GFP transgenic Arabidopsis plants and its secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A treatment, suggesting it is not secreted via the conventional secretory pathway. Furthermore, we found that HYG(R-GFP was truncated at carboxyl terminus of HYG(R shortly after its synthesis, and the cells deficient SYT2 failed to efficiently truncate HYG(R-GFP,resulting in HYG(R-GFP accumulated in prevacuoles/vacuoles, indicating that SYT2 was involved in HYG(R-GFP trafficking and secretion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal for the first time that SYT2 is localized on the Golgi apparatus and regulates HYG(R-GFP secretion via the unconventional protein transport from the cytosol to the extracelluar matrix in

  5. 18F-Labelled catecholamine type radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and neuroendocrine tumours: approaches to synthesis and development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsadze, S. Z.; Eremina, O. E.; Veselova, I. A.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Nenajdenko, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The pathogenesis of many socially significant diseases such as neurodegenerative dementias and neuroendocrine tumours involves imbalance of neurotransmitters. Among the known neuroimaging methods, positron emission tomography (PET) is the most perfect and informative technique for diagnosing these diseases. The potential of PET is largely determined by the inventory of available radiopharmaceuticals, that is, biologically active molecules containing short-lived nuclides with positron decay. This review gives a systematic account of the application of fluorine-18-labelled catecholamine type radiopharmaceuticals in clinical investigations of the sympathetic and central nervous systems. The methods for the synthesis of these agents and existing problems are considered. The material is arranged according to the mechanisms of reactions that underlie the synthetic approaches: electrophilic, nucleophilic and metal-catalyzed reactions. The bibliography includes 198 references.

  6. 产后抑郁症血浆儿茶酚胺浓度对照研究%The Plasma Catecholamines Control Study of Postnatal Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆亚文; 吴怀安; 闫小华; 徐宏里; 郑铮; 李英霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To explore the plasma catecholamines (CAs) concentration of postnatal depression and to analyze the re-lationships between postnatal depression and CAs level. Methods: Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to mea-sure the subjects'' plasma noradrenaline (NE)、 adrenaline (E) and dopamine (DA) concentration. The postnatal depression group was compared with depression, ante partum and normal group. Results: NE level of plasma in the depression group and the post-natal depression group were all higher than those of normal group P 0.05) . Conclusion: the plasma NE increase is relative to postnatal depression episode, the plasma DA may be relative to postnatal depression episode. The relationship between plasma and postnatal depression remains unclear.

  7. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blocking agents in patients with arterial hypertension. Effect on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederballe Pedersen, O; Mikkelsen, E; Lanng Nielsen, J; Christensen, N J

    1979-04-17

    Chronic treatment with beta-blockers was interrupted abruptly in six patients with arterial hypertension. Three patients, who had experienced symptoms during a previous withdrawal, again complained of transient palpitations, tremor, sweating, headache and general malaise. A significant increase in standing blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) was noted after 24 h. The standing HR reached a maximum after 48 h and had decreased significantly on the 7th day (p less than 0.005). There was a strong tendency to greater increase in standing BP and HR in the patients who experienced symptoms than in those who did not. Plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, adrenaline and prolactin did not change significantly. Thus, beta-blocker withdrawal symptoms are reproducible and are indicative of a transient sympathetic hyperresponse. The increased activity is not likely to be caused by increased production of circulating catecholamines, but rather by increased sensitivity of the beta-receptor.

  8. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El

    2016-01-01

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

  9. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  10. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...

  11. Influences of graded dose of melatonin on the levels of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines in male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri ) under different photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M; Dutta, S; Bhattacharya, S; Dey, R; Sengupta, A

    2000-12-01

    Effects of daily evening (just before the onset of darkness in a 24 h light dark cycle) administration of graded doses (25, 50, or 100 microg/100 g body wt./day for 30 days) of melatonin on the concentrations of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines were studied in sexually active male roseringed parakeets under natural (NP; approximately 12L: 12D) and artificial long (LP; 16L: 8D) and short (SP; 8L: 16D) photoperiods. Blood samples and adrenal glands were collected from each bird during the mid-day on the following day of the last treatment. The concentrations of glucose in blood and epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in the adrenals were measured. The results of the study indicated that exogenous melatonin induces hypo- or hyperglycemia depending on the dose of hormone administered as well as to the length of photoperiod to which birds were exposed. The levels of E and NE in the adrenals were shown also to vary in relation to photoperiod and the dose of melatonin administered. But the nature of the influence of melatonin becomes different under altered photoperiodic conditions. It appears that short photoperiods are more effective than long photoperiods as a modulator of glycemic and adrenal catecholaminergic responses to exogenous melatonin. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of blood glucose and that of E and NE in the adrenals was found in the control birds, but not in the melatonin treated birds. The results suggested that the responses of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines to the treatment with melatonin in the roseringed parakeets may not be dependent on each other.

  12. (-)1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)BPAP], a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J; Yoneda, F; Knoll, B; Ohde, H; Miklya, I

    1999-12-01

    1. The brain constituents beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and tryptamine enhance the impulse propagation mediated transmitter release (exocytosis) from the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain ('catecholaminergic/serotoninergic activity enhancer, CAE/SAE, effect'). (-)Deprenyl (Selegiline) and (-)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane [(-)PPAP] are amphetamine derived CAE substances devoid of the catecholamine releasing property. 2. By changing the aromatic ring in PPAP we developed highly potent and selective CAE/SAE substances, structurally unrelated to the amphetamines. Out of 65 newly synthetized compounds, a tryptamine derived structure, (-)1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane [(-)BPAP] was selected as a potential follower of (-)deprenyl in the clinic and as a reference compound for further analysis of the CAE/SAE mechanism in the mammalian brain. 3. (-)BPAP significantly enhanced in 0.18 micromol 1(-1) concentration the impulse propagation mediated release of [(3)H]-noradrenaline and [(3)H]-dopamine and in 36 nmol 1(-1) concentration the release of [(3)H]-serotonin from the isolated brain stem of rats. The amount of catecholamines and serotonin released from isolated discrete rat brain regions (dopamine from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium, noradrenaline from the locus coeruleus and serotonin from the raphe) enhanced significantly in the presence of 10(-12) - 10(-14) M (-)BPAP. BPAP protected cultured hippocampal neurons from the neurotoxic effect of beta-amyloid in 10(-14) M concentration. In rats (-)BPAP significantly enhanced the activity of the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain 30 min after acute injection of 0.1 microg kg(-1) s.c. In the shuttle box, (-)BPAP in rats was about 130 times more potent than (-)deprenyl in antagonizing tetrabenazine induced inhibition of performance.

  13. (−)1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane, [(−)BPAP], a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joseph; Yoneda, Fumio; Knoll, Berta; Ohde, Hironori; Miklya, Ildikó

    1999-01-01

    The brain constituents β-phenylethylamine (PEA) and tryptamine enhance the impulse propagation mediated transmitter release (exocytosis) from the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain (‘catecholaminergic/serotoninergic activity enhancer, CAE/SAE, effect'). (−)Deprenyl (Selegiline) and (−)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane [(−)PPAP] are amphetamine derived CAE substances devoid of the catecholamine releasing property.By changing the aromatic ring in PPAP we developed highly potent and selective CAE/SAE substances, structurally unrelated to the amphetamines. Out of 65 newly synthetized compounds, a tryptamine derived structure, (−)1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane [(−)BPAP] was selected as a potential follower of (−)deprenyl in the clinic and as a reference compound for further analysis of the CAE/SAE mechanism in the mammalian brain.(−)BPAP significantly enhanced in 0.18 μmol 1−1 concentration the impulse propagation mediated release of [3H]-noradrenaline and [3H]-dopamine and in 36 nmol 1−1 concentration the release of [3H]-serotonin from the isolated brain stem of rats. The amount of catecholamines and serotonin released from isolated discrete rat brain regions (dopamine from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium, noradrenaline from the locus coeruleus and serotonin from the raphe) enhanced significantly in the presence of 10−12–10−14 M (−)BPAP. BPAP protected cultured hippocampal neurons from the neurotoxic effect of β-amyloid in 10−14 M concentration. In rats (−)BPAP significantly enhanced the activity of the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain 30 min after acute injection of 0.1 μg kg−1 s.c. In the shuttle box, (−)BPAP in rats was about 130 times more potent than (−)deprenyl in antagonizing tetrabenazine induced inhibition of performance. PMID:10588928

  14. Cold exposure enhances fat utilization but not non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol or catecholamines availability during submaximal walking and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel Gagnon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure modulates the use of carbohydrates and fat during exercise. This phenomenon has mostly been observed in controlled cycling studies, but not during walking and running when core temperature and oxygen consumption are controlled, as both may alter energy metabolism. This study aimed at examining energy substrate availability and utilization during walking and running in the cold when core temperature and oxygen consumption are maintained. Ten lightly clothed male subjects walked or ran for 60-min, at 50% and 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, respectively, in a climatic chamber set at 0°C or 22°C. Thermal, cardiovascular, and oxidative responses were measured every 15-min during exercise. Blood samples for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma catecholamines, and serum lipids were collected immediately prior, and at 30- and 60-min of exercise. Skin temperature strongly decreased while core temperature did not change during cold trials. Heart rate was also lower in cold trials. A rise in fat utilization in the cold was seen through lower respiratory quotient (-0.03 ± 0.02, greater fat oxidation (+0.14 ± 0.13 g•min-1 and contribution of fat to total energy expenditure (+1.62 ± 1.99 kcal•min-1. No differences from cold exposure were observed in blood parameters. During submaximal walking and running, a greater reliance on derived fat sources occurs in the cold, despite the absence of concurrent alterations in non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, or catecholamine concentrations. This disparity may suggest a greater reliance on intra-muscular energy sources such as triglycerides during both walking and running.

  15. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult mouse epicardium modulates myocardial injury by secreting paracrine factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Honor, Leah B.; He, Huamei; Ma, Qing; Oh, Jin-Hee; Butterfield, Catherine; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Dolmatova, Elena; Duffy, Heather S.; von Gise, Alexander; Zhou, Pingzhu; Hu, Yong Wu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Lianchun; Hall, Jennifer L.; Moses, Marsha A.; McGowan, Francis X.; Pu, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The epicardium makes essential cellular and paracrine contributions to the growth of the fetal myocardium and the formation of the coronary vasculature. However, whether the epicardium has similar roles postnatally in the normal and injured heart remains enigmatic. Here, we have investigated this question using genetic fate-mapping approaches in mice. In uninjured postnatal heart, epicardial cells were quiescent. Myocardial infarction increased epicardial cell proliferation and stimulated formation of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs), which remained in a thickened layer on the surface of the heart. EPDCs did not adopt cardiomyocyte or coronary EC fates, but rather differentiated into mesenchymal cells expressing fibroblast and smooth muscle cell markers. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that EPDCs secreted paracrine factors that strongly promoted angiogenesis. In a myocardial infarction model, EPDC-conditioned medium reduced infarct size and improved heart function. Our findings indicate that epicardium modulates the cardiac injury response by conditioning the subepicardial environment, potentially offering a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac protection. PMID:21505261

  17. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  18. psycho-social correlates of students' involvement in secret cults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    as constituting general threat to peace in institutions of higher learning. (Fawole ... involvement in secret cults, and to investigate if peer group do influence students involvement in secret cults. .... be of benefit to students, teachers, parents,.

  19. SECURE VISUAL SECRET SHARING BASED ON DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jyothi Lekshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS is an encryption method to encode secret written materials. This method converts the secret written material into an image. Then encode this secret image into n shadow images called shares. For the recreation of the original secret, all or some selected subsets of shares are needed; individual shares are of no use on their own. The secret image can be recovered simply by selecting some subset of these n shares, makes transparencies of them and stacking on top of each other. Nowadays, the data security has an important role. The shares can be altered by an attacker. So providing security to the shares is important. This paper proposes a method of adding security to cryptographic shares. This method uses two dimensional discrete wavelet transform to hide visual secret shares. Then the hidden secrets are distributed among participants through the internet. All hidden shares are extracted to reconstruct the secret.

  20. A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review. ... thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. Key words: Inappropriate thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin‑secreting pituitary adenoma, thyroid stimulating hormone adenoma ...

  1. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  3. The effect of social environment on markers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.

  4. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  5. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening

  6. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  7. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  8. Secretion of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7-related peptides and catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modification by changes in cyclic AMP and by treatment with reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Boarder, M R

    1987-07-01

    Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, the release of [Met]enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline is increased by 72-h pretreatment with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whether release is stimulated by nicotine or elevated potassium. In each case the molecular form of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity that is released approximately reflects the cell content. Pretreatment with reserpine has no effect on the total [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity released, but does result in an increased release of the heptapeptide and a decrease in release of peptide B-like immunoreactivity. The studies suggest that the levels of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 and peptide B available for release are controlled both at the level of proenkephalin synthesis and at the level of double-basic residue proteolysis.

  9. Antidopaminergic medication in healthy subjects provokes subjective and objective mental impairments tightly correlated with perturbation of biogenic monoamine metabolism and prolactin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović T

    2018-04-01

    and subjective changes in general psychopathology scores, which correlated with individual increases in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations. Both objective and subjective impairments were significantly more pronounced in the subgroup with greatest increase of plasma prolactin. Subjects experiencing the most pronounced side effects under haloperidol, which compelled them to drop out, showed significantly higher prolactin concentration increases than those who tolerated haloperidol well.Conclusion: We found consistent associations between altered markers of dopamine transmission and several objective and subjective mental impairments in healthy volunteers after 1 week’s treatment with antidopaminergic medications. These findings should draw attention to a more intensive risk–benefit evaluation in cases of off-label prescription of antipsychotic medications. Keywords: catecholamine metabolites, HVA, prolactin, dopamine, reserpine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, off-label prescription

  10. Trade Secrets in Life Science and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M.; Cai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  11. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitinawarat, Sirin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  12. Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongmin; Zhang Kuanshou; Peng Kunchi

    2004-01-01

    A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users

  13. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  14. Secretion of Flavins by Three Species of Methanotrophic Bacteria▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Levinson, Benjamin T.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    We detected flavins in the growth medium of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylocystis species strain M. Flavin secretion correlates with growth stage and increases under iron starvation conditions. Two other methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), secrete flavins, suggesting that flavin secretion may be common to many methanotrophic bacteria.

  15. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2014-11-20

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  17. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  18. Secrets of over-indebted people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie BILLAUDEAU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the economic and financial crisis is brought to light and it is now clear that many people are directly impacted by this phenomenon. However, a lot of situations are obviously hidden and in particular those concerning over-indebted people. These people often find that it is difficult to express the hardship they are going through and keep silent because is more comfortable for them. The media also does not tackle this burning issue because the complexity of some situations complicates the message. Therefore, a giant gap has appeared leaving over-indebted people entrapped in their secret. Starting from this hypothesis, this article will examine the results of a research conducted on the over-indebted people (survey on written press, analysis of TV broadcasts, analysis of records related to person in debts and responses of people in debts and the secrets that this phenomenon involves.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of glicagon secretion in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanova, St.; Koparanova, O.; Milkov, V.; Visheva, N.; Kurtev, I.; Maleeva, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimunoassay of glucagon, lh, fsh, aldosterone, cortisol, acth, sth and lth was performed using preparations from the firms SORIN, AMERSHAM and HOECHST. The basal glucagon secretion was estimated in 403 diabetic patients and 84 normal subjects. It was transitorily suppressed by glucose. The alpha-cellular reactivity in diabetic patients was stimulated by insulin-induced hypoglycemia and with arginine and vasopressin. The tested group of diabetic patients had absolute hyperglucagonemia, despite the hyperglycemia, which is an evidence of abnormal alpha-cellular function. The insulin-dependent nature of hyperglucagonemia in diabetes mellitus and the hyperreactivity of glucagon secretion after protein stimulation was demonstrated. The correlation of these results leads to essential diagnostic inferences

  20. Glycated albumin suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion by impairing glucose metabolism in rat pancreatic β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated albumin (GA is an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of GA on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Methods Islets were collected from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in the presence of non-glycated human albumin (HA and GA was measured under three different glucose concentrations, 3 mM (G3, 7 mM (G7, and 15 mM (G15, with various stimulators. Insulin secretion was measured with antagonists of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and the expression of iNOS-mRNA was investigated by real-time PCR. Results Insulin secretion in the presence of HA and GA was 20.9 ± 3.9 and 21.6 ± 5.5 μU/3 islets/h for G3 (P = 0.920, and 154 ± 9.3 and 126.1 ± 7.3 μU/3 islets/h (P = 0.046, for G15, respectively. High extracellular potassium and 10 mM tolbutamide abrogated the inhibition of insulin secretion by GA. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylpyruvate, GLP-1, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not abrogate the inhibition. Real-time PCR showed that GA did not induce iNOS-mRNA expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase, aminoguanidine, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not abrogate the inhibition of insulin secretion. Conclusion GA suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells through impairment of intracellular glucose metabolism.

  1. Sphingomyelin synthases regulate protein trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Subathra

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2 represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG. SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 reduced the localization of the DAG-binding protein, protein kinase D (PKD, to the Golgi. Since PKD recruitment to the Golgi has been implicated in cellular secretion through the trans golgi network (TGN, the effect of down-regulation of SMSs on TGN-to-plasma membrane trafficking was studied. Down regulation of either SMS1 or SMS2 significantly retarded trafficking of the reporter protein vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with GFP (VSVG-GFP from the TGN to the cell surface. Inhibition of SMSs also induced tubular protrusions from the trans Golgi network reminiscent of inhibited TGN membrane fission. Since a recent study demonstrated the requirement of PKD activity for insulin secretion in beta cells, we tested the function of SMS in this model. Inhibition of SMS significantly reduced insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells. Taken together these results provide the first direct evidence that both enzymes (SMS1 and 2 are capable of regulating TGN-mediated protein trafficking and secretion, functions that are compatible with PKD being a down-stream target for SMSs in the Golgi.

  2. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...thereby stimulating an avid, antigen specific, cytotoxic CD8 T cell response. Here we developed malaria vaccine that relies on secreted gp96-Ig... stimulating multi-epitope specific cytotoxic T cells. In the proposed studies, we will adapt this vaccine approach to stimulate cytotoxic T cells

  3. Eight Simple Secrets to More Persuasive Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Donald

    The goal of persuasive writing is to move the reader to action or to get the reader to refrain from action, and most of the secrets of persuasion can work either way. To get readers to take action, a writer has to appeal to the emotions as much as possible. To get readers to refrain from action, a writer must appeal to the intellect. The secrets…

  4. Discovering the secrets of the Olifants sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available is an important component of an aquatic ecosystem in that it provides habitat, feed- ing and spawning areas for aquatic fauna such as fish and benthic Discovering the secrets of THE OLIFANTS SEDIMENTS The polluted Upper Olifants River, in Mpumalanga, has... the distribution of bed material sizes. This allows for the determination ? Top right: The Koffie- spruit, a tributary of the Upper Olifants River. Middle right: Bank erosion was evident throughout the Koffiespruit study reach. This section of river...

  5. Mucin secretion induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y T Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP exposure has been closely associated with the exacerbation and pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma. Mucus hypersecretion and accumulation in the airway are major clinical manifestations commonly found in these diseases. Among a broad spectrum of NPs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2, one of the PM10 components, is widely utilized in the nanoindustry for manufacturing and processing of various commercial products. Although TiO(2 NPs have been shown to induce cellular nanotoxicity and emphysema-like symptoms, whether TiO(2 NPs can directly induce mucus secretion from airway cells is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that TiO(2 NPs (<75 nm can directly stimulate mucin secretion from human bronchial ChaGo-K1 epithelial cells via a Ca(2+ signaling mediated pathway. The amount of mucin secreted was quantified with enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA. The corresponding changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration were monitored with Rhod-2, a fluorescent Ca(2+ dye. We found that TiO(2 NP-evoked mucin secretion was a function of increasing intracellular Ca(2+ concentration resulting from an extracellular Ca(2+ influx via membrane Ca(2+ channels and cytosolic ER Ca(2+ release. The calcium-induced calcium release (CICR mechanism played a major role in further amplifying the intracellular Ca(2+ signal and in sustaining a cytosolic Ca(2+ increase. This study provides a potential mechanistic link between airborne NPs and the pathoetiology of pulmonary diseases involving mucus hypersecretion.

  6. George's secret key to the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In their bestselling book for young readers, noted physicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter, Lucy, provide a grand and funny adventure that explains fascinating information about our universe, including Dr. Hawking's latest ideas about black holes. It's the story of George, who's taken through the vastness of space by a scientist, his daughter, and their super-computer named Cosmos. George's Secret Key to the Universe was a New York Times bestseller and a selection of Al's Book Club on the Today show.

  7. The Best kept Secrets In Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    external events that could disrupt energy supplies and services. • Science and Technology. We use the unique resources of the Department’s laboratories...1996. There is no doubt that access to and 96 Appendix A use of the Internet will be a big factor enabling GSA employees to compete in the coming...workers. 113 The Best Kept Secrets In Government • Sweatshops are under attack. More than 50 manufacturing firms across the country have com

  8. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  9. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR). Mechanisms underlying unconventional protein secretion (UPS) are actively being analyzed and deciphered, and these range from an unusual form of plasma membrane translocation to vesicular processes involving the generation of exosomes and other extracellular microvesicles. In this chapter, we provide an overview on what is currently known about UPS in animal cells.

  10. Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-15

    Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.

  11. A trade secret model for genomic biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, John M; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R Jean; Davis, Arlene M; Dobson, Allison W; Gladden, Ryan Q

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity: Fact not fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh P; Kaushik, Shail

    2010-09-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the "novel weapons hypothesis (NWH)." Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1-3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin.

  13. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  14. Extracellular secretion of a recombinant therapeutic peptide by Bacillus halodurans utilizing a modified flagellin type III secretion system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berger, E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available further 3.5-fold increase in the secretion of recombinant peptide fusions. Conclusions: The type III flagellar secretion system of B. halodurans has been shown to successfully secrete a therapeutic peptide as a heterologous flagellin fusion. Improvements...

  15. Trade secrets protection mode of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bin

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the legal environment in which nuclear power enterprises are stayed, and mainly discusses the business secret protection modes of China's nuclear power enterprises. It is expected to provide a revelation and help for these enterprises to protect their business secrets. Firstly, the paper briefly expounds the legal basis of business secret protection and China's legalization status in this regard. Then it mainly puts forward the business secret management framework and postulations for nuclear power enterprises, and key points in application and protection of nuclear power business secret. (author)

  16. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  17. Air Force UAV’s: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... The Secret History 2 Air Force UAVs: The Secret History2 air Force uaVs: The secret history Has any airplane in the past decade captured the public

  18. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  19. EFFECTS OF SECRETABLE PLACENTAL FACTORS UPON SECRETION OF CYTOKINES BY THP-1 MONOCYTE-LIKE CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Onokhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Мonocytes in feto-placental circulation are exposed to factors secreted by placental tissue. These factors influence monocyte functions in pregnancy. In present study, an in vitro model (monocyte-like THP-1 cells was used for assessing effects of soluble placental factors obtained from women with physiological pregnancies, or preeclampsia cases. The following effects of placental factors were revealed: increased secretion of VEGF by THP-1 cells along with decreased secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 under the influence of placental factors from the I. trimester of pregnancy in comparison with III. trimester. Secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 by THP-1 cells was increased, and secretion of soluble TNFRII was decreased upon co-cultivation with soluble placental factors from the women with preeclampsia, as compared with placental products from physiological pregnancies.The work is supported by grants ГК № 02.740.11.0711 from Ministry of Education and Science, and НШ-3594.2010.7 grant from the President of Russian Federation.

  20. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.