WorldWideScience

Sample records for catchment basin expertise

  1. Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations, i.e. (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies Reff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga sub-catchments, respectively. Better model results could not be obtained with manual calibration, very likely due to the limited data quality and model insufficiencies. Increasing the computation time step to 15 and 30 days improved the model performance in both sub-catchments to Reff > 0.8. Model parameter transferability tests have been conducted by interchanging parameters sets between the two gauged sub-catchments. Results showed poor performances for the daily models (0.30 < Reff < 0.67, but better performances for the 15 and 30 days models, Reff > 0.80. The transferability tests together with a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations (more than 1 million

  2. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

  3. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1): Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents basin characteristics, compiled for every catchment in NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. These characteristics are basin shape...

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for Major River Basins...

  5. The "Teflon basin" myth: Snow-soil interactions in mountain catchments in the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.; Cowie, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In much of western North America, snow and snowmelt provide the primary means for storage of winter precipitation, effectively transferring water from the relatively wet winter season to the typically dry summers. A common assumption is that high-elevation catchments in the western United States behave like "Teflon basins" and that water released from seasonal storage in snow packs flows directly into streams with little or no interaction with underlying soils. Here I present information from a variety of catchments in the Colorado Front Range on snowmelt/soil interactions using isotopic, geochemical, nutrient and hydrometric data in 2- and 3- component hydrograph separations, along with end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). For most catchments we measured these parameters in weekly precipitation, the seasonal snowpack, snowmelt before contact with the ground, discharge, springs, soil solution, and groundwater. We ran EMMA at the catchment scale for catchments that represent the rain-snow transition zone in the montane forest, the seasonally snow covered sub-alpine to alpine transition zone, and a high-elevation alpine zone near the continental divide. In all catchments three end-members were the source waters for about 95% of discharge. Two end-members were the same in all catchments, snow and groundwater. For the alpine catchment talus springs was the third water source, while rain was the third water source in the two lower-elevation catchments. For all three catchments, soil solution plotted with stream waters along or near a line connecting the snow and groundwater end-members. Thus, for seasonally snow-covered catchments from montane to alpine ecosystems, snowmelt infiltrates underlying soils before snowmelt recharges groundwater reservoirs and contributes to surface flows. Seasonally snow-covered catchments are not Teflon basins. Rather, snowmelt infiltrates soils where solute concentrations are changed by biological and geochemical processes.

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  8. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

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    D. Zoccatelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" quantifying the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. These statistics describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of catchment-scale storm velocity. The concept of the catchment-scale storm velocity takes into account the role of relative catchment orientation and morphology with respect to storm motion and kinematics. The paper illustrates the derivation of the statistics from an analytical framework recently proposed in literature and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by applying them to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002–2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide useful information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  9. A participatory approach for Integrated River Basin Management in the Elbe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneri, C.; Hofmann, J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Within the EUROCAT 1 project this methodology of participatory approach, aiming to scope the present perceptions about environmental issues and possible strategies for environmental improvement, is applied to the study of the Elbe catchment for the first time. In this frame, an Advisory Board (AB) was created, with the aim of giving insights into conflicting interests in the river catchment and guidelines for river basin management. Focus of the Elbe case study is the issue of nutrient enrichment (from the catchment) and the induced eutrophication of the coastal waters (the German Bight). Specifically, regarding this topic, the possible reduction of eutrophication in the German Bight by a (policy driven) decrease in nutrient inputs from the catchment area is analysed. Different measures for reducing the input of nutrients from the catchment, and ultimately preventing eutrophication of the coastal waters are considered. In this context, the members of the AB were asked about the efficiency and feasibility of different measures and the criteria for choosing 'better' management solutions among the possible ones. Although there is a general agreement about the necessity of reducing nutrient emissions, some members of the AB perceive other environmental issues (e.g. altered morphodynamics) as more relevant than nutrient enrichment. Voluntary cooperation, eco-efficiency and 'trans-sectoral' communication are the key concepts mentioned as being indispensable for integrated management. The (public) acceptance of measures for nutrient reduction have to find its way through compromises and social equity, allowing for win-win solutions among different groups of interests and balanced spatial division of costs and benefits. EUROpean CATchments, Project N° EVK1-CT-2000-00044 ( http://www.iia-cnr.unical.it/EUROCAT/project.htm).

  10. Variability of rainfall over Lake Kariba catchment area in the Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.

  11. Determinism Of Hydrological Recession Processes On Oueme Basin Catchment And Application Of Least Actions Principle

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    Avahounlin Ringo F.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aim to analyze the hydrodynamic process of oueme basin catchment basin located in Benin between 758N and 1012N latitude and 135 and 305E longitude. From rainfall and discharge data chronic rates over the period 2000-2009 empirical hydrological modeling based on linearization of Boussinesqs equation and least actions principle methods were used to predict the mechanism of the water drain to determine the streamflow recession curves to the watershed scale and compare the modeling findings with hygrogram obtained by applied of principle of the least actions. An analysis of drying up showed a varied trend in four sub-basins. At Beterou and Bonou sub-basin the non-linear character observed reflects a succession of phases of drying up. A conceptual linearization formulation of the basic equations of Boussinesq considering the non-linear character of the drying up of the two sub-basins helped simulate low flow rates with high efficiency and to determine the types low flow curves. Successfully comparing analyzed of modeling findings with recession curves obtained by least actions principle confirm the heterogeneity of recession nature at oueme basin scale.

  12. Catchment Restoration in the Tweed UNESCO-IHP HELP Basin - Eddleston Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The EU Water Frame Work Directive (WFD) requires member states to work towards the achievement of 'good ecological status' for water bodies, through a 6 year cycle of river basin management plans (RBMPs). Within these RBMPs, states must develop and implement programmes of measures designed to improve the quality of individual water bodies at risk of failing to achieve this status. These RBMPS must not only be focussed on the key causes of failure, but increasingly look to deliver multiple benefits, such as flood risk reduction and improvement to biodiversity from such catchment interventions, and to involve communities and other stakeholders in restoration of their local environment. This paper reports on progress of a detailed study of the restoration of the Eddleston Water, a typical 'failing' water body in Scotland, the monitoring and governance arrangements behind this, and implications for rehabilitation of river systems elsewhere. Within UK rivers, the main causes of failure to achieve good ecological status are historical morphological changes to river courses, diffuse agricultural pollution and invasive non-native species. The Eddleston Water is a 70 sq kms sub-catchment of the Tweed, an UNESCO IHP-HELP basin in the Scottish : English borders, and is currently classified as 'bad' status, due largely to morphological changes to the course and structure of the river over the past 200 years. The main challenge therefor is physical restoration of the river to achieve functional connectivity with the flood plain. At the same time however, the two communities within the catchment suffer from flooding, so a second priority is to intervene within the catchment to reduce the risk of flooding through the use of "natural flood management" measures and, underlying both these two aspects a whole catchment approach to community participation and the achievement of a range of other ecosystem service benefits, including conservation of biodiversity. We report on the

  13. Streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO FangFang; XU ZongXue; ZHANG Lu; ZUO DePeng

    2009-01-01

    Both sensitivity-based method and simulation method are used to analyze the streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin (UYRB) in this study.The separation regime of effects from climate variability and human activities is investigated.Results show that the changes of streamflow are more sensitive to precipitation than potential evapotranspiration (PET).Effect of climate variability on streamflow estimated using the sensitiv-ity-based method is weak in the upper catchment of Jimai station, and strong in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station, where the climate effects accounted for about 50% of total streamflow changes.Effects of human activities on streamflow accounted for about 40% in the UYRB, with weaker effects in the upper catchment of Tangnaihai station than those in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station.Both climate variability and human activities are main factors to affect the changes of streamflow in the UYRB.

  14. Streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Both sensitivity-based method and simulation method are used to analyze the streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin (UYRB) in this study. The separation regime of effects from climate variability and human activities is investigated. Results show that the changes of streamflow are more sensitive to precipitation than potential evapotranspiration (PET). Effect of climate variability on streamflow estimated using the sensitivity-based method is weak in the upper catchment of Jimai station, and strong in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station, where the climate effects accounted for about 50% of total streamflow changes. Effects of human activities on streamflow accounted for about 40% in the UYRB, with weaker effects in the upper catchment of Tangnaihai station than those in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station. Both climate variability and human activities are main factors to affect the changes of streamflow in the UYRB.

  15. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  16. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Meissner, R.; Engelbrecht, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    A three-phase study was initiated as a way to promote Integrated Catchment Management approaches in the Limpopo River basin. This paper presents the situational assessment, which should enable De Beers to understand how their Venetia Mine operations are located within a broader and highly dynamic socio-economic and ecohydrological landscape as it pertains to water risks. The second phase, Risk assessment, aims to develop conservation interventions in the identified areas; the third phase will develop mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates that the institutional arrangement of the Limpopo River basin is neither simple nor effective. The basin is rapidly approaching closure in the sense that almost all of the available supplies of water have already been allocated to existing water users. If the proposed ecological flow requirements were to be met for all of the tributaries, the basin would be 'closed'. On-going and projected land use changes and water resources developments in the upper reaches of the basin, coupled with projected rainfall reductions and temperature increases, and allocation of the flows for the ecological reserve, are likely to further reduce downstream river flows. The coupled increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall is of great concern for everyone in the basin, especially the poorer communities, who rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. Increased temperatures also lead to increased evaporation from reservoirs and therefore result in a decrease in water availability. This will lead to increased abstraction of groundwater, especially from alluvial aquifers, and consequently an increase in river transmission losses and a decrease in river flows.

  17. Monitoring of metals, organic compounds and coliforms in water catchment points from the Sinos River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, C A; Staggemeier, R; Bianchi, E; Rodrigues, M T; Fabres, R; Soliman, M C; Bortoluzzi, M; Luz, R B; Heinzelmann, L S; Santos, E L; Fleck, J D; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    Unplanned use and occupation of the land without respecting its capacity of assimilation and environmental purification leads to the degradation of the environment and of water used for human consumption. Agricultural areas, industrial plants and urban centres developed without planning and the control of effluent discharges are the main causes of water pollution in river basins that receive all the liquid effluents produced in those places. Over the last decades, environmental management has become part of governmental agendas in search of solutions for the preservation of water quality and the restoration of already degraded resources. This study evaluated the conditions of the main watercourse of the Sinos River basin by monitoring the main physical, chemical and microbiological parameters described in the CONAMA Resolution no. 357/2005.The set of parameters evaluated at five catchment points of water human consumption revealed a river that has different characteristics in each reach, as the upper reach was class 1, whereas the middle and lower reaches of the basin were class 4. Monitoring pointed to households as the main sources of pollutants in those reaches, although metals used in the industrial production of the region were found in the samples analyzed.

  18. THE CHANGES IN WATER RELATIONS IN THE CATCHMENT BASIN OF RIVER TYSMIENICA

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    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of water conditions in the catchment area of the river Tyśmienica. On the basis of topographic maps in scale 1 : 100 000 1839 to 2009, and drainage projects presents the changes of the water network. In the middle 19th century, the river took the start from the lake Krzczeń, and major reclamation works were performed at the turn of the century. In the seventeenth century, built the largest pond Siemień. The development of the joint occurred after World One War because the existence of joints protect assets before breaking up. The biggest changes in water relations occurred in the years 1954 to 1961, when it built Wieprz – Krzna Canal in the valley created several objects drainage area of about 15 000 ha. In the 60’s the water channel beginning the Tyśmienica led passing to the east of Lake Krzczeń and Rogóźno. As a result of hydrotechnical works, the length of the river increased from 62 to 74,5 km, and its beginning was shifted to lake Rogóźno. The surface area of the catchment basin of the river at the beginning of the 18th century was 2000 km2, while at present, at the beginning of the 21st century it is 2750 km2.

  19. Variability of streamflow under climate change: A study for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Tiezzi, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is entirely dependent on water resources, thus highly vulnerable to the effects of rainfall variability. This work aims to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on streamflow for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments. Records form 83-years of observations (1931-2013) were compared with the results of simulations for the 2011-2100 (90-year) period. Two rainfall-runoff hydrological models were used for the numerical simulations: Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure-SMAP (process-based) and Stochastic Linear Model-MEL (stochastic). Very significant impacts were found, namely the increase in streamflow in the Southern basins that may reach almost 100%, while in the Northern and Northeastern basins, streamflow may decrease about 90%. These major changes can aggravate the history of flooding in the Southern basins and of droughts in several regions of the North and Northeast basins.

  20. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: STATSGO Soil Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006)....

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins...

  3. Relationship between catchment characteristics and forms of nitrogen in Cao-E River Basin, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Shuquan; LU Jun; CHEN Dingjiang; SHEN Yena; SHI Yiming

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of different nitrogen forms and their spatial and temporal variations in different pollution types of tributaries or reaches were investigated. Based on the catchments characteristics the tributaries or reaches can be classified into 4 types including headwater in mountainous areas (type I), agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution in rural areas (type II), municipal and industrial pollution in urban areas (type III), and combined pollution in the main stream (type IV). Water samples were collected monthly from July 2003 to June 2006 in the Cao-E River basin in Zhejiang, Eastern China. The concentrations of NO3-N, NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. The mean concentrations of NO3-N were in the order type IV > type II> type III > type I, whereas, NH4+-N, total organic nitrogen (TON), and TN were in the order type III > type IV > type II> type I. In headwater and rural reaches, CNO3-N was much higher than CNH4+-N. In urban reaches, TON and NH4+-N were the main forms, accounting for 54.7% and 32.1% of TN, respectively. In the whole river system, CNH4+-N decrease with increasing distance from cities, and CNO3-N increased with the increasing area of farmland in the catchments. With increased river flow, the CNO3-N increased and the CNH4+-N decreased in all types of reaches, while the variations of CTON and CTN were different. For TN, the concentration may be decreased with the increase of river flow, but the export load always increased.

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  5. Transient catchment hydrology after wildfires in a Mediterranean basin: runoff, sediment and woody debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient effect of forest fires on runoff, erosion and yield of woody biomass has been investigated by combining the experimental approach with mathematical models of hydrological processes. The case study is the Branega creek in Liguria, Italy, where a forest fire in August 2003 caused substantial changes to soil and vegetation, and left a considerable amount of woody debris on the ground. Immediately after the fire, rainfall simulator experiments in adjacent burned and unburned plots showed the extent to which fire had increased runoff and erosion rates. A distributed hydrological model using the tube-flux approach, calibrated on experimental measurements, has been used to investigate hill slope and channel erosion in a small sub-catchment, 1.5 ha in area, nested in the Branega basin. Simulation runs show that the model accommodates the observed variability of runoff and erosion under disturbed and undisturbed conditions. A model component describing the delivery of wood from hill slopes to the channel in post-fire conditions, validated against local survey data, showed that the removal and transport of woody biomass can be reproduced using an integrated hydrological approach. Hence, transient complexity after wildfires can be addressed by such an approach with empirically determined physically-based parameters.

  6. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as mo

  7. Geo-referenced modelling of metal concentrations in river basins at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffmeyer, N.; Berlekamp, J.; Klasmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction The European Water Framework Directive demands the good ecological and chemical state of surface waters [1]. This implies the reduction of unwanted metal concentrations in surface waters. To define reasonable environmental target values and to develop promising mitigation strategies a detailed exposure assessment is required. This includes the identification of emission sources and the evaluation of their effect on local and regional surface water concentrations. Point source emissions via municipal or industrial wastewater that collect metal loads from a wide variety of applications and products are important anthropogenic pathways into receiving waters. Natural background and historical influences from ore-mining activities may be another important factor. Non-point emissions occur via surface runoff and erosion from drained land area. Besides deposition metals can be deposited by fertilizer application or the use of metal products such as wires or metal fences. Surface water concentrations vary according to the emission strength of sources located nearby and upstream of the considered location. A direct link between specific emission sources and pathways on the one hand and observed concentrations can hardly be established by monitoring alone. Geo-referenced models such as GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) deliver spatially resolved concentrations in a whole river basin and allow for evaluating the causal relationship between specific emissions and resulting concentrations. This study summarizes the results of investigations for the metals zinc and copper in three German catchments. 2. The model GREAT-ER The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER has originally been developed to simulate and assess chemical burden of European river systems from multiple emission sources [2]. Emission loads from private households and rainwater runoff are individually estimated based on average consumption figures, runoff rates

  8. Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gragne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay, UGASC, and Koga, KSC and one ungauged sub-catchment.

    Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations (CRs: (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with vegetations zone and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performance (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values, Reff>0.75 and >0.6, respectively, for UGASC and KSC. The change of the time step to fifteen and thirty days resulted in very good model performances in both sub-catchments (Reff>0.8. The model parameter transferability tests conducted on the daily models showed poor performance in both sub-catchments, whereas the fifteen and thirty days models yielded high Reff values using transferred parameter sets. This together with the sensitivity analysis carried out after Monte Carlo simulations (1 000 000 model runs per CR explained the reason behind the difference in hydrologic behaviors of the two sub-catchments UGASC and KSC. The dissimilarity in response pattern of the sub-catchments was caused by the presence of dambos in KSC and differences in the topography between UGASC and KSC. Hence, transferring model parameters from the view of describing hydrological process was found to be not feasible for all models. On the other hand, from a water resources management perspective the results obtained by transferring parameters of the larger time step model were

  9. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-juan XUE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  10. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lijuan; Li Lijiao; Zhang Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeleddaily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoffprocess in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas). Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  11. Changes in land cover, rainfall and stream flow in Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment, Blue Nile basin – Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Rientjes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated changes in land cover and rainfall in the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin and how changes affected stream flow in terms of annual flow, high flows and low flows. Land cover change assessment was through classification analysis of remote sensing based land cover data while assessments on rainfall and stream flow data are by statistical analysis. Results of the supervised land cover classification analysis indicated that 50.9 % and 16.7 % of the catchment area was covered by forest in 1973 and 2001, respectively. This significant decrease in forest cover is mainly due to expansion of agricultural land.

    By use of a change detection procedure, three periods were identified for which changes in rainfall and stream flow were analyzed. Rainfall was analyzed at monthly base by use of the Mann-Kendall test statistic and results indicated a statistically significant, decreasing trend for most months of the year. However, for the wet season months of June, July and August rainfall has increased. In the period 1973–2005, the annual flow of the catchment decreased by 12.1 %. Low flow and high flow at daily base were analyzed by a low flow and a high flow index that is based on a 95 % and 5 % exceedance probability. Results of the low flow index indicated decreases of 18.1 % and 66.6 % for the periods 1982–2000 and 2001–2005 respectively. Results of high flows indicated an increase of 7.6 % and 46.6 % for the same periods. In this study it is concluded that over the period 1973–2005 stream flow has changed in the Gilgel Abbay catchment by changes in land cover and changes in rainfall.

  12. EFFECT OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTANTS ON THE QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS AND GROUNDWATERS IN THE CATCHMENT BASIN OF LAKE BIALSKIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The work evaluates the effect of anthropogenic pollutants on the quality of water in Lake Bialskie (51º32’07” N 23º00’55” E and its catchment basin. Samples of water were taken from the lake (4 sampling points and from wells dug within the catchment basin. The quality of water was analysed in May, June, August and November 2015. In the wells only in single cases was the level of chemical pollution found to exceed drinking water standards. However, in all samples the standard content of manganese was exceeded. In waters from the lake the concentrations of total phosphorus, which can contribute to eutrophication were recorded above the standard level. Both in waters from the lake and from the well a large count of meso- and psychrophiles and Coli and faecal coliforms as well as faecal Enterococci was found, which points to a high degree of contamination of the analysed waters with anthropogenic faeces. The phenomenon was observed to intensify in summer months, which can be associated with increased tourist traffic around the lake in this period.

  13. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  14. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and we

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Nutrient Ecoregions, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of each level 3 nutrient ecoregion in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  16. Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to Runoff Changes in the Upper Catchment of the Red River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes will contribute to regional water resource planning and management. This study aims to separate the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes in the upper catchment of the Red River Basin in China. The Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test methods were applied to identify the trends and change points of the hydro-meteorological variables. The hydrological sensitivity, climate elasticity and hydrological simulation methods were adopted to estimate the contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. Results showed that annual runoff significantly decreased by 1.57 mm/year during the period of 1961–2012. A change point in annual runoff coefficient occurred in 2002. Accordingly, the annual runoff series were divided into the baseline period (1961–2002 and the impacted period (2003–2012. Mean annual runoff of the impacted period decreased by 29.13% compared with the baseline period. Similar estimates of the contributions of climate variability and human activities were obtained by the three different methods. Climate variability was estimated to be responsible for 69%–71% of the reduction in annual runoff, and human activities accounted for 29%–31%. Climate variability was the main driving factor for runoff decrease in the catchment.

  17. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from the Sandspruit Catchment, Berg River Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, S; Demlie, M

    2014-01-01

    The Sandspruit catchment (a tributary of the Berg River) represents a drainage system, whereby saline groundwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 10,870 mg/l, and electrical conductivity (EC) up to 2,140 mS/m has been documented. The catchment belongs to the winter rainfall region with precipitation seldom exceeding 400 mm/yr, as such, groundwater recharge occurs predominantly from May to August. Recharge estimation using the catchment water-balance method, chloride mass balance method, and qualified guesses produced recharge rates between 8 and 70 mm/yr. To understand the origin, occurrence and dynamics of the saline groundwater, a coupled analysis of major ion hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes (δ(18)O, δ(2)H and (3)H) data supported by conventional hydrogeological information has been undertaken. These spatial and multi-temporal hydrochemical and environmental isotope data provided insight into the origin, mechanisms and spatial evolution of the groundwater salinity. These data also illustrate that the saline groundwater within the catchment can be attributed to the combined effects of evaporation, salt dissolution, and groundwater mixing. The salinity of the groundwater tends to vary seasonally and evolves in the direction of groundwater flow. The stable isotope signatures further indicate two possible mechanisms of recharge; namely, (1) a slow diffuse type modern recharge through a relatively low permeability material as explained by heavy isotope signal and (2) a relatively quick recharge prior to evaporation from a distant high altitude source as explained by the relatively depleted isotopic signal and sub-modern to old tritium values.

  18. Response of Stream Pollution Characteristics to Catchment Land Cover in Cao-E River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ye-Na; L(U) Jun; CHEN Ding-Jiang; SHI Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the relationship of river water pollution characteristics to land covers and human activities in the catchments in a complete river system named Cao-E River in eastcrn China. Based on the hydrogsochemical data collected monthly over a period of 3 years, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were adopted to categorize the river reaches and reveal their pollution characteristics. According to the differences of water quality in the river reaches and land use patterns and average population densities in their catchments, the whole river system could be categorized into three groups of river reaches, i.e., non-point sources pollution reaches (NPSPR), urban reaches (UR) and mixed sources pollution reaches (MSPR). In UR and MSPR, the water quality was mainly impacted by nutrient and organic pollution, while in NPSPR nutrient pollution was the main cause. The nitrate was the main nitrogen form in NPSPR and particulate phosphorus was the main phosphorus form in MSPR. There were no apparent trends for the variations of pollutant concentrations with increasing river flows in NPSPR and MSPR, while in UR the pollutant concentrations decreased with increasing river flows. Thus dry season was the critical period for water pollution control in UR. Therefore, catchment land covers and human activities had significant impact on river reach water pollution type, nutrient forms and water quality responses to hydrological conditions, which might be crucial for developing strategies to combat water pollution in watershed scale.

  19. Simulating wind-affected snow accumulations at catchment to basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstral, Adam; Marks, Danny; Gurney, Robert

    2013-05-01

    In non-forested mountain regions, wind plays a dominant role in determining snow accumulation and melt patterns. A new, computationally efficient algorithm for distributing the complex and heterogeneous effects of wind on snow distributions was developed. The distribution algorithm uses terrain structure, vegetation, and wind data to adjust commonly available precipitation data to simulate wind-affected accumulations. This research describes model development and application in three research catchments in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA. All three catchments feature highly variable snow distributions driven by wind. The algorithm was used to derive model forcings for Isnobal, a mass and energy balance distributed snow model. Development and initial testing took place in the Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km2) where R2 values for the wind-affected snow distributions ranged from 0.50 to 0.67 for four observation periods spanning two years. At the Upper Sheep Creek catchment (0.26 km2) R2 values for the wind-affected model were 0.66 and 0.70. These R2 values matched or exceeded previously published cross-validation results from regression-based statistical analyses of snow distributions in similar environments. In both catchments the wind-affected model accurately located large drift zones, snow-scoured slopes, and produced melt patterns consistent with observed streamflow. Models that did not account for wind effects produced relatively homogenous SWE distributions, R2 values approaching 0.0, and melt patterns inconsistent with observed streamflow. The Dobson Creek (14.0 km2) application incorporated elevation effects into the distribution routine and was conducted over a two-dimensional grid of 6.67 × 105 pixels. Comparisons with satellite-derived snow-covered-area again demonstrated that the model did an excellent job locating regions with wind-affected snow accumulations. This final application demonstrated that the

  20. Two-step calibration and proxy-basin validation of ensemble rainfall-runoff predictions in a Swedish mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Viney, Neil R.; Seibert, Jan; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2010-05-01

    (or skill). A proxy-basin validation approach was then performed to simulate ungauged basin conditions. Calibrated parameter sets of one discharge station were used to generate predictions for the other discharge record. Weights and regression coefficients computed in the above mentioned calibration step for each catchment were utilised for the uncalibrated predictions of the other catchment. The two previously defined criteria were also calculated for the newly created ensemble predictions. They were used to investigate the evolution of the quality of the single predictions between members and compiled ensembles. In the same way the evolution of the described uncertainty bounds between members and full set of generated ensembles was addressed. Improvement was achieved by merging single runs in ensembles, even with only 2 members, fulfilling the ensemble approach aim. At the same time, uncertainty bounds of the predictions were always reduced for the ensembles compared to single model calibrations and these bounds included most of the measured discharges. We therefore concluded that the application of multi-model ensembles in hydrology was one way to overcome structural model uncertainty issues.

  1. Environmental flows allocation in river basins: Exploring allocation challenges and options in the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Lankford, Bruce A.; Mahoo, Henry F.; Mashauri, Damus A.

    Provision for environmental flows is currently becoming a central issue in the debate of integrated water resources management in river basins. However, the theories, concepts and practical applications are still new in most developing countries with challenging situations arising in complex basins with multiple water uses and users and increasing water demands and conflicts exemplified by the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania. The research has shown that a flow of 0.5-1 m 3/s for Great Ruaha River through the Ruaha National Park is required to sustain the environment in the park during the dry season. But a question is how can this be achieved? This paper reviews the challenges and suggests some options for achieving environmental water allocation in river basins. The following challenges are identified: (a) the concept of environmental flows is still new and not well known, (b) there is limited data and understanding of the hydrologic and ecological linkages, (c) there is insufficient specialist knowledge and legislative support, (d) there are no storage reservoirs for controlled environmental water releases, and (e) there are contradicting policies and institutions on environmental issues. Notwithstanding these challenges, this paper identifies the options towards meeting environmental water allocation and management: (a) conducting purposive training and awareness creation to communities, politicians, government officials and decision makers on environmental flows, (b) capacity building in environmental flows and setting-up multidisciplinary environmental flows team with stakeholders involvement, (c) facilitating the development of effective local institutions supported by legislation, (d) water harvesting and storage and proportional flow structures design to allow water for the environment, and (e) harmonizing policies and reform in water utilization and water rights to accommodate and ensure water for the environment.

  2. Projected impacts of climate change on groundwater and stormflow in a humid, tropical catchment in the Ugandan Upper Nile Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kingston

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The changing availability of freshwater resources is likely to be one of the most important consequences of projected 21st century climate change for both human and natural systems. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the precise impacts of climate change on water resources, due in part to uncertainty in GCM projections of climate change. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in a humid, tropical catchment (the River Mitano in the Upper Nile Basin of Uganda. Uncertainty associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity is explored, as well as from parameter specification within hydrological models. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through a semi-distributed hydrological model (developed using SWAT of the catchment. Importantly, use of pattern-scaled GCM output allows investigation of specific thresholds of global climate change including the purported 2 °C threshold of "dangerous" climate change. In-depth analysis of results based on HadCM3 climate scenarios shows that annual river discharge first increases, then declines with rising global mean air temperature. A coincidental shift from a bimodal to unimodal discharge regime also results from a projected reduction in baseflow (groundwater discharge. Both of these changes occur after a 4 °C rise in global mean air temperature. These results are, however, highly GCM dependent in both the magnitude and direction of change. This dependence stems primarily from projected differences in GCM scenario precipitation rather than temperature. GCM-related uncertainty is far greater than that associated with climate sensitivity or hydrological model parameterisation.

  3. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  4. Flood-initiating catchment conditions: a spatio-temporal analysis of large-scale soil moisture patterns in the Elbe river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nied

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose to classify soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and to investigate the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence in the Elbe river basin. Soil moisture is simulated using a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model over the period 1951–2003. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis are applied successively to identify days of similar soil moisture patterns. The results show that PCA considerably reduced the dimensionality of the soil moisture data. The first principal component (PC explains 75.71% of the soil moisture variability and represents the large-scale seasonal wetting and drying. The successive PCs express the spatial heterogeneous antecedent catchment conditions. By clustering the leading PCs, we detected large-scale soil moisture patterns which frequently occur before the onset of floods. In winter floods are initiated by overall high soil moisture content whereas in summer the flood initiating soil moisture patterns are diverse and less stable in time. The results underline the importance of large-scale pre-event catchment conditions in flood initiation.

  5. Expertise revisited I: Interactional Expertise

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The notion of interactional expertise is explained starting with its origins and discussing its many applications. Interactional expertise is the ability to understand a technical area purely be deeply immersed in its 'practice-language' without actually practising. One of its many applications is to explain how large sciences are managed.

  6. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC)

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-01-01

    Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losse...

  7. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Expertise seeking is the activity of selecting people as sources for consultation about an information need. This review of 72 expertise-seeking papers shows that across a range of tasks and contexts people, in particular work-group colleagues and other strong ties, are among the most frequently...... used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...... influence of source quality and source accessibility on source selection varies across studies. Overall, expertise seekers appear to aim for sufficient quality, composed of reliability and relevance, while also attending to accessibility, composed of access to the source and access to the source information...

  8. Eyeballing expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopmans, Catelijne; Button, Graham

    2014-10-01

    'Tacit' and 'explicit' knowledge, and their relation to expertise, have a long-standing importance within social studies of science and technology. At the centre of the development of thinking about these topics has been the work of Harry Collins and Robert Evans. In this article, we bring to bear observations of the work of people involved in grading eye disease, and their seeming display of expertise, tacit and explicit knowledge, on three thrusts identified in the work of Collins, and Collins and Evans. These thrusts are the following: (1) a concern with the appearance of tacit knowledge in the activities of experts, (2) a commitment to studying expertise as 'real' and substantive rather than attributed, and (3) a commitment to promoting the recognition and fostering the management of expertise by providing analytical distinctions regarding expertise and its reliance on tacit knowledge. By considering what is involved in the work of grading eyes, we relocate the interest in tacit and explicit knowledge, and their bearing on expertise, in how expert knowledge is displayed and made recognizable in and through courses of action and interaction.

  9. Modelling the water balance of a mesoscale catchment basin using remotely sensed land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Canty, Morton; Kunkel, Ralf; Menz, Gunter; Vereecken, Harry; Wendland, Frank

    2008-05-01

    SummaryHydrological modelling of mesoscale catchments is often adversely affected by a lack of adequate information about specific site conditions. In particular, digital land cover data are available from data sets which were acquired on a European or a national scale. These data sets do not only exhibit a restricted spatial resolution but also a differentiation of crops and impervious areas which is not appropriate to the needs of mesoscale hydrological models. In this paper, the impact of remote sensing data on the reliability of a water balance model is investigated and compared to model results determined on the basis of CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover as a reference. The aim is to quantify the improved model performance achieved by an enhanced land cover representation and corresponding model modifications. Making use of medium resolution satellite imagery from SPOT, LANDSAT ETM+ and ASTER, detailed information on land cover, especially agricultural crops and impervious surfaces, was extracted over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Crop-specific evapotranspiration coefficients were derived by using remote sensing data to replace grass reference evapotranspiration necessitated by the use of CORINE land cover for rural areas. For regions classified as settlement or industrial areas, degrees of imperviousness were derived. The data were incorporated into the hydrological model GROWA (large-scale water balance model), which uses an empirical approach combining distributed meteorological data with distributed site parameters to calculate the annual runoff components. Using satellite imagery in combination with runoff data from gauging stations for the years 2000-2004, the actual evapotranspiration calculation in GROWA was methodologically extended by including empirical crop coefficients for actual evapotranspiration calculations. While GROWA originally treated agricultural areas as homogeneous, now a consideration and differentiation

  10. Catchment-flowline network and selected model inputs for an enhanced and updated spatially referenced statistical assessment of dissolved-solids load sources and transport in streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buto, Susan G.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2017-01-01

    This USGS data release consists of the synthetic stream network and associated catchments used to develop spatially referenced regressions on watershed attributes (SPARROW) model of dissolved-solids sources and transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin as well as geology and selected Basin Characterization Model (BCM) data used as input to the model.

  11. Flood-initiating catchment conditions: a spatio-temporal analysis of large-scale soil moisture patterns in the Elbe River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nied

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose classifying soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and investigating the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence in the Elbe River basin. Soil moisture is simulated using a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model over the period 1951–2003. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis are applied successively to identify days of similar soil moisture patterns. The results show that PCA considerably reduced the dimensionality of the soil moisture data. The first principal component (PC explains 75.71% of the soil moisture variability and represents the large-scale seasonal wetting and drying. The successive PCs express spatially heterogeneous catchment processes. By clustering the leading PCs, we identify large-scale soil moisture patterns which frequently occur before the onset of floods. In winter, floods are initiated by overall high soil moisture content, whereas in summer the flood-initiating soil moisture patterns are diverse and less stable in time.

  12. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...

  13. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Tree Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent tree canopy from the Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents tree canopy percentage for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents imperviousness for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002;Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  16. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  17. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  18. Hydro-meteorological functioning of the Eastern Andean Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Insight from a paired catchment study in the Orinoco river basin highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Leemans, Rik

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests regulate large scale precipitation patterns and catchment-scale streamflow, while tropical mountains influence runoff by orographic effects and snowmelt. Along tropical elevation gradients, these climate/ecosystem/hydrological interactions are specific and heterogeneous. These interactions are poorly understood and represented in hydro-meteorological monitoring networks and regional or global earth system models. A typical case are the South American Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCF), whose water balance is strongly driven by fog persistence. This also depends on local and up wind temperature and moisture, and changes in this balance alter the impacts of changes in land use and climate on hydrology. These TMCFs were until 2010 only investigated up to 350km from the coast. Continental TMCFs are largely ignored. This gap is covered by our study area, which is part of the Orinoco river basin highlands and located on the northern Eastern Andes at an altitudinal range of 1550 to 2300m a.s.l. The upwind part of our study area is dominated by lowland savannahs that are flooded seasonally. Because meteorological stations are absent in our study area, we first describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability and analyse the corresponding catchment hydrology. Our hydro-meteorological data set is collected at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover from June 2013 to May 2014 and includes hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and runoff measurements. We compare our results with recent TCMF studies in the eastern Andean highlands in the Amazon basin. The studied elevational range always shows wetter conditions at higher elevations. This indicates a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. Lower elevations are more seasonally variable. Soil moisture data indicate that TMCFs do not use persistently more water than grasslands

  19. Calculation of Sediment yield at the S 7-4 catchment of the Shirindareh Watershed of Iran using the River Basins model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalevic, Velibor; Barovic, Goran; Vujacic, Dusko; Mijanovic, Dragica; Curovic, Milic; Tanaskovik, Vjekoslav; Behzadfar, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is driven by complex processes involving detachment of material caused by raindrops and flow tractions, which is further transported by the wind or by the water flow. The region of Shirindareh Watershed of Iran is particularly prone to erosion because it is subject to long dry periods followed by heavy erosive rainfalls, falling on steep slopes with soils prone to erosion. The identification of areas that are vulnerable to those processes is needed for improving our knowledge about the extent of the areas affected and for developing measures to control the problem. In our opinion, models can be very supportive tools for understanding of the soil erosion and sediment transport at the watershed scale. This study aims to illustrate the possibility in computing the runoff and sediment yield at the catchment scale using the River Basins model of Spalevic, which is based on the Erosion Potential Method of Garilovic. We apply the mode in the S 7-4 catchment of the Shirindareh Watershed of Iran using the computer graphic model, which allowed the quantification of the environmental effects of erosion and the land use measures applied at the studied area. Model calculations showed that the calculated peak discharge from the river basin was 61 m3 s-1 for the incidence of 100 years and the net soil loss was 5806 m3 per year, specific 159 m3km-2 per year. According to Gavrilovic this amount of soil loss indicates very weak erosion category. The method we used in this study can also be of interest for soil erosion modelling in other basins. The proper implementation of best management practices and control measures are crucial for protecting land resources in the Shirindareh Watershed and the other river basins with similar physical - geographical conditions.

  20. Effects of catchment and riparian landscape setting on water chemistry and seasonal evolution of water quality in the upper Han River basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available Six-year (2005-2010 evolution of water chemistry (Cl(-, NO(3(-, SO(4(2-, HCO(3(-, Na(+, K(+, Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ and their interactions with morphological properties (i.e., slope and area, land cover, and hydrological seasonality were examined to identify controlling factors and processes governing patterns of stream water quality in the upper Han River, China. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression models revealed significant correlations between ions (i.e., Cl(-, SO(4(2-, Na(+ and K(+ and land cover (i.e., vegetation and bare land over the entire catchment in both high- and low-flow periods, and in the buffer zone the correlation was much more stronger in the low-flow period. Catchment with steeper slope (>15° was negatively correlated with major ions, largely due to multicollinearity of basin characteristics. Land cover within the buffer zone explained slightly less of major elements than at catchment scale in the rainy season, whereas in the dry season, land cover along the river networks in particular this within 100 m riparian zone much better explained major elements rather than this over the entire catchment. Anthropogenic land uses (i.e., urban and agriculture however could not explain water chemical variables, albeit EC, TDS, anthropogenic markers (Cl(-, NO(3(-, SO(4(2, Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ significantly increased during 2005-2010, which was corroborated by principal component analyses (PCA that indicated anthropogenic inputs. Observations demonstrated much higher solute concentrations in the industrial-polluted river. Our results suggested that seasonal evolution of water quality in combined with spatial analysis at multiple scales should be a vital part of identifying the controls on spatio-temporal patterns of water quality.

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5) and the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins.

  2. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  4. Evaluation of soil erosion as a basis of sediment yield in mountainous catchments: a preliminary study in the River Douro Basin (Northern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Martinho Lourenço, José M.; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The River Corgo drains a meso-scale mountainous rural catchment with an area of 295 km2, underlain by crystalline rocks, in a temperate climate, which integrates the transboundary River Douro Basin, in the northeast of Portugal. A geochemical survey on oxic fluvial sediments of the river network shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (soils and weathering products. Moreover, taking into account the hydrological pattern of the catchment, the seasonal and spatial variability of metal contents associated to the sediments suggests that the control of metal in the sediments by their mineralogical, geochemical and physical properties is governed primarily at the level of the basin soils system, especially in the Wet Period, when the sediments are frequently remobilised (Reis, 2010). Although the soil particles are a common pathway of transport and entrance of metals in the fluvial network by runoff derived erosion, this mechanism is naturally more marked in mountainous catchments. Modelling sediment and adsorbed contaminant transport within catchments can help to identify possible contaminant sources, as well as to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants. In catchments with the described morphological features, monitoring the transport of sediments poses some issues concerning: (a) the low mass yield of suspended sediment from river water, under low-flow conditions; (b) the maintenance of the sediment sampler's devices in the streams, in periods of high-flow or storm events. This study describes the preliminary results of a GIS-based mass balance model of overland sediment transport to the River. The erosion, the first step of sediment transport, was estimated by an empirical model - The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The objective was to construct a GIS based potential soil loss spatial index model and posteriorly estimate the sediment yield for different locations within the catchment. The

  5. Teacher expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    . The question is how teacher preparation leads to effective teachers. The study Expert in Teaching paid special attention to the intention of connecting coursework more directly to practice in pre-service teacher education. The overall objective of the study was to strengthen the relationship between theory...... and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... between college and practice teaching. These actions were evaluated in relation to a two-dimensional framework of criteria for teacher expertise. One dimension consists of three different knowledge forms (scientific, professional, and practice knowledge), the other in the goals set in the national...

  6. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations. Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted

  7. BasinBox: a generic multimedia fate model for predicting the fate of chemicals in river catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A; Huijbregts, M A J; Ragas, A M J; Meent, D van de

    2006-01-01

    Multimedia fate models have proven to be very useful tools in chemical risk assessment and management. This paper presents BasinBox, a newly developed steady-state generic multimedia fate model for evaluating risks of new and existing chemicals in river basins. The model concepts, as well as the int

  8. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  9. Analysis of the Course and Frequency of High Water Stages in Selected Catchments of the Upper Vistula Basin in the South of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Walega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the course and frequency of high water stages in selected catchments of the upper Vistula basin in the south of Poland. The following rivers were investigated: the Dunajec–Nowy Targ-Kowaniec cross-section, the Rudawa–Balice cross-section, the Kamienica–Nowy Sącz cross-section, the Wisłok–Tryńcza cross-section and the San–Przemyśl cross-section. Daily flows from the years 1983–2014 were used to determine maximum annual flows and maximum flows per summer and winter half-year. Selected floods were analyzed with reference to the following metrics: POTX (mean size of the flow determined based on high water stages exceeding the assumed threshold value, POT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for each hydrological year, WPOT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the winter half-year and, LOPT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the summer half-year. The determined metrics were analyzed for trend (Mann-Kendall test, homogeneity (Kruskal-Wallis test, and heteroscedasticity (Levene test. Additionally, periodograms were used to determine periodicity of time series for maximum annual flows. The resulting computations indicated upward trends in the analyzed flood metrics but they were not significant in any case. Therefore, in the years 1983–2014 no factors were observed that would significantly affect the size and frequency of high water runoff from the investigated catchments.

  10. Sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on river discharge and groundwater in a headwater catchment of the Upper Nile Basin, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kingston

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The changing availability of freshwater resources is likely to be one of the most important consequences of projected 21st century climate change for both human and natural systems. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the precise impacts of climate change on water resources, due in part due to uncertainty in GCM projections of climate change. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater resources in a humid, tropical catchment (the River Mitano in the Upper Nile Basin of Uganda. Uncertainty associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity is explored, as well as parameter specification within hydrological models. These aims are achieved by running pattern-scaled output from seven GCMs through a semi-distributed hydrological model of the catchment (developed using SWAT. Importantly, use of pattern-scaled GCM output allows investigation of specific thresholds of global climate change including the purported 2 °C threshold of "dangerous" climate change. In-depth analysis of results based on the HadCM3 GCM climate scenarios shows that annual river discharge first increases, then declines with rising global mean air temperature. A coincidental shift from a bimodal to unimodal discharge regime also results from a projected reduction in baseflow (groundwater discharge. Both of these changes occur after a 4 °C rise in global mean air temperature. These results are, however, highly GCM dependent, in both the magnitude and direction of change. This dependence stems primarily from projected differences in GCM scenario precipitation rather than temperature. GCM-related uncertainty is far greater than that associated with climate sensitivity or hydrological model parameterisation.

  11. Crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of smallholder farmers at quaternary catchment level: Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

    Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of

  12. Expertise revisited, Part I-Interactional expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2015-12-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we try to set out the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by starting with its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  13. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13 to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73 to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is substantial uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1 to 41% under SRES A1B and −3 to 41% under 2

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the River Yangtze and Yellow Basins, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the River Yangtze and Yellow Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C, respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13% to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73% to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is great uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1% to 41% under SRES A1B and −3% to 41% under 2

  16. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  17. Third wave development expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byskov, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I offer a normative account of development expertise. Although extending expertise beyond the traditional development experts to include local stakeholders, this normative account aims to delimit legitimate forms of expertise. I label this normative view third wave development expertis

  18. Impact of altitudinal variability on streamflows in mountainous catchments under changing climate (Upper Indus Basin), Himalayas Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K. M.; Yaseen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pakistan's economy is based on agriculture that is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Various rivers i.e. Chitral, Swat, Kabul, Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar, Shyok & tributaries contribute water to main Indus River. The elevation of UIB ranges from 254 m to 8570 m a.m.s.l. Changes in climate and related hydrological impacts vary in space and time as affected by local climatic and topographic settings. So, the objective of this study was to assess the climate change and related hydrological impacts resulting from altitudinal variability. Trend analyses were performed by applying Mann-Kendall and Sen's method was applied to estimate slope time series that indicates changes in river flows. The results of this study indicate that maximum temperature in annual, winter, spring and autumn seasons has increased with increased in altitude while annual, winter and autumn minimum temperature has decreased with increased in altitude for the period (1961-2011). Moreover, annual, winter, summer and autumn precipitation has been decreased. The impact of altitudinal variability under changing climate yields that annual and seasonal streamflows in River Indus (at Kharmong, Alam Br. and Khairabad), Sawat (at Kalam) and Kabul (at Nowshera) have decreased whereas in River Shoyk (9%), Shigar (7%) and Indus at Kachura (5%) have been increased. However, annual runoff in Gilgit (1%) and Hunza River (18%) has increased by increasing 2 % annual temperature. A seasonal correlation coefficient between temperature and streamflow has the positive correlation in most of the sub-basins of UIB for both spring and summer. With increased 1 oC temperature in spring yields increased streamflow for rives Gilgit, Chitral, Astore, Shoyk, Shigar, Indus at Kachura & Kharmong and Hunza with percentage of 19, 5, 11, 15, 9, 7, 1 and 12 respectively. The prevailing trends and variability, caused by climate change, have an effect on the flows

  19. Hydrological Modeling of the Upper Indus Basin: A Case Study from a High-Altitude Glacierized Catchment Hunza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Garee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT model combined with a temperature index and elevation band algorithm was applied to the Hunza watershed, where snow and glacier-melt are the major contributor to river flow. This study’s uniqueness is its use of a snow melt algorithm (temperature index with elevation bands combined with the SWAT, applied to evaluate the performance of the SWAT model in the highly snow and glacier covered watershed of the Upper Indus Basin in response to climate change on future streamflow volume at the outlet of the Hunza watershed, and its contribution to the Indus River System in both space and time, despite its limitation; it is not designed to cover the watershed of heterogeneous mountains. The model was calibrated for the years 1998–2004 and validated for the years 2008–2010. The model performance is evaluated using the four recommended statistical coefficients with uncertainty analysis (p-factor and r-factor. Simulations generated good calibration and validation results for the daily flow gauge. The model efficiency was evaluated, and a strong relationship was observed between the simulated and observed flows. The model results give a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.82 and a Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NS of 0.80 for the daily flow with values of p-factor (79% and r-factor (76%. The SWAT model was also used to evaluate climate change impact on hydrological regimes, the target watershed with three GCMs (General Circulation Model of the IPCC fifth report for 2030–2059 and 2070–2099, using 1980–2010 as the control period. Overall, temperature (1.39 C to 6.58 C and precipitation (31% indicated increased variability at the end of the century with increasing river flow (5%–10%; in particular, the analysis showed smaller absolute changes in the hydrology of the study area towards the end of the century. The results revealed that the calibrated model was more sensitive towards temperature and

  20. Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the northern river catchment of the Lake Tana, Upper Blue Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigussie Ayehu Asrie

    2016-06-01

    decreased by 32% and the simulation results showed on average head decrease of 8.06m over the whole area; with the highest fall 32m in wells to north and a minimum of about 1m in wells to the south of the catchment. In addition, the stream leakage, compared to the simulated steady state value and it was decreased by 75.36%. The simulated value showed an average 2.74m increased head over the whole area. High difference values were observed at Tseda (7.83m and Koladiba (7.3m. The minimum difference 1.08m was recorded at Angereb well field (observation 94. In addition, the stream leakage compared with the steady state value the change was about 87.43%. Keywords: MODFLOW 2000, Groundwater, Modelling, Sensitivity analysis, Simulation, Recharge

  1. Statistical downscaling and projection of future temperature and precipitation change in middle catchment of Sutlej River Basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dharmaveer Singh; Sanjay K Jain; R D Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Ensembles of two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CGCM3 and HadCM3, are used to project future maximum temperature (Max), minimum temperature (Min) and precipitation in a part of Sutlej River Basin, northwestern Himalayan region, India. Large scale atmospheric variables of CGCM3 and HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. The study reveals rise in annual average Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 for CGCM3 model as well as under A2 and B2 scenarios for HadCM3 model in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Increase in mean monthly Min is also observed for all months of the year under all scenarios of both the models. This is followed by decrease in Max during June, July August and September. However, the model projects rise in precipitation in months of July, August and September under A1B and A2 scenarios of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.

  2. Rainfall and runoff regime trends in mountain catchments (Case study area: the upper Hron River basin, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahušiaková Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of trends and causes of changes of selected hydroclimatic variables influencing the runoff regime in the upper Hron River basin (Slovakia. Different methods for identifying trends in data series are evaluated and include: simple mass curve analysis, linear regression, frequency analysis of flood events, use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration software, and the Mann-Kendall test. Analyses are performed for data from two periods (1931-2010 and 1961-2010. The changes in runoff are significant, especially in terms of lower QMax and 75 percentile values. This fact is also confirmed by the lower frequency and extremity of flood events. The 1980s are considered a turning point in the development of all hydroclimatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test shows a significant decrease in runoff in the winter period. The main causes of runoff decline are: the considerable increase in air temperature, the decrease in snow cover depth and changes in seasonal distribution of precipitation amounts.

  3. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers.

  4. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  5. Groundwater recharge processes in the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin: Analysis of porewater characteristics in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Millicent Obeng; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Chegbeleh, Larry-Pax; Adomako, Dickson; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Vertical infiltration of precipitation has been examined in this study for the purpose of evaluating groundwater recharge processes in parts of the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin. As recharge is an essential component in the detailed assessment of groundwater resources potential in a basin, evaluating its processes is vital in determining the spatial and temporal variability of the resource. Stable isotope data of precipitation, groundwater, surface water and porewater in the area suggest that the local precipitation is largely enriched compared to global meteoric water. This is consistent with the prevailing local conditions in the region and ties in with observations in other parts of the sub-region. The groundwater and porewater data indicate that prior to, and in the process of infiltration and final percolation into the saturated zone, rainwater undergoes evaporative enrichment such that the finally recharged water plots along an evaporation line with a much shallower gradient and intercept compared to the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line. The isotope data further suggest that through the shallow unsaturated zone, a significant fraction of the initial precipitation would have been evaporated by a depth of 3.0 m. Evaporation rates in the range of 38-49% have been estimated for the depth range of 0-3.0 m based on the porewater stable isotope data. Details of the procedures and implications of high evaporation rates within such shallower depths are presented and discussed. Groundwater recharge rates estimated from the chloride mass balance technique report values in the range of 73.26 mm/yr (390 Mm3/yr)-109.89 mm/yr (585.27 Mm3/yr), with an average of 94 mm/yr (500.6 Mm3/yr). These translate into 6.6-10.9% of annual precipitation. Based on the current population trends and per capita water demand of 50 L per capita per day, this study finds that the estimated recharge rates exceed the demand 59 times. This suggests

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River...

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  8. Essential and Embattled Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that expertise has continued to hold an absolutely assential and profoundly embattled position in the knowledge/expertise/policy nexus. More than this, it suggests that this duality of the and - (rather than the clarity of the either or) is to be welcomed. This argument is made...... with reference to the controversies surrounding the sarin gas attrack on Ghouta Damascus 21 August 2013. The article first argues that expertise continues to be essential in the sense that it is integral to contemporary policy-controversies. As the discussion around the sarin gas attack shows expertise is both...... constituted through controversies and at the same time constituting them. The article proceeds to suggest that precisely because this is the case, it is important that expertise also remains embattled. As shown with reference to the sarin gas attack controversies, it is only through contestation that the role...

  9. Debris-flow frequency and dynamics of an Alpine catchment during the past 150 years, the Schimbrig drainage basin, Central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Sara; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on links between landsliding and debris-flow activity in a ca. 4 km2-large drainage basin located at the northern foothills of the Central Swiss Alps. Debris-flow frequency of the recent past was reconstructed using dendrogeomorphic methods. In addition, the source area was mapped in detail to assess the spatial distribution of landslides, and to determine the connectivity between hillslopes and the channel network. The geomorphic map indicates that the hillslopes host abundant landslides sourced in Paleogene Flysch and Molasse sandstone-mudstone alternations. Major differences in the landscape architecture between the eastern and western sides were identified. In particular, the eastern segment is characterized by a >300'000 m2 large earth flow (Schimbrig landslide) that is 5-10 m deep. This flow experienced a phase of high slip rates >2m day-1 between September 1994 and May 1995, transferring a total of 350'000 m3 of material. In contrast, the western side is characterized by a network of deeply incised channels (>50 m) bordered by hillslopes that host landslides that generally measure <15'000 m2. On these hillslopes, the downslope transfer of sediment is dominated by soil creep or by rotational and translational slip. The depositional fan at the outlet of the catchment has an approximate size of 50'000 m2. The surface is characterized by levees, lobes and channels and is covered by a conifer forest comprising spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and firs (Abies alba Mill.). A total of 325 increment cores were sampled from 162 trees obviously influenced by past debris-flow activity. Preliminary analysis of the tree samples indicate that 64% of the tree grew up between 1900 and 2009. 34% of the tree samples showed germination dates between 1800 and 1900, and the remaining 2% of the sampled specimens germinated before 1800. Dendrogeomorphic analyses depict that nearly 50% of the sampled trees were affected by debris-flow activity in the 1990s. This

  10. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. This principle also applies to catchments. However, to be useful, soil classifications have to be based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time. When defining permanent catchment characteristics, discharge data would therefore appear to be less suitable. But permanent soil characteristics do not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards the required functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for three recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous soils with varying soil structures during the year and about spatial and temporal variability. The suggestion is made therefore to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, possibly incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a catchment classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we suggest to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates. Such characteristics may well be derived from societal issues being studied, as is illustrated for the Green Water Credits program.

  11. Rituals of environmental expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Use of experts in media reports about the environment is not confined to its information function. Voices of expertise also serve a ritual function in societal communication by enacting collective sentiments and common world views cast around consensus as well as conflict. This article presents...... theoretical discussions and examples from a case study of Danish television news coverage of the environment supporting such an understanding of expertise in broadcast media. And adds to the discussion of expertise a discussion of the opposing category of lay knowledge....

  12. Expertise and contra expertise independence and transparency; Expertises -contre expertises independance et transparence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarnou, G.; Ades, Y.; Ancelin, G.; Balle, St.; Bardy, J.Ch.; Beringer, F.; Blanc, M.; Bontoux, J.; Bovy, M.; Brunet, F.; Calafat, A.; Cartier, M.; Constant, H.; Delcourt, R.; Duvert, J.C.; Eichholtzer, F.; Fernandez, P.; Fernex, S.; Foechterle, A.; Gatesoupe, J.P.; Geneau, Ch.; Goerg, C.; Gourod, A.; Graschaire, G.; Hubscher Ibert, J.; Jaegert, M.; Lacoste, A.C.; Lacote, J.P.; Laroche, D.; Lazar, Ph.; Lelievre, D.; Levasseur, E.; Levent, L.; Louvat, D.; Manon, Ch.; Maugein, J.; Melguen, M.; Mouchet, Ch.; Mourat, J.P.; Naegelen, L.; Niquet, G.; Perves, J.P.; Potelet, P.; Regent, A.; Romann, J.M.; Rossa, N.; Saut, C.; Sazy, Ch.; Schmitt, P.; Sene, M.; Sene, Raymond; Sornein, J.F.; Sugier, A.; Tfibel, V.; Uhart, M.; Vidal, J.; Vieillard Baron, B.; Vigny, P.; Walgenwitz, G.; Wiest, A.; Wisselmann, R.; Zuberbuhler, A

    2006-07-01

    About sixty participants: members of C.L.I., academics, elected representatives, manufacturers, representatives of association, institutional, crossed their experiences. The debate was mainly centred on the role of the expert, the limits of its intervention and its independence. The presented titles are following: experiences of two C.L.I. in expertise; the work of communication of the nuclear experts; interest and limits of the expertise; presentation of the I.R.S.N. and the D.G.S.N.R.; expertise: problems and experiences; presentation of the works realised in work group; the considerations of the C.S.S.I.N.. (N.C.)

  13. Global Networks of Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    to global networks of expertise through alumni network structures created in the 1960s. One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programs is the inclusion of experts from the south. The paper shows how the Japanese bilateral programs adapted...... the multilateral framework initiated in the 1950s to make networks of expertise global by enabling South-South and South-North connections....

  14. Late Miocene uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau inferred from basin filling, planation and fluvial terraces in the Huang Shui catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lu, H.; Vandenberghe, J.; Zheng, S.; Balen, van R.T.

    2012-01-01

    The geomorphological evolution of the marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau may provide valuable information for reconstructing the tectonic movements of the region. This study reports on a morpho-tectonic analysis of the Huang Shui catchment (tributary of the Yellow River), in the Northeastern Tibe

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) catchment-average total annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1...

  16. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  17. Digital gaming expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    often been framed as pertaining to cognitive problem-solving & literacy (Steinkuehler and Duncan, 2008), social skills & cultural capital (e.g. Chen, 2009) or sports & professionalism (Taylor, 2012). However, this is not a paper about literacy, social skills, professional gamers or even expert gamers...... (Butler, 2005; Butler, 2004). This calls attention to conceptual and critical questions around the values, qualities and activities increasingly claimed and collated with gaming expertise: Who, or what, is a digital game expert and what is evident in the name of expertise? Who can claim to be an expert...

  18. Programs and Expertise

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Description of programs and expertise implemented by Radiation Protection Centre is presented. RPC implements study assessing the doses received by air crew members of Lithuanian Airlines. In 2001 RPC started measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the houses of regions with karst formations, commenced new program analyzing amounts of radionuclides in typical diet of hospital patients.

  19. The geometry of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, María J; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this "perturbation" should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups.

  20. Global Networks of Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programs is the inclusion of experts from the South in overseas networks. Today more than half a million people from current and former developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and E...... to global networks of expertise through alumni network structures created in the 1960s....

  1. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  2. Questioning Expertise: Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggle, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The Philosophy of Expertise / Evan Selinger & Robert P. Crease, (eds). - New York : Columbia University Press, 2006. - ISBN 0-231-13644-7 [and] The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics / Roger A. Pielke. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007. - ISBN 05-218-7320-7

  3. Incorporating flood event analyses and catchment structures into model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Henning; Schumann, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The space-time variability in catchment response results from several hydrological processes which differ in their relevance in an event-specific way. An approach to characterise this variance consists in comparisons between flood events in a catchment and between flood responses of several sub-basins in such an event. In analytical frameworks the impact of space and time variability of rainfall on runoff generation due to rainfall excess can be characterised. Moreover the effect of hillslope and channel network routing on runoff timing can be specified. Hence, a modelling approach is needed to specify the runoff generation and formation. Knowing the space-time variability of rainfall and the (spatial averaged) response of a catchment it seems worthwhile to develop new models based on event and catchment analyses. The consideration of spatial order and the distribution of catchment characteristics in their spatial variability and interaction with the space-time variability of rainfall provides additional knowledge about hydrological processes at the basin scale. For this purpose a new procedure to characterise the spatial heterogeneity of catchments characteristics in their succession along the flow distance (differentiated between river network and hillslopes) was developed. It was applied to study of flood responses at a set of nested catchments in a river basin in eastern Germany. In this study the highest observed rainfall-runoff events were analysed, beginning at the catchment outlet and moving upstream. With regard to the spatial heterogeneities of catchment characteristics, sub-basins were separated by new algorithms to attribute runoff-generation, hillslope and river network processes. With this procedure the cumulative runoff response at the outlet can be decomposed and individual runoff features can be assigned to individual aspects of the catchment. Through comparative analysis between the sub-catchments and the assigned effects on runoff dynamics new

  4. Interactional Expertise and Embodiment

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, I introduce the idea of interactional expertise while in Part 2, I focus on its implications for philosophical theories of the importance of the body in forming our conceptual world. I argue that the way philosophers have dealt with the body turns attention away from the most important questions and that we cannot answer these questions without making the notion of socialisation, and therefore interactional expertise, a central concept in our thinking. This makes language at least as important, and often more important than bodily practice in our understanding of the world. The notion of a disembodied socialised agent leads in the direction of interesting questions while the notion of an embodied but unsocialised human actor is unimaginable.

  5. Thoughts on Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Expertise as a Model ror Lire-Span Cognitive Development.’ The research reported In the paper was supported with * funds from the Offie or Naval Research...based strategy- Minsky and Papert (1974) emphasize the r’ le of a * knowledge-base emphasis in achieving Intelligent thinking. They write: The Power... model that is used, matched, and V tested by Individuals to instantiate the situations they encounter, Uke a scientific theory, -. *. * . ** *-*" It is

  6. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  7. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  8. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  9. Catchment Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. F.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Wilkinson, M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.; Proactive Team

    2011-12-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Here, a catchment engineering approach seeks to describe catchment 'function' (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but seeks to work with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes so that multiple benefits accrue. This approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change and impacts but most importantly suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders, namely the general public and policy makers. This inclusive concept under a catchment engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of catchment engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management whilst maintaining economic food production. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Catchment engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties within a catchment to take responsibility for the water quantity and quality that arises from the catchment. Further, any holistic solution requires a bottom up, problem solving

  10. The power of strategy expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    This paper explores the power of strategy expertise in strategy making. Strategy has become central and ubiquitous in management within the last decades. Recently, research has started to explore how the power of strategy expertise unfolds in strategy making, for instance through specific logics......, languages, metaphors, etc., however, research has only to a very limited extent been studying how strategy expertise is being received and reproduced in strategic practices. This paper contributes to the research engaged in exploring the power of strategy expertise. This paper unfolds a conception...... of strategy expertise that stresses its innovative and critical capacity as well as its structural constraints....

  11. Modeling the impact of development and management options on future water resource use in the Nyangores sub-catchment of the Mara Basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonge, Paul; Herrnegger, Mathew; Fürst, Josef; Olang, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing water insecurity consequent of competing uses, the Nyangores sub-catchment of Kenya is yet to develop an inclusive water use and allocation plan for its water resource systems. As a step towards achieving this, this contribution employed the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system to evaluate selected policy based water development and management options for future planning purposes. Major water resources of the region were mapped and quantified to establish the current demand versus supply status. To define a reference scenario for subsequent model projections, additional data on urban and rural water consumption, water demand for crop types, daily water use for existing factories and industries were also collated through a rigorous fieldwork procedure. The model was calibrated using the parameter estimation tool (PEST) and validated against observed streamflow data, and subsequently used to simulate feasible management options. Due to lack of up-to-date data for the current year, the year 2000 was selected as the base year for the scenario simulations up to the year 2030, which has been set by the country for realizing most flagship development projects. From the results obtained, the current annual water demand within the sub-catchment is estimated to be around 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources including springs, wells and boreholes, while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are insufficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the reference scenario, the WEAP model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 million m3 mostly in the dry season by the year 2030. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is noteworthy in the dry seasons of December through February at the irrigation demand site. The monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth (HPG) was projected to be 1.06 million m3 by the year 2030. However

  12. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  13. Acquiring Expertise? Developing Expertise in the Defense Acquisition Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to tell the story of acquisition expertise development within the DOD using the evolution of the Defense Acquisition University as its backdrop. It is a story about the persistent frame that claims expertise leads to acquisition success. It is about 40 plus years of competing perspectives of how best to acquire that expertise and their shaping effects. It is about technology choices amidst cultural and political conflict. It is about how budget, users, ...

  14. Impact of Urbanization on Stormwater Runoff from a Small Urban Catchment: Gdańsk Małomiejska Basin Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechnowicz, Borys; Weinerowska-Bords, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the impact of different forms of urbanization on the basin outflow. The influence of changes in land cover/use, drainage system development, reservoirs, and alternative ways of stormwater management (green roofs, permeable pavements) on basin runoff was presented in the case of a small urban basin in Gdansk (Poland). Seven variants of area development (in the period of 2000-2012) - three historical and four hypothetical - were analyzed. In each case, runoff calculations for three rainfall scenarios were carried out by means of the Hydrologic Modeling System designed by Hydrologic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HEC-HMS). The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Curve Number (CN) method was used for calculations of effective rainfall, the kinematic wave model for those of overland flow, and the Muskingum-Cunge model for those of channel routing. The calculations indicated that urban development had resulted in increased peak discharge and runoff volume and in decreased peak time. On the other hand, a significant reduction in peak values was observed for a relatively small decrease in the normal storage level (NSL) in reservoirs or when green roofs on commercial centers were present. The study confirmed a significant increase in runoff as a result of urbanization and a considerable runoff reduction by simple alternative ways of stormwater management.

  15. Expertise in fingerprint identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2013-11-01

    Although fingerprint experts have presented evidence in criminal courts for more than a century, there have been few scientific investigations of the human capacity to discriminate these patterns. A recent latent print matching experiment shows that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts are exceedingly accurate (and more conservative) compared with novices, but they do make errors. Here, a rationale for the design of this experiment is provided. We argue that fidelity, generalizability, and control must be balanced to answer important research questions; that the proficiency and competence of fingerprint examiners are best determined when experiments include highly similar print pairs, in a signal detection paradigm, where the ground truth is known; and that inferring from this experiment the statement "The error rate of fingerprint identification is 0.68%" would be unjustified. In closing, the ramifications of these findings for the future psychological study of forensic expertise and the implications for expert testimony and public policy are considered.

  16. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...... status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments....

  17. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  18. The cosmogenic record of mountain erosion transmitted across a foreland basin: Source-to-sink analysis of in situ10Be, 26Al and 21Ne in sediment of the Po river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Hella; Malusà, Marco G.; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo; Niedermann, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the source-to-sink variations of in situ10Be, 26Al and 21Ne concentrations in modern sediment of the Po river catchment, from Alpine, Apennine, floodplain, and delta samples, in order to investigate how the cosmogenic record of orogenic erosion is transmitted across a fast-subsiding foreland basin. The in situ10Be concentrations in the analyzed samples range from ∼ 0.8 ×104 at /gQTZ to ∼ 6.5 ×104 at /gQTZ. The 10Be-derived denudation rates range from 0.1 to 1.5 mm/yr in the Alpine source areas and from 0.3 to 0.5 mm/yr in the Apenninic source areas. The highest 10Be-derived denudation rates are found in the western Central Alps (1.5 mm/yr). From these data, we constrain a sediment flux leaving the Alpine and the Apenninic source areas (>27 Mt/yr and ca. 5 Mt/yr, respectively) that is notably higher than the estimates of sediment export provided by gauging (∼10 Mt/yr at the Po delta). We observe a high variability in 10Be concentrations and 10Be-derived denudation rates in the source areas. In the Po Plain, little variability is observed, and at the same time, the area-weighed 10Be concentration of (2.29 ± 1.57) ×104 at /gQTZ (±1 SD of the dataset) from both the Alps and the Apennines is poorly modified (by tributary input) in sediment of the Po Plain ((2.68 ± 0.78 , ± 1 SD) ×104 at /gQTZ). The buffering effect of the Po floodplain largely removes scatter in 10Be signals. We test for several potential perturbations of the cosmogenic nuclide record during source to sink transfer in the Po basin. We find that sediment trapping in deep glacial lakes or behind dams does not significantly change the 10Be-mountain record. For example, similar 10Be concentrations are measured upstream and downstream of the postglacial Lake Maggiore, suggesting that denudation rates prior to lake formation were similar to today's. On the scale of the entire basin, the 10Be concentration of basins with major dams is similar to those without major dams. A potential

  19. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  20. Expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This chapter draws on data and findings from several video studies to describe the quality of mathematics teaching in Switzerland. The focus is on features of instructional practice and quality as core components of classroom behavior that reflect the teacher’s expertise in creating optimal learning opportunities. The didactic triangle is used as the basis for describing the profile of expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction in terms of three interdependent dimensions of ins...

  1. Catchment Systems Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. F.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Catchment Systems Engineering seeks to describe catchment the function (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment Systems Engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but rather works with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes to accrue multiple benefits. The approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change, impacts and most importantly, suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders. This inclusive concept under a Catchment Systems Engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of Catchment Systems Engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management, whilst maintaining economic food production. Examples using soft engineered features such as wetlands, ponds, woody debris dams and infiltration zones will be shown. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Evidence that impacts can be achieved at local catchment scale will be introduced. Catchment Systems Engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties

  2. Transitions and the Development of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the development of expertise and transitions. It sets out what we know about the development of expertise, changes in the brain as expertise develops, and how transitions between different learning contexts and the challenges that they present may impact on developing expertise. It sets out a series of…

  3. Understanding Expertise from Elite Badminton Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Badminton is a growing sport with a limited amount of expertise both in players and coaches so attempts are being made to extend the expertise internationally. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of coaching expertise in badminton because such an understanding might have implications for a more general understanding of expertise,…

  4. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...... awareness of this fact can help avoid blind and futile struggles between scientific perspectives, and direct efforts toward more appropriate ways of handling these fundamental knowledge asymmetries. Concretely, we show how different kinds of scientific knowledge, expertise, disagreement and learning can...

  5. Co-evolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment co-evolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow duration curves and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index. We found significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The age of the catchments was also significantly related to intra-annual flow variability. Younger catchments tend to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibit more flashy runoff. The decrease of baseflow with catchment age confirms previous studies that hypothesized that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways have changed over time, from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in similar volcanic catchments but of significant younger age than the ones explored here. In these younger catchments, an increase in drainage density with age was observed, and it was hypothesized that this was because of more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths in more mature catchments. Our results suggests two hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in matured catchments. One is that as

  6. Holocene floodplain sediment storage and hillslope erosion within the Rhine catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, T.; Erkens, G.; Cohen, K.M.; Houben, P.; Seidel, J.; Dikau, R.

    2007-01-01

    The response of fluvial systems to land use and climate change varies depending on catchment size. While forcing-response mechanisms of small catchments are reasonably well understood, the response of larger drainage basins is less clear. In particular, the impact of land use and climate change on t

  7. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Temesgen, M.; Wenninger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The water balances of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach based on Budyko’s hypotheses. The objective of this study is to obtain better understanding of water balance dynamics of upper Blue Nile catchments on annual and monthly time sc

  8. The mediatization of health expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christa Lykke

    2016-01-01

    , the article is informed by ‘mediatization’ theory and demonstrates how television influences changes to the discursive construction of Health and health expertise in factual programming in this 20-year period. The analysis demonstrates how early factual programmes were dominated by information on illness...

  9. E-expertise modern collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gubanov, Dmitry; Novikov, Dmitry; Raikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

      This book focuses on organization and mechanisms of expert decision-making support using modern information and communication technologies, as well as information analysis and collective intelligence technologies (electronic expertise or simply e-expertise). Chapter 1 (E-Expertise) discusses the role of e-expertise in decision-making processes. The procedures of e-expertise are classified, their benefits and shortcomings are identified, and the efficiency conditions are considered. Chapter 2 (Expert Technologies and Principles) provides a comprehensive overview of modern expert technologies. A special emphasis is placed on the specifics of e-expertise. Moreover, the authors study the feasibility and reasonability of employing well-known methods and approaches in e-expertise. Chapter 3 (E-Expertise: Organization and Technologies) describes some examples of up-to-date technologies to perform e-expertise. Chapter 4 (Trust Networks and Competence Networks) deals with the problems of expert finding and grouping...

  10. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  11. [Neural substrates underlying cognitive expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu

    2008-03-01

    Recent behavioral and neuro-anatomical studies of cognitive expertise have suggested that that superior performance in memory experts is neither due to extraordinary general intelligence nor anatomical brain difference. Furthermore, functional neuro-imaging studies have revealed that expert performance in mental abacus and memory experts is not attributable to increased brain activities of the process that exists in non-experts or to hyper-activity in the prefrontal cortex. On the contrary, cognitive experts utilize brain areas that are not used by non-experts. These brain regions are directly related to exceptional knowledge and unique strategies that are acquired by experts through extensive practice. These neuro-imaging findings support psychological theories that cognitive expertise is achieved by developing extensive knowledge and novel cognitive strategies not used by non-experts. These lines of evidence suggest that ordinary people could become experts through appropriate practice.

  12. Teaching metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Velzen

    2012-01-01

    Teacher educators’ knowledge about metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise can provide for insights about teaching these ‘difficult’ constructs. In this explorative study, six teacher educators’ remarks regarding metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise were examined. The teacher ed

  13. The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be…

  14. The Expertise Reversal Effect Concerning Instructional Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when learner's expertise moderates design principles derived from cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous empirical studies, indicating an overall large effect size, the effect was never tested by inducing expertise experimentally and using instructional explanations in a…

  15. 40 CFR 1508.26 - Special expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special expertise. 1508.26 Section 1508.26 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.26 Special expertise. Special expertise means statutory responsibility, agency mission, or related...

  16. M&A Negotiations and Lawyer Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Malmendier, U.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We use proprietary data to look into the "black box" of M&A negotiations and to shed light on the effects of lawyer expertise on M&A contract design, the bargaining process, and acquisition pricing. Measuring the effects of buyer relative to seller lawyer expertise, we document that more expertise i

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Inputs from Fertilizer and Manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N&P), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, in kilograms for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major...

  18. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  19. Expertise and Environment in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of the research team Expertise and Environment in Translation (PETRA, Spanish acronym is to study as many aspects of the translation process as possible under the same scope. PETRA is interested in expertise and its development, considers intuitive problem-solving in translation as related to emergence and construction of meaning, and interprets skills acquisition and development as routine interiorization and improvement of mental efficiency. Characteristic of PETRA's approach are homogeneous research methodologies through internal standards, and theoretical feedback from cognitive linguistics, situated and embodied cognition, and social constructivism. Research methods include pilot testing, subjects' and texts' profiling, test repetition, non-invasive data collection, previous typing period, length and frequency to determine pause relevance, post-test questionnaires, data triangulation, blind product cross-evaluation, statistical and ecological validity checks. Results of Martín de León (2003, Lachat (2003, De Rooze (2003, Gómez (2006 and Conde (2009, and ongoing projects by Castro, Marín, Muñoz, and Perea are summarized.

  20. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  1. Hydrologic comparison between a lowland catchment (Kielstau, Germany and a mountainous catchment (XitaoXi, China using KIDS model in PCRaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fohrer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The KIDS model (Kielstau Discharge Simulation model is a simple rainfall-runoff model developed originally for the Kielstau catchment. To extend its range of application we applied it to a completely different catchment, the XitaoXi catchment in China. Kielstau is a small (51 km2 lowland basin in Northern Germany, with large proportion of wetland area. And XitaoXi is a mesoscale (2271 km2 mountainous basin in the south of China. Both catchments differ greatly in size, topography, landuse, soil properties, and weather conditions. We compared two catchments in these features and stress on the analysis how the specific catchment characteristics could guide the adaptation of KIDS model and the parameter estimation for streamflow simulation. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.73 for Kielstau and 0.65 for XitaoXi. The results suggest that the application of KIDS model may require adjustments according to the specific physical background of the study basin.

  2. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Barquín, J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2), in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we coupled general principles of hydro-geomorphic processes with computer tools to characterize the fluvial landscape. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to topography, valley morphology, river network structure, and fan and terrace landforms. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  3. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we coupled general principles of hydro-geomorphic processes with computer tools to characterize the fluvial landscape. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to topography, valley morphology, river network structure, and fan and terrace landforms. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  4. Studying real-world perceptual expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  5. Musical expertise and second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-06-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research.

  6. Streamflow Characteristics of Two Forested Catchments in the Sopron Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBOVSZKI, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central issues in hydrology is today to establish a relationship between thehydrological and biological processes in ecosystems. One question of this theme is the vegetationimpact on the water budget of the catchment. Water use by vegetation can closely be linked tostreamflow patterns on a variety of time scales. At present many details of these connections arepoorly understood.Investigation on small catchments is the best way of studying hydrological processes in headwater,forested watersheds. In this paper drainage basin morphology and streamflow characteristics (baseflow and quick flow have been analysed under conditions of forest management in two neighbouringsmall forested catchments (the Farkas Valley and Vadkan Valley located in the prealpine hillsbordering to Austria on the basis of streamflow data collected during 2001.

  7. Geochemical signature and properties of sediment sources and alluvial sediments within the Lago Paranoá catchment, Brasilia DF: a study on anthropogenic introduced chemical elements in an urban river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Makeschin, F; Weiß, H; Lorz, C

    2013-05-01

    One of the largest urban agglomerations in Brazil is the capital Brasilia and its surrounding area. Due to fast urban sprawl and accelerated land use changes, available water supplies are near their limits. The water supply depends largely on surface water collected in reservoirs. There are increasing concerns regarding water shortages due to sediment aggradations, and of water quality due to geochemical modification of sediments from human activities. The concentration of 18 chemical elements and five sediment properties was analyzed from different potential land-based sediment sources and deposited alluvial sediment within the Lago Paranoà catchment. The goal of this study was to assess the distribution of chemical elements and geochemical/physical properties of potential sediment sources in the Lago Paranoá catchment. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to investigate the influence of different land use types on the geochemistry of sediments. Geochemical fingerprints of anthropogenic activities were developed based on the results of the cluster analysis grouping. The anthropogenic input of land use specific geochemical elements was examined and quantified by the calculation of enrichment factors using the local geological background as reference. Through comparison of the geochemical signature of potential sediment sources and alluvial sediments of the Lago Paranoá and sub-catchments, the relative contribution of land use specific sediment sources to the sediment deposition of the main water reservoir were estimated. The existing findings suggest a strong relationship between land use and quantifiable features of sediment geochemistry and indicate that urban land use had the greatest responsibility for recent silting in the Lago Paranoá. This assessment helps to characterize the role of human activities in mixed-used watersheds on sediment properties, and provides essential information to guide management responses

  8. Robust expertise effects in right FFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7T, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories were rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2, respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas.

  9. A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective teaching requires an understanding of both what (content knowledge) and how (process knowledge) to teach. While previous studies involving medical students have compared preceptors with greater or lesser content knowledge, it is unclear whether process expertise can compensate for deficient content expertise. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare the effect of preceptors with process expertise to those with content expertise on medical students' le...

  10. Teaching Metacognitive Knowledge and Developing Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher educators' knowledge about metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise can provide for insights about teaching these "difficult" constructs. In this explorative study, six teacher educators' remarks regarding metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise were examined. The teacher educators filled in closed-ended and…

  11. Designing Education for Professional Expertise Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Quincy; Imants, Jeroen; Dankbaar, Ben; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    How to facilitate learning by novices (students) on their road to expertise has attracted the attention of a vast number of researchers in cognitive and educational psychology as well in the field of learning and instruction. Although many studies have investigated the phenomenon of expertise development, the implications of the findings for…

  12. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  13. Developing Teaching Expertise in Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…

  14. Integrated flow and temperature modeling at the catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loinaz, Maria Christina; Davidsen, Hasse Kampp; Butts, Michael

    2013-01-01

    , the Silver Creek Basin in Idaho, where stream temperature affects the populations of fish and other aquatic organisms. The model calibration highlights the importance of spatially distributed flow dynamics in the catchment to accurately predict stream temperatures. The results also show the value...... of including temperature data in an integrated flow model calibration because temperature data provide additional constraints on the flow sources and volumes. Simulations show that a reduction of 10% in the groundwater flow to the Silver Creek Basin can cause average and maximum temperature increases in Silver...... Creek over 0.3°C and 1.5°C, respectively. In spring-fed systems like Silver Creek, it is clearly not feasible to separate river habitat restoration from upstream catchment and groundwater management....

  15. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  16. Task-irrelevant perceptual expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta K; Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-12-05

    Perceptual learning (PL) and perceptual expertise (PE) are two fields of visual training studies that investigate how practice improves visual performance. However, previous research suggests that PL can be acquired in a task-irrelevant manner while PE cannot and that PL is highly specific to the training objects and conditions while PE generalizes. These differences are difficult to interpret since PL and PE studies tend to differ on multiple dimensions. We designed a training study with novel objects to compare PL and PE while varying only the training task, such that the training objects, visual field, training duration, and type of learning assessment were kept constant. Manipulations of the training task sufficed to produce the standard effects obtained in PE and PL. In contrast to prior studies, we demonstrated that some degree of PE can be acquired in a task-irrelevant manner, similar to PL. Task-irrelevant PE resulted in similar shape matching ability compared to the directly trained PE. In addition, learning in both PE and PL generalizes to different untrained conditions, which does not support the idea that PE generalizes while PL is specific. Degrees of generalization can be explained by considering the psychological space of the stimuli used for training and the test of transfer.

  17. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  18. Modeling of matters removal from swampy catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inishev, N. G.; Inisheva, L. I.

    2010-05-01

    This work shows the results of fixed study of geochemical conditions in the system of landscape oligotrophic profile at Vasyugan mire spurs, and also we make an approach to processes modelling of compounds removal from swampy catchment. During investigation of symbolic model of chemical matters removal from the surface of a catchment basin and their movement along the channel network it was taken into account that removal of chemical elements during the period of spring flood and rain high waters occur mainly with overland flow. During calculation of dissolved matters movement the following admissions take place: 1. The problem is solved at one-dimension set-up. Concentration of investigated components is taken as averaged one along the flow cross section or effective area of slope cross-section for overland runoff, i.e. it changes only lengthways and in time. 2. It is considered that dissolved matters spread due to movement of water and together with its particles. 3. Processes of water self-clarification are not considered. The model is calculated on the basis of discharge of the investigated ingredient, i.e. matter mass moving through the given flow cross-section into time unit. This is the peculiarity of the model. Matter removal together with water flow is determined if necessary. Everyday impurity consumptions and its concentration can be estimated at the outlet at the moment of time according to convolution integral. Estimation of overland runoff and water inflow into the channel network is based on the mathematic model of outflow formation from peatland areas which considers basic processes carrying out at catchment and basin channel network. Stored moisture estimation of snow cover is taken according to snow survey data before snow melting. Everyday water supply to the surface of water collection was determined according to the results of snow melt intensity estimation by the methods of temperature coefficient and water yield from snow (A.G. Kovzel). All

  19. The Importance of Domain-Specific Expertise in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John

    2015-01-01

    Although creativity and expertise are related, they are nonetheless very different things. Expertise does not usually require creativity, but creativity generally does require a certain level of expertise. There are similarities in the relationships of both expertise and creativity to domains, however. Research has shown that just as expertise in…

  20. Study of the dynamics of drainage of {sup 137C}s present on the catchment basins of French rivers; Etude de la dynamique de drainage du {sup 137}Cs present sur les bassins versants des cours d'eau francais. Etat d'avancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vray, F.; Debayle, Ch.; Metivier, J.M

    2005-07-01

    An operational model describing the drainage of radionuclides was selected from a bibliographical synthesis. This model supplies an expression of the dissolved flux in rivers according to the flow of the river and the activity deposited on the catchment basin. To adjust this model for {sup 137}Cs coming from the Chernobylsk accident and the main French rivers, series of data reporting the temporal evolution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in the water are necessary.The difficulty inherent to the measure of this radionuclide in the water led to dread its activity through that, more easily measurable, sediments and water plants. Measures on these indicators, upstream to any release of industrial effluents, were notably realized since 1991 within the framework of the annual follow-up of French nuclear power plants. The model of drainage is thus adjusted essentially on these data within a multiplicative factor (this factor being K{sub d} or F{sub c}). This requires however some preliminary adaptations: K{sub d} being dependent on granulometry characteristics of the sediments samples, a standardization of their activity on granulometry criteria must be made. For the aquatic plants, it is necessary to look for their time of answer before being able to adjust the model. The obtained results, on plants as on sediments, indicate that for the big French rivers, the activity of {sup 137}Cs in aquatic environment decreases since 1987 with a period from 4 to 7 years. If the level of contamination of every river depends on the average contamination of the catchment basin (average deposit in Bq by m{sup 2}), it seems that this level is also influenced by the other parameters as the size of the catchment basin, even some characteristics of the drained soils. This part of the study remains to deepen. It joins the works led to the L.E.R.C.M. on the migration of radionuclides in soils. On the upstream part of the Rhone river, the aquatic plants indicate that the flow plays a role of

  1. Management of combined sewer overflows based on observations from the urbanized Liguori catchment of Cosenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, P; Carbone, M; Garofalo, G; Sansalone, J J

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines an urbanized catchment in Cosenza, Italy where an off-line basin intercepting CSOs was studied to illustrate reduction in CSO discharges to the Crati River. While the hydrologic transport of pollutant mass is never known a-priori and can be flow-limited, the volumetric requirements of the basin were modeled based on the classic assumption that wet weather flows transport urban and sewer loads in a mass-limited (first-flush) delivery. The volumetric capacity of the basin was varied from 10 to 50 m(3)/ha. Operational basin control was simulated with historical datasets from the Liguori catchment, event-based loading data, and continuous simulation modelling with SWMM. Utilizing data from the catchment, the SWMM simulations were conducted considering the storage basin with or without sedimentation treatment. Results illustrate the potential benefits of the off-line operation for the system with respect to the volume and mass reduction of CSOs into the Crati River. Results demonstrate the importance of particle size distribution (PSD) as an index of basin efficiency, coupled with analysis of the hydrodynamic response of the basin. The basin model attenuated influent PSDs, separating the coarser fraction of the PSD, and reduced the load of influent particulate matter (PM).

  2. Neuroanatomical correlates of visual car expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Expertise in non-visual domains such as musical performance is associated with differences in gray matter volume of particular regions of the human brain. Whether this is also the case for expertise in visual object recognition is unknown. Here we tested whether individual variability in the ability to recognize car models, from novice performance to high level of expertise, is associated with specific structural changes in gray matter volume. We found that inter-individual variability in expertise with cars was significantly and selectively correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex. Inter-individual differences in the recognition of airplanes, that none of the participants had expertise with, were correlated with structural variability of regions bordering the visual cortex. These results highlight the role of prefrontal regions outside the visual cortex in accessing and processing visual knowledge about objects from the domain of expertise and suggest that expertise in visual object recognition may entail structural changes in regions associated with semantic knowledge.

  3. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sikora; Roman Cieśliński

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża), quickly react to any e...

  4. Assessment of LULC and climate change on the hydrology of Ashti Catchment, India using VIC model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Hengade; T I Eldho

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of land use land cover (LULC) and climate change over the hydrology of a catchment has become inevitable and is an essential aspect to understand the water resources-related problems within the catchment. For large catchments, mesoscale models such as variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model are required for appropriate hydrological assessment. In this study, Ashti Catchment (sub-catchment of Godavari Basin in India) is considered as a case study to evaluate the impacts of LULC changes and rainfall trends on the hydrological variables using VIC model. The land cover data and rainfall trends for 40 years (1971−2010) were used as driving input parameters to simulate the hydrological changes over the Ashti Catchment and the results are compared with observed runoff. The good agreement between observed and simulated streamflows emphasises that the VIC model is able to evaluate the hydrological changes within the major catchment, satisfactorily. Further, the study shows that evapotranspiration is predominantly governed by the vegetation classes. Evapotranspiration is higher for the forest cover as compared to the evapotranspiration for shrubland/grassland, as the trees with deeper roots draws the soil moisture from the deeper soil layers. The results show that the spatial extent of change in rainfall trends is small as compared to the total catchment. The hydrological response of the catchment shows that small changes in monsoon rainfall predominantly contribute to runoff, which results in higher changes in runoff as the potential evapotranspiration within the catchments is achieved. The study also emphasises that the hydrological implications of climate change are not very significant on the Ashti Catchment, during the last 40 years (1971−2010).

  5. Assessment of LULC and climate change on the hydrology of Ashti Catchment, India using VIC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengade, Narendra; Eldho, T. I.

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of land use land cover (LULC) and climate change over the hydrology of a catchment has become inevitable and is an essential aspect to understand the water resources-related problems within the catchment. For large catchments, mesoscale models such as variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model are required for appropriate hydrological assessment. In this study, Ashti Catchment (sub-catchment of Godavari Basin in India) is considered as a case study to evaluate the impacts of LULC changes and rainfall trends on the hydrological variables using VIC model. The land cover data and rainfall trends for 40 years (1971-2010) were used as driving input parameters to simulate the hydrological changes over the Ashti Catchment and the results are compared with observed runoff. The good agreement between observed and simulated streamflows emphasises that the VIC model is able to evaluate the hydrological changes within the major catchment, satisfactorily. Further, the study shows that evapotranspiration is predominantly governed by the vegetation classes. Evapotranspiration is higher for the forest cover as compared to the evapotranspiration for shrubland/grassland, as the trees with deeper roots draws the soil moisture from the deeper soil layers. The results show that the spatial extent of change in rainfall trends is small as compared to the total catchment. The hydrological response of the catchment shows that small changes in monsoon rainfall predominantly contribute to runoff, which results in higher changes in runoff as the potential evapotranspiration within the catchments is achieved. The study also emphasises that the hydrological implications of climate change are not very significant on the Ashti Catchment, during the last 40 years (1971-2010).

  6. Life-size experimentation of bioengineering for sedimentation control in eroded marly gullies (Francon catchment, Draix, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.; Mathys, N.; Puëch, C.; Jardin, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    On marly eroded terrains of the French Southern Alps, many researches are undertaken in order to better understand the role of vegetation and bioengineering works on erosion and sedimentation control. These researches in particular made it possible to develop tools of ecological engineering bound for the practitioners in order to conceive operations for mitigation of damage related to soil erosion. In particular they are methods of diagnosis and strategies for action with bioengineering techniques. These tools must make it possible to guide the choice of the gullies to be rehabilitated and that of the types of works of vegetalisation to be used, in particular via the establishment and the use of a gully typology. Before passing to phases of real use of these tools through expertise, as this is today considered on the scale of the large catchment area of the Durance in France (4000 km²), it appeared convenient to carry out a life-size test of application of these tools. This test was carried out on the marly catchment of Francon (73 ha), which belongs to the experimental complex of Draix (04), labellized Observatoire of Research in Environment (ORE) and of which the objectives are to improve knowledge on the formation of floods and bedload transport in small mountainous marly catchments. On this basin, 30 gullies, representing a total surface area of approximately 20 ha, were thus identified like "ecologically suitable for rehabilitation", i.e. on which it appeared possible and convenient to install bioengineering works. This test thus made it possible to check the relevance of the tools proposed to apply an action with bioengineering. An ecological operation of rehabilitation of this basin, carried out jointly with the French ‘Office National des Forêts (ONF)', was then carried out in April 2008 in accordance with the test results. It consisted of the construction of 672 bioengineering works, namely of "brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood

  7. About some problems related to collective expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davidova

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The collective process of assessment of difficult objects and situations is based, as it is well known, on using of people-experts as measuring instruments. Following this terminology, we should take the selection of suitable instruments as elements of collective expertise, their pre-tuning and coordination, selection of measuring scales, measurement execution by itself, rejection of some instruments according to the results of measurements, also revelation of credible final result by comparing the displayed data of separate instruments. In spite of the effectiveness of the above shown analogy, it is not, of course, entirely correct. Imperfection of this comparison is revealed particularly while trying the computer to automatize the process of collective expertise. The goal of this article is in determination of possible limits of computer supporting of collective expertise, also in analysis of some paradoxes and contradictions that are met on different stages of the expertise. For the future there will be taken into consideration some restrictions.

  8. Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  9. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives a

  10. Traumatic brain injuries: Forensic and expertise aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuleković Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Traumatic brain injuries have major socio-economic importance due to their frequency, high mortality and serious consequences. According to their nature the consequences of these injuries may be classified as neurological, psychiatric and esthetic. Various lesions of brain structures cause neurological consequences such as disturbance of motor functions, sensibility, coordination or involuntary movements, speech disturbances and other deviations, as well as epilepsy. Psychiatric consequences include cognitive deficit, emotional disturbances and behavior disturbances. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries and litigation. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries expertise understands the qualification of these injuries as mild, serious and qualified serious body injuries as well as the expertise about the mechanisms of their occurrence. Litigation expertise includes the estimation of pain, fear, diminished, i.e. lost vital activity and disability, esthetic marring, and psychological suffer based on the diminished general vital activity and esthetic marring. Competence and timing of expertise. Evaluation of consequences of traumatic brain injuries should be performed only when it can be positively confirmed that they are permanent, i.e. at least one year after the injury. Expertise of these injuries is interdisciplinary. Among clinical doctors the most competent medical expert is the one who is in charge for diagnostics and injury treatment, with the recommendation to avoid, if possible, the doctor who conducted treatment. For the estimation of general vital activity, the neurological consequences, pain and esthetic marring expertise, the most competent doctors are neurosurgeon and neurologist. Psychological psychiatric consequences and fear expertise have to be performed by the psychiatrist. Specialists of forensic medicine contribute with knowledge of criminal low and legal expertise.

  11. Choking RECtified: embodied expertise beyond Dreyfus

    OpenAIRE

    Hutto, Daniel D.; Sánchez García, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    On a Dreyfusian account performers choke when they reflect upon and interfere with established routines of purely embodied expertise. This basic explanation of choking remains popular even today and apparently enjoys empirical support. Its driving insight can be understood through the lens of diverse philosophical visions of the embodied basis of expertise. These range from accounts of embodied cognition that are ultra conservative with respect to representational theories of cognition to tho...

  12. E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise: Does Expertise in System Change Management and Information Technology Auditing Mediate E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish PATHAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A global survey of 203 E-commerce auditors was conducted to investigate the perceptions about the potential determinants of expertise in E-commerce audits. We hypothesize and find evidence indicating that information technology and communication expertise are positively related to expertise in E-commerce audit judgment. We also find that system change management expertise and information technology audit expertise mediate this relationship.

  13. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W

    2017-02-10

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, amphibians, crayfish and turtles alongside key features within and between catchments, such as topography and connectivity. Several methodologies were used to combine these dimensions across a variety of future climate change models and scenarios. The resulting indices were overlaid to assess the vulnerability of European freshwater ecosystems at the catchment scale (18 783 catchments). The Balkan Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and Mediterranean islands emerge as most vulnerable to climate change. For the 2030s, we showed a consensus among the applied methods whereby up to 573 lake and river catchments are highly vulnerable to climate change. The anthropogenic disruption of hydrological habitat connectivity by dams is the major factor reducing climate change resilience. A gap analysis demonstrated that the current European protected area network covers climate change. Priority should be placed on enhancing stakeholder cooperation at the major basin scale towards preventing further degradation of freshwater ecosystems and maintaining connectivity among catchments. The catchments identified as most vulnerable to climate change provide preliminary targets for development of climate change conservation management and mitigation strategies.

  14. The relative influence of climate and catchment properties on hydrological drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Koffler, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Studying hydrological drought (a below-normal water availability in groundwater, lakes and streams) is important to society and the ecosystem, but can also reveal interesting information about catchment functioning. This information can later be used for predicting drought in ungauged basins and to inform water management decisions. In this study, we used an extensive Austrian dataset of discharge measurements in clusters of catchments and combine this dataset with thematic information on climate and catchment properties. Our aim was to study the relative effects of climate and catchment characteristics on drought duration and deficit and on hydrological drought typology. Because the climate of the region is roughly uniform, our hypothesis was that the effect of differences of catchment properties would stand out. From time series of precipitation and discharge we identified droughts with the widely-used threshold level approach, defining a drought when a variable falls below a pre-defined threshold representing the regime. Drought characteristics that were analysed are drought duration and deficit. We also applied the typology of Van Loon & Van Lanen (2012). To explain differences in drought characteristics between catchments we did a correlation analysis with climate and catchment characteristics, based on Pearson correlation. We found very interesting patterns in the correlations of drought characteristics with climate and catchment properties: 1) Droughts with long duration (mean and maximum) and composite droughts are related to catchments with a high BFI (high baseflow) and a high percentage of shallow groundwater tables. 2) The deficit (mean and maximum) of both meteorological droughts and hydrological droughts is strongly related to catchment humidity, in this case quantified by average annual precipitation. 3) The hydrological drought types that are related to snow, i.e. cold snow season drought and snow melt drought, occur in catchments that are have a

  15. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also...... the simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...

  16. Longterm Measurements of Bedload-Transport in alpine Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achleitner, Stefan; Kammerlander, Johannes; Eichner, Bernhard; Schöber, Johannes; Chiari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the necessity of predicting the long-term behavior of sediment transport has increased. On the one hand, the effects of technical measures (e.g. retaining measures, hydropower, etc.) in the natural system are to be evaluated. On the other hand long term ecological studies that are strongly linked to the sediment budgets and its variation are more and more evolving. The ACRP Project DevoBeta-CC addresses the dynamics of long term sediment transport dynamics and its temporal altering. The focus is put on smaller tributary catchments enabling the model development. In total the data from ten catchments connected to the hydropower station Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) and eleven catchments linked to the power plant group Sellrain-Silz (Tyrol/Austria) are available. The considered catchments vary regarding their characteristics such as size (3 km³ to 27 km²), glaciation (0 % to 53 %), mean catchment slope (53 % to 92 %) and mean channel gradient (4 % to 49 %). The main data basis are records from the water intake structures operated (partly since 1965) by the TIWAG (Tiroler Wasserkraft AG). The sedimentation dynamics and operational flushings of the connected settling basins are used to measure the transported sediments. Since 1985 even high resolution data (15min intervals) are available. At selected catchments, the operationally recorded data (flushings, load membrane measurements,...) are verified within measuring campaigns using bed load traps upstream. Further, the sedimentation dynamics and grain size distributions in the settling basins are evaluated. Therefor two water intakes were put temporally out of operation, allowing an improved measurement of settled volumes by means of terrestrial surveying. Uncertainty assessments reveal an overall accuracy of estimated annual bed load volumes lower than a factor of two. Additionally, the data set enables to address sediment transport at a sub-annual basis, hence, the presented data set is unique regarding

  17. 巢湖流域丰乐河洪水事件营养盐输出动态研究%DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF NUTRIENT EXPORT DURING FLOOD EVENTS FROM FENGLE RIVER CATCHMENT OF CHAO LAKE BASIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储茵; 潮洪武; 马友华; 郑珊珊; 潘应生

    2013-01-01

    洪水期是非点源污染输出的关键时期.通过对巢湖典型农业型流域丰乐河桃溪断面两次暴雨洪水过程(发生于2010年6月初的Event06和8月底的Event08)进行集中取样监测,结合该断面流量数据,分析了洪水过程中氮和磷营养盐不同指标(包括总氮、铵氮、硝态氮、总磷和可溶磷)浓度和瞬时负荷的动态变化规律.结果表明:Event06氮磷各指标浓度最小值、最大值及平均值均比Event08大,这与6月初农作物大量施肥,氮磷来源丰富有很大关系.丰乐河洪水事件氮输出的形式以可溶性无机氮(铵氮和硝态氮)为主,而磷则以颗粒态为主,但在涨水段的初、中期颗粒态氮和颗粒态磷所占比例比其它时段高.洪水过程中主要氮、磷指标浓度和瞬时负荷随流量增大而总体呈上升趋势(除了硝态氮),在流量峰值前达到最大值,然后呈总体下降趋势.总磷、总氮浓度与流量呈比较典型的顺时针圈形结构,表明暴雨洪水较强烈的冲刷输送作用.虽然进一步的负荷累积分析并没有显示显著的初期冲刷效应,但洪水期,特别是涨水段营养盐输出的重要性已较明显.丰乐河流域面积较大、地势较平坦,以农业活动为主,水体污染的非点源来源与农业活动有关,具体的洪水过程对营养盐的输出动态也有一定影响.%Non-point source pollutants are mainly transported during flood events.The Fengle River,one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake in the middle-east part of China,was chosen to study non-point source nutrient export characteristics in a large-sized agricultural catchment.Two summer events (Event06,in the beginning of June and Event08,at the end of August,2010) were intensively sampled at Taoxi section of the river and analyzed for Total Nitrogen (TN),Ammonia,Nitrate,Total Phosphorus (TP) and Dissolved Phosphorus.Hourly discharge and rainfall data were also available at the same section.The drainage

  18. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  19. Arnetminer: expertise oriented search using social networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanzi LI; Jie TANG; Jing ZHANG; Qiong LUO; Yunhao LIU; Mingcai HONG

    2008-01-01

    Expertise Oriented Search (EOS) aims at pro-viding comprehensive expertise analysis on data from dis-tributed sources. It is useful in many application domains, for example, finding experts on a given topic, detecting the confliction of interest between researchers, and assigning reviewers to proposals. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our expertise oriented search system, Arnetminer (http://www.arnetminer.net). Arnetminer has gathered and integrated information about a half-million computer science researchers from the Web, including their profiles and publications. Moreover, Arnetminer constructs a social network among these researchers through their co-authorship, and utilizes this network information as well as the individual profiles to facilitate expertise oriented search tasks. In particular, the co-authorship information is used both in ranking the expertise of individual researchers for a given topic and in searching for associations between researchers. We have conducted initial experiments on Arnetminer. Our results demonstrate that the proposed relevancy propagation expert finding method outperforms the method that only uses person local information, and the proposed two-stage association search on a large-scale social network is order of magnitude faster than the baseline method.

  20. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  1. Source and transport factors influencing storm phosphorus losses in agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; kelly-quinn, Mary; Wall, David; Murphy, Paul; Melland, Alice

    2014-05-01

    The relative risk of diffuse phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land was assessed in a well-drained arable catchment and a poorly-drained grassland catchment and in two nested basins within each catchment. This research investigated the relative control of hydrology and soil P on P losses between basins. Quick flow (QF) P losses (defined here as both concentrations and loads), monitored in stream flow during four storm events, were compared with a dynamic metric of transport risk (QF magnitude) and a static metric of critical source area (CSA) risk (extent of highly-connected poorly-drained soils with excess plant-available soil P). The potential for static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class, to predict relative QF magnitudes and P losses between basins was also investigated. In basins with similar CSA risk but with contrasting QF magnitudes, mean TRP (total molybdate-reactive P) losses were consistently higher in the basins which had the highest QF magnitudes. This suggests that basin hydrology, rather than hydrology of high-P soils only, determined relative TRP losses between hydrologically contrasting basins. Furthermore, static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class reliably discerned relative QF magnitudes and TRP losses between these basins. However, for two of the storm events (both occurring during the hydrologically active season), PP (particulate P) concentrations were frequently higher in basins which had the lowest QF magnitudes and may be attributed to a higher proportion of bare soil in these basins at these times as a result of their predominantly arable nature. In basins with similar hydrology, relative TRP and PP losses did not reflect trends in CSA risk or QF magnitude. The dynamics of TRP and PP losses and QF magnitude between these basins varied across storms, thus could not be predicted using static metrics. Where differences in hydrological dynamics were large, storm TRP losses were well

  2. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  3. Keeping it simple: a conceptual model of DOC dynamics in a subarctic alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessels, J. S.; Tetzlaff, D.; Carey, S. K.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding hydrological processes in subarctic alpine catchments characterised with discontinuous permafrost is important in order to understand carbon exports. Subarctic catchments have large storages of carbon in organic and permafrost soils. Active layer depth is one of the largest controlling factors of the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) due to its control on runoff pathways. Therefore, any change of this depth will affect the amount of DOC mobilised from these catchments. Simple low parameterised conceptual models offer the ability to characterise hydrological processes and linked DOC dynamics without introducing many of the uncertainties linked to high parameterised models. Lumped models can also be used to identify sources of DOC within catchments. Here, we investigate hydrological sources, flow pathways and consequently DOC dynamics in the Granger Basin, Canada, a subarctic alpine catchment using data collected from 2001 to 2008. The catchment is distinguished by aspect dependant discontinuous permafrost and seasonal frost, compounded further by differences in soil and vegetation types. Applying a simple low parameterised conceptual model allowed identification of the dominant flow paths of the main hydrological response units. The results showed that it was necessary to include active layer dynamics combined with aspect to represent the hydrological and DOC dynamics. The model provides information on the effect of climatic conditions on DOC releases. By identifying the key flow paths and relating these to spring freshet DOC exports over multiple years it is possible to gain an insight of the how climatic changes might affect hydrological processes within subarctic catchments.

  4. Digital Student Expertise in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie

    all around the world and their entry has not escaped the attention from teachers, school managers and policy makers. A current trend within education management, in Denmark as well as internationally, is to incorporate the students’ digital skills or ‘expertise’ as a resource in teaching, e.g. through...... digital student production (Sørensen 2010). This trend is based on the widespread idea that students of the digital generation by default are competent and creative users of technology in virtue of their early interaction with technology, and that the digital expertise resides within the individual...... student (e.g. Bennett et. al. 2008, Helsper & Eynon 2009). In this paper I go beyond the idea of digital expertise as something intrinsic. Building on STS’s central notion of performativity (e.g. Law & Singleton 2000) the paper argues that digital expertise should be studied as a temporary achievement...

  5. [False forensic expertise--analysis of occurrences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Main problems that await the modern Polish forensic psychiatry are presented. The most common mistakes made in forensic expertise are discussed and their causes are shown. The need for a change in the manner of teaching forensic psychiatry at an academic, as well as post graduate level to medical students/doctors as well as law officials, has been stressed. The criteria for calling on experts, system of control and evaluation of the expertise formulated and rules of payment to the experts--all need changing. The altered criminal structure and possibilities of putting pressure on experts through corruption, threatening or blackmail were noted. The clearly defined status of the forensic psychiatric expert gives him a guarantee of legal defence and through this an unbiased position. Giving forensic expertise is not only part of the diagnostics in forensic psychiatry. An even layout of protection, treatment and rehabilitation of psychiatrically ill criminals has to be present in this system.

  6. Use of remote sensing for hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically-based water balance models require a realistic parameterisation of land surface characteristics of a catchment. Alpine areas are very complex with strong topographically-induced gradients of environmental conditions, which makes the hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments difficult. Within a few kilometres the water balance of a region (mountain peak or valley can differ completely. Hence, remote sensing is invaluable for retrieving hydrologically relevant land surface parameters. The assimilation of the retrieved information into the water balance model PROMET is demonstrated for the Toce basin in Piemonte/Northern Italy. In addition to land use, albedos and leaf area indices were derived from LANDSAT-TM imagery. Runoff, modelled by a water balance approach, agreed well with observations without calibration of the hydrological model. Keywords: PROMET, fuzzy logic based land use classification, albedo, leaf area index

  7. Catchment Very-High Frequency Hydrochemistry: the Critex Chemical House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floury, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Tallec, G.; Blanchouin, A.; Ansart, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploring the variations of river quality at very high frequency is still a big challenge that has fundamental implications both for understanding catchment ecosystems and for water quality monitoring. Within the French Critical Zone program CRITEX, we have proposed to develop a prototype called "Chemical House", applying the "lab on field" concept to one of the stream of the Orgeval Critical Zone Observatory. The Orgeval catchment (45 km2) is part of the Critical Zone RBV ("Réseau des bassins versants") network. It is a typical temperate agricultural catchment that has been intensively monitored for the last 50 years for hydrology and nutrient chemistry. Agricultural inputs and land use are also finely monitored making Orgeval an ideal basin to test the response of the Critical Zone to agricultural forcing. Geology consists of a typical sedimentary basin of Cenozoic age with horizontal layers of limestones, silcrete and marls, covered by a thin loamy layer. Two main aquifers are present within the catchment: the Brie and the Champigny aquifers. Mean runoff is 780 mm/yr. The Chemical House is a fully automated lab and installed directly along the river, which performs measurement of all major dissolved elements such as Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, NO3, SO4 and K every half hour. It also records all physical parameters (Temperature, pH, conductivity, O2 dissolved, Turbidity) of the water every minute. Orgeval Chemical House started to measure river chemistry on June 12, 2015 and has successfully now recorded several months of data. We will present the architecture of the Chemical House and the first reproducibility and accuracy tests made during the summer drought 2015 period. Preliminary results show that the chemical house is recoding significant nychtemeral (day/night) cycles for each element. We also observe that each element has its own behaviour along a day. First results open great prospects.

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of off-slope sediment delivery for small catchments subject to shallow landslides within the Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katie E.; Preston, Nicholas J.

    2012-03-01

    The Waipaoa catchment in New Zealand has one of the highest measured specific suspended sediment yields measured in New Zealand compared to basins of comparable size. A significant source of this sediment is from shallow landslides which are often triggered on a regional scale during large magnitude storm events, defined as ~ 200 mm rainfall within 72 h. The first step of this sediment cascade is removal of landslide material from the slope and into the fluvial system when the debris tail is in physical contact and hence considered connected. The difference between the volume of sediment liberated in the event and the volume remaining on the slope immediately following the event is termed the off-slope sediment delivery ratio. This value ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 for small sub-catchments within the Waipaoa catchment depending on catchment morphology, landslide and triggering event characteristics. In the Waipaoa catchment a decrease in the catchment sediment delivery ratio is observed as the sub-catchment size increased. A human induced process which may affect off-slope sediment delivery is regolith exhaustion, as scars move further upslope in response to removal of preferred weathered material during previous events on the lower sections of slope. However, it appears that temporal scar migration away from the channels is not prevalent. Therefore, the hypothesis that hillslope relaxation since deforestation is prevalent in this setting is considered null. Rather the temporal pattern to sediment delivery ratios supports the context of evolving catchment in response to deforestation in the Terrain Event Resistance Model.

  9. The politics of expertise in participatory forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kathryn E.; Lund, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    residents, only the exclusive and antidemocratic consequences of the way it comes to be reproduced. Based on our study, we call for a careful reconsideration of the framing of participatory forestry approaches as professionalization to strike a balance between the need for expertise and the costs...

  10. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge.

  11. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  12. The Politics of Financial Regulation Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Cornel; Seabrooke, Leonard; Freitas, Sarah

    banking is treated. In so doing, these technocrats reinforced each other’s expertise and excluded some potential competitors (legal scholars), coopted others (select Fed and elite academic economists). The findings have important implications for studying the relationship between IOs technocrats...

  13. Orchestrating Expertise in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Kathryn M.; Scheffel, Tara-Lynn; Rich, Sharon; Heydon, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention focused on the economic cache afforded through literacy and numeracy skills, governments around the world have turned their attention to developing the expertise of their teachers. Improving teachers' levels of competency leads to improvement in student achievement. In this qualitative case study, we focus on the…

  14. Expertise in Psychological Inquiry: A Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert

    The ways in which experience and academic training influence the types of questions therapists ask of their clients were studied. Psychologists and psychology students of varying degrees of expertise (n=138) were provided an artificial intelligence program that simulated a date rape client's responses to typed questions and were asked to conduct a…

  15. Universities and the Public Recognition of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that new sites of knowledge production, increasingly cultivated by the mass media, are threatening the role of academics and universities as traditional sources of expertise. Drawing upon the conceptual categories of Pierre Bourdieu, the article suggests an alternative way of understanding this "crisis of legitimacy."

  16. The committee of scientific expertise coordination; Le comite de coordination d'expertise scientifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Placed under the MIES control, the Committee of scientific expertise coordination defines the needs, the contain and the planing of expertises realized in function of Climate national and international decisions and negotiations calendars. The Committee verifies the different expertises and offers the administrations, scientific tools and techniques useful for the negotiations. It can also define long-dated research needs which require the scientific community mobilization. This paper provides some document of the Committee: objectives, operating and priorities of the Committee, scenarios ''Factor 4'' and ''crack technology'', perceptions and practices, developing countries (China, India...), Euromed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-10-01

    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  18. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  19. Transit times of water particles in the vadose zone across catchment states and catchments functional units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the water movement in the vadose zone and its associated transport of solutes are of major interest to reduce nutrient leaching, pollution transport or other risks to water quality. Soil physical models are widely used to asses such transport processes, while the site specific parameterization of these models remains challenging. Inverse modeling is a common method to adjust the soil physical parameters in a way that the observed water movement or soil water dynamics are reproduced by the simulation. We have shown that the pore water stable isotope concentration can serve as an additional fitting target to simulate the solute transport and water balance in the unsaturated zone. In the presented study, the Mualem- van Genuchten parameters for the Richards equation and diffusivity parameter for the convection-dispersion equation have been parameterized using the inverse model approach with Hydrus-1D for 46 experimental sites of different land use, topography, pedology and geology in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. With the best parameter set we simulated the transport of a conservative solute that was introduced via a pulse input at different points in time. Thus, the transit times in the upper 2 m of the soil for different catchment states could be inferred for each location. It has been shown that the time a particle needs to pass the -2 m depth plane highly varies from the systems state and the systems forcing during and after infiltration of that particle. Differences in transit times among the study sites within the Attert basin were investigated with regards to its governing factors to test the concept of functional units. The study shows the potential of pore water stable isotope concentration for residence times and transport analyses in the unsaturated zone leading to a better understanding of the time variable subsurface processes across the catchment.

  20. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  1. Nivní malakofauna povodí Úštěckého potoka a její vývoj během holocénu The floodplain mollusc fauna of the Úštěcký Brook catchment basin and its development during the Holocene (North Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research of floodplain mollusc assemblages of the Úštěcký Brook catchment basin (Elbe tributary, North Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 71 mollusc species (69 species of Gastropoda, 2 species of Bivalvia were recorded in the study sites between 2007 and 2011, representing 29% of the total Czech malacofauna. The common forest species dominated (41% of all recorded species and included some rare woodland species as Daudebardia rufa, Discus perspectivus, Macrogastra ventricosa, and Sphyradium doliolum. Rare wetland species protected by the NATURA system Vertigo angustior and endangered wetland species Vallonia enniensis were also found. The richest assemblages occurred on the upper part of the brook, while the lower part was very species poor due to agriculture land use in this fertile floodplain. A small calcareous moorland, situated in the northeastern vicinity of Úštěk Town (north Bohemia includes a Holocene mollusc succession that was subdivided into three local mollusc zones: I – basal zone with marked numbers of Discus ruderatus, Vertigo geyeri and numerous aquatic taxa, II – with forest species including Platyla polita and III – dominated by open-ground and catholic species. Despite the specific conditions of the moorland habitat the succession largely corresponds with the standard developmental pattern of the mollusc fauna in the zone of mid-European uplands. Of particular interest is the developmental break reflected by the poor fauna in the layer 3. The malacofauna of the Úštěcký Brook can be used as a model of alluvial mollusc assemblages of the brook floodplain that is situated in the warm area of Central Europe with long-term history of agriculture land use.

  2. Hydrological forecasting in catchments with glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahat, Angèle

    2015-01-01

    The runoff forecast is crucial in Norway because the country bases most of its electricity from hydropower. The hydrological model has thus been improved for years in order to foresee the runoff in the best possible way. In Norway, there are many catchments with extensive water storage: glaciers. Those catchments represent a significant part of the catchments where hydropower is produced. Therefore knowing the right amount of outflow from a catchment with glaciers is essential but more challe...

  3. Using isotope, hydrochemical methods and energy-balance modelling to estimate contribution of different components to flow forming process in a high-altitude catchment (Dzhancuat river basin case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Chizhova, Julia; Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Tokarev, Igor; Budantseva, Nadine; Vasilchuk, Yurij

    2016-04-01

    A multicomponent structure of sources of river runoff formation is characteristic of high-altitude territories: ice and firn melting; seasonal snow melting on glacier covered and non-glacier area of a watershed; liquid precipitation; underground waters. In addition, each of these components can run off the watershed surface in different ways. Use of isotopic, hydrochemical methods and energy balance modelling provides possibility to estimate contribution of different components to river runoff that is an essential to understand the mechanism of flow formation in mountainious areas. A study was carried out for Dzhancuat river basin that was chosen as representative for North Caucasus in course of the International Hydrological Decade. Complex glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observation have been carried in the basin since 1965. In years 2013-2015 the program also included daily collecting of water samples on natural stable isotopes on the Dzhancuat river gauging station, and sampling water nourishment sources (ice, snow, firn, liquid precipitation) within the study area. More then 800 water samples were collected. Application of an energy balance model of snow and ice melt with distributed parameters provided an opportunity to identify Dzhancuat river runoff respond to glaciers melt regime and seasonal redistribution of melt water. The diurnal amplitude of oscillation of the Dzhakuat river runoff in the days without precipitation is formed by melting at almost snow-free areas of the Dzhancuat glacier tongues. Snowmelt water from the non-glacierized part contributes to the formation of the next day runoff. A wave of snow and firn melt in upper zones of glacier flattens considerably during filtration through snow and run-off over the surface and in the body of the glacier. This determines a general significant inertia of the Dzhacuat river runoff. Some part of melt water is stored into natural regulating reservoirs of the watershed that supply the

  4. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H.; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of d

  5. AN APPROACH TO THE MODEL USE FOR MEASURING SUSPENDED SEDIMENT YIELD IN UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS

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    Sokchhay Heng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of water resources studies require the information of Suspended Sediment Yield (SSY in different time resolutions. In ungauged watersheds where hydrometeorogical time series are not available, the mean annual SSY (SSYa is solely predictable and catchment area is traditionally used as the predictor because it is the most important variable and generally determined during project planning. Firstly, this research tried to advance the traditional SSYa model by additionally associating global topographic data. Based on the jack-knife procedure, the modified method considering catchment area with slope greater than 15% was evaluated in 17 gauged catchments in the Lower Mekong Basin and the overall predictive accuracy was improved about 66% in term of mean absolute percentage error. Secondly, the predicted SSYa in each modeled catchment was monthly distributed using Unit mean annual Sedimentograph (USGa. The double-average USGa superior to the single-average one provides overall better quality results than the regionalized USGa dependent upon the spatial proximity approach. The model performance measured by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE is about 0.66 in median value and satisfactory results (NSE >0.50 are obtained in 11 catchments. Lastly, the validated regional model was regarded as a potential and feasible tool in solving sediment-ungauged issues in the basin.

  6. A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective teaching requires an understanding of both what (content knowledge and how (process knowledge to teach. While previous studies involving medical students have compared preceptors with greater or lesser content knowledge, it is unclear whether process expertise can compensate for deficient content expertise. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare the effect of preceptors with process expertise to those with content expertise on medical students' learning outcomes in a structured small group environment. Methods One hundred and fifty-one first year medical students were randomized to 11 groups for the small group component of the Cardiovascular-Respiratory course at the University of Calgary. Each group was then block randomized to one of three streams for the entire course: tutoring exclusively by physicians with content expertise (n = 5, tutoring exclusively by physicians with process expertise (n = 3, and tutoring by content experts for 11 sessions and process experts for 10 sessions (n = 3. After each of the 21 small group sessions, students evaluated their preceptors' teaching with a standardized instrument. Students' knowledge acquisition was assessed by an end-of-course multiple choice (EOC-MCQ examination. Results Students rated the process experts significantly higher on each of the instrument's 15 items, including the overall rating. Students' mean score (±SD on the EOC-MCQ exam was 76.1% (8.1 for groups taught by content experts, 78.2% (7.8 for the combination group and 79.5% (9.2 for process expert groups (p = 0.11. By linear regression student performance was higher if they had been taught by process experts (regression coefficient 2.7 [0.1, 5.4], p Conclusions When preceptors are physicians, content expertise is not a prerequisite to teach first year medical students within a structured small group environment; preceptors with process expertise result in at least equivalent, if not

  7. Water Yield and Sediment Yield Simulations for Teba Catchment in Spain Using SWRRB Model: Ⅱ.Simulation Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Simulated results of water yield, sediment yield, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, peak flow, evapotranspiration, etc., in the Teba catchment, Spain, using SWRRB (Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins) model are presented and the related problems are discussed. The results showed that water yield and sediment yield could be satisfactorily simulated using SWRRB model The accuracy of the annual water yield simulation in the Teba catchment was up to 83.68%, which implied that this method could be effectively used to predict the annual or inter-annual water yield and to realize the quantification of geographic elements and processes of a river basin.``

  8. Applying different spatial distribution and modelling concepts in three nested mesoscale catchments of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, K.

    Distributed, physically based river basin models are receiving increasing importance in integrated water resources management (IWRM) in Germany and in Europe, especially after the release of the new European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Applications in mesoscale catchments require an appropriate approach to represent the spatial distribution of related catchment properties such as land use, soil physics and topography by utilizing techniques of remote sensing and GIS analyses. The challenge is to delineate scale independent homogeneous modelling entities which, on the one hand may represent the dynamics of the dominant hydrological processes and, on the other hand can be derived from spatially distributed physiographical catchment properties. This scaling problem is tackled in this regional modelling study by applying the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs). In a nested catchment approach three different modelling conceptualisations are used to describe the runoff processes: (i) the topographic stream-segment-based HRU delineation proposed by Leavesley et al. [Precipitation-Runoff-Modelling-System, User’s Manual, Water Resource Investigations Report 83-4238, US Geological Survey, 1983]; (ii) the process based physiographic HRU-concept introduced by Flügel [Hydrol. Process. 9 (1995) 423] and (iii) an advanced HRU-concept adapted from (ii), which included the topographic topology of HRU-areas and the river network developed by Staudenraush [Eco Regio 8 (2000) 121]. The influence of different boundary conditions associated with changing the landuse classes, the temporal data resolution and the landuse scenarios were investigated. The mesoscale catchment of the river Ilm ( A∼895 km 2) in Thuringia, Germany, and the Precipitation-Runoff-Modelling-System (PRMS) were selected for this study. Simulations show that the physiographic based concept is a reliable method for modelling basin dynamics in catchments up to 200 km 2 whereas in larger catchments

  9. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

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    S. Tekleab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological behavior and functioning of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach that is based on Budyko's hypotheses. The objective is to obtain better understanding of catchment response for prediction in ungauged catchments. The water balance analysis using Budyko-type curve at annual scale reveals that the aridity index does not exert a first order control in most of the catchments. This implies the need to increase model complexity to a monthly time scale to include the effects of seasonal soil moisture dynamics. The dynamic water balance model used in this study predicts the direct runoff and other processes based on limit concept. The uncertainty of model parameters has been assessed using the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation. The results show that the majority of the parameters are reasonably well identifiable. Moreover, a multi-objective model calibration strategy has been employed within the GLUE framework to emphasize the different aspects of the hydrographs on low and high flows. The model has been calibrated and validated against observed streamflow time series and it shows good performance for the twenty catchments of the upper Blue Nile. During the calibration period (1995–2000 the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency for monthly flow prediction varied between 0.52 to 0.93 during high flows, while it varied between 0.32 to 0.90 during low flows (logarithms of flow series. The model is parsimonious and it is suggested that the resulting parameters can be used to predict monthly stream flows in the ungauged catchments of the Upper Blue Nile basin, which accounts about 60% of total Nile basin flow.

  10. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

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    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  11. [Simulation of deafness in expertise affairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K; Solzbacher, D

    2005-07-01

    The simulation of deafness rarely occurs in the course of medical expertise. However, it is a problem that needs to be recognized and demonstrated by proving methods of investigation. For this purpose, a number of subjective and objective hearing tests exist which can provide evidence for the simulation of uni- or bilateral hearing loss. These methods include the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions, brainstem-evoked response audiometry and the determination of the stapedius reflex threshold as well as subjective methods such as Stenger- and Lee-test. Among the expertise carried out in our department during the past few years, we found 5 cases of simulation of deafness. In these cases -- as opposed to simulated traffic accidents -- there was no criminal prosecution regarding insurance fraud.

  12. Expertise and Processing Distorted Structure in Chess

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    James eBartlett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been or degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how the expert brain processes within-domain stimuli that have been distorted enough to be perceived as impossible or wrong, and yet still are perceived as within the domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly on the board. Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure – a kind of exploratory chunking – that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.

  13. Modelling runoff dynamics from information on river network and shape of catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugen, T.

    2009-12-01

    In a new approach, the dynamics of discharge is derived from the distribution of distances to the nearest river reach within a natural catchment. The river network and the shape of catchment provide a unique distribution function for each catchment which can be determined from a GIS. The distribution can be considered as a detailed description of the drainage density, where the location of the river relative to the catchment is taken into account. Within a fixed time interval, water flows through the catchment a certain distance which defines a fractional area. This fraction is estimated as an area enveloping the river network, whose width, perpendicular to the river network, is determined for the time interval of interest by the flow velocity. For a constant flow velocity, the time steps define adjacent areas which , for a sufficient number of time intervals, cover the entire catchment. For different flow velocities, we have different horizontal layers and the total discharge is the sum of discharge from each of the layers for each time step. The proposed principle for modelling the dynamics of discharge is implemented in the Swedish HBV model. The new model, named 3D (distance distribution dynamics), has the same precision as the HBV model but requires fewer parameters and represents thus a step in the right direction for meeting the challenge of predictions in ungauged basins.

  14. Effects of expertise on football betting

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...

  15. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  16. Seeing Fluid Physics via Visual Expertise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Goodman, Katherine; Curran, Tim

    2016-11-01

    In a course on Flow Visualization, students often expressed that their perception of fluid flows had increased, implying the acquisition of a type of visual expertise, akin to that of radiologists or dog show judges. In the first steps towards measuring this expertise, we emulated an experimental design from psychology. The study had two groups of participants: "novices" with no formal fluids education, and "experts" who had passed as least one fluid mechanics course. All participants were trained to place static images of fluid flows into two categories (laminar and turbulent). Half the participants were trained on flow images with a specific format (Von Kármán vortex streets), and the other half on a broader group. Novices' results were in line with past perceptual expertise studies, showing that it is easier to transfer learning from a broad category to a new specific format than vice versa. In contrast, experts did not have a significant difference between training conditions, suggesting the experts did not undergo the same learning process as the novices. We theorize that expert subjects were able to access their conceptual knowledge about fluids to perform this new, visual task. This finding supports new ways of understanding conceptual learning.

  17. A Sociological Analysis of Ethical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Emmerich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a theoretical and conceptual account for the analysis of contemporary ethical or “bioethical” expertise. The substantive focus is on the academic discipline of bioethics—understood as a “practical” or “applied” ethics—and its relationship to medicine and medical ethics. I draw intellectual inspiration from the sociology of science and make use of research into the idea of “expertise” per se. In so doing, I am attempting to move the debate beyond the limitations placed upon it by philosophical or meta-ethical analysis and develop a perspective than can be used to address the sociological reality of (bioethical expertise. To do so, I offer the terms ethos and eidos to provide a basic conceptual framework for the sociological analysis of “morality” and “ethics.” I then turn to an exegesis of Collins and Evans’s account of ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise and situate these topics in relation to academic bioethics and medical practice. My account suggests a particular understanding of the kinds of relationships that “bioethics” should seek to foster with the social fields it endeavors to not only comment on but also influence.

  18. Intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Jameson

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Intuitive expertise in the application of advanced interdisciplinary facilitation is the subject of this personal reflection on the graduate supervisory style of Professor David Squires in computers in education. This single-case reflective study examines the characteristics of effective supervision observed during masters and doctoral supervision at King's College in the years 1990-9. Interdisciplinarity in ICT graduate studies particularly requires a fluency of supervisory expertise in enabling supervisees to combine multiple complex perspectives from a number of fields of knowledge. Intuitive combinatory aspects of supervision are highlighted in this reflection on the role carried out by an academic expert in facilitating student success. This is examined from a perspective incorporating affective as well as intellectual elements, informed by characteristics identified in professional sports and performing arts coaching/mentoring. Key characteristics comprising a model of intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision were outlined. The resultant portrait aims to complement existing literature on graduate supervision, with reference to the field of ICTI computers in education relating to student hypermedia composition.

  19. Conflict Resolution and Public Participation Center of Expertise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — On October 17, 2008, the Conflict Resolution and Public Participation Center (CPCX) was named a Corps Center of Expertise (CX) and Directory of Expertise (DX). The...

  20. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stabl

  1. Potential possibilities of water retention in agricultural loess catchments

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    Zubala Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing water deficit and the increased demand for water, as well as economic problems and inadequate spatial planning in many regions indicate a necessity of developing more effective rules of programming and realisation of works concerning the water management in small catchments. The paper presents a sample analysis of the possibilities of increasing water retention in the agricultural loess catchments with periodic streams. The scope of the study included the determination of physical parameters of selected sub-catchments (geometry, soil cover, land use, etc. and of the sources of threat to water resources, resulting from construction and geomorphological conditions. Pre-design assumptions of dammings were developed, taking into account anti-erosion protective measures, and treatments increasing the landscape retention of water were proposed. Creating surface retention objects should be an important source of water in simplified agroecosystems, especially in regions, where productivity to a great extent depends on natural weather conditions. Proper management of the fourth-order loess basin of the Ciemięga River (area of about 150 km2, the presence of 50 lateral valleys could give a temporary reservoir retention reaching 500 thousand m3. Farmers should be encouraged to seek “own water sources” (including the accumulation of water within wasteland, using appropriate economic instruments (tax reliefs for the documented volume of retained water, e.g. in small retention reservoirs.

  2. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Wagener, T.; Sawicz, K.

    2013-06-01

    release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less) E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more) efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungauged basins.

  3. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: Signatures of catchment co-evolution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.; Sivapalan, M.; Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.

    2013-12-01

    release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less) E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more) efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungaged basins.

  4. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Troch

    2013-06-01

    subsurface storage release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungauged basins.

  5. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of expertise and ability. 205.504 Section 205... expertise and ability. A private or governmental entity seeking accreditation as a certifying agent must submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  6. Measuring the Learning-Centered Leadership Expertise of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Huff, Jason; Spillane, James P.; Barnes, Carol

    2009-01-01

    We as a field believe that school principals can acquire new expertise by participating in principal preparation and professional development programs; however, we have few methodologies to measure leadership expertise, especially expertise that links leadership to improved student learning. In this article, we present the results of a study that…

  7. Expertise in Clinical Pathology: Combining the Visual and Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2)…

  8. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  9. An Evaluation Framework of Expertise Presence in Computer Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Andrew K.; Tsang, Philip; Kwan, Reggie; Ng, Sin Chun; Cheung, Yannie H. Y.; Choy, Sheung On

    2007-01-01

    Currently, for educators and researchers, diagnosing the online interactions specifically related to knowledge and expertise exchanges is challenging. To address the problem, this paper describes a framework for the understanding and measurement of expertise presence in computer conferences. Expertise presence is defined as a persistent…

  10. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża, quickly react to any excess water. Heavy rain combined with the discharge of water through the storm sewer system results of increasing the flow and runoff in streams, among others, Strzyża river.

  11. Neighbourhood catchments: a new approach for achieving ownership and change in catchment and stream management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C; Rohde, K; Millar, G; Dougall, C; Stevens, S; Ritchie, R; Lewis, S

    2002-01-01

    The Neighbourhood Catchment approach integrates land and stream management practices at a property and through to a local catchment scale, links production and environmental goals, and is a building block to achieve ownership and change at a sub-catchment scale and larger. Research conducted in two 'focus' Neighbourhood Catchments has shown that land management practices that retain >30% soil cover reduce sediment movement to streams. The Neighbourhood Catchment approach engages both early and cautious adopters, and enables continuous improvement of resource management to take place, and be recorded at an individual property and local catchment scale.

  12. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Barquín, J.

    2011-09-01

    One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2), in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  13. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  14. Loss of clinical nursing expertise: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Jane Marie

    2012-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that there is a general decline in clinical expertise in nursing as a result of experienced clinicians leaving the profession. The expertise of clinical nursing practice is an important resource and needs to be captured and made available to others as loss of this knowledge and expertise has implications for clinical outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the current nursing workforce, loss of clinical expertise, the nature of expertise and the way it can be captured. Clarification and articulation of clinical knowledge of nursing experts provides the means for knowledge to be transferred to a less experienced workforce and be available in an accessible form in the workplace. Leverage of nursing expertise in this manner has the potential to benefit less experienced staff, hold clinical nursing expertise in the workplace and improve clinical outcomes and satisfaction with performance.

  15. Important progress on the use of isotope techniques and methods in catchment hydrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The use of isotope techniques and methods in catchment hydrology in the last 50 years has generated two major types of progress: (1) Assessment of the temporal variations of the major stocks and flows of water in catchments, from which the estimation of wa-ter residence times is introduced in this paper. (2) Assessment of catchment hydrologic processes, in which the interactions be-tween different waters, hydrographical separation, and bio-geochemical process are described by using isotopes tracers. Future progress on isotope techniques and methods in hydrology is toward the understanding of the hydrological process in large river basins. Much potential also waits realization in terms of how isotope information may be used to calibrate and test distributed rainfall-runoff models and regarding aid in the quantification of sustainable water resources management.

  16. What is special about expertise? Visual expertise reveals the interactive nature of real-world object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf

    2016-03-01

    Ever since Diamond and Carey (1986. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen., vol. 115, pp. 107-117) seminal work, the main model for studying expertise in visual object recognition ("visual expertise") has been face perception. The underlying assumption was that since faces may be considered the ultimate domain of visual expertise, any face-processing signature might actually be a general characteristic of visual expertise. However, while humans are clearly experts in face recognition, visual expertise is not restricted to faces and can be observed in a variety of domains. This raises the question of whether face recognition is in fact the right model to study visual expertise, and if not, what are the common cognitive and neural characteristics of visual expertise. The current perspective article addresses this question by revisiting past and recent neuroimaging and behavioural works on visual expertise. The view of visual expertise that emerges from these works is that expertise is a unique phenomenon, with distinctive neural and cognitive characteristics. Specifically, visual expertise is a controlled, interactive process that develops from the reciprocal interactions between the visual system and multiple top-down factors, including semantic knowledge, top-down attentional control, and task relevance. These interactions enable the ability to flexibly access domain-specific information at multiple scales and levels guided by multiple recognition goals. Extensive visual experience with a given object category culminates in the recruitment of these multiple systems, and is reflected in widespread neural activity, extending well beyond visual cortex, to include higher-level cortical areas.

  17. LINGUISTIC EXPERTISE AS A LANGUAGE POLICY TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kara-Мurzа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sociolinguistic terms, certain aspects of academician Grot’s activity can be seen as language policy. Therefore a discussion of the new conflictological direction of sociolinguistics (along with status and corpus directions is of current importance. Its object is delinquent communicative situations: 1 speech crimes against non-proprietary rights of people and organizations (deffamation and libel, against societal and governmental rights to normal functioning (speech extremism; 2 discussions of mass media deontology violations. Its objectives are identification and resolution of conflicts in communication, as well as punishment and prevention of speech crimes. Within its framework, the decision of a court or a deontological authority is a direct act of language policy, whereas a linguistic expertise is its consecutive act and simultaneously its tool. A linguistic expertise as a procedure of search for an evidential base of a speech crime is performed in governmental and independent centers. This correlates with a governmental and public direction of speech policy, revealing their inherent contradictions. As an illustration the author uses a lawsuit on protection of honor and dignity of a «United Russia» party member V. Svirid versus a well-known political figure of the opposition field, A. Navalny, in which the court verdict didn't take into consideration the professional opinions of linguistical experts from a regional university.

  18. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartínez-Montes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants or close to (Small deviants the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception is discussed.

  19. Comparison of nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies by storm runoffs for the ponds in the upper and lower reaches of a typical sub-catchment in Lake Chaohu drainage basin%巢湖典型子流域上下游水塘对暴雨径流氮磷去除效率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂小飞; 李恒鹏; 李新艳

    2012-01-01

    从流域上下游环境条件及氮磷输出强度差异出发,探讨上下游水塘对径流氮磷去除的特征及效率,选取巢湖小柘皋河源头流域上下游水塘开展水塘去除暴雨径流氮磷的对比试验,研究暴雨及暴雨间期上下游水塘氮磷去除效率差异及原因,为流域上下游设计不同类型净化塘去除氮磷提供科学依据.结果表明:暴雨期,上游径流氮磷浓度高于下游,且颗粒态所占比例上游大于下游,流域上游应作为防治暴雨径流氮磷流失的重点区域;暴雨期,上游塘对暴雨径流中的氮磷去除效果明显,氮、磷去除率分别为74%和52%,且对颗粒态去除效果好于溶解态,下游塘没有表现出明显的去除效果;暴雨间期,上游塘塘内氮磷浓度平均下降50%和20%,下游塘则分别为72%和16%,且均以溶解态去除为主;水塘去除暴雨径流氮磷有一定的浓度适用范围,浓度过低,去除效果不明显;流域部位不同引起入塘径流氮磷浓度和形态的差异是上下游水塘对暴雨径流去除效果差异的主要外部原因.流域上游出山口,可以在渗透性好的山前洪积扇上构建深水宽塘,通过增加暴雨径流拦截量和降低流速增强物理沉降作用,实现暴雨径流氮磷的高效去除;流域下游农田区,宜构建水面较大的浅滩湿地,通过延长滞留时间和促进生物活动增强去除暴雨径流氮磷的效果.%In this paper, we analyze the removal efficiencies and characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in storm runoff in two ponds located in the upper and lower reaches of Xiaozhegao Stream, Lake Chaohu drainage basin. Results indicate that in the storm period, the runoff nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the upper reaches of stream are higher than those in the lower reaches. There is a good removal performance for the upper pond on both nitrogen and phosphorus (mainly in paniculate), with a removal efficiency of 74% and 52

  20. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dessie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall–runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall–runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44–48% in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18–19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall–runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin

  1. Recasting catchment water balance for water allocation between human and environmental purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebalancing water allocation between human consumptive uses and the environment in water catchments is a global challenge. The conventional water balance approach which partitions precipitation into evapotranspiration (ET and surface runoff supports the optimization of water allocations among different human water use sectors under the cap of water supply. However, this approach is unable to support the emerging water management priority issue of allocating water between societal and ecological systems. This paper recast the catchment water balance by partitioning catchment total ET into ET for the society and ET for the natural ecological systems, and estimated the impacts of water allocation on the two systems in terms of gross primary productivity (GPP, in the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB of Australia over the period 1900–2010. With the recast water balance, the more than 100 year water management in the MDB was divided into four periods corresponding to major changes in basin management: period 1 (1900–1956 expansion of water and land use by the societal system, period 2 (1956–1985 maximization of water and land use by the societal system, period 3 (1985–2002 maximization of water diversion for the societal system, and period 4 (2002–present rebalancing of water and land use between the societal and ecological systems. The recast water balance provided new understandings of the water and land dynamics between societal and ecological systems in the MDB, and it highlighted the experiences and lessons of catchment water management in the MDB over the last more than 100 years. The recast water balance could serve as the theoretical foundation for water allocation to keep a dynamic balance between the societal and ecological systems within a basin for sustainable catchment development. It provides a new approach to advance the discipline of socio-hydrology.

  2. 10Be-derived denudation rates from the Burdekin catchment: The largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Chappell, John; Austin, Jenet M.; Fifield, Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Thompson, Chris J.; Furuichi, Takahisa

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs) such as Beryllium-10 (10Be) are now routinely used to reconstruct erosional rates over tens of thousands of years at increasingly large basin scales (> 100,000 km2). In Australia, however, the approach and its assumptions have not been systematically tested within a single, large drainage basin. This study measures 10Be concentrations in river sediments from the Burdekin catchment, one of Australia's largest coastal catchments, to determine long-term (> 10,000 years), time-integrated rates of sediment generation and denudation. A nested-sampling design was used to test for effects of increasing catchment scale on nuclide concentrations with upstream catchment areas ranging from 4 to 130,000 km2. Beryllium-10 concentrations in sediment samples collected from the upstream headwater tributaries and mid-stream locations range from 1.8 to 2.89 × 105 atoms g- 1 and data confirm that nuclide concentrations are well and rapidly mixed downstream. Sediment from the same tributaries consistently yielded 10Be concentrations in the range of their upstream samples. Overall, no decrease in 10Be concentrations can be observed at the range of catchment scales measured here. The mean denudation rate for all river sediment samples throughout the Fanning subcatchment (1100 km2) is 18.47 m Ma- 1, which compares with the estimate at the end of the Burdekin catchment (130,000 km2) of 16.22 m Ma- 1. Nuclide concentrations in the lower gradient western and southern catchments show a higher degree of variability, and several complications emerged as a result of the contrasting geomorphic processes and settings. This study confirms the ability of TCNs to determine long-term denudation rates in Australia and highlights some important considerations in the model assumptions that may affect the accuracy of limited sampling in large, low-gradient catchments with long storage times.

  3. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  4. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-05-01

    Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet

  5. Seasonalstreamflow Generation At Variousspatial Scales On A Smallmediterranean Vineyard Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, S.; Moussa, R.; Voltz, M.

    The importance of surface hydrological processes, under field and sub-catchment conditions, was examines on a small-cultivated watershed, located in South of France. Hydrological responses at different spatial scales were evaluated during the wetness and drier phases, which included the within-year and the long-term periods. The experimental design involved monitoring of surface runoff, streamflow and groundwaters behaviours, in response to rainfall events, during three hydrological cycles. In addition to the mean outlet of catchment and the two vineyard fields that have different situations, runoff was measured at 8 sub-catchments of site. Rainfall was monitored on continuous basis at 4 sites, and the water tables fluctuations also were recorded in more than 15 locations of catchment. During the experimentation period, more than 175 rainy events were observed. The dates analyse show that the regime of surface water, compound of three principals phases: (i) the phases of great flow circulation, (ii) the recession phases, and (iii) the phase without surface flow. The results also indicate that the annual runoff changes appreciably according to hydrological cycles and the rainfall variability. It varies from 28% to 50% of the total of precipitation. The inter-annual variations of the runoff also recovers that the annual runoff flow is insured for approximately 40% by the instantaneous floods, which occur the moment or a few hours only after precipitation, and about 60% by the recession periods, which take place for the long time after floods. The flood events were classified in three groups, differentiated by the initial water table levels and their occurrence period. The direct runoff and the baseflow calculation show that according to the type of flood, they change respectively from 7% to17% and 0% to 7% of precipitation. Comparing to the field areas, on average, the total runoff and direct runoff of the mean basin respectively are 46% and 35%. The water flow

  6. Development and application of the distributed hydrologic model based on the two-source PET model and the hybrid runoff model: A case study of Laoha River catchment, Liaohe River Basin%基于双源蒸散和混合产流的分布式水文模型构建及应用——以辽河老哈河流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓帆; 任立良; 徐静; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    The Laoha River catchment, Liaohe River Basin in the semi-arid region of northern China is selected for study. The interception evaporation,canopy transpiration and soil evaporation are computed by a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model in each grid cell of the basin. The calculated potential evapotranspiration is regarded as the input of the hybrid runoff model instead of the pan evaporation. Then the grid-basod distributed hydrologic model is built for daily runoff simulation during 1970 - 1979 in the target basin by coupling the two-source PET model in the hybrid runoff model framework. The results show that the two-source PET model can reflect the effects of vegetation type, vegetation physiological features and phonological characteristics on the evapotranspiration. And the grid-based distributed hydrologic model which can illuminate the role of runoff generation and runoff muting is applicable for runoff simulation in the target basin.%以北方半干旱地区的辽河老哈河流域为研究对象,采用网格离散化方法进行水文模拟单元划分,利用具有物理基础的双源蒸散发能力估算模型,计算每个栅格单元的截留蒸发、植被蒸腾能力和土壤蒸发能力,并取代蒸发皿资料作为混合产流模型的蒸散发能力输入,从而构建摹于双源蒸散与混合产流的分布式水文模型,并对老哈河流域1970-1979年的日径流过程进行模拟分析,结果表明双源蒸散发能力计算模型能够考虑植被类型及其生理、物候特性对蒸散发能力的影响.将其与混合产流模型进行嵌套构建的分布式水文模型能较合理地揭示研究区域的产汇流规律,适用于该地区的水文过程模拟.

  7. Winter streamflow analysis in frozen, alpine catchments to quantify groundwater contribution and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzle, Michael; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    contributions is helpful to assess the water sustainability of alpine catchments functioning as water towers for downstream water basins. We outline how well-known hydrograph and recession analyses in alpine catchments can help to explore the role of catchment storage and to advance our understanding of (ground-)water management in alpine environments.

  8. Silting in the dense reservoir network of the Pereira de Miranda catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Lira,Daniely; Toledo,Cristian; Mamede,George

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the impacts of the reservoir network within Pereira de Miranda - CE catchment (also called Pentecoste) over sediment transport and storage capacity of the system. The survey of the "damming" was carried out using satellite images. We identified 502 erosion units, derived from overlaying maps of the Universal Soil Loss Equation parameters, which allowed the estimation of localized erosion in the basin and identification of areas potentially generating sediment. In or...

  9. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  10. On conveying and not conveying expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappert, Brian; Coopmans, Catelijne

    2015-08-01

    This article attends to the movement between disclosing and non-disclosing in accounts of expertise. While referencing discussions about tacit knowledge ('experts know more than they can say') and the politics of non-disclosure ('withholding can help as well as harm the credibility of experts'), in the main it considers how experts move between conveying and not conveying in order to make their proficiencies recognized and accessible to others. The article examines this movement through a form that partakes in it, thus drawing attention to conventions and tensions in how authors make themselves accountable, and their subject matter available, to audiences. It thereby proposes to explore the possibilities of careful, and generative, non-disclosure as part of expert writing practices.

  11. Expertise among professional magicians: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Olli; Pitkänen, Petteri; Juvonen, Antti; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture. The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians' activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees' activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered "stealing" an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  12. The role of high frequency monitoring in understanding nutrient pollution processes to address catchment management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth; Barber, Nick; Adams, Russell; ODonnell, Greg; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    The process insights afforded to catchment scientists through the availability of high frequency time series of hydrological and nutrient pollution datasets are invaluable. However, the observations reveal both good and bad news for the WFD. Data for flow, N, P and sediment (taken at 30 min intervals) from the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment and several other detailed UK studies, will be used to discuss nutrient fluxes in catchments between 1km2 and 10km2. Monitoring of the seasonal groundwater status and the forensic analysis of numerous storm events have identified dominant flow pathways and nutrient losses. Nonetheless, many of the management questions demanded by the WFD will not be resolved by collecting these datasets alone. Long term trends are unlikely to be determined from these data and even if trends are found they are unlikely to be accurately apportioned to the activities that have caused them. The impacts of where and when an action takes place will not be detected at the catchment scale and the cost effectiveness of any mitigation method is unlikely to be quantifiable. Even in small well instrumented catchments the natural variability in rainfall, antecedent patterns and the variability in farming practices will mask any identifiable catchment scale signal. This does not mean the cost of the data acquisition has been wasted, it just means that the knowledge and expertise gained from these data should be used in new novel ways. It will always be difficult to quantify the actual losses occurring at the farm or field scale, but the positive benefits of any mitigation may still be approximated. The evidence for the rate of nutrient removal from a local sediment trap, wetland and a pond can be shown with high resolution datasets. However, any quantifiable results are still highly localised and the transfer and upscaling of any findings must be done with care. Modelling these datasets is also possible and the nature of models have evolved in the

  13. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    experts for elicitation Jenkinson.48 They are: • Tangible evidence of expertise . • Reputation. • Availability and willingness to participate...Corps facilities”, op. cit. 94Brenda M. Wenzel and Kathy L. Nau, Code of Best Practices for Survey Efforts, op. cit. C-21 expertise , be specifically...formal procedure for elicitation. But SHELF is more than this. Good elicitation generally requires a facilitator who has expertise in the process

  14. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  15. Should We Value Knowledge and Expertise? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As I write this editorial, I am on an airplane, reflecting on the EBLIP6 conference, held June 27-30, 2011 in Salford, U.K. In my personal opinion, the conference was a great success. There were a wide variety of concurrent paper sessions from an international group of delegates, thought provoking keynotes, and just the right amount of social activity, including the main conference dinner at the Manchester United Football Club! This journal will have a Feature section in our next issue (December that highlights the conference, including keynote presentations, some of the papers that were presented, and commentaries from attendees about the conference itself. So for now, I’ll just offer my warmest congratulations to the organizers.As I left Salford and tried to reflect on what I had learned and discussed with others, there were many things that came to mind. Immediate things that stood out for me had to do with impact, reflection, and the complexity of decision making. The theme of EBLIP6 was “Valuing Knowledge and Expertise”. This is a somewhat controversial theme for an evidence based practice conference, where research evidence and its implementation are the focus, and expert opinion is not generally held in high regard. None of the keynote speakers’ presentations spoke directly to the theme, however several paper presentations did include some reference to the importance of professional knowledge.Expertise is a loaded word, filled with notions of snobbery and over-confidence, even close-mindedness. If anything, those involved with EBLIP remove themselves as far from the notion of “expert” as they can. But if we consider an expert to be someone who has built up a significant amount of professional knowledge (both through experience and research on a topic, then the EBLIP movement should not simply dismiss this notion of “expert”. Perhaps, we more appropriately should consider expert voices (knowledgeable, reasonable

  16. Dissolved and particulate nutrient export from rural catchments: a case study from Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Castellví, Mercè; Iffly, Jean François; Borght, Paul Vander; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2005-05-15

    Nutrient enrichment of freshwaters continues to be one of the most serious problems facing the management of surface waters. Effective remediation/conservation measures require accurate qualitative and quantitative knowledge of nutrient sources, transport mechanisms, transformations and annual dynamics of different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forms. In this paper, nitrate (NO3-N), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and loads are presented for two adjacent rural basins of 306 km2 and 424 km2, and for five sub-basins differing in size (between 1 km2 and 33 km2), land use (extent of forest cover between 20% and 93%) and household pressure (from 0 to 40 people/km2) with the aim of studying the influence of land use and catchment size on nutrient exports. The studied catchments are all situated on Devonian schistous substrates in the Ardennes region (Belgium-Luxembourg), and therefore have similar hydrological regimes. As the study period could not be the same for all basins, annual export coefficients were corrected with the 25 years normalized discharge of the Sure River: two regression analyses (for dry and humid periods) relating monthly nutrient loads to monthly runoff were used to determine correction factors to be applied to each parameter and each basin. This procedure allows for the comparing annual export coefficients from basins sampled in different years. Results show a marked seasonal response and a large variability of NO3-N export loads between forested (4 kg N ha-1 year-1), agricultural (27-33 kg N ha-1 year-1) and mixed catchments (17-22 kg N ha-1 year-1). For SRP and TP, no significant agricultural impact was found. Land and bank erosion control the total P massflow in the studied catchments (0.4-1.3 kg P ha-1 year-1), which is mostly in a particulate form, detached and transported during storm events. Soluble reactive P fluxes ranged between 10% and 30% of the TP mass, depending on the importance of point

  17. Hydrological dynamics of a Mediterranean catchment in a global change context. (Romanyac catchment, Cap de Creus, Girona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latron, J.; Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are characterized by unevenly distributed water resources, and consequently a more precise knowledge of the main hydrological processes and their variability and changes is crucial for a better management of water resources. However, the lack of hydrological information and data in most areas of the Mediterranean basin greatly difficult the analyses of changes in water resources at relevant scales. In this context, the Soil Science Unit GRCT48 from the University of Girona is conducting an integrated study of hydrological response, soil erosion and soil degradation processes in fragile Mediterranean areas undergoing changes in use and management. The study area is located in the Cap de Creus Peninsula (NE Spain), where land abandonment has been the outstanding characteristic over the last decades. The area is covered by terraced soils, most of them abandoned, and stands for a representative Mediterranean environment. Current land cover is a mosaic of areas with different shrubs according to wildfire occurrence. Residual patches of cork and pine trees are also present as well as small extensions of pastures. Finally some localized areas of vineyards and olive trees are still cultivated. The approach is based on the complementary use of plot and catchment scales to assess the effect of land cover and land use change on physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil quality and on rainfall-runoff-erosion relationships. Along the study period, observed rainfall-runoff response at the plot scale was highly variable among sites but also for a given environment, depending on antecedent wetness conditions and rainfall characteristics. Overall, surface runoff responses were low in all environments. Soil loss associated to rainfall-runoff events showed very large variations among sites, and also for a given site, between the different rainfall events. At the catchment scale, preliminary results obtained from the monitoring, of three catchments of

  18. Expertise synthesis on the CSPE; Synthese d'expertise sur la CSPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonde, G.; Poizat, F

    2008-01-15

    This document presents a synthesis of the results of an expertise realized on the CSPE, the compensation tax of the electric public service. This tax concerns the management of the electricity production additional costs in isolated areas, the solidarity, a policy to favor the energy efficiency and the renewable energies. The document explains the historical aspects of the tax elaboration, its financial importance, the consequences and the impacts on the competition. (A.L.B.)

  19. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale--A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map" (Schuben and others, 1994). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus

  20. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: surficial geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River

  1. Metacognition, Abilities, and Developing Expertise: What Makes an Expert Student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues primarily that metacognition is an important part of human abilities, which are, in turn, forms of developing expertise. If the goal is to understand the basis of individual differences in student academic success, metacognition needs to be understood as representing part of the abilities that lead to student expertise, but only as part.…

  2. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  3. Leadership Development Expertise: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda B.; Chapman, Bernadine; Fort, Edward

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of graduate curriculum, experience, and standards in the development of leadership expertise were examined. The major goals of the study were to (1) examine the impact of college content curriculum in the development of leadership expertise, (2) examine the impact of on the job experience in the development of leadership…

  4. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  5. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary…

  6. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  7. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  8. SOILS VULNERABILITY OF CATCHMENT ALMAŞ AT GEOMORPHOLOGIC CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils vulnerability of the Catchment Almas geomorphologic processes. Almas Basin, signed lower lithologic Miocene soils deposits, shows six classes: Cernisols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Hydrosols, Pelisols, Protosols (after SRTS, 2003. The largest share is attributed to Luvisols class (60%, followed by undeveloped soil represented by Protosols and Antrisols (15%, followed by the remaining classes with lower weights: Cambisols (13%, Cernisols (7%, Pelisols (4%, Hydrosols (1%. Contemporary geomorphological processes (surface and deep erosion, mass movements change agricultural areas and forest ratio or flow out of economic network tens of hectares annually. Soil vulnerability to the manifestation of these processes is expressed by disturbing soil horizons, coastal springs appearance and growth of the adjoining excess moisture, soil sealing productive by dropping or by alienation.

  9. Morphometric properties of the trans-Himalayan river catchments: Clues towards a relative chronology of orogen-wide drainage integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Sinha, Sayan; Misra, Arindam

    2015-03-01

    transverse watersheds occurring in the middle of the catchments resemble a series of small drainage basins formed on the precursor topography of the modern Himalayas. The lower parts of the catchments were shaped instead by drainage diversions induced by deformations related to the frontal thrust. We show how the shape of the catchments represents an integration of processes such as headward drainage enlargement, capture of pre-existing drainage, and diversion of drainage in response to crustal deformation at successive stages of Himalayan mountain growth. We further show that there is a systematic change in the morphological characters and organization of the watersheds, nested in the catchments, from the middle towards the flanks of the Himalayas indicating the variations in relative influence of different drainage evolution processes and the orogen-scale heterogeneity in tectonic style.

  10. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  11. Use of modeling to protect, plan, and manage water resources in catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another

  12. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  13. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-07

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  14. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  15. Comprehensive Management of the Heihe Catchment:A Success in Coupling Water-Ecological Setting with Local Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the arid regions of northwestern China, water is considered as the "life blood" of all living organisms and economic activities.An oasis will grow greener with ample supply of water, whereas the green will fade if water is in short supply. An inland river catchment constitutes an independent unit of ecological functions in which interactions and transformation occur between mountainous areas and plains, between oases and wastelands, and between ground surface runoffs and underground water. The sustainability of a catchment is deeply rooted in the coordination of hydrological, ecological and economical processes in a drainage basin.

  16. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...... or by making changes in the street network around the station. The paper also discusses the degree of realism in the used GIS networks and how it can affect the size of the catchment areas. It is concluded that the Service Area method improves the detail-level and accuracy in catchment area analyses...

  17. Reciprocal Expertise Affirmation and Shared Expertise Perceptions in Work Teams : Their Implications for Coordinated Action and Team Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutterink, Hanneke; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Molleman, Eric; Jehn, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we argue that reciprocal expertise affirmationi.e. the mutual recognition by team members that they respect, value, and affirm each other's expertiseis positively related to team performance, but only in teams with high levels of shared expertise perceptions. Moreover, we propose that

  18. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land-use, or land-use management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the time variability of catchment characteristics in the Meuse basin through its effect on catchment response. The approach uses a conceptual model to represent rainfall-runoff behaviour of this catchment, and evaluates possible time-dependence of model parameters. The main hypothesis is that conceptual model parameters, although not measurable quantities, are representative of specific catchment attributes (e.g. geology, land-use, land management, topography. Hence, we assume that eventual trends in model parameters are representative of catchment attributes that may have changed over time. The available hydrological record involves ninety years of data, starting in 1911. During this period the Meuse catchment has undergone significant modifications. The catchment structural modifications, although documented, are not available as "hard-data". Hence, our results should be considered as "plausible hypotheses". The main motivation of this work is the "anomaly" found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse basin, where ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent overestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the "anomaly", including climatic variability, land-use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This aspect influenced the model design, which has been configured to account for different evaporation demand of growing forest. As a result of our analysis, we conclude that the lag time of the catchment has decreased significantly over time, which we attribute to more intensive drainage and river training works. Furthermore, we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land-use change on

  19. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Solid seperation in retention basins is strongly non-linear and depends significantly on the flow rate and the settling characteristics of the particles. Accordingly the calculation of the annual loads of pollutants from storm overflows including basins is rather complex and time consuming. The p...... in order to calculate annual loads of pollutants from urban catchments. The study cover Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and PAH....

  20. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieusma, Dean

    Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction

  1. Hydrology and sediment yield calibration for the Barasona reservoir catchment (Spain) using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological and soil erosion models, as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), have become very useful tools and increasingly serve as vital components of integrated environmental assessments that provide information outside of direct field experiments and causal observation. The purpose of this study was to improve the calibration of SWAT model to use it in an alpine catchment as a simulator of processes related to water quality and soil erosion. SWAT is spatially semi-distributed, agro-hydrological model that operates on a daily time step (as a minimum) at basin scale. It is designed to predict the impact of management on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in ungaged catchments. SWAT provides physically based algorithms as an option to define many of the important components of the hydrologic cycle. The input requirements of the model are used to describe the climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, and land management practices. SWAT analyzes small or large catchments by discretising into sub-basins, which are then further subdivided into hydrological response units (HRUs) with homogeneous land use, soil type and slope. SWAT model (SWAT2009) coupled with a GIS interface (ArcSWAT), was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The 1509 km2 agro-forestry catchment presents a mountain type climate, an altitudinal range close to 3000 meters and a precipitation variation close to 1000 mm/km. The mountainous characteristics of the catchment, in addition to the scarcity of climate data in the region, require specific calibration for some processes. Snowfall and snowmelt are significant processes in the hydrologic regime of the area and were calibrated in a previous work. In this work some of the challenges of the catchment to model with SWAT which affected the hydrology and the sediment yield simulation were performed as improvement of the previous calibration. Two reservoirs, a karst system which

  2. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  3. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  4. Impact Assessment of Uncertainty Propagation of Ensemble NWP Rainfall to Flood Forecasting with Catchment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansik Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common approach to quantifying the precipitation forecast uncertainty is ensemble simulations where a numerical weather prediction (NWP model is run for a number of cases with slightly different initial conditions. In practice, the spread of ensemble members in terms of flood discharge is used as a measure of forecast uncertainty due to uncertain precipitation forecasts. This study presents the uncertainty propagation of rainfall forecast into hydrological response with catchment scale through distributed rainfall-runoff modeling based on the forecasted ensemble rainfall of NWP model. At first, forecast rainfall error based on the BIAS is compared with flood forecast error to assess the error propagation. Second, the variability of flood forecast uncertainty according to catchment scale is discussed using ensemble spread. Then we also assess the flood forecast uncertainty with catchment scale using an estimation regression equation between ensemble rainfall BIAS and discharge BIAS. Finally, the flood forecast uncertainty with RMSE using specific discharge in catchment scale is discussed. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon “Talas” of 2011 over the 33 subcatchments of Shingu river basin (2,360 km2, which is located in the Kii Peninsula, Japan.

  5. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  6. Fostering expertise in occupational health nursing: levels of skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, P G; Hays, B J

    1996-02-01

    1. Levels of nursing expertise described by Benner--novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert--hold potential for fostering improved practice among occupational health nurses. 2. Lacking a clear understanding of the full potential of the role of the occupational health nurse, employers may not reward the development of clinical expertise that incorporates employee advocacy within the context of written standards and guidelines. 3. Expertise in occupational health nursing can be fostered by job descriptions that incorporate a broader view of nursing (one that stresses judgment and advocacy), retention and longevity, innovative strategies for consultation and collegial interaction to foster mentoring, and distance learning strategies.

  7. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  8. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  9. Whether Audit Committee Financial Expertise Is the Only Relevant Expertise: A Review of Audit Committee Expertise and Timeliness of Financial Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rabea Baatwah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the literature on audit committee expertise and financial reporting timeliness. Financial reporting timeliness and audit committee expertise are two areas of research gaining the attention of a large number of stakeholders because they contribute to the reliability and the  relevancy of financial reporting. Indeed, the focus of this review is primarily on the recent developments in the pertinent literature in order to show the limitations of such research and encourage future research to overcome these limitations. By also looking at the development of the audit committee expertise literature, this study concludes that (1 like most audit committee literature, financial reporting timeliness literature continues to assume the absence of the contribution of expertise other than financial expertise, and ignore the role of audit committee chair; (2 most of this literature fails to find a significant effect because it ignores the interaction among corporate governance mechanisms. Accordingly, this study posits that ignoring the issues raised in such research by future research would lead to major mistakes in reforms relating to how the quality of financial reporting can be enhanced.

  10. Negotiating knowledges and expertise in refugee resettlement organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Steimel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.

  11. The effects of age on visual expertise for print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzietti, Maxime; Bonnefond, Anne; Staub, Bérengère; Vidailhet, Pierre; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

    2017-03-16

    Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols. Results indicated a preservation of visual expertise with age, with larger N170 amplitude for words than for symbols. Moreover, a decrease in stimulus processing speed was observed as a function of age. No difference in attentional demand as a function of stimulus was observed.

  12. ELABORATION OF A JUDICIAL ACCOUNTING EXPERTISE REPORT. AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEACONU SORIN-CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting expert profession should be a noble one. It should be respected by third parties as well as the accounting professional in question. The work of a professional accountant involves, among other responsibilities, the elaboration of judicial accounting expertise reports. Unfortunately, the content of certain reports filed in court is not entirely professionally written and eloquent for the judge. The elaboration of a report has to be done according to the rules stipulated in professional standard no. 35 Accounting expertise. One sensitive point in the elaboration of expertise reports is the submission of the lists from the local offices to the courts of law. Most of the times these lists only include some of the experts whose reports are incondite. This article presents an expertise reports with two objectives formulated by the court

  13. From deep to superficial categorization with increasing expertise.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, Thomas C.; Fritz, Catherine O; Ridgway, James

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of task design expertise is reported wherein a set of 12 mathematics tasks were sorted by specialist designers of mathematics tasks and by experienced mathematics teachers without specialist design experience. Contrary to the frequent finding of increasing conceptual depth with increasing expertise, conceptual depth did not differ between groups. Teachers sorted on the basis of mathematical content earlier than designers, and were more specific in their content-based cat...

  14. Factors influencing water transit times in snowmelt-dominated, headwater catchments of the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, D. W.; Mast, A.

    2015-12-01

    In catchments, water transit times (TTs) refer to the elapsed time between entry of water at the ground surface and exit of water at the catchment outlet. Transit times are an important characteristic of catchments in that they reflect the time available for interaction between water, soil, and biota within the system. Thus, they exert a strong influence on hydrologic resilience to drought and climate change, and on the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to atmospheric pollutants. Transit times may vary spatially due to variations in basin characteristics, such as slope, size, and amount and type of soil and vegetation; however, the relative influence of these factors on TTs is poorly known. In this study, we estimate mean transit times (MTTs) for 11 snowmelt-dominated, headwater catchments in the western U.S. using the convolution integral approach, which relies on differences in the magnitude of seasonal variability in δ18O in precipitation and stream water to estimate MTTs. Seasonal variability in δ18O was calculated based on analyses of precipitation and stream water samples collected at weekly to monthly intervals. Results indicate that MTTs ranged from 0.6 to 2.1 years, and were positively influenced by percent of the catchment covered by forest (r2 = 0.56; p = 0.008), and negatively influenced by barren terrain (e.g., bedrock; r2 = 0.48; p = 0.019). MTTs showed a weak negative relation to mean basin slope (r2 = 0.31; p = 0.076) and no relation to basin size or elevation. These results illustrate the importance of soil as a key factor influencing MTTs, with basin slope acting as a secondary influence. Heavily forested basins tend to have deep, well-developed soils with substantial water storage capacity; these soils help maintain baseflow during drought conditions, providing hydrologic resilience to the system, and they are an important location for geochemical and biological processes that neutralize acidity and assimilate atmospherically deposited nitrogen

  15. Perceptual expertise improves category detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Reshanne R; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about how detection, categorization, and within-category identification relate to one another during object recognition. Whether these tasks rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms may be determined by testing whether training on one of these tasks facilitates performance on another. In the present study we asked whether expertise in discriminating objects improves the detection of these objects in naturalistic scenes. Self-proclaimed car experts (N = 34) performed a car discrimination task to establish their level of expertise, followed by a visual search task where they were asked to detect cars and people in hundreds of photographs of natural scenes. Results revealed that expertise in discriminating cars was strongly correlated with car detection accuracy. This effect was specific to objects of expertise, as there was no influence of car expertise on person detection. These results indicate a close link between object discrimination and object detection performance, which we interpret as reflecting partially shared perceptual mechanisms and neural representations underlying these tasks: the increased sensitivity of the visual system for objects of expertise - as a result of extensive discrimination training - may benefit both the discrimination and the detection of these objects. Alternative interpretations are also discussed.

  16. Professional Expertise in Magic – Reflecting on professional expertise in magic:An interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli eRissanen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  17. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  18. An Open-Source Approach for Catchment's Physiographic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, M.; Di Stefano, M.

    2013-12-01

    A water catchment's hydrologic response is intimately linked to its morphological shape, which is a signature on the landscape of the particular climate conditions that generated the hydrographic basin over time. Furthermore, geomorphologic structures influence hydrologic regimes and land cover (vegetation). For these reasons, a basin's characterization is a fundamental element in hydrological studies. Physiographic descriptors have been extracted manually for long time, but currently Geographic Information System (GIS) tools ease such task by offering a powerful instrument for hydrologists to save time and improve accuracy of result. Here we present a program combining the flexibility of the Python programming language with the reliability of GRASS GIS, which automatically performing the catchment's physiographic characterization. GRASS (Geographic Resource Analysis Support System) is a Free and Open Source GIS, that today can look back on 30 years of successful development in geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics and maps production, spatial modeling and visualization. The recent development of new hydrologic tools, coupled with the tremendous boost in the existing flow routing algorithms, reduced the computational time and made GRASS a complete toolset for hydrological analysis even for large datasets. The tool presented here is a module called r.basin, based on GRASS' traditional nomenclature, where the "r" stands for "raster", and it is available for GRASS version 6.x and more recently for GRASS 7. As input it uses a Digital Elevation Model and the coordinates of the outlet, and, powered by the recently developed r.stream.* hydrological tools, it performs the flow calculation, delimits the basin's boundaries and extracts the drainage network, returning the flow direction and accumulation, the distance to outlet and the hill slopes length maps. Based on those maps, it calculates hydrologically meaningful shape factors and

  19. Simulating future trends in hydrological regime of a large Sudano-Sahelian catchment under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelland, D.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Collet, L.; Roucou, P.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThis paper assesses the future variability of water resources in the short, medium and long terms over a large Sudano-Sahelian catchment in West Africa. Flow simulations were performed with a daily conceptual model. A period of nearly 50 years (1952-2000) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability. Calibration and validation were performed on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit indices. The climate models HadCM3 and MPI-M under SRES-A2 were used to provide future climate scenarios over the catchment. Outputs from these models were used to generate daily rainfall and temperature series for the 21st century according to: (i) the unbias and delta methods application and (ii) spatial and temporal downscaling. A temperature-based formula was used to calculate present and future potential evapotranspiration (PET). The daily rainfall and PET series were introduced into the calibrated and validated hydrological model to simulate future discharge. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criterion is over 89% for both calibration and validation periods, and the volume error between simulation and observation is close to null for the overall considered period. With regard to future climate, the results show clear trends of reduced rainfall over the catchment. This rainfall deficit, together with a continuing increase in potential evapotranspiration, suggests that runoff from the basin could be substantially reduced, especially in the long term (60-65%), compared to the 1961-1990 reference period. As a result, the long-term hydrological simulations show that the catchment discharge could decrease to the same levels as those observed during the severe drought of the 1980s.

  20. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (catchment, the soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil.

  1. Controls on old and new water contributions to stream flow at some nested catchments in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Kendall, C.; Smith, T.E.; Wolock, D.M.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors controlling the partitioning of old and new water contributions to stream flow were investigated for three events in four catchments (three of which were nested) at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. In the 1993 snowmelt period, two-component isotopic hydrograph separations showed that new water (meltwater) inputs to the stream ranged widely from 41 to 74%, and increased with catchment size (41 to 11 125 ha) (with one exception) and with open land cover (0-73%). Peak dissolved organic carbon concentrations and relative alkalinity dilution in stream water ranked in the same order among catchments as the new water fractions, suggesting that new water followed shallow flow paths. During the 1994 snowmelt, despite similar timing and magnitude of melt inputs, the new-water contribution to stream flow ranged only from 30 to 36% in the four catchments. We conclude that the uncommonly high and variable new water fractions in streamwater during the 1993 melt were caused by direct runoff of meltwater over frozen ground, which was prevalent in open land areas during the 1993 winter. In a high-intensity summer rainstorm in 1993, new water fractions were smaller relative to the 1993 snowmelt, ranging from 28 to 46%, but they ranked in the identical catchment order. Reconciliation of the contrasting patterns of new-old water partitioning in the three events appears to require an explanation that invokes multiple processes and effects, including: 1 topographically controlled increase in surface-saturated area with increasing catchment size; 2 direct runoff over frozen ground; 3 low infiltration in agriculturally compacted soils; 4 differences in soil transmissivity, which may be more relevant under dry antecedent conditions. These data highlight some of the difficulties faced by catchment hydrologists in formulating a theory of runoff generation at varying basin scales. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  2. In Lieu of the Paired-Catchment Approach - Hydrologic Model Change Detection at the Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegre, N. P.

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the effects of forest management on hydrology primarily comes from paired-catchment studies conducted world-wide. While this approach has been useful for discerning changes in small experimental catchments and has contributed fundamental knowledge of the effects of forest and natural resources management on hydrology, results from experimental catchment studies exhibit temporal variability, have limited spatial inference, and lack insight into internal catchment processes. To address these limitations, traditional field experiments can be supplemented with numerical models to isolate the effects of disturbance on catchment behavior. Outlined in this study is an alternative method of change detection for daily time-series streamflow that integrates hydrologic modeling and statistical change detection methods used to discern the effects of contemporary forest management on the hydrology of western Oregon Cascades headwater catchments. In this study, a simple rainfall-runoff model was used to generate virtual reference catchments using attributes that reflect streamflow conditions absent of forest disturbance. Streamflow was simulated under three levels of model uncertainty using GLUE and were used to construct generalized least squares regression models to discern changes in hydrologic behavior. By considering processes within a single experimental catchment rather than the two spatially explicit catchments used in traditional paired experiments, it was possible to reduce unexplained variation and increase the likelihood of correctly detecting hydrologic effects following forest harvesting. In order to evaluate the stability of the hydrologic and statistical models and catchment behavior over time, the change detection method was applied to a contemporary reference catchment. By applying the change detection model to reference catchments, it was possible to eliminate unexpected variation as a cause for detected changes in observed hydrology. Further, it

  3. Overland flow and sediment transport in an agricultural lowland catchments: a focus on tile drain export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Manière, Louis; Salvador Blanes, Sébastien; Foucher, Anthony; Chapalain, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Rural landscapes have been extensively modified by human activities in Western Europe since the beginning of the 20th century in order to intensify agricultural production. Cultivated areas often expanded at the expense of grassland and wetlands located in lowland areas (de Groot et al., 2002). Therefore, large modifications were made to the agricultural landscapes: stream redesign, land consolidation, removal of hedges, and installation of tile drainage networks to drain the hydromorphic soils. These changes modified sediment processes and resulted in large morphological alterations (e.g. channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, channel bank erosion). Accordingly, these alterations threaten water quality and prevent to meet the requirements of the European directives. Improving water quality requires a clear understanding of the hydrosedimentary dynamics in these lowland cultivated catchments. However, few studies were conducted in drained environments. To fill this research gap, a pilot study was started in cultivated catchment of the Loire River basin, France, where tile drain densities are very high (> 1.5 km/km²). Six hydro-sedimentary monitoring stations were installed in the Louroux catchment (24 km²). One of them was specifically dedicated to measuring water/sediment fluxes from tile drains. Water level and turbidity were continuously monitored and sediments were sampled during floods and low stage periods. Samples were measured for particle size distribution, and sediment tracing studies are currently being developed to quantify the contribution of potential sources (e.g. surface vs subsurface, lithologies) to river sediment. Hydro-sedimentary fluxes were quantified and modelled for some selected events. The catchment hydrosedimentary fluxes and their properties were shown to be impacted by tile drain sediment transport, especially regarding particle size distribution, with the dominant export of very fine particles (< 2 μm) from tile drains

  4. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tekleab

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The water balances of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach based on Budyko's hypotheses. The objective of this study is to obtain better understanding of water balance dynamics of upper Blue Nile catchments on annual and monthly time scales and on a spatial scale of meso scale to large scale. The water balance analysis using a Budyko-type curve at annual scale reveals that the aridity index does not exert a first order control in most of the catchments. This implies the need to increase model complexity to monthly time scale to include the effects of seasonal soil moisture dynamics. The dynamic water balance model used in this study predicts the direct runoff and other processes based on the limit concept; i.e. for dry environments since rainfall amount is small, the aridity index approaches to infinity or equivalently evaporation approaches rainfall and for wet environments where the rainfall amount is large, the aridity index approaches to zero and actual evaporation approaches the potential evaporation. The uncertainty of model parameters has been assessed using the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results show that the majority of the parameters are reasonably well identifiable. However, the baseflow recession constant was poorly identifiable. Parameter uncertainty and model structural errors could be the reason for the poorly identifiable parameter. Moreover, a multi-objective model calibration strategy has been employed to emphasize the different aspects of the hydrographs on low and high flows.

    The model has been calibrated and validated against observed streamflow time series and it shows good performance for the twenty study catchments in the upper Blue Nile. During the calibration period (1995–2000 the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (E NS for monthly flow prediction varied between 0.52 to 0.93 (dominated by

  5. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  6. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  7. The value of practice: A critique of interactional expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Lima, Francisco P A

    2016-04-01

    Collins and Evans have proposed a 'normative theory of expertise' as a way to solve the 'problem of demarcation' in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the 'political' phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the 'technical' phases. In this article, Collins and Evans' typology of expertise--in particular, the idea of 'interactional expertise'--is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise--namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through 'linguistic socialization alone', (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the 'the minimal embodiment thesis' that the individual human body or, more broadly, 'embodiment' is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals' abilities and understandings vary according to the 'type of immersion' they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another 'perspective'. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the 'problem of demarcation'. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities.

  8. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  9. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  10. 太湖上游水源保护区生态补偿支付意愿问卷调查——以天目湖流域为例%Questionnaire survey on willingness to pay about ecological compensation of Lake Tianmu catchment, Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 张落成; 武清华

    2011-01-01

    在天目湖流域建立生态补偿机制,形成上游生态保护激励机制,对于太湖流域水环境改善有着极为重要的作用.本文通过问卷调查的方式,首先,调查了解天目湖流域居民对环境保护和生态补偿的认知状况,得出天目湖流域居民环境保护意识很强,生态补偿需求旺盛.其次,对居民和旅游者的生态补偿支付意愿进行了解.最后,对最大支付意愿公式进行改进,在原有水费反哺的基础上结合了旅游者门票反哺的最大支付意愿,算出天目湖流域生态补偿总额为12924.08万元.同时生态补偿不仅仅是物质或货币的补偿,更重要的是从国家与省市层面上对天目湖这一重要生态功能区给予一定的政策倾斜.%It is important for improving water quality of Lake Taihu that ecological compensation mechanism and incentive mechanism for upstream ecological protection is carried out in Lake Tianmu catchment. Firstly, we acquainted of residents'cognitive status of environmental protection and ecological compensation in Lake Tianmu catchment, and found a strong environmental protection awareness and a great ecological compensation demand. Then, we investigated the willingness to pay for ecological compensation of both local residents and visitors. Finally, we improved the original formula of the greatest willingness to pay. We summed up a total ecological compensation amount of 12924.08 thousand yuan in Lake Tianmu catchment by integrating the greatest back-feeding willingness of tourist tickets to pay into water fee regurgitation-feeding. It was not enough for ecological compensation merely at the material or monetary compensation, and more important way of Lake Tianmu catchment ecological compensation was that some policy inclination of this important eco-function areas from both state and provincial level.

  11. Before and After Integrated Catchment Management in a Headwater Catchment: Changes in Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Andrew O.; Quinn, John M.

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have comprehensively measured the effect on water quality of catchment rehabilitation measures in comparison with baseline conditions. Here we have analyzed water clarity and nutrient concentrations and loads for a 13-year period in a headwater catchment within the western Waikato region, New Zealand. For the first 6 years, the entire catchment was used for hill-country cattle and sheep grazing. An integrated catchment management plan was implemented whereby cattle were excluded from riparian areas, the most degraded land was planted in Pinus radiata, channel banks were planted with poplar trees and the beef cattle enterprise was modified. The removal of cattle from riparian areas without additional riparian planting had a positive and rapid effect on stream water clarity. In contrast, the water clarity decreased in those sub-catchments where livestock was excluded but riparian areas were planted with trees and shrubs. We attribute the decrease in water clarity to a reduction in groundcover vegetation that armors stream banks against preparatory erosion processes. Increases in concentrations of forms of P and N were recorded. These increases were attributed to: (i) the reduction of instream nutrient uptake by macrophytes and periphyton due to increased riparian shading; (ii) uncontrolled growth of a nitrogen fixing weed (gorse) in some parts of the catchment, and (iii) the reduction in the nutrient attenuation capacity of seepage wetlands due to the decrease in their areal coverage in response to afforestation. Our findings highlight the complex nature of the water quality response to catchment rehabilitation measures.

  12. Catchment classification: empirical analysis of hydrologic similarity based on catchment function in the eastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sawicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic similarity between catchments, derived from similarity in how catchments respond to precipitation input, is the basis for catchment classification, for transferability of information, for generalization of our hydrologic understanding and also for understanding the potential impacts of environmental change. An important question in this context is, how far can widely available hydrologic information (precipitation-temperature-streamflow data and generally available physical descriptors be used to create a first order grouping of hydrologically similar catchments? We utilize a heterogeneous dataset of 280 catchments located in the Eastern US to understand hydrologic similarity in a 6-dimensional signature space across a region with strong environmental gradients. Signatures are defined as hydrologic response characteristics that provide insight into the hydrologic function of catchments. A Bayesian clustering scheme is used to separate the catchments into 9 homogeneous classes, which enable us to interpret hydrologic similarity with respect to similarity in climatic and landscape attributes across this region. We finally derive several hypotheses regarding controls on individual signatures from the analysis performed here.

  13. Characterizing streamflow generation in Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Cano Paoli, Karina; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Developing effective hydrological models for streamflow generation in Alpine catchments is challenging due to the inherent complexity of the intertwined processes controlling water transfer from hillslopes to streams and along the river network. With water discharge as the sole observational variable it is impossible to differentiate between different streamflow sources, and modelling activity is often limited to simplified phenomenological rainfall-runoff models. This study focuses on quantifying streamflow sources at different temporal scales and the associated uncertainty by using natural tracer data (electrical conductivity, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes ratios) as observational variables supplementing streamflow measurements. We determine the spatial and temporal hydrological behavior and the mean residence time of water in the Vermigliana catchment, North-Eastern Italy and we separate contributions to streamflow originating from Presena and Presanella glaciers, both exerting a strong control on the hydrologic budget of the study site. Furthermore, we identify a seasonal control on the effect of storm events. The catchment responded rapidly to precipitation events in early autumn, it was unaffected by precipitation events in early spring, while runoff generation was enhanced by snow melting in late autumn. Air temperature is identified as the main controlling parameter, in addition to precipitation. Two-component mixing analysis showed that the relative contribution of new water, which can contribute up to 75% of total streamflow, is very rapid. Only two hours time-lag was observed between the beginning of the precipitation event and the emergence of a significant contribution of new water. These results evidence the relevance of mixing between pre-event and event water in the Vermigliana catchment, and in similar high elevation Alpine catchments. This study provides new insights on the dynamics of streamflow generation in Alpine catchments and a

  14. Exploring Hydrological Flow Paths in Conceptual Catchment Models using Variance-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, E. M.; O'Loughlin, F.; Bruen, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Conceptual rainfall runoff (CRR) models aim to capture the dominant hydrological processes in a catchment in order to predict the flows in a river. Most flood forecasting models focus on predicting total outflows from a catchment and often perform well without the correct distribution between individual pathways. However, modelling of water flow paths within a catchment, rather than its overall response, is specifically needed to investigate the physical and chemical transport of matter through the various elements of the hydrological cycle. Focus is increasingly turning to accurately quantifying the internal movement of water within these models to investigate if the simulated processes contributing to the total flows are realistic in the expectation of generating more robust models. Parameter regionalisation is required if such models are to be widely used, particularly in ungauged catchments. However, most regionalisation studies to date have typically consisted of calibrations and correlations of parameters with catchment characteristics, or some variations of this. In order for a priori parameter estimation in this manner to be possible, a model must be parametrically parsimonious while still capturing the dominant processes of the catchment. The presence of parameter interactions within most CRR model structures can make parameter prediction in ungauged basins very difficult, as the functional role of the parameter within the model may not be uniquely identifiable. We use a variance based sensitivity analysis method to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions in the global parameter space of three CRR models, simulating a set of 30 Irish catchments within a variety of hydrological settings over a 16 year period. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus and correlations between catchment characteristics and parameter sensitivities were also investigated to assist in evaluating model performances

  15. Estimation of groundwater contribution in runoff from small agricultural dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Jansons, Viesturs; Lagzdiņš, Ainis

    2013-04-01

    Latvia. Each set consisted of a field providing both surface and subsurface runoff located within the catchment. Different filters were tested but the one developed by Chapman & Maxwell (1996) was selected. An improved filter parameter value was obtained, resulting in more realistic values for BFI in Norwegian catchments, being in the order of 10%. The values for the Latvian catchments were slightly higher, the main reason for this being soil types and geological settings. The results indicate that care should be taken in selecting the digital filter value for catchments having flashy runoff behaviour. This might lead to wrong estimates of baseflow contribution which can have negative effects on modelling hydrology, pollutant transport and the selection of mitigation measures at the scale of small agricultural catchments. References Chapman, T.G., Maxwell, A.I . 1996. Baseflow separation - comparison of numerical methods with tracer experiments. Institute Engineers Australia National Conference. Publ. 96/05, 539-545 Deelstra, J., Eggestad, H.O., Iital, A., Jansons, V. and Barkved, L.J. (2010), "Time resolution and hydrological characteristics in agricultural catchments", in Hermann, A. and Schumann, S. (Eds), Status and Perspectives of Hydrology in Small Basins, Vol. 336, IAHS Publication, pp. 138 - 143.

  16. Privileged access to awareness for faces and objects of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Reeder, Reshanne R; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-06-01

    Access to visual awareness for human faces is strongly influenced by spatial orientation: Under continuous flash suppression (CFS), upright faces break into awareness more quickly than inverted faces. This effect of inversion for faces is larger than for a wide range of other animate and inanimate objects. Here we asked whether this apparently specific sensitivity to upright faces reflects face-specific detection mechanisms or whether it reflects perceptual expertise more generally. We tested car experts who varied in their degree of car and face expertise and measured the time upright and inverted faces, cars, and chairs needed to overcome CFS and break into awareness. Results showed that greater car expertise was correlated with larger car inversion effects under CFS. A similar relation between better discrimination performance and larger CFS inversion effects was found for faces. CFS inversion effects are thus modulated by perceptual expertise for both faces and cars. These results demonstrate that inversion effects in conscious access are not unique to faces but similarly exist for other objects of expertise. More generally, we interpret these findings as suggesting that access to awareness and exemplar-level discrimination rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience.

  18. Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a

  19. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management.

  20. From Meaning Well to Doing Well: Ethical Expertise in the GIS Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence to support the idea that moral action can be thought of in terms of expertise in a domain. This paper reviews work on the development of moral expertise across five levels, from novice to expertise. It addresses the role of habit in expertise and self-regulation strategies that signal when habitual action is not working and that…

  1. What Makes Primary Classteachers Special? Exploring the Features of Expertise in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaude, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teacher expertise in the primary school classroom, drawing on theoretical models of expertise and of teaching expertise. It challenges simplistic models of an "outstanding" or "master" teacher to argue that since teacher expertise is both situated and prototypical, it is manifested in…

  2. Expertise and governance of climate change; Expertise et gouvernance du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas de Munagorri, R.; Colson, R. [Nantes Univ. (France); Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ. and Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Leclerc, O. [Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Defense Univ. (France); Rousseau, S. [CNRS, Lab. Droit et Changement Social (France); Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, Lab. Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l' Economie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become in few years a prominent problem which requires the implementation of a world governance to be solved. However, the share of human activities in the global warming phenomenon and the actions susceptible to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission generate scientifical, political and legal conflicts at the same time. Assessing the taking into account of climate change by international institutions raises several questions. By what process a true fact can become established at the world scale? Are experts free or constrain by procedure rules? How to regulate the worldwide carbon trade? Is the governance requirement foreseen in international systems respected by decision making practices? How to explain experts' omnipresence in the observance mechanisms of climate change treaties? Is their influence determining, at the international and internal scale, in the elaboration of a climate law? These questions, analyzed by researchers in law and political science, are indissociable of method stakes with an inter-disciplinary horizon. This book, result of a collective work, is not limited to a description of standards and actors' practices in force. Its ambition is to apprehend law, science and politics in their interactions. Climate change is an appropriate topic to think about the links between the different scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a prospective about the contribution of laws analysis to expertise which involves the dogmatic, realistic and epistemologic aspects. (J.S.)

  3. Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Elite Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Heloisa; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Deslandes, Andrea; Cossich, Victor; Salles, Jose Inacio; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task). In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship. PMID:23471100

  4. Implications of an expertise model for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M; Masters, Rich S W; Patil, Niv G

    2008-12-01

    The search for improved, more efficacious means of teaching and training surgical skills is essentially a search for means to accelerate the transition of non-expert surgeons to expert surgeons and, in so doing, shorten the usual lengthy pathway to the acquisition of surgical expertise. Drawing on evidence from studies of expert and non-expert surgeons, as well as evidence from studies of expertise in other domains, this paper presents a brief overview of the aspects of skill that appear (likely) to differentiate the expert surgeon from the non-expert. Expert advantages are apparent in some specific aspects of the perceptual, cognitive, motor, attentional and feedback-monitoring components of skilled performance and it is contended that it is these elements, rather than elements on which no expert advantage is apparent, that should form the focal points for skills training programmes. Some constraints to current understanding of surgical expertise are also identified and briefly discussed.

  5. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  6. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation.

  7. Medical expertise as a historical phenomenon and academic discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zivko; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2010-03-01

    Based on secondary literature, a survey of particular forms of medical expertise over history is presented. The state-to-individual interaction in terms of personality and physical integrity protection, health care, etc., was observed. It was only after the 16th century that the development of anatomy was found to have become a decisive argument for convincing expertise in various trials. In Croatia, the course of medical expertise development was comparable to the close settings in the neighboring European countries. Major advances at the legislative, educational and professional levels took place in the second half of the 19th century. The subject of Forensic Medicine was introduced at Royal Academy of Jurisprudence as early as 1861; the book entitled Lecnicka izvesća (visa reperta) za prakticnu porabu lecnikov by Ivan Dezman (1841-1873) from 1868 offered the first systematic form of autopsy reports, whereas Kratka sudska medicina, a handbook in forensic medicine by Niko Selak (1861-1891) from 1889 denoted the beginnings of forensic medicine literature in Croatian language. It has been noted that medical expertise approach perceives man as a social being at the crossing of manifold impacts and influences, thus being always observed by physicians of various specialties. During centuries, medical expertise has been formed in conjunction with advances in medicine and science, and with the development of civil society. Medical expertise had gradually grown into a multidisciplinary field requiring high professionalism, ethical approach, continuous training and collaboration with various professions. This resulted in a compact and polyvalent discipline, in Croatia gradually formed as a special course in medical curriculum.

  8. Cultivating Data Expertise and Roles at a National Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    As research becomes more computation and data-intensive, it brings new demands for staff that can manage complex data, design user services, and facilitate open access. Responding to these new demands, universities and research institutions are developing data services to support their scientists and scholarly communities. As more organizations extend their operations to research data, a better understanding of the staff roles and expertise required to support data-intensive research services is needed. What is data expertise - knowledge, skills, and roles? This study addresses this question through a case study of an exemplar research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO. The NCAR case study results were supplemented and validated with a set of interviews of managers at additional geoscience data centers. To date, 11 interviews with NCAR staff and 19 interviews with managers at supplementary data centers have been completed. Selected preliminary results from the qualitative analysis will be reported in the poster: Data professionals have cultivated expertise in areas such as managing scientific data and products, understanding use and users, harnessing technology for data solutions, and standardizing metadata and data sets. Staff roles and responsibilities have evolved over the years to create new roles for data scientists, data managers/curators, data engineers, and senior managers of data teams, embedding data expertise into each NCAR lab. Explicit career paths and ladders for data professionals are limited but starting to emerge. NCAR has supported organization-wide efforts for data management, leveraging knowledge and best practices across all the labs and their staff. Based on preliminary results, NCAR provides a model for how organizations can build expertise and roles into their data service models. Data collection for this study is ongoing. The author anticipates that the results will help answer questions on what are

  9. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...... ratings reflected the average competence of recommenders across all subject areas. We have now developed a new version of the WRS, which evaluates the expertise of recommenders within different subject areas. In order to do this, we need to identify a way to classify the subject area of all the articles...

  10. Fulfilling the needs for statistical expertise at Aalborg Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    In 2005, the first statistician was employed at Aalborg Hospital due to expanding research activities as part of Aarhus University Hospital. Since then, there has been an increased demand for statistical expertise at all levels. In the talk, I will give an overview of the current staff of statist......In 2005, the first statistician was employed at Aalborg Hospital due to expanding research activities as part of Aarhus University Hospital. Since then, there has been an increased demand for statistical expertise at all levels. In the talk, I will give an overview of the current staff...

  11. Institutionalized Ignorance as a Precondition for Rational Risk Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The present case study seeks to explain the conditions for experts’ rational risk perception by analyzing the institutional contexts that constitute a field of food safety expertise in Denmark. The study highlights the role of risk reporting and how contextual factors affect risk reporting from...... the lowest organizational level, where concrete risks occur, to the highest organizational level, where the body of professional risk expertise is situated. The article emphasizes the role of knowledge, responsibility, loyalty, and trust as risk-attenuation factors and concludes by suggesting...

  12. Integrating LCA and EHS expertise in the assessment of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Hankin, Steve; Chaudry, Qasim

    DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently with the devel......DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently...

  13. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  14. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 2: Flood and low flow studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Salinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of methods that predict low flows and flood runoff in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the similarities and differences between catchments in different places, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate-landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 14 low flow prediction studies reported in the literature involving 3112 catchments, and 20 flood prediction studies involving 3023 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the regionalisation method. The results indicate that both flood and low flow predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be less accurate in arid than in humid climates and more accurate in large than in small catchments. There is also a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region, while geostatistical methods tend to perform better than other methods. Of the various flood regionalisation approaches, index methods show significantly lower performance in arid catchments than regression methods or geostatistical methods. For low flow regionalisation, regional regressions are generally better than global regressions.

  15. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  16. Drought characteristics and related risks in large and mesoscale tropical catchments in Latin-America and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Ribbe, Lars; Birkel, Christian; Célleri, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in water abundant tropical countries and are expected to become more frequent in the future. Unusual water shortage in the past months and years has severely affected societies living in the Paraiba do Sul river basin (Brazil), the Mekong, as well as in a number of basins in Central America and Vietnam among many others. Preparedness, however, is absent and site appropriate water management measures and strategies are not available. While drought related research and water management in recent years has been widely addressed in water scarce subtropical regions, the US and Europe, not much attention has been paid to drought risk in tropical catchments. Available daily or monthly precipitation and runoff time series for catchments in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Mekong region and Vietnam were analysed to compare historical meteorological and hydrological drought frequency (SPI/SRI). The role of tropical catchment characteristics, storage and climate variability in seasonal drought evolvement was investigated by applying the conceptual semi-distributed HBV light model to two undisturbed catchments in Central Vietnam and 18 catchments of a size of 70-5000 km² in Costa Rica. For the Mekong and the Paraíba de Sul, the hydrological module of the WEAP model was applied to undisturbed subcatchments with the same objective. To understand and separate the anthropogenic impact on drought evolvement, the abstractions (irrigation, reservoirs, water supply) and hydrological alterations were observed and quantified by applying water allocation and balance model WEAP. We conclude that such a combined model-data analysis that equally accounts for landscape related and anthropogenic impacts on the local hydrological cycle is a useful approach for drought management in tropical countries.

  17. Dilution correction equation revisited: The impact of stream slope, relief ratio and area size of basin on geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Shahed; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-04-01

    Stream sediment sampling is a well-known technique used to discover the geochemical anomalies in regional exploration activities. In an upstream catchment basin of stream sediment sample, the geochemical signals originating from probable mineralization could be diluted due to mixing with the weathering material coming from the non-anomalous sources. Hawkes's equation (1976) was an attempt to overcome the problem in which the area size of catchment basin was used to remove dilution from geochemical anomalies. However, the metal content of a stream sediment sample could be linked to several geomorphological, sedimentological, climatic and geological factors. The area size is not itself a comprehensive representative of dilution taking place in a catchment basin. The aim of the present study was to consider a number of geomorphological factors affecting the sediment supply, transportation processes, storage and in general, the geochemistry of stream sediments and their incorporation in the dilution correction procedure. This was organized through employing the concept of sediment yield and sediment delivery ratio and linking such characteristics to the dilution phenomenon in a catchment basin. Main stream slope (MSS), relief ratio (RR) and area size (Aa) of catchment basin were selected as the important proxies (PSDRa) for sediment delivery ratio and then entered to the Hawkes's equation. Then, Hawkes's and new equations were applied on the stream sediment dataset collected from Takhte-Soleyman district, west of Iran for Au, As and Sb values. A number of large and small gold, antimony and arsenic mineral occurrences were used to evaluate the results. Anomaly maps based on the new equations displayed improvement in anomaly delineation taking the spatial distribution of mineral deposits into account and could present new catchment basins containing known mineralization as the anomaly class, especially in the case of Au and As. Four catchment basins having Au and As

  18. France bundles knowledge and expertise in intelligent energy networks; Frankrijk bundelt kennis en expertise in intelligente energienetwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kooij, E.

    2012-03-15

    The networks that provides cities, office buildings, houses, cars and mobile phones with energy, is expected in the coming years to be digitized. The French innovation cluster Systematic has recently taken the initiative to set up a knowledge partnership which should connect knowledge and expertise with regard to future smart grids [Dutch] Het netwerk dat onze steden, kantoren, huizen, auto's en mobieltjes van energie voorziet, zal naar verwachting in de komende jaren een digitalisering ondergaan. Het Franse innovatiecluster Systematic heeft onlangs het initiatief genomen een samenwerkingsverband op te richten die kennis en expertise op het gebied van toekomstige intelligente energienetwerken bij elkaar brengt.

  19. Climate model validation and selection for hydrological applications in representative Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22-degree (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the E-OBS dataset, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of 4 RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the XXI century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, to some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and hint for an audience of researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more in general, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean.

  20. A simple framework for relating variations in runoff to variations in climatic conditions and catchment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2011-12-01

    We use the Budyko framework to calculate catchment-scale evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) as a function of two climatic factors, precipitation (P) and evaporative demand (Eo = 0.75 times the pan evaporation rate), and a third parameter that encodes the catchment properties (n) and modifies how P is partitioned between E and Q. This simple theory accurately predicted the long-term evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) for the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in southeast Australia. We extend the theory by developing a simple and novel analytical expression for the effects on E and Q of small perturbations in P, Eo, and n. The theory predicts that a 10% change in P, with all else constant, would result in a 26% change in Q in the MDB. Future climate scenarios (2070-2099) derived using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 climate model output highlight the diversity of projections for P (±30%) with a correspondingly large range in projections for Q (±80%) in the MDB. We conclude with a qualitative description about the impact of changes in catchment properties on water availability and focus on the interaction between vegetation change, increasing atmospheric [CO2], and fire frequency. We conclude that the modern version of the Budyko framework is a useful tool for making simple and transparent estimates of changes in water availability.

  1. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  2. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  3. The Role of Human Expertise in Enhancing Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddouri, Abdelaaziz

    2011-01-01

    Current data mining (DM) technology is not domain-specific and therefore rarely generates reliable, business actionable knowledge that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banking industry. DM is mainly an autonomous, data-driven process with little focus on domain expertise, constraints, or requirements…

  4. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Costanzo, M.E.; Artino, A.R.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Wittich, C.M.; Roy, M.J.H.M. van; Holmboe, E.S.; Schuwirth, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconsci

  5. Expertise in Performance Assessment: Assessors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important…

  6. Building Expertise to Support Digital Scholarship: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Spiro, Lisa; Wang, Xuemao; Cawthorne, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    This report sheds light on the expertise required to support a robust and sustainable digital scholarship (DS) program. It focuses first on defining and describing the key domain knowledge, skills, competencies, and mindsets at some of the world's most prominent digital scholarship programs. It then identifies the main strategies used to build…

  7. Developing Adaptive Expertise with Pasifika Learners in an Inquiry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zain; Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In the current reform of mathematics classrooms teachers are charged with the role of facilitating collaborative groups during problem-solving activity. The challenge is for teachers to engage students in making mathematical meaning during collaborative group discussions. In this paper we draw on the concept of adaptive expertise to report on…

  8. The Role of Children's Expertise in a Strategic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 42 second graders, 55 fourth graders, and 36 fifth graders investigated previous findings of a lack of strategic advantage for expert children dealing with information in their area of expertise. Results from using an expert-novice paradigm suggest that expert children's task advantage is mediated primarily by nonstrategic…

  9. Conditions for Intuitive Expertise: A Failure to Disagree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Klein, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an effort to explore the differences between two approaches to intuition and expertise that are often viewed as conflicting: heuristics and biases (HB) and naturalistic decision making (NDM). Starting from the obvious fact that professional intuition is sometimes marvelous and sometimes flawed, the authors attempt to map…

  10. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  11. Detecting deception in a bluffing body: The role of expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebanz, N.; Shiffrar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of deception detection traditionally have focused on verbal communication. Nevertheless, people commonly deceive others through nonverbal cues. Previous research has shown that intentions can be inferred from the ways in which people move their bodies. Furthermore, motor expertise within a g

  12. The Role of Context Expertise when Comparing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrall, Cynthia; Nisbet, Steven; Mooney, Edward; Jansem, Sinchai

    2011-01-01

    Our research addresses the role that context expertise plays when students compare data. We report findings from a study conducted in 3 countries: Australia, United States, and Thailand. In each country, six middle school students analyzed authentic data relating to selected students' areas of interest. We examined the data analysis processes and…

  13. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  14. A Step Forward: Investigating Expertise in Materials Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Kim, Mija; Ya-Fang, Liu; Nava, Andrea; Perkins, Dawn; Smith, Anne Margaret; Soler-Canela, Oscar; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the textbook evaluation techniques of novice and experienced teachers, which was conducted by the Language Teaching Expertise Research Group (or LATEX) within Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Three ELT teachers were chosen to evaluate the student and teacher…

  15. Talent "and" Expertise: The Empirical Evidence for Genetic Endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, the author focuses on the claim summarized in the last sentence of the target article's abstract. To begin, the concept of talent does not require the existence of "innate constraints to the attainment of elite achievement". On the contrary, genetic endowment may merely influence the rate at which domain-specific expertise is…

  16. A Phenomenological Investigation of Science Center Exhibition Developers' Expertise Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Denise L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current…

  17. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  18. The Makana Regional Centre of Expertise: Experiments in Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di

    2010-01-01

    This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might…

  19. Palaeo-fluvial origin for Jakobshavn Isbrae catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael; Michaelides, Katerina; Siegert, Martin; Bamber, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Subglacial topography exerts strong controls on ice dynamics, influencing the nature of ice flow, and modulating the distribution of basal waters and sediment. Bed geometry can provide a long-term record of geomorphic processes, allowing insight into landscape evolution, the origin of which, in some cases, can pre-date ice sheet inception. Here, we present evidence from ice-penetrating radar data for a large dendritic drainage network, radiating inland from Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland's largest outlet glacier. The size of the drainage basin is ~450,000 km-squared, comparable with that of the Ohio River in the United States, and accounts for ~20% of the land area of Greenland. Topographic, and basin morphometric analysis of isostatically compensated (ice-free) bedrock topography suggests that this catchment pre-dates ice sheet inception (~3.5 Ma), and will have been instrumental in influencing flow from the island's interior to the margin. The geological setting, and glacial history of Greenland lends itself well to the preservation of such landscapes; the island is dominated by erosion-resistant, Precambrian crystalline rocks with few sedimentary deposits, and has only been extensively ice-covered for ~3.5 million years (Ma). Despite this, most analysis of subglacial geomorphology, and of 'pre-glacial' landscapes, has been focused on Antarctica (e.g. the Ellsworth Subglacial Highlands and, 'pre-glacial erosional surfaces' of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)), with little consideration for such associations in Greenland. However, a large subglacial 'mega-canyon' in northern Greenland, thought to of palaeo-fluvial origin, has recently been discovered.

  20. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  1. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  2. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A. [Univ. of Montana, Polson, MT (United States). Flathead Lake Biological Station; Ward, J.V. [EAWAG/ETH, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Limnology; Liss, W.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  3. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms, contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  4. Inverse distributed hydrological modelling of alpine catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kunstmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in physically based distributed hydrological models, various remaining parameters must be estimated for each sub-catchment. This can involve tremendous effort, especially when the number of sub-catchments is large and the applied hydrological model is computationally expensive. Automatic parameter estimation tools can significantly facilitate the calibration process. Hence, we combined the nonlinear parameter estimation tool PEST with the distributed hydrological model WaSiM. PEST is based on the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg method, a gradient-based nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm. WaSiM is a fully distributed hydrological model using physically based algorithms for most of the process descriptions.

    WaSiM was applied to the alpine/prealpine Ammer River catchment (southern Germany, 710 km2 in a 100×100 m2 horizontal resolution. The catchment is heterogeneous in terms of geology, pedology and land use and shows a complex orography (the difference of elevation is around 1600 m. Using the developed PEST-WaSiM interface, the hydrological model was calibrated by comparing simulated and observed runoff at eight gauges for the hydrologic year 1997 and validated for the hydrologic year 1993. For each sub-catchment four parameters had to be calibrated: the recession constants of direct runoff and interflow, the drainage density, and the hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost aquifer. Additionally, five snowmelt specific parameters were adjusted for the entire catchment. Altogether, 37 parameters had to be calibrated. Additional a priori information (e.g. from flood hydrograph analysis narrowed the parameter space of the solutions and improved the non-uniqueness of the fitted values. A reasonable quality of fit was achieved. Discrepancies between modelled and observed runoff were also due to the small number of meteorological stations and corresponding interpolation artefacts in the orographically complex

  5. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may differ considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. For two months after application in 2009, water samples were taken at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess. This is in contrast to earlier studies in the Swiss Plateau, demonstrating that saturation excess overland flow was the dominant process.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not directly reach the channel. It mostly got retained in small sinks in the catchment. From there, it reached

  6. The analytical derivation of multiple elasticities of runoff to climate change and catchment characteristics alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Zou, Shan; Shao, Quanxi; Xing, Wanqiu; Chen, Xi; Jiao, Xiyun; Luo, Yufeng; Yong, Bin; Yu, Zhongbo

    2016-10-01

    The concept of elasticity has been widely employed to quantify the hydrological response to changes in climate and catchments properties. To separate the effect of different climatic variables on runoff, the potential evaporation (E0) elasticity of runoff needs to be presented in term of observed climate variables. To fully reflect the effects of maximum and minimum temperatures and reduce the influence of the correlations of radiation with sunshine duration and relative humidity on the assessment results, we decompose the E0 elasticity into five evaporation-related elasticities (i.e., sunshine duration, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) via the first-order differentiation of the FAO 56 Penman equation. As the catchment runoff is frequently affected by the land use/cover change, we also consider changes in catchment characteristics and derive a catchment alteration elasticity based on the Budyko framework. An application was carried out in 30 catchments with widespread climatic types in China. For the two periods (i.e., the baseline period and the changed period) divided by the Pettitt test, the contributions of different climatic variables and land use/cover conditions to runoff change were quantified. In general, the alteration of catchment characteristics and climatic change should be mainly responsible for changes in runoff in water-limited and humid basins, respectively. Although the elasticity of maximum temperature are usually higher than that of minimum temperature, the contributions to runoff change present the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional analysis indicated some overestimation in relative humidity elasticities in the previous studies, further emphasizing the necessity of our extension to alleviate the influence of correlation between climatic variables to the assessment results. Moreover, the results of model performance versus model complexity showed that the choice of model complexity still depends on the

  7. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  8. Estimating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI in the Lake Dianchi Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI with components of atmospheric N deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, agricultural N fixation and N in net food and feed imports from 15 catchments in Lake Dianchi Basin were determined over an 11 year period (2000–2010. The 15 catchments range in size from 44 km2 to 316 km2 with an average of 175 km2. To reduce uncertainty from scale change methodology, results from data extracting by area-weighting and land use-weighting methods were compared. Results show that methodology for extrapolating data from county scale to watersheds has a great influence on NANI computation for catchments in the Lake Dianchi Basin, and estimates of NANI between two methods have an average difference of 30% on catchments basis while a smaller difference (15% was observed on the whole Lake Dianchi Basin basis. The riverine N export has stronger linear relationship with NANI computed by land use-weighting method, which we believe is more reliable. Overall, nitrogen inputs assessed by the NANI approach for the Lake Dianchi Basin are 9900 kg N km−2 yr−1, ranging from 6600 to 28 000 kg N km−2 yr−1 among the 15 catchments. Synthetic N fertilizer is the largest component of NANI in most subwatersheds. On average, riverine flux of nitrogen in catchments of the Lake Dianchi Basin averages 83% of NANI, far higher than generally observed in North America and Europe. Saturated N sinks and limited capacity for denitrification in rivers may be responsible for this high percent of riverine N export. A negative intercept observed in the linear relationship between NANI and riverine N export suggests the influence of pollution control measures on N flux in small watershed. The NANI methodology should be applicable in small watersheds when sufficiently detailed data are available to estimate its components.

  9. Characterization of the regional variability of flood regimes within the Omo-Gibe River Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As

  10. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  11. Modelling of catchment nitrogen concentrations response to observed varying fertilizer application intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Eutrophication is a serious environmental problem. Despite numerous experimental and modelling efforts, understanding of the effect of land use and agriculture practices on in-stream nitrogen fluxes is still not fully achieved. This study combined intensive field monitoring and numerical modelling using 30 years of surface water quality data of a drinking water reservoir catchment in central Germany. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% of agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. The geology of the Weida catchment is characterized by clay schists and eruptive rocks, where rocks have low permeability. The semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was used to reproduce the measured data. First, the model was calibrated for discharge and nitrate-N concentrations (NO3-N) during the period 1997-2000. Then, the HYPE model was validated successfully for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates (with lowest discharge prediction performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74%, considering calibration and validation periods). Results showed that the measured as well as simulated in-stream nitrate-N concentration respond quickly to fertilizer application changes (increase/decrease). This rapid response can be explained with short residence times of interflow and baseflow runoff components due to the hardrock geological properties of the catchment. Results revealed that the surface runoff and interflow are the most dominant runoff components. HYPE model could reproduce reasonably well the NO3-N daily loads for varying fertilizer application, when detailed input data in terms of crop management (field-specific survey) are considered.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TO GEOMORPHIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENT YIELD FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchoul Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sediment yield and the factors controlling it provides useful information for estimating erosion intensities within river basins. The objective of this study was to build a model from which suspended sediment yield could be estimated from ungauged rivers using computed sediment yield and physical factors. Researchers working on suspended sediment transported by wadis in the Maghreb are usually facing the lack of available data for such river types. Further study of the prediction of sediment transport in these regions and its variability is clearly required. In this work, ANNs were built between sediment yield established from longterm measurement series at gauging stations in Algerian catchments and corresponding basic physiographic parameters such as rainfall, runoff, lithology index, coefficient of torrentiality, and basin area. The proposed Levenberg-Marquardt and Multilayer Perceptron algorithms to train the neural networks of the current research study was based on the feed-forward backpropagation method with combinations of number of neurons in each hidden layer, transfer function, error goal. Additionally, three statistical measurements, namely the root mean square error (RMSE, the coefficient of determination (R², and the efficiency factor (EF have been reported for examining the forecasting accuracy of the developed model. Single plot displays of network outputs with respect to targets for training have provided good performance results and good fitting . Thus, ANNs were a promising method for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged Algerian catchments.

  13. Impact of land use changes on connectivity in a rural catchment with mild topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Ghaffari, Golaleh

    2016-04-01

    Concept of sediment connectivity and quantitative assessment of its spatial distribution became important tool for analysis of spatial connectivity of sediment transport processes in basins. Most of the first connectivity studies is focused on montane basins with high rates of erosion originating in steep slopes in headwater areas. However, less attention is paid to the mild landscapes in highland and lowland landscape, with often high connectivity. It applies to the rural areas where the sediment transport and erosion control are of key importance. Assessment of connectivity and its control in such environment thus can contribute to the efficient and sustainable landscape management. In our study we have tested applicability of the concept of index of sediment connectivity (IC) in mid-latitude rural catchment with mild topography and extensive share of arable land. The aim of the study was (i) to test the GIS-based IC calculation in specific topographic conditions, (ii) to assess the effects of land use changes on the sediment connectivity and (iii) to identify the landscape features affecting connection between hillslopes and stream channels. The study area - Loucka River Basin, Czech Republic with area of 386 sq km is located in highland landscape with 60% share of arable land. The basin study area has a reverse pattern of topography compared to the typical montane catchments - the extensive headwater areas, used for agriculture, are flat and are drained into steep valleys in downstream. The basin is equipped with long-term monitoring of suspended sediment transport. We have used the high resolution 5 meter DEM derived from aerial LiDAR scanning as a base for analysis of topographic controls of sediment connectivity and for calculation of connectivity topographic index. The index of connectivity was calculated in a multitemporal scale of two decades since 1990 to analyze the the changes of sediment connectivity and its spatial distribution in response to the

  14. Runoff of small rocky headwater catchments: Field observations and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoretti, C.; Degetto, M.; Bernard, M.; Crucil, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; De Vido, G.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2016-10-01

    In dolomitic headwater catchments, intense rainstorms of short duration produce runoff discharges that often trigger debris flows on the scree slopes at the base of rock cliffs. In order to measure these discharges, we placed a measuring facility at the outlet (elevation 1770 m a.s.l.) of a small, rocky headwater catchment (area ˜0.032 km2, average slope ˜320%) located in the Venetian Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps). The facility consists of an approximately rectangular basin, ending with a sharp-crested weir. Six runoff events were recorded in the period 2011-2014, providing a unique opportunity for characterizing the hydrological response of the catchment. The measured hydrographs display impulsive shapes, with an abrupt raise up to the peak, followed by a rapidly decreasing tail, until a nearly constant plateau is eventually reached. This behavior can be simulated by means of a distributed hydrological model if the excess rainfall is determined accurately. We show that using the Soil Conservation Service Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method and assuming a constant routing velocity invariably results in an underestimated peak flow and a delayed peak time. A satisfactory prediction of the impulsive hydrograph shape, including peak value and timing, is obtained only by combining the SCS-CN procedure with a simplified version of the Horton equation, and simulating runoff routing along the channel network through a matched diffusivity kinematic wave model. The robustness of the proposed methodology is tested through a comparison between simulated and observed timings of runoff or debris flow occurrence in two neighboring alpine basins.

  15. Runoff generation mechanism at two distinct headwater catchments - isotopic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Michal; Votrubová, Jana; Šanda, Martin; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomáš; Dušek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    Data from two headwater catchments indicate considerably different runoff formation mechanisms. The contributions of different surface and subsurface runoff mechanisms to the catchment discharge formation at these two small forested headwater catchments are studied with help of the natural isotopic signatures of the observed fluxes. The Uhlirska catchment (1.78 sq. km, Jizera Mts., Czech Republic) is situated in headwater area of Cerna Nisa stream. Deluviofluvial granitic sediments in the valley bottom areas (riparian zones/wetlands) are surrounded by gentle hillslopes with shallow soils developed on crystalline bedrock. The Liz catchment (0.99 sq. km, Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic) belongs to hillslope-type catchments without riparian zones situated in headwater area of Volynka River. The soil at Liz is developed on biotite paragneiss bedrock. Autocorrelation analysis of the measured catchment discharge rates reveals different hydrograph characteristics for each of the two catchments. Estimated autocorrelation lengths differ by an order of magnitude. Variations of oxygen-18 isotope concentrations in precipitation, groundwater and streamflow were analyzed. Several significant rainfall-runoff events at each of the two catchments were analyzed in detail. These events exhibit substantial difference in isotopic compositions of event and pre-event water, which facilitates hydrograph separation. Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteretic relationships between the stream discharge and its isotope concentration were identified. Results were confronted with the previously published concepts of the runoff formation at the catchments under study. The research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation, project No. 14-15201J.

  16. Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data from four western juniper-dominated experimental catchments in southwestern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Patrick R.; Marks, Danny G.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Williams, C. Jason; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Boehm, Alex R.; Havens, Scott C.; Hedrick, Andrew; Cram, Zane K.; Svejcar, Tony J.

    2017-02-01

    Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data are presented from the South Mountain experimental catchments. This study site was established in 2007 as a collaborative, long-term research laboratory to address the impacts of western juniper encroachment and woodland treatments in the interior Great Basin region of the western USA. The data provide detailed information on the weather and hydrologic response from four highly instrumented catchments in the late stages of woodland encroachment in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Hourly data from six meteorologic stations and four weirs have been carefully processed, quality-checked, and are serially complete. These data are ideal for hydrologic, ecosystem, and biogeochemical modeling. Data presented are publicly available from the USDA National Agricultural Library administered by the Agricultural Research Service (https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments" target="_blank">https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments, doi:10.15482/USDA.ADC/1254010).

  17. Modeling the stream water nitrate dynamics in a 60,000-km2 European catchment, the Garonne, southwest France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseuil, Clément; Wade, Andrew J; Tudesque, Loïc; Lek, Sovan

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics in the stream water NO(3)-N concentrations in a major European river-system, the Garonne (62,700 km(2)), are described and related to variations in climate, land management, and effluent point-sources using multivariate statistics. Building on this, the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) rainfall-runoff model and the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) are applied to simulate the observed flow and N dynamics. This is done to help us to understand which factors and processes control the flow and N dynamics in different climate zones and to assess the relative inputs from diffuse and point sources across the catchment. This is the first application of the linked HBV and INCA-N models to a major European river system commensurate with the largest basins to be managed under the Water Framework Directive. The simulations suggest that in the lowlands, seasonal patterns in the stream water NO(3)-N concentrations emerge and are dominated by diffuse agricultural inputs, with an estimated 75% of the river load in the lowlands derived from arable farming. The results confirm earlier European catchment studies. Namely, current semi-distributed catchment-scale dynamic models, which integrate variations in land cover, climate, and a simple representation of the terrestrial and in-stream N cycle, are able to simulate seasonal NO(3)-N patterns at large spatial (>300 km(2)) and temporal (> or = monthly) scales using available national datasets.

  18. Groundwater recharge from point to catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Di Ciacca, Antoine; Laloy, Eric; Jacques, Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is a challenging task as only a few devices (if any) can measure it directly. In this study, we discuss how groundwater recharge can be calculated at different temporal and spatial scales in the Kleine Nete catchment (Belgium). A small monitoring network is being installed, that is aimed to monitor the changes in dominant processes and to address data availability as one goes from the point to the catchment scale. At the point scale, groundwater recharge is estimated using inversion of soil moisture and/or water potential data and stable isotope concentrations (Koeniger et al. 2015). At the plot scale, it is proposed to monitor the discharge of a small drainage ditch in order to calculate the field groundwater recharge. Electrical conductivity measurements are necessary to separate shallow from deeper groundwater contribution to the ditch discharge (see Di Ciacca et al. poster in session HS8.3.4). At this scale, two or three-dimensional process-based vadose zone models will be used to model subsurface flow. At the catchment scale though, using a mechanistic, process-based model to estimate groundwater recharge is debatable (because of, e.g., the presence of numerous drainage ditches, mixed land use pixels, etc.). We therefore investigate to which extent various types of surrogate models can be used to make the necessary upscaling from the plot scale to the scale of the whole Kleine Nete catchment. Ref. Koeniger P, Gaj M, Beyer M, Himmelsbach T (2015) Review on soil water isotope based groundwater recharge estimations. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10775

  19. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    collaborative information sharing can have a direct influence on agricultural practice. We apply a nutrient management scheme to a model of an example catchment with several individual networks. The networks are able to correlate catchment events to events within their zone of influence, allowing them to adapt their monitoring and control strategy in light of wider changes across the catchment. Results indicate that this can lead to significant reductions in nutrient losses (up to 50%) and better reutilization of nutrients amongst farms, having a positive impact on catchment scale water quality and fertilizer costs. 1. EC, E.C., Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, 2000. 2. Rivers, M., K. Smettem, and P. Davies. Estimating future scenarios for farm-watershed nutrient fluxes using dynamic simulation modelling-Can on-farm BMPs really do the job at the watershed scale? in Proc.29th Int.Conf System Dynamics Society, 2011. 2010. Washington 3. Liu, C., et al., On-farm evaluation of winter wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N in North China Plain. Agronomy Journal, 2008. 100(6): p. 1527-1534. 4. Kotamäki, N., et al., Wireless in-situ sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring on a river basin scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a data user's perspective. Sensors, 2009. 9(4): p. 2862-2883.

  20. Similarity and scale in catchment storm response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Beven, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, very little progress had been made in understanding the relationship between small-scale variability of topography, soil, and rainfalls and the storm response seen at the catchment scale. The work reviewed here represents the first attempt at a systematic theoretical framework for such understanding in the context of surface runoff generation by different processes. The parameterization of hydrological processes over a range of scales is examined, and the concept of the 'representative elementary area' (REA) is introduced. The REA is a fundamental scale for catchment modeling at which continuum assumptions can be applied for the spatially variable controls and parameters, and spatial patterns no longer have to be considered explicitly. The investigation of scale leads into the concept of hydrologic similarity in which the effects of the environmental controls on runoff generation and flood frequency response be investigated independently of catchment scale. The paper reviews the authors' initial results and hopefully will motivate others to also investigate the issues of hydrologic scale and similarity.

  1. Variability in riparian zone potential and actual evapotranspiration in a 1st order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. English

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological and hydrological measurements were made over one growing season using automatic weather stations and weighing lysimeters at several locations within a multiple land-use agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario. This paper compares modelled potential evapotranspiration (PET and measured actual evapotranspiration (AET values obtained from the soil weighing lysimeters, and determines the spatial variability in riparian zone AET in a multiple land-use agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario. Two sites were chosen in two different riparian areas of the watershed, representing the surface conditions dominant in the upper and lower reaches of the basin. The results indicated that AET was higher in the northern end of the basin than in the southern portion of the basin, while the hydrological and energy balance components were similar at both sites. The causes of the different rates are attributed to the surrounding vegetation on adjacent fields and the differing wind regimes.

  2. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-03-02

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody.

  3. Memory Kernel in the Expertise of Chess Players

    CERN Document Server

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L; Billoni, Orlando V

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate a mechanism for the emergence of long-range time correlations observed in a chronologically ordered database of chess games. We analyze a modified Yule-Simon preferential growth process proposed by Cattuto et al., which includes memory effects by means of a probabilistic kernel. According to the Hurst exponent of different constructed time series from the record of games, artificially generated databases from the model exhibit similar long-range correlations. In addition, the inter-event time frequency distribution is well reproduced by the model for realistic parameter values. In particular, we find the inter-event time distribution properties to be correlated with the expertise of the chess players through the memory kernel extension. Our work provides new information about the strategies implemented by players with different levels of expertise, showing an interesting example of how popularities and long-range correlations build together during a collective learning process.

  4. Philosophers' biased judgments persist despite training, expertise and reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-08-01

    We examined the effects of framing and order of presentation on professional philosophers' judgments about a moral puzzle case (the "trolley problem") and a version of the Tversky & Kahneman "Asian disease" scenario. Professional philosophers exhibited substantial framing effects and order effects, and were no less subject to such effects than was a comparison group of non-philosopher academic participants. Framing and order effects were not reduced by a forced delay during which participants were encouraged to consider "different variants of the scenario or different ways of describing the case". Nor were framing and order effects lower among participants reporting familiarity with the trolley problem or with loss-aversion framing effects, nor among those reporting having had a stable opinion on the issues before participating the experiment, nor among those reporting expertise on the very issues in question. Thus, for these scenario types, neither framing effects nor order effects appear to be reduced even by high levels of academic expertise.

  5. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmer...... encounter smaller pupillary dilation within programming problem solving tasks. We aim to evaluate our hypothesis using the EMIP Distributed Data Collection in order to confirm or reject our approach.......In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  6. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...... ratings reflected the average competence of recommenders across all subject areas. We have now developed a new version of the WRS, which evaluates the expertise of recommenders within different subject areas. In order to do this, we need to identify a way to classify the subject area of all the articles...

  7. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  8. Memory of psychodiagnostic information: biases and effects of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailey, K; Vasterling, J J; Franks, J J

    2001-01-01

    Problem-solving expertise has been associated with enhanced memory of domain-specific information. This enhanced memory is thought to play an important role in expert decisions. Meanwhile, research on psychodiagnostic decision making has found consistent limitations in experienced clinicians' ability to make optimal decisions. To what extent are these limitations associated with suboptimal memory processes? We compared memories of expert clinicians and novice graduate students for information learned while viewing a videotaped psychodiagnostic interview. Results of 3 tests suggest that expert clinicians exhibit enhanced memory that is flexible, selective, and accurate but with limitations that might contribute to poor decisions. Experts exhibited superior memory of personal criteria and disconfirmatory information. However, a framing manipulation induced performance in experts consistent with suboptimal decision making, and both groups needed exhaustive prompts for optimal memory search. Implications of these findings for expertise models are discussed.

  9. Assessing Expertise in Introductory Physics Using Categorization Task

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking three introductory physics classes, each with more than a hundred students, to categorize mechanics problems based upon similarity of solution. We compare their categorization with those of physics graduate students and faculty members. To evaluate the effect of problem context on students' ability to categorize, two sets of problems were developed for categorization. Some problems in one set included those available from the prior study by Chi et al. We find a large overlap between calculus-based introductory students and graduate students with regard to their categorizations that were assessed as "good." Our findings, which contrast with those of Chi et al., suggest ...

  10. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  11. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  12. Integrating LCA and EHS expertise in the assessment of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Hankin, Steve; Chaudry, Qasim

    2009-01-01

    DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently with the development of new production technology for lightweight materials used in e.g. wind turbine blades. As the new technology involves the use of nanoparticles, the health and safety workpackage is needed to ...

  13. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  14. Recognition of Translator Expertise using Sequences of Fixations and Keystrokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez, Pascual Martínez; Minocha, Akshay; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Professional human translation is necessary to meet high quality standards in industry and governmental agencies. Translators engage in multiple activities during their task, and there is a need to model their behavior, with the objective to understand and optimize the translation process. In rec...... and keystrokes into activities and model translation sessions with the objective to recognize translator expertise. We show significant error reductions in the task of recognizing certified translators and their years of experience, and analyze the characterizing patterns....

  15. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  16. [Topical issues of organisation and implementation of forensic medical expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A V; Isaev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The shaped-up experience of management and implementation of expertise as applicable to civil and criminal cases and with respect to the requirements of new legislative acts was analyzed. Issues connected with composing a commission of experts, with the range of competence of forensic medical expert and of clinical practitioner, as well as with the content and form of the expert conclusions are under discussion.

  17. Critical appraisal of product development expertise in Irish SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research was on the product development expertise of Irish SMEs. In particular, SMEs developing physical products (a physical product is defined as an electronic, medical device, plastic or general engineering product). A survey of Irish SMEs was conducted across industry sectors developing physical products with the objective of understanding how indigenous SMEs and therefore Ireland is progressing towards becoming a knowledge economy. SME characteristics (customers and mar...

  18. Selected Micropollutants as Indicators in a Karst Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Schiperski, Ferry; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    High flow dynamics and variations in water quality are typical for karst springs and reflect the complex interaction of different flow and storage components within a karst system. Event-based monitoring of mobile micropollutants in spring water combined with information on their input is used (1) to quantify the impact of certain contamination scenarios on spring water quality and (2) to gain additional information on the intrinsic characteristics of a karst system. We employ the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate as source specific indicators for sewage along with the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon for agriculture. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (SDB, combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality. Most of the sewer system is situated in the SW of the catchment. Most agricultural land is found in the NE. Neither atrazine nor significant amounts of isoproturon were detected in wastewater. Concentrations and mass fluxes of acesulfame and cyclamate in wastewater were determined. The combined evaluation of the persistent compound acesulfame with the rather degradable cyclamate allows for the distinction of long and short transit times and thus slow and fast flow components. The same applies for atrazine (persistent) and isoproturon (degradable). In Germany, acesulfame was licensed in 1990, atrazine was banned shortly after, in 1991. During low flow conditions only atrazine (max. 4 ng/L) and acesulfame (max. 20 ng/L) were detected in spring water. After a recharge event without SDB overflow concentrations as well as mass fluxes of both compounds decreased, reflecting an increasing portion of event water in spring discharge. A breakthrough of isoproturon (max. 9 ng/L) indicated the arrival of water from croplands. After a recharge event accompanied by a SDB overflow cyclamate was detected at max

  19. A sociological analysis of ethical expertise: The case of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Emmerich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.

  20. Variability in functional brain networks predicts expertise during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Ibáñez, Agustín; Fonseca, Bruno; Gadea, Sebastián; Sedeño, Lucas; Sigman, Mariano; García, Adolfo M; Fraiman, Ricardo; Fraiman, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Observing an action performed by another individual activates, in the observer, similar circuits as those involved in the actual execution of that action. This activation is modulated by prior experience; indeed, sustained training in a particular motor domain leads to structural and functional changes in critical brain areas. Here, we capitalized on a novel graph-theory approach to electroencephalographic data (Fraiman et al., 2016) to test whether variability in functional brain networks implicated in Tango observation can discriminate between groups differing in their level of expertise. We found that experts and beginners significantly differed in the functional organization of task-relevant networks. Specifically, networks in expert Tango dancers exhibited less variability and a more robust functional architecture. Notably, these expertise-dependent effects were captured within networks derived from electrophysiological brain activity recorded in a very short time window (2s). In brief, variability in the organization of task-related networks seems to be a highly sensitive indicator of long-lasting training effects. This finding opens new methodological and theoretical windows to explore the impact of domain-specific expertise on brain plasticity, while highlighting variability as a fruitful measure in neuroimaging research.

  1. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  2. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bishop

    Full Text Available Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1 while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2 while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  3. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise.

  4. Assessing expertise in introductory physics using categorization task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking three introductory physics classes, each with more than a hundred students, to categorize mechanics problems based upon similarity of solution. We compare their categorization with those of physics graduate students and faculty members. To evaluate the effect of problem context on students’ ability to categorize, two sets of problems were developed for categorization. Some problems in one set included those available from the prior study by Chi et al. We find a large overlap between calculus-based introductory students and graduate students with regard to their categorizations that were assessed as “good.” Our findings, which contrast with those of Chi et al., suggest that there is a wide distribution of expertise in mechanics among introductory and graduate students. Although the categorization task is conceptual, introductory students in the calculus-based course performed better than those in the algebra-based course. Qualitative trends in categorization of problems are similar between the non-Chi problems and problems available from the Chi study used in our study although the Chi problems used are more difficult on average.

  5. Capturing the essence of developing endovascular expertise for the construction of a global assessment instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, B.; Lönn, L.; Schroeder, T. V.

    2010-01-01

    To explore what characterises the development of endovascular expertise and to construct a novel global assessment instrument.......To explore what characterises the development of endovascular expertise and to construct a novel global assessment instrument....

  6. 77 FR 809 - Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise for the Ballistic Resistance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise for the Ballistic... Justice. ACTION: Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise. SUMMARY: The...

  7. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  8. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  9. Characterization of physical parameters and environmental sanitation for experimental-representative catchment located in the lowlands of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Pimentel da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics and environmental sanitation aspects for a drainage area inserted in the region of Morto river catchment, taken as experimental and representative of Jacarepaguá Lowland Basin in Rio de Janeiro, where city´s growth is taking place very fast. It is expected that this study will support the development of public policies that may guide the conservation of water and sustainable development of the region. The methodology used for watershed delimitation and the physical characteristics calculation involved the application of small computational procedures associated to ArcGis 9.2, ArcHydro®. It was determined the area, the perimeter, the compactness index, shape factor, drainage density, average extension of runoff and catchment´s slope. The observed low slope along the river coast combined with the physical parameters of the basin, enabled to conclude that this catchment is susceptible to floods especially during concomitant events of high tide and heavy rain. The analysis of social and environmental sanitation aspects took into account IBGE`s 2000 Census results. It was observed that illiteracy rates for the catchment area was doubled of that observed for the city as whole and that services such as water supply, sewage and garbage collection are more precarious in the catchment area than in the neighborhood of Jacarepaguá or the city of Rio de Janeiro. In relative terms, sewage collection was in the worst situation while the garbage collection services were in the best for the studied basin.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  11. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  12. Examining runoff generation processes in the Selke catchment in central Germany: Insights from data and semi-distributed numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: We examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff generating mechanisms on the sub-basin level on seasonal basis. Our analysis reveals that the runoff generation in the Selke catchment is primarily dominated by shallow sub-surface flow and very rarely the contribution from Dunne overland flow exceeds sub-surface flow. Runoff generated by Hortonian mechanism is very infrequent and almost negligible. We also examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff coefficients on seasonal basis as well as for individual storms. Due to higher precipitation and topographic relief in the upland catchment of Silberhutte, the runoff coefficients were consistently higher and its peak was found in winter months due to lower evapotranspiration.

  13. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  14. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  15. Expertise in Clinical Psychology.The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVollmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competences to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgraduate psychotherapist curriculum, and behavior therapists with more than ten years of experience were tested (100 in total: 20 each of novice, intermediate, and advanced university students, postgraduate trainees, and therapists. Clinical knowledge and competences increased up to the level of trainees but unexpectedly decreased at the level of experienced therapists. We discuss the results against the background of expertise research and the training of clinical psychologists (in Germany. Essential factors for continuing education of psychotherapists are proposed.

  16. Expertise in clinical psychology. The effects of university training and practical experience on expertise in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sabine; Spada, Hans; Caspar, Franz; Burri, Salome

    2013-01-01

    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competence to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgraduate psychotherapist curriculum, and behavior therapists with more than 10 years of experience were tested (100 in total: 20 each of novice, intermediate, and advanced university students, postgraduate trainees, and therapists). Clinical knowledge and competence increased up to the level of trainees but unexpectedly decreased at the level of experienced therapists. We discuss the results against the background of expertise research and the training of clinical psychologists (in Germany). Important factors for the continuing professional development of psychotherapists are proposed.

  17. Expertise in Clinical Psychology. The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, Sabine; Spada, Hans; Caspar, Franz; Burri, Salome

    2013-01-01

    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competence to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgr...

  18. A Preliminary Exploration on the Measurement of Expertise: An Initial Development of a Psychometric Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line; Tejeda, Manuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of employee expertise is described as a strategic imperative for ever-changing organizations in a hyper-competitive economic environment. However, the lack of an adequate assessment tool for expertise has hindered empirical research. This paper conceptually and empirically develops the generalized expertise measure (GEM) and…

  19. Expertise Amiss: Interactivity Fosters Learning but Expert Tutors Are Less Interactive than Novice Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jörg; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which tutors are interactive and engage in dialogue with a student tends to depend on their pedagogical expertise. Normally, tutors with pedagogical expertise are more interactive than tutors without pedagogical expertise. This finding, however, has largely been obtained when examining tutoring in procedural domains such as…

  20. The Psychological Costs of Knowledge Specialization in Groups: Unique Expertise Leaves You out of the Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eric E.; Kelly, Janice R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge specialization, such as that present in cross-functional teams, produces both positive and negative outcomes. Our research investigated how unique expertise can lead to feelings of ostracism in the form of being out of the loop. Compared to group members with shared expertise, members with unique expertise felt out of the loop and…

  1. Toward an Integrated Model of Expertise Redevelopment and Its Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Robin S.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, expertise theories have focused on skills acquisition with little regard for the domain or contextual factors affecting expertise development and retention. Because the development, retention, and recruiting of individuals with expertise is critical to organizational success, it is essential that HRD professionals understand the…

  2. Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Siewiorek, Anna; Lehtinen, Erno; Saljo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how best to assess expertise, the situational variations of expertise, and distinctive qualities of expertise that arises from particular workplace experiences, presents an important challenge. Certainly, at this time, there is much interest in identifying standard occupational measures and competences, which are not well aligned…

  3. Curricular Design and Implementation as a Site of Teacher Expertise and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Megan Madigan; Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Daniel, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Previously, research about teacher expertise has adhered to relatively fixed notions of teacher expertise. However, in this study, we share data from teacher study group (TSG) meetings, which demonstrate a dynamic understanding of teacher expertise. In these meetings, teachers discursively positioned themselves, their colleagues, and the research…

  4. Uncertainty in flood forecasting: A distributed modeling approach in a sparse data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pablo A.; McPhee, James; Vargas, Ximena

    2012-09-01

    Data scarcity has traditionally precluded the application of advanced hydrologic techniques in developing countries. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a flood forecasting scheme in a sparsely monitored catchment based on distributed hydrologic modeling, discharge assimilation, and numerical weather predictions with explicit validation uncertainty analysis. For the hydrologic component of our framework, we apply TopNet to the Cautin River basin, located in southern Chile, using a fully distributed a priori parameterization based on both literature-suggested values and data gathered during field campaigns. Results obtained from this step indicate that the incremental effort spent in measuring directly a set of model parameters was insufficient to represent adequately the most relevant hydrologic processes related to spatiotemporal runoff patterns. Subsequent uncertainty validation performed over a six month ensemble simulation shows that streamflow uncertainty is better represented during flood events, due to both the increase of state perturbation introduced by rainfall and the flood-oriented calibration strategy adopted here. Results from different assimilation configurations suggest that the upper part of the basin is the major source of uncertainty in hydrologic process representation and hint at the usefulness of interpreting assimilation results in terms of model input and parameterization inadequacy. Furthermore, in this case study the violation of Markovian state properties by the Ensemble Kalman filter did affect the numerical results, showing that an explicit treatment of the time delay between the generation of surface runoff and the arrival at the basin outlet is required in the assimilation scheme. Peak flow forecasting results demonstrate that there is a major problem with the Weather Research and Forecasting model outputs, which systematically overestimate precipitation over the catchment. A final analysis performed for a large flooding

  5. Combining caesium-137 measurements and suspended sediment load data to investigate the sediment response of a small catchment in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, P.; Walling, D. E.; La Spada, C.; Mallimo, N.

    2015-03-01

    A long-term measurement programme was operated in southern Italy during the 1960s and 1970s, to provide information on the suspended sediment yields from the main river basins. Information obtained for the rivers of Calabria suggests that suspended sediment yields in this area are relatively low. However, there is evidence that the intensity of land degradation within the upstream catchments is substantially higher than suggested by the values of specific sediment yield and there is a need to explore the relationship between on-site soil loss and downstream sediment yield more closely. Monitoring time-integrated erosion rates over large areas has traditionally required extensive long-term measurement programmes employing experimental plots. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) offers an alternative means of documenting medium-term rates of soil loss. This paper describes the use of 137Cs measurements and the available sediment load data to explore the links between soil erosion, sediment redistribution and storage, and sediment output for a medium-scale (41.3 km2) catchment in Calabria. Data available from a sediment load monitoring programme undertaken at the catchment outlet during 1962-1977 have been used to estimate the longer-term catchment sediment yield. This estimate has been combined with information provided by the 137Cs measurements, to establish a medium-term sediment budget for the catchment. The results provided by the 137Cs measurements indicate that the catchment is subject to much higher rates of soil loss and land degradation than suggested by its specific sediment yield. These findings are consistent with the results obtained for other catchments in Calabria for which both 137Cs derived erosion rates and measured sediment yields are available.

  6. Estimation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in streams of the Middle Columbia River Basin (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) using SPARROW models, with emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.; Wise, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Related Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads and yields for the Middle Columbia River Basin in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The new models build on recently published models for the entire Pacific Northwest, and provide revised load predictions for the arid interior of the region by restricting the modeling domain and recalibrating the models. Results from the new TN and TP models are provided for the entire region, and discussed with special emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington. In most catchments of the Yakima River Basin, the TN and TP in streams is from natural sources, specifically nitrogen fixation in forests (TN) and weathering and erosion of geologic materials (TP). The natural nutrient sources are overshadowed by anthropogenic sources of TN and TP in highly agricultural and urbanized catchments; downstream of the city of Yakima, most of the load in the Yakima River is derived from anthropogenic sources. Yields of TN and TP from catchments with nearly uniform land use were compared with other yield values and export coefficients published in the scientific literature, and generally were in agreement. The median yield of TN was greatest in catchments dominated by agricultural land and smallest in catchments dominated by grass and scrub land. The median yield of TP was greatest in catchments dominated by forest land, but the largest yields (90th percentile) of TP were from agricultural catchments. As with TN, the smallest TP yields were from catchments dominated by grass and scrub land.

  7. Extreme Rainfall Impacts in Fractured Permeable Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Serious groundwater flooding events have occurred on Chalk catchments in both the UK and north west Europe in the last decade, causing substantial amounts of disruption and economic damage. These fractured, permeable catchments are characterized by low surface runoff, high baseflow indices and strongly attenuated streamflow hydrographs. They have a general resilience to drought and pluvial/fluvial flooding. The small pore size of the Chalk matrix (~ 1 µm) exerts a high suction, such that dynamic storage is primarily due to the fractures, and amounts to ~ 1% of the total volume. As a result, under sustained rainfall the water table can rise up to exceptional levels leading to surface water emergence from springs and valleys. Floodwater may slowly drain with the topography, or, in localized depressions, it may simply pond until the groundwater levels decline. In winter 2000/1, a sequence of individually unexceptional rainfall events over several months led to large scale flooding in the Pang catchment, Berkshire, UK. By contrast, an extreme rainfall event on 20th July 2007 in the same catchment caused a very rapid response at the water table, but due to the antecedent conditions did not lead to flooding. The objective of this study is to quantify how the water table in a fractured permeable catchment responds to different types of rainfall, and the implications of this for groundwater flooding. We make use of measurements from the Pang catchment, including: rainfall (tipping bucket gauges); actual evaporation (eddy flux correlation); soil water content (profile probes and neutron probes); near surface matric potential (tensiometers and equitensiometers); deep (>10m) matric potential (deep jacking tensiometers); and water table elevation (piezometers). Conventional treatment of recharge in Chalk aquifers considers a fixed bypass component of rainfall, normally 15%, to account for the role of the fractures. However, interpretation of the field data suggest three modes

  8. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  9. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  10. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  11. Evaluation of TOPLATS on three Mediterranean catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, Javier; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    Physically based hydrological models are complex tools that provide a complete description of the different processes occurring on a catchment. The TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS) simulates water and energy balances at different time steps, in both lumped and distributed modes. In order to gain insight on the behavior of TOPLATS and its applicability in different conditions a detailed evaluation needs to be carried out. This study aimed to develop a complete evaluation of TOPLATS including: (1) a detailed review of previous research works using this model; (2) a sensitivity analysis (SA) of the model with two contrasted methods (Morris and Sobol) of different complexity; (3) a 4-step calibration strategy based on a multi-start Powell optimization algorithm; and (4) an analysis of the influence of simulation time step (hourly vs. daily). The model was applied on three catchments of varying size (La Tejeria, Cidacos and Arga), located in Navarre (Northern Spain), and characterized by different levels of Mediterranean climate influence. Both Morris and Sobol methods showed very similar results that identified Brooks-Corey Pore Size distribution Index (B), Bubbling pressure (ψc) and Hydraulic conductivity decay (f) as the three overall most influential parameters in TOPLATS. After calibration and validation, adequate streamflow simulations were obtained in the two wettest catchments, but the driest (Cidacos) gave poor results in validation, due to the large climatic variability between calibration and validation periods. To overcome this issue, an alternative random and discontinuous method of cal/val period selection was implemented, improving model results.

  12. Design of a Rainwater Catchment System

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Cammardella

    2011-01-01

    Certain dimensions of a rainwater catchment and storage system were optimized using climatological and sociological data. Using only daily demand and average daily rain fall data, the following dimensions were optimized: 1) The horizontal roof area needed to collect the daily demand of water, 2) The tank size needed to store all the water collected during a heavy rain event, 3) When full, how long the tank will be able to provide water without rain, and 4) The diameter of the outlet flow orif...

  13. ANN modeling for flood prediction in the upstream Eure's catchment (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Ouissem; masson, Eric; Blanpain, Olivier; Lallahem, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall-Runoff relationship at basin scale is strongly depending on the catchment complexity including multi-scale interactions. In extreme events cases (i.e. floods and droughts) this relationship is even more complex and differs from average hydrological conditions making extreme runoff prediction very difficult to achieve. However, flood warning, flood prevention and flood mitigation rely on the possibility to predict both flood peak runoff and lag time. This point is crucial for decision making and flood warning to prevent populations and economical stakes to be damaged by extreme hydrological events. Since 2003 in France, a dedicated state service is in charge of producing flood warning from national level (i.e. SCHAPI) to regional level (i.e. SPC). This flood warning service is combining national weather forecast agency (i.e. Meteo France) together with a fully automated realtime hydrological network (i.e. Rainfall-Runoff) in order to produce a flood warning national map online and provide a set of hydro-meteorological data to the SPC in charge of flood prediction from regional to local scale. The SPC is in fact the flood service delivering hydrological prediction at operational level for decision making about flood alert for municipalities and first help services. Our research in collaboration with the SPC SACN (i.e. "Seine Aval et fleuves Côtiers Normands") is focused on the implementation of an Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) for flood prediction in deferent key points of the Eure's catchment and main subcatchment. Our contribution will focus on the ANN model developed for Saint-Luperce gauging station in the upstream part of the Eure's catchment. Prediction of extreme runoff at Saint-Luperce station is of high importance for flood warning in the Eure's catchment because it gives a good indicator on the extreme status and the downstream propagation of a potential flood event. Despite a good runoff monitoring since 27 years Saint Luperce flood

  14. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and

  15. Hydrological response variability in a small vineyard catchment (D.O. Penedès, NE Spain): effects of rainfall intensity and soil moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep; Concepción Ramos Martín, M.; Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The catchment of Hostalets de Pierola, a small tributary of the low course of the Anoia river (Llobregat basin), is located in the Catalan Prelitoral Depression (Penedès Depression) on Pliocene gravels and detritic Miocene substratum. The catchment size is 0.46 km2 with an average slope of 7.2 %. The main land use in the catchment is vineyards (62.3 %), with other crops and land uses with minor occupation: olive trees 4.8 %, winter cereals 9.5 %, alfalfa 8.5 %, among other). In order to carry out a research on the hydrological response and sediment transport in a representative catchment of vineyard areas in the Spanish Mediterranean region, the catchment was equipped with pluviographs to measure rainfall amount and intensity, soil moisture content sensors and a flume (HL 4" type) to measure water flow in the outlet. This water gauging allows to measure flows up to 3400 l•s-1, and it is equipped with two ultrasonic level sensors and a data-logger for data register. In parallel, monitoring of subsurface water flow of the catchment was carried out in the natural source called Can Flaquer. During the springs of 2011 and 2012 several rainfall events occurred, which allow a preliminary analysis of the hydrological response of the catchment, in comparison with rainfall characteristics (depth and intensity) and the antecedent soil moisture content. The spring events include episodes up to 27 mm, with maximum intensities of 50 mm•h-1 and peak flows up to 1100 l•s-1. The surface runoff of the catchment ceases very quickly, in a few hours after the end of rainfall events, indicating a limited role of soils in water retention and a very active percolation into the aquifer of the Pleistocene gravels. The runoff rates of the analyzed events were relatively low (between 1 - 12 %), depending on the rainfall characteristics and the antecedent soil moisture, indicating a high soil permeability. An important part of the infiltrated water follows a slow subsuperficial way to

  16. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  17. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklaeb, S.; J. W. Wenninger; S. Uhlenbrook

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i) to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time o...

  18. A numerical solution to define channel heads and hillslope parameters from digital topography of glacially conditioned catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Baumann, Sebastian; Kober, Florian; Robl, Jörg; Heiniger, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    region shows a distinct increase of mean elevation from the major overdeepend valleys near the Foreland to the alpine main divide at around 4000 m.a.s.l. within a distance of only 150 km. To define channel heads we first analyzed the variations to fine-scale topography of catchments by calculating the plan curvature at low topographic wavelengths. Higher elevated catchments more frequently impacted by glacial erosion show a higher degree in topographic flattening than catchments with a lower mean elevation where rougher fluvial (steady state) channels dominate. We found that this process of glacial destruction of fine-scale topography can well be analyzed by extracting the plan curvature from a DEM (1-30 m resolution). We furthermore found that the plan curvature frequency depends on the mean elevation of a catchment. Accordingly, the correlation between mean elevation of basins and the related density of pixels with a certain curvature is highly controlled by the used curvature threshold (e.g. used range of curvature pixels). A statistically derived optimum of the negative plan curvature was taken to define a threshold for the concavity of channels. The resulting fragmented network of channel segments was then fully integrated by utilizing a steepest descent algorithm. The upstream-most point of this fully integrated network was then defined as channel head. Our approach offers not only a consistent method to derive (i) hillslope and channel parameters in formerly glaciated catchments but also to (ii) measure the degree in glacial conditioning and therefore (iii) separating non-glacial from glacial catchments.

  19. Moral Expertise in the Clinic: Lessons Learned from Medicine and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, Leah; Slowther, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Philosophers and others have questioned whether or not expertise in morality is possible. This debate is not only theoretical, but also affects the perceived legitimacy of clinical ethicists. One argument against moral expertise is that in a pluralistic society with competing moral theories no one can claim expertise regarding what another ought morally to do. There are simply too many reasonable moral values and intuitions that affect theory choice and its application; expertise is epistemically uniform. In this article, we discuss how similar concerns have recently threatened to undermine expertise in medicine and science. In contrast, we argue that the application of values is needed to exercise medical, scientific, and moral expertise. As long as these values are made explicit, worries about a pretense to authority in the context of a liberal democracy are ill-conceived. In conclusion, we argue for an expertise that is epistemically diverse.

  20. Advances of Simulation and Expertise Capabilities in CIVA Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, L.; Calmon, P.; Sollier, Th.; Mahaut, S.; Benoist, Ph.

    2006-03-01

    Simulation is more and more widely used by the different actors of industrial NDT. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched the development of expertise software for NDT named CIVA which, at its beginning, only contained ultrasonic models from CEA laboratories. CIVA now includes Eddy current simulation tools while present work aims at facilitating integration of algorithms and models from different laboratories and to include X-ray modeling. This communication gives an overview of existing CIVA capabilities and its evolution towards an integration platform.

  1. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  2. The art of assessment in psychology: ethics, expertise, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, J A

    1999-05-01

    Psychological assessment is a hybrid, both art and science. The empirical foundations of testing are indispensable in providing reliable and valid data. At the level of the integrated assessment, however, science gives way to art. Standards of reliability and validity account for the individual instrument; they do not account for the integration of data into a comprehensive assessment. This article examines the current climate of psychological assessment, selectively reviewing the literature of the past decade. Ethics, expertise, and validity are the components under discussion. Psychologists can and do take precautions to ensure that the "art" of their work holds as much merit as the science.

  3. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...... are presented in order to investigate how the hydrological reduction factor depends on the level of detail regarding the catchment description. When applying a total survey of the catchment area, including all possible impervious surfaces, a hydrological reduction factor of approximately 0.5 for residential...

  4. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...... are presented in order to investigate how the hydrological reduction factor depends on the level of detail regarding the catchment description. When applying a total survey of the catchment area, including all possible impervious surfaces, a hydrological reduction factor of approximately 0.5 for residential...

  5. Developing a Deeper Understanding of "Mathematics Teaching Expertise": An Examination of Three Chinese Mathematics Teachers' Resource Systems as Windows into Their Work and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Birgit; Xu, Binyan; Trouche, Luc; Wang, Chongyang

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop a deeper understanding of mathematics teaching expertise, in this study we use the Documentational Approach to Didactics to explore the resource systems of three Chinese mathematics "expert" teachers. Exploiting the Western and Eastern literature we examine the notion of "mathematics teaching expertise", as…

  6. Water Yield and Sediment Yield Simulations for Teba Catchment in Spain Using SWRRB Model: Ⅰ. Model Input and Simulation Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water yield and sediment yield in the Teba catchment, Spain, were simulated using SWRRB (Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins) model. The model is composed of 198 mathematical equations. About 120 items (variables) were input for the simulation, including meteorological and climatic factors, hydrologic factors, topographic factors, parent materials, soils, vegetation, human activities, etc. The simulated results involved surface runoff, subsurface runoff, sediment, peak flow, evapotranspiration, soil water, total biomass,etc. Careful and thorough input data preparation and repeated simulation experiments are the key to get the accurate results. In this work the simulation accuracy for annual water yield prediction reached to 83.68%.``

  7. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  8. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  9. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Assaf

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts' process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts' scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic and unpredictable.

  10. Teacher knowledge, instructional expertise, and the development of reading proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Lyon, G; Weiser, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Teacher knowledge and instructional expertise have been found in correlational and pre- and posttest studies to be related to student reading achievement. This article summarizes data presented in this special issue and additional research to address four questions: (a) What do expert reading teachers know? (b) Why do teachers need to acquire this knowledge? (c) Do teachers believe they have this knowledge? and (d) Are teachers being adequately prepared to teach reading? Well-designed studies relevant to this topic have been sparse with a noticeable lack of attention given to identifying specific causal links between teacher knowledge, teaching expertise, and student reading achievement. Until the appropriate research designs and methodologies are applied to address the question of causal effects, conclusions about the specific content that teachers must know and the instructional practices that are most beneficial in presenting this content are preliminary at best. Future studies of the effect of essential reading content knowledge must be extended beyond word-level skills to vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing.

  11. The nature of chess expertise: knowledge or search?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Vasyukova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we briefl y survey studies of the nature of expertise, and we presentthe results of research directed at evidence of the complicated nature of expertise,which is most eff ectively seen in experts’ use of a transfer mechanism. Thephenomenon of the transfer of verbalized operational senses (VOS is analyzedand is investigated on the basis of the sense theory of thinking, as proposed byTikhomirov (1969, 1984.It is shown that VOS transfer manifests itself in diverse forms. It seems to be dependenton the factors of chess position and the age and skill level of the player.Diverse forms of transferring are associated with a change in separate indices ofVOS volume, structure, depth, and degree of consciousness in a connected position.VOS transfer is found more in skilled than in unskilled chess players; skilledplayers demonstrate selectivity of search in a connected position. VOS transfer isassociated not simply with the repetition and copying of some forecasts, whichgive the direction of search, but also with using and transforming the results ofprevious verbal searches.

  12. Visual expertise for horses in a case of congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nilly; Mardo, Elite; Avidan, Galia

    2016-03-01

    A major question in the domain of face perception is whether faces comprise a distinct visual category that is processed by specialized mechanisms, or whether face processing merely represents an extreme case of visual expertise. Here, we examined O.H, a 22 years old woman with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who despite her severe deficits in face processing, acquired superior recognition skills for horses. To compare the nature of face and horse processing, we utilised the inversion manipulation, known to disproportionally affect faces compared to other objects, with both faces and horses. O.H's performance was compared to data obtained from two control groups that were either horse experts, or non-experts. As expected, both control groups exhibited the face inversion effect, while O.H did not show the effect, but importantly, none of the participants showed an inversion effect for horses. Finally, gaze behaviour toward upright and inverted faces and horses was indicative of visual skill but in a distinct fashion for each category. Particularly, both control groups showed different gaze patterns for upright compared to inverted faces, while O.H presented a similar gaze pattern for the two orientations that differed from that of the two control groups. In contrast, O.H and the horse experts exhibited a similar gaze pattern for upright and inverted horses, while non-experts showed different gaze patterns for different orientations. Taken together, these results suggest that visual expertise can be acquired independently from the mechanisms mediating face recognition.

  13. Music Reading Expertise Selectively Improves Categorical Judgment with Musical Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetta Kwailing Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different domains of perceptual expertise often lead to different hemispheric engagement (e.g. Kanwisher et al., 1997. Recent work suggests that the neural substrates engaged in musical reading are shifted from left hemisphere novice processing to bilateral processing in experts (Wong & Gauthier, 2010. To relate this shift to behavior, we tested whether music-reading training improves categorical and coordinate perceptual judgments, which are argued to rely on the left and right hemisphere respectively (Kosslyn et al., 1989. Music-reading experts and novices judged whether two sequentially presented music sequences were identical. The notes were either on a staff (categorical or without a staff (coordinate in either trained or untrained (90° rotated orientations. Experts performed better than novices for categorical judgments, and the advantage was larger for the trained than untrained orientation. The two groups performed similarly for coordinate judgments. Music-reading fluency predicted performance in categorical judgments in the trained orientation in experts, while it predicted performance in all conditions in novices. This suggests that music-reading training selectively improves categorical judgments in the trained orientation, while music-reading ability in novices reflects general perceptual ability with notes. Future studies will clarify how these findings are related to the hemispheric shift in music-reading expertise.

  14. Nitrogen budget of Lago Maggiore: the relative importance of atmospheric deposition and catchment sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele TARTARI

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and chemical data of 1996 and 1997 are used to evaluate the relative contributions of atmospheric deposition and urban/industrial wastewaters to the nitrogen budget of Lago Maggiore. The atmospheric load of nitrogen was about 80% of the total input to the lake, with negligible variations in dry (1997 and wet (1996 years. A comparison of the two study years with the yearly N budgets evaluated from 1978 to 1998, showed that the N load was higher with increasing amounts of precipitation/water inflow. Soils and vegetation act as N sinks; the % retention varies between 40-60% for the forested catchments with low population density in the central-northern part of the basin, to values close to zero or even negative in the south, indicating a net leaching from the soils. The Traaen & Stoddard (1995 approach revealed that all the catchments of the major inflowing rivers were oversaturated with nitrogen. The long-term trend of nitrogen concentrations in Lago Maggiore (1955-99 is analogous to the trend for atmospheric deposition (1975-99, which is related to emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia in the atmosphere. The relationships between the present N load and in-lake concentrations are discussed using a budget model, which is also used to infer the pristine load of N. The close relationships between N trends in lakes Maggiore, Como and Iseo, and the geographical and anthropogenic features common to their catchments, suggest that the results obtained for Lago Maggiore can be extended to a wider area.

  15. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  16. Pursuing realistic hydrologic model under SUPERFLEX framework in a semi-humid catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lingna; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Gao, Hongkai; Chen, Xi

    2016-04-01

    Model realism is pursued perpetually by hydrologists for flood and drought prediction, integrated water resources management and decision support of water security. "Physical-based" distributed hydrologic models are speedily developed but they also encounter unneglectable challenges, for instance, computational time with low efficiency and parameters uncertainty. This study step-wisely tested four conceptual hydrologic models under the framework of SUPERFLEX in a small semi-humid catchment in southern Huai River basin of China. The original lumped FLEXL has hypothesized model structure of four reservoirs to represent canopy interception, unsaturated zone, subsurface flow of fast and slow components and base flow storage. Considering the uneven rainfall in space, the second model (FLEXD) is developed with same parameter set for different rain gauge controlling units. To reveal the effect of topography, terrain descriptor of height above the nearest drainage (HAND) combined with slope is applied to classify the experimental catchment into two landscapes. Then the third one (FLEXTOPO) builds different model blocks in consideration of the dominant hydrologic process corresponding to the topographical condition. The fourth one named FLEXTOPOD integrating the parallel framework of FLEXTOPO in four controlled units is designed to interpret spatial variability of rainfall patterns and topographic features. Through pairwise comparison, our results suggest that: (1) semi-distributed models (FLEXD and FLEXTOPOD) taking precipitation spatial heterogeneity into account has improved model performance with parsimonious parameter set, and (2) hydrologic model architecture with flexibility to reflect perceived dominant hydrologic processes can include the local terrain circumstances for each landscape. Hence, the modeling actions are coincided with the catchment behaviour and close to the "reality". The presented methodology is regarding hydrologic model as a tool to test our

  17. Snow modelling in a glacierized catchment using scale-dependent calibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Comiti, Francesco; Penna, Daniele; Notarnicola, Claudia; Bertoldi, Giacomo

    2013-04-01

    Physically-based hydrological models that integrate a large amount of parameters often face the problem of equifinality. Thus, the application of such models to Alpine catchments with high spatial heterogeneity and complex hydrological behaviour is challenging. In this context, the distributed hydrological model GEOtop was employed to simulate snow dynamics in the period 2010 - 2012 at different spatial scales within the Saldur basin (Eastern Italian Alps). In this catchment, hydrometric, isotopic and sediment transport data at different spatial scales are available to validate the model and to assess the physical consistency of the model output. This work aims to: (i) assess the model validation at the plot scale in order to improve performances at the catchment scale; (ii) verify the usefulness of using multiple types of observations (snow, satellites, tracers, discharge) in order to assess the physical consistency and reduce the equifinality of the model output. At the plot scale, the model was calibrated by a manual sensitivity analysis on predicted snow heights, water equivalent and duration compared with the corresponding snow depth data of two meteorological stations (at 1930 m and 3035 m a.s.l.) in the study area. Selected snow parameters controlling snow reflectivity and snow aging were calibrated. In addition to traditional snow depth data, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensor data were used to derive snow duration of other four meteorological stations In order to account for the spatial distribution of snow cover, best parameter settings of the plot scale models were transferred to catchment scale models. These models were assigned for two nested catchments, named LSG (19 km²) and USG (11 km²), which provided snow height and SWE in the catchment. At this scale, the model calibration was based on two types of remotely sensed snow maps: monthly Landsat images (30 m of resolution) and daily MODIS images (250 m of resolution). To support the

  18. Association and dissociation between detection and discrimination of objects of expertise: Evidence from visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; DeGutis, Joseph M; Robertson, Lynn C; Harel, Assaf

    2014-02-01

    Expertise in face recognition is characterized by high proficiency in distinguishing between individual faces. However, faces also enjoy an advantage at the early stage of basic-level detection, as demonstrated by efficient visual search for faces among nonface objects. In the present study, we asked (1) whether the face advantage in detection is a unique signature of face expertise, or whether it generalizes to other objects of expertise, and (2) whether expertise in face detection is intrinsically linked to expertise in face individuation. We compared how groups with varying degrees of object and face expertise (typical adults, developmental prosopagnosics [DP], and car experts) search for objects within and outside their domains of expertise (faces, cars, airplanes, and butterflies) among a variable set of object distractors. Across all three groups, search efficiency (indexed by reaction time slopes) was higher for faces and airplanes than for cars and butterflies. Notably, the search slope for car targets was considerably shallower in the car experts than in nonexperts. Although the mean face slope was slightly steeper among the DPs than in the other two groups, most of the DPs' search slopes were well within the normative range. This pattern of results suggests that expertise in object detection is indeed associated with expertise at the subordinate level, that it is not specific to faces, and that the two types of expertise are distinct facilities. We discuss the potential role of experience in bridging between low-level discriminative features and high-level naturalistic categories.

  19. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the standing debate concerning the advantages of separate sewer systems compared to traditional combined sewers. By a case study this investigation reveals that a transformation of one fourth of a given total area from being combined to become...... separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  20. Application of ANN and fuzzy logic algorithms for streamflow modelling of Savitri catchment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahesh Kothari; K D Gharde

    2015-07-01

    The streamflow prediction is an essentially important aspect of any watershed modelling. The black box models (soft computing techniques) have proven to be an efficient alternative to physical (traditional) methods for simulating streamflow and sediment yield of the catchments. The present study focusses on development of models using ANN and fuzzy logic (FL) algorithm for predicting the streamflow for catchment of Savitri River Basin. The input vector to these models were daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation, mean daily temperature and lag streamflow used. In the present study, 20 years (1992–2011) rainfall and other hydrological data were considered, of which 13 years (1992–2004) was for training and rest 7 years (2005–2011) for validation of the models. The mode performance was evaluated by R, RMSE, EV, CE, and MAD statistical parameters. It was found that, ANN model performance improved with increasing input vectors. The results with fuzzy logic models predict the streamflow with single input as rainfall better in comparison to multiple input vectors. While comparing both ANN and FL algorithms for prediction of streamflow, ANN model performance is quite superior.

  1. BISTRIŢA ARDELEANĂ CATCHMENT AREA – COORDINATES OF STRATEGIC LAND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. FONOGEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bistriţa Ardeleană Catchment Area – Coordinates of Strategic Land Management. The approach of “creation and execution” / designing of this territorial cut-out of basin type, in the paradigmatic context of the durable development, is subordinate to an (almostexhaustive investigation of the vocation and potentiality of this area in terms of geographical and spatial organization of the territory. There may be multiple reasons to justify the existence of a paper which approaches this territory in an integrating and prospective manner. First of all, this area has an “identity card” type of evidence, at the level of the collective memory of the county’s inhabitants. Even if many contradictions multiplied along the years, nuances and specificities have been imposed, there is a filiation and a common territorial manifestation for the population and the settlements in this area. Secondly, the building of the settlements from Bârgău area and their later historical evolution was accomplished in a close interdependence, therefore the premise of development cannot be achieved outside the association (the access to different financing sources is easier when partnerships are built. Thirdly, the challenge of developing a study that shows the real prospects of developing a territory from the Bistriţa Ardeleană catchment area was motivated by subjective arguments, and the love of nature and environment played a key role in the effort to complete this action.

  2. A physically-based parsimonious hydrological model for flash floods in Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roux

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A spatially distributed hydrological model, dedicated to flood simulation, is developed on the basis of physical process representation (infiltration, overland flow, channel routing. Estimation of model parameters requires data concerning topography, soil properties, vegetation and land use. Four parameters are calibrated for the entire catchment using one flood event. Model sensitivity to individual parameters is assessed using Monte-Carlo simulations. Results of this sensitivity analysis with a criterion based on the Nash efficiency coefficient and the error of peak time and runoff are used to calibrate the model. This procedure is tested on the Gardon d'Anduze catchment, located in the Mediterranean zone of southern France. A first validation is conducted using three flood events with different hydrometeorological characteristics. This sensitivity analysis along with validation tests illustrates the predictive capability of the model and points out the possible improvements on the model's structure and parameterization for flash flood forecasting, especially in ungauged basins. Concerning the model structure, results show that water transfer through the subsurface zone also contributes to the hydrograph response to an extreme event, especially during the recession period. Maps of soil saturation emphasize the impact of rainfall and soil properties variability on these dynamics. Adding a subsurface flow component in the simulation also greatly impacts the spatial distribution of soil saturation and shows the importance of the drainage network. Measures of such distributed variables would help discriminating between different possible model structures.

  3. Response of rock-fissure seepage to snowmelt in Mount Taihang slope-catchment, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    The complex physiographic and hydrogeological systems of mountain terrains facilitate intense rock-fissure seepages and multi-functional ecological interactions. As mountain eco-hydrological terrains are the common water sources of river basins across the globe, it is critical to build sufficient understanding into the hydrological processes in this unique ecosystem. This study analyzes infiltration and soil/rock-fissure seepage processes from a 65 mm snowfall/melt in November 2009 in the typical granitic gneiss slope catchment in the Taihang Mountains. The snowfall, snowmelt and melt-water processes are monitored using soil-water time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and tipping bucket flowmeters. The results suggest that snowmelt infiltration significantly influences soil/rock water seepage in the 0-100 cm soil depth of the slope-catchment. It is not only air temperature that influences snowmelt, but also snowmelt infiltration and rock-fissure seepage. Diurnal variations in rock-fissure seepage are in close correlation with air temperature (R(2) > 0.7). Temperature also varies with soil/rock water viscosity, which element in turn influences soil/rock water flow. Invariably, water dynamics in the study area is not only a critical water supply element for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, but also for food security and social stability.

  4. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The presented study is focused on the analysis and comparison of hydrological drought occurrence, development and duration in six small to middle sized catchments in the Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia. The main questions to be answered are: (1) are there correlations between the physical conditions in the catchments and drought occurrence, and (2) does the spatial trend of drought occurrence exist. The Žitava catchment is located in the central western part of Slovakia having runoff dominated by rainfall with the contribution of snow melting during the spring period. The Belá River catchment is located on the contact of Západné and Vysoké Tatry Mts. in the north of Slovakia. The runoff is snow to snow-rain combined type. The Ľupčianka catchment is located on the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts. in the northern part of the central Slovakia. The runoff regime is snow-rain combined in the upper part of the catchment, and of rain-snow type in the rest of catchment. The Rakovnický potok brook (CZ) has its spring in Rakovnická pahorkatina hilly land. Runoff is dominated by rainfall, quite heavily influenced by water uptakes in the catchment. The Teplá River (CZ) originates in peat meadows in the western part of the Czech Republic. Runoff is dominated by rainfall. The Metuje catchment (CZ) is formed by Adršsbach-Teplické stěny Upland. The headwater part is typical by deeply incest valleys, table mountains and pseudokarst caves. The discharge is fed dominantly by groundwater. The streamflow drought was characterized using discharge data, the groundwater drought using the base flow values. The local minimum method was used for base flow separation. The threshold level method (Q80, BF80) and the sequent peak algorithm were used for calculation of drought duration in discharge and base flow time series. The data of the same three decades of the common period (1971 - 1980, 1981 - 1990 and 1991 - 2000) were used. The resulting base flow values along with

  5. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  6. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, C.A.;

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  7. Pesticide uses and transfers in urbanised catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, Hélène; Farrugia, Frédéric; Mouchel, Jean Marie

    2004-05-01

    An investigation on herbicide uses in two semi-urban catchments was performed simultaneously with sampling campaigns at six stations inside both watersheds from April to July 1998. Urban uses of herbicides exceeded agricultural uses, and transfer coefficients were also higher in urban areas. Therefore, the most used product in urban areas (diuron) was by far the most contaminating product. Householders accounted for 30% of all uses. The highest measured diuron concentration in water surface was 8.7 microg l(-1) due to its use on impervious surfaces. Compared to EEC standards for drinking water production (0.1 microg l(-1)), it is clear that suburban uses of herbicides may severely endanger drinking water production from river water.

  8. Chemical weathering and runoff chemistry in a steep headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Suzanne Prestrud; Dietrich, William E.

    2001-07-01

    We present here deductions about the location, rate, and mechanisms of chemical weathering in a small catchment based on a catchment-scale sprinkling experiment. In this experiment demineralized water was applied at an approximately steady rate in the CB1 catchment in the Oregon Coast Range to reach and maintain a quasi-steady discharge for a period of 4 days. Because of nearly steady flow conditions within the catchment, the contribution to solute fluxes from soil and bedrock could be partitioned. One half of the solute flux from the catchment derived from colluvial soil, and one half from weathering in bedrock. This implies more intense weathering in the thin colluvium mantling the catchment than in the thick underlying weathered bedrock. The annual solute flux from the catchment, scaled to the annual runoff from the catchment, is 32 +/- 10 t km-2 year-1, equivalent to published chemical denudation rates for nearby rivers with drainage areas 106 times greater than the experiment site. Soil waters sampled during the sprinkling experiment had steady compositions following a period of transient water flow conditions, implying steady-state chemical evolution in the soil. The waters leached organic anions from shallow depths in the soil, which solubilized aluminium and iron, indicating that podzolization is occurring in these soils. Carbonate dissolution appears to be an important source of solutes from the bedrock, despite being present as only a minor phase in the rock. Water balance suggests that the residence time of water in the catchment is about 2 months, and that typical 24 h storms displace only a fraction of the stored water. A consequence is that runoff chemistry is dominated by old water, which imposes strong limits on the variability of runoff composition.

  9. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium

  10. Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO₂ emission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO₂ emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO₂ emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system.

  11. Recent trends in water quality in an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland: elucidating the roles of hydrology and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S M; Sample, J; Potts, J; Abel, C; Cook, Y; Taylor, C; Vinten, A J A

    2014-07-01

    Across the EU, programmes of measures have been introduced as part of river basin management planning as a means of tackling problems of diffuse pollution from agriculture. Evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of these measures and with this overarching objective, monitoring of an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland was initiated in 2007. As a precursor to evaluating the effect of new management measures it is essential to understand how other factors, including hydrology and land use changes, could have influenced water quality. This study undertook an analysis of the trends in concentrations and loads of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suspended solids (SS) and turbidity measured at six points in the catchment over a six year period. The results identified both differing trends between determinands and differing trends occurring over varying spatial scales. The only direct relationships between land use and water quality that could be identified based on annual data was a positive link between arable cropping and nitrate concentrations. At the sub-catchment scale some temporal changes in land use and management explained short-term trends in nitrate but not in SRP. Lags in the system were identified due to soil adsorption, in-stream/loch processing and groundwater transport making the identification of cause and effect problematic. The results have implications for the demonstration of effectiveness of measures over the shorter term and the timescales of recovery from diffuse pollution. Longer term monitoring at small scales will be important in this regard.

  12. Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a catchment adjacent to a road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Z.; Jansson, P.-E.; Stolte, J.; Folkeson, L.; French, H. K.; Sassner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Four hydrological models (LISEM, MIKE SHE, CoupModel and HBV) were compared with respect to their capability to predict peak flow in a small catchment upstream of a road in SE Norway on an hourly basis. All four models were calibrated using hourly observed streamflow. Simulated and observed discharge generated during three types of hydrological situations characteristic of winter/spring conditions causing overland flow were considered: snowmelt, partially frozen soil and heavy rain events. Using parameter sets optimised for winter/spring conditions, flows simulated by HBV coupled with CoupModel were comparable to measured discharge from the catchment in corresponding periods. However, this combination was best when all the parameters were calibrated in HBV. For ungauged basins with no real-time monitoring of discharge and when the spatial distribution is important, MIKE SHE may be more suitable than the other models, but the lack of detailed input data and the uncertainty in physical parameters should be considered. LISEM is potentially capable of calculating runoff from small catchments during winter/spring but requires better description of snowmelt, infiltration into frozen layers and tile drainage. From a practical road maintenance perspective, the usefulness and accuracy of a model depends on its ability to represent site-specific processes, data availability and calibration requirements.

  13. Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a catchment adjacent to a road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kalantari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hydrological models (LISEM, MIKE SHE, CoupModel and HBV were compared with respect to their capability to predict peak flow in a small catchment upstream of a road in SE Norway on an hourly basis. All four models were calibrated using hourly observed streamflow. Simulated and observed discharge generated during three types of hydrological situations characteristic of winter/spring conditions causing overland flow were considered: snowmelt, partially frozen soil and heavy rain events. Using parameter sets optimised for winter/spring conditions, flows simulated by HBV coupled with CoupModel were comparable to measured discharge from the catchment in corresponding periods. However, this combination was best when all the parameters were calibrated in HBV. For ungauged basins with no real-time monitoring of discharge and when the spatial distribution is important, MIKE SHE may be more suitable than the other models, but the lack of detailed input data and the uncertainty in physical parameters should be considered. LISEM is potentially capable of calculating runoff from small catchments during winter/spring but requires better description of snowmelt, infiltration into frozen layers and tile drainage. From a practical road maintenance perspective, the usefulness and accuracy of a model depends on its ability to represent site-specific processes, data availability and calibration requirements.

  14. Hydrological and sedimentation implications of landscape changes in a Himalayan catchment due to bioenergy cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    There is a global effort to focus on the development of bioenergy and energy cropping, due to the generally increasing demand for crude oil, high oil price volatility and climate change mitigation challenges. Second generation energy cropping is expected to increase greatly in India as the Government of India has recently approved a national policy of 20 % biofuel blending by 2017; furthermore, the country's biomass based power generation potential is estimated as around ~24GW and large investments are expected in coming years to increase installed capacity. In this study, we have modelled the environmental influences (e.g.: hydrology and sediment) of scenarios of increased biodiesel cropping (Jatropha curcas) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a northern Indian river basin. SWAT has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for daily river flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). The study has applied two land use change scenarios of (1) increased bioenergy cropping in marginal (grazing) lands in the lower and middle regions of catchment (2) increased bioenergy cropping in low yielding areas of row crops in the lower and middle regions of the catchment. The presentation will describe the improved understanding of the hydrological, erosion and sediment delivery and food production impacts arising from the introduction of a new cropping variety to a marginal area; and illustrate the potential prospects of bioenergy production in Himalayan valleys.

  15. Soil storage influences climate–evapotranspiration interactions in three western United States catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the winter-wet, summer-dry forests of the western United States, total annual evapotranspiration (ET varies with precipitation and temperature. Geologically mediated drainage and storage properties, however, may strongly influence these relationships between climate and ET. We use a physically based process model to evaluate how soil available water capacity (AWC and rates of drainage influence model estimates of ET-climate relationships for three snow-dominated, mountainous catchments with differing precipitation regimes. Model estimates show that total annual precipitation is a primary control on inter-annual variation in ET across all catchments and that the timing of recharge is a second order control. Low soil AWC, however, increases the sensitivity of annual ET to these climate drivers by three to five times in our two study basins with drier summers. ET–climate relationships in our Colorado basin receiving summer precipitation are more stable across subsurface drainage and storage characteristics. Climate driver-ET relationships are most sensitive to soil AWC and soil drainage parameters related to lateral redistribution in the relatively dry Sierra site that receives little summer precipitation. Our results demonstrate that uncertainty in geophysically mediated storage and drainage properties can strongly influence model estimates of watershed scale ET responses to climate variation and climate change. This sensitivity to uncertainty in geophysical properties is particularly true for sites receiving little summer precipitation. A parallel interpretation of this parameter sensitivity is that spatial variation in soil properties are likely to lead to substantial within-watershed plot scale differences in forest water use and drought stress.

  16. Multi-Site Validation of the SWAT Model on the Bani Catchment: Model Performance and Predictive Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilatou Chaibou Begou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the performance and predictive uncertainty of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model on the Bani River Basin, at catchment and subcatchment levels. The SWAT model was calibrated using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE approach. Potential Evapotranspiration (PET and biomass were considered in the verification of model outputs accuracy. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA was used for identifying important model parameters. Results indicated a good performance of the global model at daily as well as monthly time steps with adequate predictive uncertainty. PET was found to be overestimated but biomass was better predicted in agricultural land and forest. Surface runoff represents the dominant process on streamflow generation in that region. Individual calibration at subcatchment scale yielded better performance than when the global parameter sets were applied. These results are very useful and provide a support to further studies on regionalization to make prediction in ungauged basins.

  17. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor.

  18. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  19. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  20. Contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the Arve upper catchment and to severe flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, Grégoire; Revuelto, Jesús; Morin, Samuel; Zin, Isabella; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Condom, Thomas; Six, Delphine; Vionnet, Vincent; Charrois, Luc; Dumont, Marie; Gottardi, Frédéric; Laarman, Olivier; Coulaud, Catherine; Esteves, Michel; Lebel, Thierry; Vincent, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In Alpine catchments, the hydrological response to meteorological events is highly influenced by the precipitation phase (liquid or solid) and by snow and ice melt. It is thus necessary to simulate accurately the snowpack evolution and its spatial distribution to perform relevant hydrological simulations. This work is focused on the upper Arve Valley (Western Alps). This 205 km2 catchment has large glaciated areas (roughly 32% of the study area) and covers a large range of elevations (1000-4500 m a.s.l.). Snow presence is significant year-round. The area is also characterized by steep terrain and strong vegetation heterogeneity. Modelling hydrological processes in such a complex catchment is therefore challenging. The detailed ISBA land surface model (including the Crocus snowpack scheme) has been applied to the study area using a topography based discretization (classifying terrain by aspect, elevation, slope and presence of glacier). The meteorological forcing used to run the simulations is the reanalysis issued from the SAFRAN model which assimilates meteorological observations from the Meteo-France networks. Conceptual reservoirs with calibrated values of emptying parameters are used to represent the underground water storage. This approach has been tested to simulate the discharge on the Arve catchment and three sub-catchments over 1990-2015. The simulations were evaluated with respect to observed water discharges for several headwaters with varying glaciated areas. They allow to quantify the relative contribution of rainfall, snow and ice melt to the hydrological regime of the basin. Additionally, we present a detailed analysis of several particular flood events. For these events, the ability of the model to correctly represent the catchment behaviour is investigated, looking particularly to the relevance of the simulated snowpack. Particularly, its spatial distribution is evaluated using MODIS snow cover maps, punctual snowpack observations and summer

  1. A catchment-integrated approach to determine the importance of secondary sources of contaminated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Byrne, Patrick; Mullan, Donal; Smith, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution has been identified as one of the most important environmental challenges of the early 21st Century. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2008/105/EC) explicitly recognises the risk to water resources posed by sediment-associated contaminants in European river basins. The potential impacts on water supply and the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems from sediment and associated contaminants may be further exacerbated by climate change pressures on water resources, as highlighted in the 2009 EU White Paper "Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action" (SEC(2009) 386, 387, 388). Despite these concerns, the role of floodplains and other storage areas as secondary sources of contaminated sediment (i.e. metals) in river basins affected by historic industrial or mining pollution has been largely overlooked. Thereby, besides the sediment which is transported by the river, secondary sources of contaminants represent a credible threat to achieving EU water quality targets set by the WFD. This project addresses this issue by developing a catchment-based approach looking at metal geochemistry from source to sink (i.e., from sediment generation at slopes, passing through sediment transported by the river system, to sediment deposition at the storage areas to the outlet) and develop a geochemical model to predict the chemical aspects of metals transport and transformation. This approach will allow us to quantify (i) the sediment fluxes and associated contaminants flowing through the river, (ii) the storage areas contributions to downstream contaminated sediment fluxes, (ii) the timescales for the storage and removal of contaminated sediment in the sinks, and (iv) the transformation and bioavailability of the pollutants (i.e. metals) along the basin. Both physical and chemical aspects of metal transport will be considered by looking at metal geochemistry, mobility and bioavailability, hence producing information on chemical metal transport

  2. Malpractice and system of expertise in anaesthetic procedures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, M Hakan; Cekin, Necmi; Can, I Ozgür; Hilal, Ahmet

    2005-10-29

    Deaths which occur during the administration of anaesthetics require medicolegal investigations. The objective of this study is to form a database for future comparisons related to anaesthetic-associated malpractice claims and also to investigate the system of expertise, pertaining to such procedures. The decisions of the Supreme Health Council, whose expert opinion is requested by legal authorities (judges, prosecutors) for health workers brought to trial in a criminal court, were examined retrospectively over the period 1995-1999. In 21 (2.3%) of the 888 decision reports prepared by the council the team members (the anaesthesiologist , the anaesthetic assistant, the anaesthetic technician, the nurse) were directly interrogated. Data concerning these 21 council decisions were evaluated within the scope of this study. It was found that 57% of the 21 decisions were related to medical procedures carried out in state hospitals. Of the 21 cases, 62% were males, 38% females. General anaesthesia was applied to 19 of the cases while one received regional (local) anaesthesia and one axillary blockade. Twenty died of complications associated with anaesthesia. Autopsy was performed on 11 (55%) of the dead. Health workers were found to have different degrees of liability in the 16 (76%) of the 21 decision reports. In their medical practices, anaesthesiologists , like other specialists, are subject to legal procedures in the country where they perform their duties, to national and international principles of ethics, and to diagnostic and curative standards/procedures relevant to the scientific level of the country concerned. In anaesthetic malpractice claims, certain standards need to be followed in inquiries and approaches so as to determine the real reasons behind the disabilities and/or deaths which occur. In order that sound evaluations could be made in such cases, the experts as well as the system of expertise should be efficient and authorized.

  3. Annual flow duration curves assessment in ephemeral small basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, D.; Viola, F.; La Loggia, G.; Noto, L. V.

    2014-11-01

    Flow duration curve (FDC) represents a comprehensive signature of temporal runoff variability often used to synthesize catchment rainfall-runoff responses. A new model, the ModABa (MODel for Annual flow duration curves assessment in ephemeral small BAsins), is here introduced. It can be thought as a wide mosaic whose tesserae are frameworks, models or conceptual schemes separately developed in different studies and harmoniously interconnected with the final aim of reproducing the annual FDC in intermittent small catchments. Two separated seasons within the hydrological year are distinguished: a dry season, characterized by absence of streamflow, and a non-zero season. Streamflow is disaggregated into a subsurface component and a surface component that, in turn, is considered formed by two different contributions: impervious runoff and surface runoff from permeable areas induced by heavy rains. The FDCs of the two streamflow components are first separately and differently computed, and then combined to obtain the non-zero FDC. This last, together with the estimated probability of null streamflow, allows the annual FDC assessment through the theory of total probability. The ModABa is here tested on a small Italian catchment and the results show how the model, once calibrated, is able to accurately reproduce the empirical FDC for the analyzed case, starting from easily derivable parameters and commonly available climatic data. In this sense, the model reveals itself as a valid tool, potentially suitable for predictions at ungauged basins in a regionalization framework.

  4. Adaptive expertise in teamwork environment:the importance of social aspects in expert work and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlaja, K. (Kaisa)

    2016-01-01

    Today’s society and modern working life is in a constant change which poses challenges for professional expertise as well as to educational systems that are expected to produce the future experts. Work tasks are becoming increasingly complex and multifaceted in which domain-specific knowledge and routine expertise may not suffice anymore, but calls for adaptive expertise: the ability to adapt in new and unfamiliar settings, use knowledge flexibly in creating high-quality, innovative solutions...

  5. The Politics of Neutrality and the Changing Role of Expertise in Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article explores and discusses the ongoing attempt to reinstate an ethos of neutrality in public administration. It focuses on the political benefits and costs of contemporary strategies in public administration for using expertise based on an ethos of neutrality. On the one hand, expertise ...... of expertise as a mode of supporting neutrality is also problematic inasmuch as it may serve to endorse a politics of necessity and, unwittingly, reduce the scope of political agency....

  6. Evaluation of fluxes of suspended matters and bedload in the small granitic Strengbach catchment (Vosges massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Solenn; Viville, Daniel; Pierret, Marie Claire; Benarioumlil, Sylvain; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    Transport of suspended matters (SM) and bedload in river controls the erosion process and elements export of a catchment. Furthermore, the SM are heavily involved in the migration of organic matter, metals and pollutants. The knowledge of the dynamics of the SM export is also essential to better understand the hydrogeochemical functioning of natural ecosystem. We investigated this question at the scale of a catchment; the Strengbach basin (site of OHGE - Observatoire Hydro-Géochimique de l'Environnement) where meteorological and hydrological data are monitored since 30 years. This small granitic basin (0,8km²) is located in the Vosges massif at altitudes between 883m and 1146m with 1400mm mean annual precipitations. A first evaluation of the solid fluxes exported at the Strengbach catchment was carried out on the basis of fortnightly sampling and measurement (Viville et al., 2012). Two automatic water samplers have been set up at the outlet of the basin in december 2012, in order to 1) evaluate the potential bias generated by the sampling frequency and 2) improve the SM flux calculation accuracy especially by taking into account the high flow events. These two samplers allowed regular sampling at 16h time step as well as high flow events sampling. At the same time, the bedload flux was estimated fortnightly by measuring the volume of sediments accumulated in a flume. However, the characteristics of the small Strengbach catchment (low water level, low SM concentration and mountainous winter climatic conditions) required to adapt the conventionally used systems. In this way, the SM annual flux estimated with the data from the two samplers varied between 7,5T and 8,8T during the three years of the study. By comparison, the SM annual flux obtained with previous method (only fortnightly sampling) was significantly different with values ranging from 2,8T to 16,6T. The contribution from each sampler and thus each sampling strategy to the improvement of the SM flux

  7. Evidence for active tilting of the NW-German Basin from correlations between fluvial landscape and geological subground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeder, Thore; Sirocko, Frank

    2005-02-01

    The catchment basin of the River Hunte (Lower Saxony, NW-German Basin) was studied on a mesoscale (length of ~90 km) to investigate the influence of the geological subground on modern morphology. A Geo Information System (GIS) was used to calculate linear correlation coefficients between the depth of geological strata (Base Zechstein to Base Quaternary) and the height of the modern landscape (Holocene Alluvial Plain, Lower Weichselian Terrace, catchment basin and watershed). High linear correlation coefficients between the Base of Tertiary and the height of the modern topography (catchment basin [r2=0.87], Lower Weichselian Terrace [r2=0.95] and Holocene Alluvial Plain [r2=0.95]) indicate control of the modern topography by the depth of the geological subsurface via tilting of the entire basin. Most likely northward tilting of the NW-German Basin forces the River Hunte to flow in a northerly direction by relative uplift of the hinterland (Wiehengebirge, Rhenish Massif) and subsidence of the North Sea area.

  8. Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya region, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Chevallier, Pierre; Haq, Ayaz Ul; Terzago, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain ranges, is the major contributor to the supply of water for irrigation in Pakistan. Improved management of downstream water resources requires studying and comparing spatiotemporal changes in the snow cover and hydrological behavior of the river basins located in the HKH region. This study explored in detail the recent changes that have occurred in the Gilgit River basin (12,656 km2; western sub-basin of UIB), which is characterized by a mean catchment elevation of 4250 m above sea level (m ASL). The basin's snow cover was monitored through the snow products provided by the MODIS satellite sensor, while analysis of its hydrological regime was supported by hydrological and climatic data recorded at different altitudes. The Gilgit basin findings were compared to those previously obtained for the lower-altitude Astore basin (mean catchment elevation = 4100 m ASL) and the higher-altitude Hunza basin (mean catchment elevation = 4650 m ASL). These three catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. Almost 7, 5 and 33 % of the area of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza basins, respectively, are situated above 5000 m ASL, and approximately 8, 6 and 25 %, respectively, are covered by glaciers. The UIB region was found to follow a stable or slightly increasing trend in snow coverage and had a discharge dominated by snow and glacier melt in its western (Hindukush-Karakoram), southern (Western-Himalaya) and northern (Central-Karakoram) sub-basins.

  9. Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya region, Pakistan )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Chevallier, Pierre; Haq, Ayaz Ul; Terzago, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain ranges, is the major contributor to the supply of water for irrigation in Pakistan. Improved management of downstream water resources requires studying and comparing spatiotemporal changes in the snow cover and hydrological behavior of the river basins located in the HKH region. This study explored in detail the recent changes that have occurred in the Gilgit River basin (12,656 km2; western sub-basin of UIB), which is characterized by a mean catchment elevation of 4250 m above sea level (m ASL). The basin's snow cover was monitored through the snow products provided by the MODIS satellite sensor, while analysis of its hydrological regime was supported by hydrological and climatic data recorded at different altitudes. The Gilgit basin findings were compared to those previously obtained for the lower-altitude Astore basin (mean catchment elevation = 4100 m ASL) and the higher-altitude Hunza basin (mean catchment elevation = 4650 m ASL). These three catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. Almost 7, 5 and 33 % of the area of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza basins, respectively, are situated above 5000 m ASL, and approximately 8, 6 and 25 %, respectively, are covered by glaciers. The UIB region was found to follow a stable or slightly increasing trend in snow coverage and had a discharge dominated by snow and glacier melt in its western (Hindukush-Karakoram), southern (Western-Himalaya) and northern (Central-Karakoram) sub-basins.

  10. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  11. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise.

  12. The role of technical expertise in judicial probation work in Romania and in the comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria GRĂMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical expertise is a research, interpretation and elucidation of situations actually using scientific data. Starting with a brief history of the sample with technical expertise, this paper details the role of information and scientific capacity of technical expert / specialist in explaining and arguing circumstances which have led to a state of affairs which belongs to civil or criminal. The author highlights the multitude of problems whose nature is beyond the concern of a science, expertise gained interdisciplinary - called complex expertise examination.

  13. Temporal variations in the export of REE in boreal catchments of varying character and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S.; Lidman, F.; Mörth, M.; Björkvald, L.; Laudon, H.

    2009-04-01

    . Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 71(11), 2718-2735. Steinmann M. and Stille P. (2008) Controls on transport and fractionation of the rare earth elements in stream water of a mixed basaltic-granitic catchment basin (Massif Central, France). Chemical Geology 254(1-2), 1-18. Tipping E. (1998) Humic Ion-Binding Model VI: An improved Description of the Intercations of Protons and Metal Ions with Humic Substances. Aquatic Geochemistry 4, 3-48.

  14. Regional flow system delineation in arid karstic basins with sparse hydrogeologic data: Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Sharp, J. M.; Rodriguez, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    We develop procedures for the delineation of regional groundwater flow systems in arid, karstic basins with sparse hydrogeologic data using surface topography data, geologic mapping, permeability data, chloride concentrations of groundwater and precipitation, and measured discharge data. Aquifers are characterized using geographic information systems (GIS) for groundwater catchment delineation, an analytical model for interbasin flow evaluation, a chloride balance approach for recharge estimation, and a water budget for mapping contributing catchments over a 160,000 km2 region (24.87° to 28.70° north latitude and 100.68° west to 104.75° west longitude). The study area includes the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) of Coahuila, Mexico, a National Biosphere Reserve containing springs that support groundwater-dependent ecosystems and irrigated agriculture. Sustainable groundwater development is a key issue on the U.S. Mexico border. However, these procedures may be applicable in similar settings globally. We delineate groundwater catchments that contribute local and regional groundwater discharge to CCB springs and identify a large regional flow system includes mountain recharge from as both the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental.

  15. Temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in headwater snow-dominated catchments, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemann, F. K.; Zapata, X.; McIntosh, J. C.; Perdrial, J. N.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Lohse, K. A.; Fricke, H. C.

    2011-12-01

    The concentration and availability of stream nutrients, particularly dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen species, determine aquatic system productivity, and are important indicators of catchment hydrobiogeochemical processes. In semi-arid montane areas, such as the Valles Caldera National Preserve located within the Jemez River Basin, NM, an understanding of the relationship between discharge and nutrient concentrations is particularly important. Although the annual hydrograph is dominated (~40%) by spring snowmelt, similar to well studies sites in the northern Rockies, the JRB region receives a much larger percentage of precipitation associated with summer rainfall, and consequently may provide insight into how more northerly catchments will respond to changing climate. This study focuses on four headwater catchments: History Grove, La Jara, Upper Jaramillo and Upper Redondo, over two water years (2009 to 2011) to examine how nutrient concentrations vary as a function of hillslope aspect, catchment hydrologic responses, seasonality, and discharge. Stream water grab samples were collected on a monthly to weekly basis from 2009 to 2011 and analyzed for inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen species (total dissolved nitrogen (DN), NO3, NO2, NH4). DOC and DN concentrations in stream waters from all 4 catchments are positively correlated, indicating a tight coupling of carbon and nitrogen. During dry periods (September to February) stream waters have high DIC (4.8-7.6 mg/L), and low DOC (1.6-2.7 mg/L) and DN (<0.3 mg/L) concentrations, indicating that stream water is dominated by groundwater inputs. In contrast, during spring snowmelt (March-May) stream waters have high DOC (2.9-6.2 mg/L) and DN (0.2-0.5mg/L) concentrations and low DIC (3.1-4.5mg/L) values; the majority of DN is comprised of organic-N. These results suggest flushing of shallow soil waters during snowmelt periods. High DIC (5.8-6.3mg/L), and low DOC (1.7-4.0mg/L) and

  16. A catchment scale water balance model for FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, E. F.; Sivapalan, M.; Thongs, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A catchment scale water balance model is presented and used to predict evaporation from the King's Creek catchment at the First ISLSCP Field Experiment site on the Konza Prairie, Kansas. The model incorporates spatial variability in topography, soils, and precipitation to compute the land surface hydrologic fluxes. A network of 20 rain gages was employed to measure rainfall across the catchment in the summer of 1987. These data were spatially interpolated and used to drive the model during storm periods. During interstorm periods the model was driven by the estimated potential evaporation, which was calculated using net radiation data collected at site 2. Model-computed evaporation is compared to that observed, both at site 2 (grid location 1916-BRS) and the catchment scale, for the simulation period from June 1 to October 9, 1987.

  17. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tekleab

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O and deuterium (2H were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2 and Jedeb (296 km2 south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii to estimate the mean residence time of water using a sine wave regression approach; and (iii to identify runoff components using classical two component hydrograph separations at a seasonal time scale. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation exhibit marked seasonal variations, which suggests different sources of moisture generation for the rainfall in the study area. The Atlantic–Indian ocean, Congo basin, and the Sud swamps are the likely the potential moisture source areas during the main rainy (summer season. While, the Indian–Arabian, and Mediterranean Sea moisture source areas during little rain (spring, and dry (winter seasons. The spatial variation of the isotopic composition is affected by the amount effect and to less extent by altitude and temperature effects. A mean altitude effect of −0.12‰ (100 m−1 for 18O and −0.58‰ (100 m−1 for 2H were discernable in precipitation isotope composition. The seasonal variations of the isotopic signature of the spring water exhibit a damped response as compared to the river waters, which shows that the spring water has longer residence times than the river water. Results from the hydrograph separation at a seasonal time scale indicate the dominance of event water with an average of 71% and 64% of the total runoff during the wet season in the Chemoga and Jedeb catchment, respectively. The stable isotope compositions of streamflow samples were damped compared to the input function of precipitation for both catchments

  18. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  19. Examining the Impacts of Wildfire on Throughfall and Stemflow Chemistry and Flux at Plot and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. M.; Swetnam, T. L.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of fire on the chemistry and flux of precipitation diverted to the forest floor as stemflow and throughfall by observing the impact of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge wildfire in the Jemez River Basin of New Mexico. The loss of canopy cover from wildfire drastically modifies landscapes and alters ecosystems as high intensity burns replace canopies with charred branches and trunks, change soil composition and erosion processes, and affect hydrologic flow paths and water chemistry. In order to track these changes throughfall and stemflow collectors were installed beneath burned and unburned canopies in two catchments impacted by the Thompson Ridge fire. Throughfall, stemflow, and open precipitation samples were analyzed for major cations, anions, organic matter, trace metals, and rare earth elements to determine how fire affects the chemical composition of the precipitation that interacts with burned canopies. Precipitation samples collected from both burned and unburned sites during the 2014 summer monsoon season show variations across burn severity, specifically in calcium and strontium concentrations, and collector type with stemflow concentrations generally higher than throughfall and open precipitation concentrations. Precipitation samples collected from burned sites have distinct rare earth element concentrations, positive europium anomalies, and titanium/zirconium ratios as compared to those of unburned sites. Aqueous extracts of ash and charred bark were also analyzed to determine the origin of these signatures. A stem count model was used to determine tree density for individual plots and catchments from orthophotos taken before and after the 2013 fire. Upscaling these plot scale concentrations and fluxes to catchment scale allows this study to represent changes to an entire catchment and quantify effects of wildfire on chemical load and water chemistry.

  20. Defining and developing expertise in tracheal intubation using a GlideScope(®) for anaesthetists with expertise in Macintosh direct laryngoscopy: an in-vivo longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellazzi, P; Caldiroli, D; Byrne, A; Sommariva, A; Orena, E F; Tramacere, I

    2015-03-01

    Although videolaryngoscopy can provide excellent views of the laryngeal structures as both the primary method of tracheal intubation and as a rescue technique for difficult direct laryngoscopy, the existing literature is inadequate to define expertise or even competence. We observed the performance of nine trainees during 890 intubations, with an additional 72 intubations performed by expert anaesthetists used as a control group. Univariate and multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models were applied to detect potential predictors of successful intubation and define the number of intubations necessary for a trainee to achieve expertise (> 90% probability of optimal performance). Optimal performance was predicted by single laryngoscope insertion (p expertise reached after 76 attempts. These results indicate that expertise in videolaryngoscopy requires prolonged training and practice.