WorldWideScience

Sample records for catchment basin expertise

  1. Global expertise of the ten-year environmental situation of AREVA N.C..2. part: environmental impact at the level of catchment basins and surveillance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second step of the expertise of the ten-year environmental assessment 1994-2003 of Areva NC allowed to complete the work on the themes and the sites that were not treated during the first step. The analysis concerned the impacts on the mine installations of the mine division of La Crouzille and more particularly of impacts observed since the sites refitting. The detail of this analysis and the results to which it allowed to achieve are the object of this present report. (N.C.)

  2. Groundwater : site scale, catchment scale, basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Stephanie; Bloomfield, John; Gooddy, Daren; MacDonald, David; Ward, Rob

    2011-01-01

    There are significant groundwater resources in the Thames Basin (Figure 1) supporting approximately 40 per cent of public water supply. Additionally many of the rivers in the catchment are supported by groundwater from the underlying aquifers. Effective management of both groundwater resources and groundwater-dependent ecosystems requires a good understanding of how our aquifers behave. We must also consider how these systems will respond to future changes, in particular climat...

  3. Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations, i.e. (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies Reff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga sub-catchments, respectively. Better model results could not be obtained with manual calibration, very likely due to the limited data quality and model insufficiencies. Increasing the computation time step to 15 and 30 days improved the model performance in both sub-catchments to Reff > 0.8. Model parameter transferability tests have been conducted by interchanging parameters sets between the two gauged sub-catchments. Results showed poor performances for the daily models (0.30 < Reff < 0.67, but better performances for the 15 and 30 days models, Reff > 0.80. The transferability tests together with a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations (more than 1 million

  4. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

  5. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1): Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents basin characteristics, compiled for every catchment in NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. These characteristics are basin shape...

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for Major River Basins...

  7. The "Teflon basin" myth: Snow-soil interactions in mountain catchments in the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.; Cowie, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In much of western North America, snow and snowmelt provide the primary means for storage of winter precipitation, effectively transferring water from the relatively wet winter season to the typically dry summers. A common assumption is that high-elevation catchments in the western United States behave like "Teflon basins" and that water released from seasonal storage in snow packs flows directly into streams with little or no interaction with underlying soils. Here I present information from a variety of catchments in the Colorado Front Range on snowmelt/soil interactions using isotopic, geochemical, nutrient and hydrometric data in 2- and 3- component hydrograph separations, along with end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). For most catchments we measured these parameters in weekly precipitation, the seasonal snowpack, snowmelt before contact with the ground, discharge, springs, soil solution, and groundwater. We ran EMMA at the catchment scale for catchments that represent the rain-snow transition zone in the montane forest, the seasonally snow covered sub-alpine to alpine transition zone, and a high-elevation alpine zone near the continental divide. In all catchments three end-members were the source waters for about 95% of discharge. Two end-members were the same in all catchments, snow and groundwater. For the alpine catchment talus springs was the third water source, while rain was the third water source in the two lower-elevation catchments. For all three catchments, soil solution plotted with stream waters along or near a line connecting the snow and groundwater end-members. Thus, for seasonally snow-covered catchments from montane to alpine ecosystems, snowmelt infiltrates underlying soils before snowmelt recharges groundwater reservoirs and contributes to surface flows. Seasonally snow-covered catchments are not Teflon basins. Rather, snowmelt infiltrates soils where solute concentrations are changed by biological and geochemical processes.

  8. Understanding Catchment Processes and Hydrological Modelling in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrekristos, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The water resources in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin are the source of life for the several hundred million people living in the basin and further downstream. It provides more than 60% of the total Nile water. Intensive farming in unfavourable soils and slopes, overgrazing and soil erosion is among the major problems in the basin. Land degradation as a result of soil erosion decreases soil fertility in the upper catchments and simultaneously increases sedimentation in reservoirs and irrigati...

  9. Catchments Classification: Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Physiographic Similarity in the Niger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibou Begou, Jamilatou; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Benabdallah, Sihem; Bazie, Pibgnina; Afouda, Abel; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine physiographic similarity, as indicator of hydrologic similarity between catchments located in the Bani basin, and to derive the dominant factors controlling each group singularity. We utilized a dataset of 28 catchments described by 16 physical and climatic properties distributed across a wide region with strong environmental gradients. Catchments attributes were first standardized before they underwent an integrated exploratory data analysis composed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by Hierarchical Clustering. Results showed a clear distribution into 3 major clusters. Two of them were well separated and partitioned into northerly flat and semi-arid catchments, and southerly hilly and humid catchments. This nomenclature came from the interpretation of the main factors, topography, precipitation and latitude, which seem to control the most important variability inside these clusters. Moreover, the group of northerly catchments was designated to be dominated by agricultural land use and ferric luvisols soil type, two additional drivers of similarity. The third cluster was located in the center of the study basin, inside which, none of the descriptors seems to exert a strong control on the similarity. The outcome of this study can help understanding catchment functioning and provide a support for a regionalization of hydrological information.

  10. A Framework for Integrated Management of Transboundary Basins: the case of Sio sub-catchment in East Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Obando, Joy A.; Makalle, Albinus; Bamutaze, Bamutaze

    2007-01-01

    The Sio sub-catchment is transboundary, originating in Kenya and flowing into Berkeley Bay of the Lake Victoria basin. It forms an important sub-catchment of the Nile basin and a significant base for the livelihood of small scale farmers engaged in mixed farming, depending on agriculture and livestock keeping as well as a large population depending on fishing. Indeed, high population densities exceeding 300 persons per square kilometre and cattle densities of 38 have been noted within basin, ...

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  12. Nonstationarities in Catchment Response According to Basin and Rainfall Characteristics: Application to Korean Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Jin-Guk; Jung, Il-Won

    2015-04-01

    It must be acknowledged that application of rainfall-runoff models to simulate rainfall-runoff processes are successful in gauged watershed. However, there still remain some issues that will need to be further discussed. In particular, the quantitive representation of nonstationarity issue in basin response (e.g. concentration time, storage coefficient and roughness) along with ungauged watershed needs to be studied. In this regard, this study aims to investigate nonstationarity in basin response so as to potentially provide useful information in simulating runoff processes in ungauged watershed. For this purpose, HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was mainly utilized. In addition, this study combined HEC-1 model with Bayesian statistical model to estimate uncertainty of the parameters which is called Bayesian HEC-1 (BHEC-1). The proposed rainfall-runofall model is applied to various catchments along with various rainfall patterns to understand nonstationarities in catchment response. Further discussion about the nonstationarity in catchment response and possible regionalization of the parameters for ungauged watershed are discussed. KEYWORDS: Nonstationary, Catchment response, Uncertainty, Bayesian Acknowledgement This research was supported by a Grant (13SCIPA01) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) of Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA).

  13. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zoccatelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" quantifying the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. These statistics describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of catchment-scale storm velocity. The concept of the catchment-scale storm velocity takes into account the role of relative catchment orientation and morphology with respect to storm motion and kinematics. The paper illustrates the derivation of the statistics from an analytical framework recently proposed in literature and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by applying them to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002–2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide useful information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  14. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin

    OpenAIRE

    Dahri, Z.H.; Ludwig, F.; E. Moors; Ahmad, B.; A. Khan; P. Kabat

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the...

  15. A participatory approach for Integrated River Basin Management in the Elbe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneri, C.; Hofmann, J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Within the EUROCAT 1 project this methodology of participatory approach, aiming to scope the present perceptions about environmental issues and possible strategies for environmental improvement, is applied to the study of the Elbe catchment for the first time. In this frame, an Advisory Board (AB) was created, with the aim of giving insights into conflicting interests in the river catchment and guidelines for river basin management. Focus of the Elbe case study is the issue of nutrient enrichment (from the catchment) and the induced eutrophication of the coastal waters (the German Bight). Specifically, regarding this topic, the possible reduction of eutrophication in the German Bight by a (policy driven) decrease in nutrient inputs from the catchment area is analysed. Different measures for reducing the input of nutrients from the catchment, and ultimately preventing eutrophication of the coastal waters are considered. In this context, the members of the AB were asked about the efficiency and feasibility of different measures and the criteria for choosing 'better' management solutions among the possible ones. Although there is a general agreement about the necessity of reducing nutrient emissions, some members of the AB perceive other environmental issues (e.g. altered morphodynamics) as more relevant than nutrient enrichment. Voluntary cooperation, eco-efficiency and 'trans-sectoral' communication are the key concepts mentioned as being indispensable for integrated management. The (public) acceptance of measures for nutrient reduction have to find its way through compromises and social equity, allowing for win-win solutions among different groups of interests and balanced spatial division of costs and benefits. EUROpean CATchments, Project N° EVK1-CT-2000-00044 ( http://www.iia-cnr.unical.it/EUROCAT/project.htm).

  16. Variability of rainfall over Lake Kariba catchment area in the Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.

  17. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zoccatelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a general analytical framework for assessing the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. The analytical framework builds upon a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of storm velocity at the catchment scale. The paper illustrates the development of the analytical framework and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by means of application to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002–2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide essential information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  18. Catchment Restoration in the Tweed UNESCO-IHP HELP Basin - Eddleston Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The EU Water Frame Work Directive (WFD) requires member states to work towards the achievement of 'good ecological status' for water bodies, through a 6 year cycle of river basin management plans (RBMPs). Within these RBMPs, states must develop and implement programmes of measures designed to improve the quality of individual water bodies at risk of failing to achieve this status. These RBMPS must not only be focussed on the key causes of failure, but increasingly look to deliver multiple benefits, such as flood risk reduction and improvement to biodiversity from such catchment interventions, and to involve communities and other stakeholders in restoration of their local environment. This paper reports on progress of a detailed study of the restoration of the Eddleston Water, a typical 'failing' water body in Scotland, the monitoring and governance arrangements behind this, and implications for rehabilitation of river systems elsewhere. Within UK rivers, the main causes of failure to achieve good ecological status are historical morphological changes to river courses, diffuse agricultural pollution and invasive non-native species. The Eddleston Water is a 70 sq kms sub-catchment of the Tweed, an UNESCO IHP-HELP basin in the Scottish : English borders, and is currently classified as 'bad' status, due largely to morphological changes to the course and structure of the river over the past 200 years. The main challenge therefor is physical restoration of the river to achieve functional connectivity with the flood plain. At the same time however, the two communities within the catchment suffer from flooding, so a second priority is to intervene within the catchment to reduce the risk of flooding through the use of "natural flood management" measures and, underlying both these two aspects a whole catchment approach to community participation and the achievement of a range of other ecosystem service benefits, including conservation of biodiversity. We report on the

  19. Streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO FangFang; XU ZongXue; ZHANG Lu; ZUO DePeng

    2009-01-01

    Both sensitivity-based method and simulation method are used to analyze the streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin (UYRB) in this study.The separation regime of effects from climate variability and human activities is investigated.Results show that the changes of streamflow are more sensitive to precipitation than potential evapotranspiration (PET).Effect of climate variability on streamflow estimated using the sensitiv-ity-based method is weak in the upper catchment of Jimai station, and strong in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station, where the climate effects accounted for about 50% of total streamflow changes.Effects of human activities on streamflow accounted for about 40% in the UYRB, with weaker effects in the upper catchment of Tangnaihai station than those in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station.Both climate variability and human activities are main factors to affect the changes of streamflow in the UYRB.

  20. Streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Both sensitivity-based method and simulation method are used to analyze the streamflow response to climate variability and human activities in the upper catchment of the Yellow River Basin (UYRB) in this study. The separation regime of effects from climate variability and human activities is investigated. Results show that the changes of streamflow are more sensitive to precipitation than potential evapotranspiration (PET). Effect of climate variability on streamflow estimated using the sensitivity-based method is weak in the upper catchment of Jimai station, and strong in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station, where the climate effects accounted for about 50% of total streamflow changes. Effects of human activities on streamflow accounted for about 40% in the UYRB, with weaker effects in the upper catchment of Tangnaihai station than those in the upper catchment of Lanzhou station. Both climate variability and human activities are main factors to affect the changes of streamflow in the UYRB.

  1. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Ludwig, Fulco; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Asif; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates at the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the high-altitude Indus basin. The available observations signified the importance of orography in each sub-hydrological basin but could not infer an accurate distribution of precipitation with altitude. We used Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation scheme with elevation as a predictor to appraise spatiotemporal distribution of mean monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation for the period of 1998-2012. The KED-based annual precipitation estimates are verified by the corresponding basin-wide observed specific runoffs, which show good agreement. In contrast to earlier studies, our estimates reveal substantially higher precipitation in most of the sub-basins indicating two distinct rainfall maxima; 1st along southern and lower most slopes of Chenab, Jhelum, Indus main and Swat basins, and 2nd around north-west corner of Shyok basin in the central Karakoram. The study demonstrated that the selected gridded precipitation products covering this region are prone to significant errors. In terms of quantitative estimates, ERA-Interim is relatively close to the observations followed by WFDEI and TRMM, while APHRODITE gives highly underestimated precipitation estimates in the study area. Basin-wide seasonal and annual correction factors introduced for each gridded dataset can be useful for lumped hydrological modelling studies, while the estimated precipitation distribution can serve as a basis for bias correction of any gridded precipitation products for the study area. PMID

  2. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  3. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Meissner, R.; Engelbrecht, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    A three-phase study was initiated as a way to promote Integrated Catchment Management approaches in the Limpopo River basin. This paper presents the situational assessment, which should enable De Beers to understand how their Venetia Mine operations are located within a broader and highly dynamic socio-economic and ecohydrological landscape as it pertains to water risks. The second phase, Risk assessment, aims to develop conservation interventions in the identified areas; the third phase will develop mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates that the institutional arrangement of the Limpopo River basin is neither simple nor effective. The basin is rapidly approaching closure in the sense that almost all of the available supplies of water have already been allocated to existing water users. If the proposed ecological flow requirements were to be met for all of the tributaries, the basin would be 'closed'. On-going and projected land use changes and water resources developments in the upper reaches of the basin, coupled with projected rainfall reductions and temperature increases, and allocation of the flows for the ecological reserve, are likely to further reduce downstream river flows. The coupled increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall is of great concern for everyone in the basin, especially the poorer communities, who rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. Increased temperatures also lead to increased evaporation from reservoirs and therefore result in a decrease in water availability. This will lead to increased abstraction of groundwater, especially from alluvial aquifers, and consequently an increase in river transmission losses and a decrease in river flows.

  4. Changes in land cover, rainfall and stream flow in Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment, Blue Nile basin – Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rientjes, T.H.M.; Haile, A.T.; Kebede, E.; Mannaerts, C.M.M.; Habib, E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we evaluated changes in land cover and rainfall in the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin and how changes affected stream flow in terms of annual flow, high flows and low flows. Land cover change assessment was through classification analysis of remote sensing ba

  5. Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

    2014-05-01

    Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ñ over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to

  6. Changes in land cover and stream flows in Gilgel Abbay catchment, Upper Blue Nile basin – Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Rientjes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the land cover change in the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin through classification analysis of remote sensing based land cover data and through assessing the changes in the hydrological regime by statistical analysis of stream flow observations. Results of the land cover classification analysis indicated that 50.9% and 16.7% of the catchment area was covered by forest in 1973 and 2001, respectively. This significant decrease in forest cover is mainly due to expansion of agricultural land. A comparison of stream flow time series of the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment to stream flow time series from two neighbouring catchments shows a different trend and a statistically significant change over time. In 1986–2001, the annual and the high flows of the catchment increased by 13% and 46%, respectively while the low flows decreased by 35%. Generally, the results indicate significant changes in land cover and the hydrological regimes of the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment over the past 30 years.

  7. Variability of streamflow under climate change: A study for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Tiezzi, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is entirely dependent on water resources, thus highly vulnerable to the effects of rainfall variability. This work aims to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on streamflow for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments. Records form 83-years of observations (1931-2013) were compared with the results of simulations for the 2011-2100 (90-year) period. Two rainfall-runoff hydrological models were used for the numerical simulations: Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure-SMAP (process-based) and Stochastic Linear Model-MEL (stochastic). Very significant impacts were found, namely the increase in streamflow in the Southern basins that may reach almost 100%, while in the Northern and Northeastern basins, streamflow may decrease about 90%. These major changes can aggravate the history of flooding in the Southern basins and of droughts in several regions of the North and Northeast basins.

  8. Data mining methods for predicting event runoff coefficients in ungauged basins using static and dynamic catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Weiler, Markus; Seibert, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Transferring hydrological information into ungauged basin by regionalisation approaches is an ongoing field of research. Usually regionalisation techniques use physical landscape descriptors to transfer either model parameters or hydrological characteristics from a catchment to another. A common problem of these approaches is the high degree of uncertainty associated to their results. One reason is that often solely static (structural) catchment characteristics such as catchment area, physiographic properties or land use data are used for regionalisation. However, it is well known that the hydrological response of a 'natural' system is a complex and a non-linear interaction of its structure, state and forcing. Here it is important to note, that only structure is a static property. State and forcing are highly dynamic when considering the temporal and spatial scale of a rainfall-runoff event. To overcome the limitations associated with 'static' regionalisation techniques we propose a regionalisation technique for event runoff coefficients combining static and dynamic catchment properties. The approach is based on the two data mining algorithms 'random forests' and 'quantile regression forests'. The static catchment characteristics include standard variables such as physiographic properties, land cover and soil data. The dynamic variables include event based properties of the forcing (i.e. rainfall amount, intensity,...) and proxies for the initial state of the catchment (i.e. initial soil moisture). Together with the runoff coefficient these quantities were extracted form hydro-meteorological time series (precipitation, discharge and soil moisture) using an automated rainfall-runoff event detection technique. We tested our method using a set of 60 meso-scale catchments (3.1 to 205,6 km2, covering a range of different geologies and land uses) from Southwest Germany. We randomly separated the catchments in two groups. The first group (30 donor catchments) was used to

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Base-Flow Index, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean base-flow index expressed as a percent, compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments of Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  10. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins of the Conterminous United States: Contact Time, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average contact time, in units of days, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins...

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: STATSGO Soil Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006)....

  13. Relationship between catchment characteristics and forms of nitrogen in Cao-E River Basin, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Shuquan; LU Jun; CHEN Dingjiang; SHEN Yena; SHI Yiming

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of different nitrogen forms and their spatial and temporal variations in different pollution types of tributaries or reaches were investigated. Based on the catchments characteristics the tributaries or reaches can be classified into 4 types including headwater in mountainous areas (type I), agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution in rural areas (type II), municipal and industrial pollution in urban areas (type III), and combined pollution in the main stream (type IV). Water samples were collected monthly from July 2003 to June 2006 in the Cao-E River basin in Zhejiang, Eastern China. The concentrations of NO3-N, NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. The mean concentrations of NO3-N were in the order type IV > type II> type III > type I, whereas, NH4+-N, total organic nitrogen (TON), and TN were in the order type III > type IV > type II> type I. In headwater and rural reaches, CNO3-N was much higher than CNH4+-N. In urban reaches, TON and NH4+-N were the main forms, accounting for 54.7% and 32.1% of TN, respectively. In the whole river system, CNH4+-N decrease with increasing distance from cities, and CNO3-N increased with the increasing area of farmland in the catchments. With increased river flow, the CNO3-N increased and the CNH4+-N decreased in all types of reaches, while the variations of CTON and CTN were different. For TN, the concentration may be decreased with the increase of river flow, but the export load always increased.

  14. Mean Transit Times in Seven Upland Catchments, Otway Basin, Southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, William; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The timescales over which precipitation is transmitted into upland streams (the mean transit times, MTTs) are poorly understood, as are the physical processes and controls that govern the variation in mean transit times. In this study, we use tritium (3H), major ion geochemistry and discharge data to investigate the MTTs in upland streams of the Otway Basin of southeast Australia. Samples were collected under varying discharge conditions from seven catchments of varying size whose land use varies from relatively pristine eucalyptus forest to a mixture of pasture, grazing, and production forestry. This allows the controls on MTTs to be assessed. Tritium activities within the streams varied from 0.20 to 2.35 TU, which are below that of local rainfall (~2.7 TU). The highest tritium activities were generally reported in samples collected during periods of high winter discharge, while the lowest tritium activities were reported in samples collected during low, summer discharge. However, at several of the streams, there appears to be a discharge threshold above which tritium activities do not increase appreciably with increased discharge. In general, streams with larger catchment areas and relatively simple geology have less variable but higher tritium activities. In contrast, the lowest and most variable tritium activities were reported in streams having small catchment areas and a greater complexity in geology. MTTs calculated using an exponential-piston flow model ranged between 8 and 180 years; MTTs calculated using other flow models were generally similar, except where the tritium activities were less than around 1 TU. Major ion concentrations generally increased with a corresponding increase in MTT. However, in those streams having more variable MTTs, the opposite often held true, which most likely reflects the variable contribution to flow by water from different geologic units under differing flow conditions. By contrast, land use does not appear to impart a

  15. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Li-juan XUE; Li-jiao LI; Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological mo...

  16. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins: Population Density, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  18. Transient catchment hydrology after wildfires in a Mediterranean basin: runoff, sediment and woody debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient effect of forest fires on runoff, erosion and yield of woody biomass has been investigated by combining the experimental approach with mathematical models of hydrological processes. The case study is the Branega creek in Liguria, Italy, where a forest fire in August 2003 caused substantial changes to soil and vegetation, and left a considerable amount of woody debris on the ground. Immediately after the fire, rainfall simulator experiments in adjacent burned and unburned plots showed the extent to which fire had increased runoff and erosion rates. A distributed hydrological model using the tube-flux approach, calibrated on experimental measurements, has been used to investigate hill slope and channel erosion in a small sub-catchment, 1.5 ha in area, nested in the Branega basin. Simulation runs show that the model accommodates the observed variability of runoff and erosion under disturbed and undisturbed conditions. A model component describing the delivery of wood from hill slopes to the channel in post-fire conditions, validated against local survey data, showed that the removal and transport of woody biomass can be reproduced using an integrated hydrological approach. Hence, transient complexity after wildfires can be addressed by such an approach with empirically determined physically-based parameters.

  19. Assessment of groundwater recharge and discharge in sub-catchments of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater discharge and recharge investigation was carried out in a selected sub-catchment of Indus Basin (Chashma Area) under an IAEA CRP. Sixteen sampling points were selected in the study area including fourteen groundwater and two canal water samples. Seven groundwater sampling points were selected in discharging area and the same numbers of sampling points were selected in recharging area. The first sampling campaign from discharging area was conducted in February 2011 and the second sampling campaign was carried out in March 2011. The electrical conductivity, toital dissolved salts, pH and temperature were measured in the field. The coordinates of the sampling points were recorded using GPS. All the collected samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (/sup 18/O, /sup 2/H). Plot of /sup 18/O vs. /sup 2/H values of surface water and groundwater along with the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) is shown. /sup 18/O values of groundwater vary over a narrow range from -11.3 to -8.2% and /sup 2/H values vary from -76.3 to -53.8%. All groundwater samples except two shallow ones have highly depleted isotopic composition (close to the river/canal water). It means that these locations are recharged by the surface water. Two shallow groundwater samples show mixing of rain water with canal/river water. (orig./A.B.)

  20. Sulfonylurea herbicides in an agricultural catchment basin and its adjacent wetland in the St. Lawrence River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Beauvais, Conrad; Cessna, Allan J; Gagnon, Pierre; Hudon, Christiane; Poissant, Laurier

    2014-05-01

    The use of sulfonylurea herbicides (SU) has increased greater than 100 times over the past 30 years in both Europe and North America. Applied at low rates, their presence, persistence and potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems remain poorly studied. During late-spring to early fall in 2009-2011, concentrations of 9 SU were assessed in two agricultural streams and their receiving wetland, an enlargement of the St. Lawrence River (Canada). Six SU in concentrations >LOQ (10 ng L(-1)) were detected in 10% or less of surface water samples. Rimsulfuron was detected each year, sulfosulfuron and nicosulfuron in two years and the others in one year only, suggesting that application of specific herbicides varied locally between years. Detection frequency and concentrations of SU were not significantly associated with total precipitation which occurred 1 to 5d before sampling. Concentrations and fate of SU differed among sites due to differences in stream dynamics and water quality characteristics. The persistence of SU in catchment basin streams reflected the dissipation effects associated with stream discharge. Maximum concentrations of some SU (223 and 148 ng L(-1)) were occasionally above the baseline level (100 ng L(-1)) for aquatic plant toxicity, implying potential toxic stress to flora in the streams. Substantially lower concentrations (max 55 ng L(-1)) of SU were noted at the downstream wetland site, likely as a result from dilution and mixing with St. Lawrence River water, and represent less toxicological risk to the wetland flora. Sporadic occurrence of SU at low concentrations in air and rain samples indicated that atmospheric deposition was not an important source of herbicides to the study area. PMID:24534695

  1. Chloride transport in a small catchment of the Norrström basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Mengni

    2014-01-01

    On a catchment scale, chloride (Cl-) leached from forest soil due to dry deposition and interaction between vegetation and soil could attribute to the Cl- mass balance. The availability of Cl- data from monitoring works enables the assessment of net ecosystem budgets of Cl-, which compares Cl- amount from wet deposition to that in stream export. Some studies have shown that Cl- imbalances could occur in some catchments and one of such catchments with negative budget is Kringlan. The Kringlan ...

  2. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as mo

  3. Geo-referenced modelling of metal concentrations in river basins at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffmeyer, N.; Berlekamp, J.; Klasmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction The European Water Framework Directive demands the good ecological and chemical state of surface waters [1]. This implies the reduction of unwanted metal concentrations in surface waters. To define reasonable environmental target values and to develop promising mitigation strategies a detailed exposure assessment is required. This includes the identification of emission sources and the evaluation of their effect on local and regional surface water concentrations. Point source emissions via municipal or industrial wastewater that collect metal loads from a wide variety of applications and products are important anthropogenic pathways into receiving waters. Natural background and historical influences from ore-mining activities may be another important factor. Non-point emissions occur via surface runoff and erosion from drained land area. Besides deposition metals can be deposited by fertilizer application or the use of metal products such as wires or metal fences. Surface water concentrations vary according to the emission strength of sources located nearby and upstream of the considered location. A direct link between specific emission sources and pathways on the one hand and observed concentrations can hardly be established by monitoring alone. Geo-referenced models such as GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) deliver spatially resolved concentrations in a whole river basin and allow for evaluating the causal relationship between specific emissions and resulting concentrations. This study summarizes the results of investigations for the metals zinc and copper in three German catchments. 2. The model GREAT-ER The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER has originally been developed to simulate and assess chemical burden of European river systems from multiple emission sources [2]. Emission loads from private households and rainwater runoff are individually estimated based on average consumption figures, runoff rates

  4. Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gragne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay, UGASC, and Koga, KSC and one ungauged sub-catchment.

    Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations (CRs: (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with vegetations zone and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performance (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values, Reff>0.75 and >0.6, respectively, for UGASC and KSC. The change of the time step to fifteen and thirty days resulted in very good model performances in both sub-catchments (Reff>0.8. The model parameter transferability tests conducted on the daily models showed poor performance in both sub-catchments, whereas the fifteen and thirty days models yielded high Reff values using transferred parameter sets. This together with the sensitivity analysis carried out after Monte Carlo simulations (1 000 000 model runs per CR explained the reason behind the difference in hydrologic behaviors of the two sub-catchments UGASC and KSC. The dissimilarity in response pattern of the sub-catchments was caused by the presence of dambos in KSC and differences in the topography between UGASC and KSC. Hence, transferring model parameters from the view of describing hydrological process was found to be not feasible for all models. On the other hand, from a water resources management perspective the results obtained by transferring parameters of the larger time step model were

  5. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lijuan; Li Lijiao; Zhang Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeleddaily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoffprocess in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas). Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  6. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-juan XUE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  7. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Jaworzynka's Valley catchment basin (Tatra Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypel, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the research an attempt was made to assess an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Tatra Mountains (Poland. Assessment of the degree of hazard of permeating pollutions from land surface directly to the ground water table was the main target of the research. The Jaworzynka's Valley in West Tatra Mountains was chosen as the exact research area. Jaworzynka's Valley is a typical karst catchment basin. Location of study area wasn't accidental, because in the north part of the valley there is a well which is being used as drinking water intake for the whole Zakopane City. This is the reason, why the quality of ground water is so important. The method used in this research, entitled KARSTIC, wasn't applied in Poland before. This is a parametric method of groundwater vulnerability assessment. KARSTIC is a modification of much better known DRASTIC method, specialized for specific karst terrain. KARSTIC method created by A. Davis and others (1994), was used for the first time, during a research in the Black Hills Mountains, USA. Research in Jaworzynka's Valley was based on the Black Hills study. In order to apply this method in Tatra Mountains, it was necessary to make a few changes in relation to original area. Applying KARSTIC method consists of successive stages. Schematization of hydrogeological conditions is an inseparable part of KARSTIC method. The first step bases on collecting all of available data such as maps, databases and documentations. Next stage consists of classifying all parameters employed in this method and then assigning a ratings and weights for this parameters. Subsequently it is necessary to use a mathematical formula, named Pollution Potential Index, which presents a ground water vulnerability in each point. The final step is visualization on the ground water vulnerability map. The result of research displays the high vulnerability in close proximity of the drinking water intake. The most vulnerable areas in Jaworzynka

  8. Changes in land cover, rainfall and stream flow in Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment, Blue Nile basin – Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Rientjes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated changes in land cover and rainfall in the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin and how changes affected stream flow in terms of annual flow, high flows and low flows. Land cover change assessment was through classification analysis of remote sensing based land cover data while assessments on rainfall and stream flow data are by statistical analysis. Results of the supervised land cover classification analysis indicated that 50.9 % and 16.7 % of the catchment area was covered by forest in 1973 and 2001, respectively. This significant decrease in forest cover is mainly due to expansion of agricultural land.

    By use of a change detection procedure, three periods were identified for which changes in rainfall and stream flow were analyzed. Rainfall was analyzed at monthly base by use of the Mann-Kendall test statistic and results indicated a statistically significant, decreasing trend for most months of the year. However, for the wet season months of June, July and August rainfall has increased. In the period 1973–2005, the annual flow of the catchment decreased by 12.1 %. Low flow and high flow at daily base were analyzed by a low flow and a high flow index that is based on a 95 % and 5 % exceedance probability. Results of the low flow index indicated decreases of 18.1 % and 66.6 % for the periods 1982–2000 and 2001–2005 respectively. Results of high flows indicated an increase of 7.6 % and 46.6 % for the same periods. In this study it is concluded that over the period 1973–2005 stream flow has changed in the Gilgel Abbay catchment by changes in land cover and changes in rainfall.

  9. Stage report n. 1 by the pluralistic expertise group on the Limousin uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an assessment of the expertise group operation between June and December 2006 and a synthesis of the performed work during this period. This work dealt with releases and transfers in the environment from ancient uranium mining sites (Bellezane residues storage site, Ritord river catchment basin), impacts on the environment and on health, and reflections about the legal framework for the concerned materials and sites, and about the long-term monitoring of the sites and of their environment

  10. Hydrograph separation using 222Rn and stable isotopes estimations in four sub-catchments of the Attert basin (Luxembourg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to get informations about the hydrologic signature of small rivers during and after heavy rain events, four small catchments were selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers were performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as oxygen 18, Deuterium and particularly 222 Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected sub-catchments under investigation are situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert basin, the latter being integrated in the European Network of Experimental Research Basins (ERB). Radon gas detectors were adapted to measure continuously the radon activity in water. These detectors are installed at chosen points at the basins outflows together with high precision thermometers, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples were taken for radon measurements at different locations along a stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. A limited number of samples was also analysed for their content of radium and uranium and of the stable isotopes oxygen 18, Deuterium. Presented are results over a one year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed values did not show substantial variations and could be used as reference values. The high fluctuations of the measured data during heavy rain events are discussed and the interplay of the different parameters analysed. The research is part of the national project 'CYCLEAU' based on the study of the interactions between different parameters in the water cycle, at several scales. The project CYCLEAU is supported by the FNR (National

  11. Hydrograph separation using 222Rn and stable isotopes estimations in four sub-catchments of the Attert basin (Luxembourg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to get informations about the hydrologic signature of small rivers during and after heavy rain events, four small catchments were selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers were performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected sub-catchments under investigation are situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert basin, the latter being integrated in the European Network of Experimental Research Basins (ERB). Radon gas detectors were adapted to measure continuously the radon activity in water. These detectors are installed at chosen points at the basins outflows together with high precision thermometers, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples were taken for radon measurements at different locations along a stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. A limited number of samples was also analysed for their content of radium and uranium and of the stable isotopes 18O and 2H. Presented are results over a one year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed values did not show substantial variations and could be used as reference values. The high fluctuations of the measured data during heavy rain events are discussed and the interplay of the different parameters analysed. The research is part of the national project 'CYCLEAU' based on the study of the interactions between different parameters in the water cycle, at several scales. The project CYCLEAU is supported by the FNR (National Research Fund

  12. Validation of soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions at the local and catchment scale for an Indonesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Martijn J.; Oldhoff, Ruben J. J.; Rustanto, Andry

    2016-04-01

    In order to accurately model the hydrological processes in a catchment, information on the soil hydraulic properties is of great importance. These data can be obtained by conducting field work, which is costly and time consuming, or by using pedotransfer functions (PTFs). A PTF is an empirical relationship between easily obtainable soil characteristics and a soil hydraulic parameter. In this study, PTFs for the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the available water content (AWC) are investigated. PTFs are area-specific, since for instance tropical soils often have a different composition and hydraulic behaviour compared to temperate soils. Application of temperate soil PTFs on tropical soils might result in poor performance, which is a problem as few tropical soil PTFs are available. The objective of this study is to determine whether Ks and AWC can be accurately approximated using PTFs, by analysing their performance at both the local scale and the catchment scale. Four published PTFs for Ks and AWC are validated on a data set of 91 soil samples collected in the Upper Bengawan Solo catchment on Java, Indonesia. The AWC is predicted very poorly, with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) values below zero for all selected PTFs. For Ks PTFs better results were found. The Wösten and Rosetta-3 PTFs predict the Ks moderately accurate, with NSE values of 0.28 and 0.39, respectively. New PTFs for both AWC and Ks were developed using multiple linear regression and NSE values of 0.37 (AWC) and 0.55 (Ks) were obtained. Although these values are not very high, they are significantly higher than for the published PTFs. The hydrological SWAT model was set up for the Keduang, a sub-catchment of the Upper Bengawan Solo River, to simulate monthly catchment streamflow. Eleven cases were defined to validate the PTFs at the catchment scale. For the Ks-PTF cases NSE values of around 0.84 were obtained for the validation period. The use of AWC PTFs resulted in slightly lower NSE

  13. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together scholars from different fields to explore the power, consequences and everyday practices of security expertise. Expertise mediates between different forms of knowledge: scientific and technological, legal, economic and political knowledge. This book offers the first...... systematic study of security expertise and opens up a productive dialogue between science and technology studies and security studies to investigate the character and consequences of this expertise. In security theory, the study of expertise is crucial to understanding whose knowledge informs security making...... and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...

  14. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and we

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Nutrient Ecoregions, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of each level 3 nutrient ecoregion in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins...

  16. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  17. Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to Runoff Changes in the Upper Catchment of the Red River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes will contribute to regional water resource planning and management. This study aims to separate the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes in the upper catchment of the Red River Basin in China. The Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test methods were applied to identify the trends and change points of the hydro-meteorological variables. The hydrological sensitivity, climate elasticity and hydrological simulation methods were adopted to estimate the contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. Results showed that annual runoff significantly decreased by 1.57 mm/year during the period of 1961–2012. A change point in annual runoff coefficient occurred in 2002. Accordingly, the annual runoff series were divided into the baseline period (1961–2002 and the impacted period (2003–2012. Mean annual runoff of the impacted period decreased by 29.13% compared with the baseline period. Similar estimates of the contributions of climate variability and human activities were obtained by the three different methods. Climate variability was estimated to be responsible for 69%–71% of the reduction in annual runoff, and human activities accounted for 29%–31%. Climate variability was the main driving factor for runoff decrease in the catchment.

  18. River water quality of the River Cherwell: an agricultural clay-dominated catchment in the upper Thames Basin, southeastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2006-05-01

    The water quality of the River Cherwell and a tributary of it, the Ray, are described in terms of point and diffuse sources of pollution, for this rural area of the upper Thames Basin. Point sources of pollution dominate at the critical ecological low flow periods of high biological activity. Although the surface geology is predominantly clay, base flow is partly supplied from springs in underlying carbonate-bearing strata, which influences the water quality particularly with regards to calcium and alkalinity. The hydrogeochemistry of the river is outlined and the overall importance of urban point sources even in what would normally be considered to be rural catchments is stressed in relation to the European Unions Water Framework Directive. Issues of phosphorus stripping at sewage treatment works are also considered: such stripping on the Cherwell has reduced phosphorus concentrations by about a factor of two, but this is insufficient for the needs of the Water Framework Directive. PMID:16253306

  19. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from the Sandspruit Catchment, Berg River Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, S; Demlie, M

    2014-01-01

    The Sandspruit catchment (a tributary of the Berg River) represents a drainage system, whereby saline groundwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 10,870 mg/l, and electrical conductivity (EC) up to 2,140 mS/m has been documented. The catchment belongs to the winter rainfall region with precipitation seldom exceeding 400 mm/yr, as such, groundwater recharge occurs predominantly from May to August. Recharge estimation using the catchment water-balance method, chloride mass balance method, and qualified guesses produced recharge rates between 8 and 70 mm/yr. To understand the origin, occurrence and dynamics of the saline groundwater, a coupled analysis of major ion hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes (δ(18)O, δ(2)H and (3)H) data supported by conventional hydrogeological information has been undertaken. These spatial and multi-temporal hydrochemical and environmental isotope data provided insight into the origin, mechanisms and spatial evolution of the groundwater salinity. These data also illustrate that the saline groundwater within the catchment can be attributed to the combined effects of evaporation, salt dissolution, and groundwater mixing. The salinity of the groundwater tends to vary seasonally and evolves in the direction of groundwater flow. The stable isotope signatures further indicate two possible mechanisms of recharge; namely, (1) a slow diffuse type modern recharge through a relatively low permeability material as explained by heavy isotope signal and (2) a relatively quick recharge prior to evaporation from a distant high altitude source as explained by the relatively depleted isotopic signal and sub-modern to old tritium values.

  20. Understanding Catchment Processes and Hydrological Modelling in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrekristos, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The water resources in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin are the source of life for the several hundred million people living in the basin and further downstream. It provides more than 60% of the total Nile water. Intensive farming in unfavourable soils and slopes, overgrazing and soil erosion is among

  1. Response of Stream Pollution Characteristics to Catchment Land Cover in Cao-E River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ye-Na; L(U) Jun; CHEN Ding-Jiang; SHI Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the relationship of river water pollution characteristics to land covers and human activities in the catchments in a complete river system named Cao-E River in eastcrn China. Based on the hydrogsochemical data collected monthly over a period of 3 years, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were adopted to categorize the river reaches and reveal their pollution characteristics. According to the differences of water quality in the river reaches and land use patterns and average population densities in their catchments, the whole river system could be categorized into three groups of river reaches, i.e., non-point sources pollution reaches (NPSPR), urban reaches (UR) and mixed sources pollution reaches (MSPR). In UR and MSPR, the water quality was mainly impacted by nutrient and organic pollution, while in NPSPR nutrient pollution was the main cause. The nitrate was the main nitrogen form in NPSPR and particulate phosphorus was the main phosphorus form in MSPR. There were no apparent trends for the variations of pollutant concentrations with increasing river flows in NPSPR and MSPR, while in UR the pollutant concentrations decreased with increasing river flows. Thus dry season was the critical period for water pollution control in UR. Therefore, catchment land covers and human activities had significant impact on river reach water pollution type, nutrient forms and water quality responses to hydrological conditions, which might be crucial for developing strategies to combat water pollution in watershed scale.

  2. Scenarios of changes of selected components of hydrosphere and biosphere in catchment basin of Hron River and Vah River as consequence of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text-book consist of the following parts: (1) Hydrologic and climatic relationship of catchment basins; (2) Space interpretation of outputs of climatic scenarios in catchment basins of Hron River and Vah River by geostatistical methods; (3) Teleconnection of annual overflows with SO, NAO, AO and QBO phenomenons; (4) Snow; (5) Mathematical model for modelling of influence of climatic changes on runoff processes; (6) Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins; (7) Influence of climatic change on capacity utilization of reserve volume of water reservoir Orava River; (8) Quality of surface waters; (9) Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology; (10) Proposal of framing adaptation arrangements.

  3. Two-step calibration and proxy-basin validation of ensemble rainfall-runoff predictions in a Swedish mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Viney, Neil R.; Seibert, Jan; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2010-05-01

    (or skill). A proxy-basin validation approach was then performed to simulate ungauged basin conditions. Calibrated parameter sets of one discharge station were used to generate predictions for the other discharge record. Weights and regression coefficients computed in the above mentioned calibration step for each catchment were utilised for the uncalibrated predictions of the other catchment. The two previously defined criteria were also calculated for the newly created ensemble predictions. They were used to investigate the evolution of the quality of the single predictions between members and compiled ensembles. In the same way the evolution of the described uncertainty bounds between members and full set of generated ensembles was addressed. Improvement was achieved by merging single runs in ensembles, even with only 2 members, fulfilling the ensemble approach aim. At the same time, uncertainty bounds of the predictions were always reduced for the ensembles compared to single model calibrations and these bounds included most of the measured discharges. We therefore concluded that the application of multi-model ensembles in hydrology was one way to overcome structural model uncertainty issues.

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Atmospheric (Wet) Deposition of Inorganic Nitrogen, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer, of inorganic nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment for MRB_E2RF1 of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set for wet deposition was from the USGS's raster data set atmospheric (wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen for 2002 (Gronberg, 2005). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  5. Environmental flows allocation in river basins: Exploring allocation challenges and options in the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Lankford, Bruce A.; Mahoo, Henry F.; Mashauri, Damus A.

    Provision for environmental flows is currently becoming a central issue in the debate of integrated water resources management in river basins. However, the theories, concepts and practical applications are still new in most developing countries with challenging situations arising in complex basins with multiple water uses and users and increasing water demands and conflicts exemplified by the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania. The research has shown that a flow of 0.5-1 m 3/s for Great Ruaha River through the Ruaha National Park is required to sustain the environment in the park during the dry season. But a question is how can this be achieved? This paper reviews the challenges and suggests some options for achieving environmental water allocation in river basins. The following challenges are identified: (a) the concept of environmental flows is still new and not well known, (b) there is limited data and understanding of the hydrologic and ecological linkages, (c) there is insufficient specialist knowledge and legislative support, (d) there are no storage reservoirs for controlled environmental water releases, and (e) there are contradicting policies and institutions on environmental issues. Notwithstanding these challenges, this paper identifies the options towards meeting environmental water allocation and management: (a) conducting purposive training and awareness creation to communities, politicians, government officials and decision makers on environmental flows, (b) capacity building in environmental flows and setting-up multidisciplinary environmental flows team with stakeholders involvement, (c) facilitating the development of effective local institutions supported by legislation, (d) water harvesting and storage and proportional flow structures design to allow water for the environment, and (e) harmonizing policies and reform in water utilization and water rights to accommodate and ensure water for the environment.

  6. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of level 3 ecological landscape regions (ecoregions), as defined by Omernik (1987), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is Level III Ecoregions of the Continental United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Nutrient Ecoregions, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of each level 3 nutrient ecoregion in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data are from the 2002 version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Aggregations of Level III Ecoregions for National Nutrient Assessment & Management Strategy (USEPA, 2002). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  10. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  12. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  13. Modelling the water balance of a mesoscale catchment basin using remotely sensed land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Canty, Morton; Kunkel, Ralf; Menz, Gunter; Vereecken, Harry; Wendland, Frank

    2008-05-01

    SummaryHydrological modelling of mesoscale catchments is often adversely affected by a lack of adequate information about specific site conditions. In particular, digital land cover data are available from data sets which were acquired on a European or a national scale. These data sets do not only exhibit a restricted spatial resolution but also a differentiation of crops and impervious areas which is not appropriate to the needs of mesoscale hydrological models. In this paper, the impact of remote sensing data on the reliability of a water balance model is investigated and compared to model results determined on the basis of CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover as a reference. The aim is to quantify the improved model performance achieved by an enhanced land cover representation and corresponding model modifications. Making use of medium resolution satellite imagery from SPOT, LANDSAT ETM+ and ASTER, detailed information on land cover, especially agricultural crops and impervious surfaces, was extracted over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Crop-specific evapotranspiration coefficients were derived by using remote sensing data to replace grass reference evapotranspiration necessitated by the use of CORINE land cover for rural areas. For regions classified as settlement or industrial areas, degrees of imperviousness were derived. The data were incorporated into the hydrological model GROWA (large-scale water balance model), which uses an empirical approach combining distributed meteorological data with distributed site parameters to calculate the annual runoff components. Using satellite imagery in combination with runoff data from gauging stations for the years 2000-2004, the actual evapotranspiration calculation in GROWA was methodologically extended by including empirical crop coefficients for actual evapotranspiration calculations. While GROWA originally treated agricultural areas as homogeneous, now a consideration and differentiation

  14. Chronique Expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cinquième rapport d'évaluation du Groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'évolution du climat (GIEC) / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) / Plate-forme intergouvernementale pour la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services [IPBES]) / Expertise du Comité d'hygiène, de sécurité et des conditions de travail (CHSCT) / Commission nationale de la déontologie et des alertes ...

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Tree Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent tree canopy from the Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents tree canopy percentage for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  16. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents imperviousness for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002;Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  18. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  19. Hydro-meteorological functioning of the Eastern Andean Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Insight from a paired catchment study in the Orinoco river basin highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Leemans, Rik

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests regulate large scale precipitation patterns and catchment-scale streamflow, while tropical mountains influence runoff by orographic effects and snowmelt. Along tropical elevation gradients, these climate/ecosystem/hydrological interactions are specific and heterogeneous. These interactions are poorly understood and represented in hydro-meteorological monitoring networks and regional or global earth system models. A typical case are the South American Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCF), whose water balance is strongly driven by fog persistence. This also depends on local and up wind temperature and moisture, and changes in this balance alter the impacts of changes in land use and climate on hydrology. These TMCFs were until 2010 only investigated up to 350km from the coast. Continental TMCFs are largely ignored. This gap is covered by our study area, which is part of the Orinoco river basin highlands and located on the northern Eastern Andes at an altitudinal range of 1550 to 2300m a.s.l. The upwind part of our study area is dominated by lowland savannahs that are flooded seasonally. Because meteorological stations are absent in our study area, we first describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability and analyse the corresponding catchment hydrology. Our hydro-meteorological data set is collected at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover from June 2013 to May 2014 and includes hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and runoff measurements. We compare our results with recent TCMF studies in the eastern Andean highlands in the Amazon basin. The studied elevational range always shows wetter conditions at higher elevations. This indicates a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. Lower elevations are more seasonally variable. Soil moisture data indicate that TMCFs do not use persistently more water than grasslands

  20. Calculation of Sediment yield at the S 7-4 catchment of the Shirindareh Watershed of Iran using the River Basins model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalevic, Velibor; Barovic, Goran; Vujacic, Dusko; Mijanovic, Dragica; Curovic, Milic; Tanaskovik, Vjekoslav; Behzadfar, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is driven by complex processes involving detachment of material caused by raindrops and flow tractions, which is further transported by the wind or by the water flow. The region of Shirindareh Watershed of Iran is particularly prone to erosion because it is subject to long dry periods followed by heavy erosive rainfalls, falling on steep slopes with soils prone to erosion. The identification of areas that are vulnerable to those processes is needed for improving our knowledge about the extent of the areas affected and for developing measures to control the problem. In our opinion, models can be very supportive tools for understanding of the soil erosion and sediment transport at the watershed scale. This study aims to illustrate the possibility in computing the runoff and sediment yield at the catchment scale using the River Basins model of Spalevic, which is based on the Erosion Potential Method of Garilovic. We apply the mode in the S 7-4 catchment of the Shirindareh Watershed of Iran using the computer graphic model, which allowed the quantification of the environmental effects of erosion and the land use measures applied at the studied area. Model calculations showed that the calculated peak discharge from the river basin was 61 m3 s-1 for the incidence of 100 years and the net soil loss was 5806 m3 per year, specific 159 m3km-2 per year. According to Gavrilovic this amount of soil loss indicates very weak erosion category. The method we used in this study can also be of interest for soil erosion modelling in other basins. The proper implementation of best management practices and control measures are crucial for protecting land resources in the Shirindareh Watershed and the other river basins with similar physical - geographical conditions.

  1. Effects of catchment and riparian landscape setting on water chemistry and seasonal evolution of water quality in the upper Han River basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available Six-year (2005-2010 evolution of water chemistry (Cl(-, NO(3(-, SO(4(2-, HCO(3(-, Na(+, K(+, Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ and their interactions with morphological properties (i.e., slope and area, land cover, and hydrological seasonality were examined to identify controlling factors and processes governing patterns of stream water quality in the upper Han River, China. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression models revealed significant correlations between ions (i.e., Cl(-, SO(4(2-, Na(+ and K(+ and land cover (i.e., vegetation and bare land over the entire catchment in both high- and low-flow periods, and in the buffer zone the correlation was much more stronger in the low-flow period. Catchment with steeper slope (>15° was negatively correlated with major ions, largely due to multicollinearity of basin characteristics. Land cover within the buffer zone explained slightly less of major elements than at catchment scale in the rainy season, whereas in the dry season, land cover along the river networks in particular this within 100 m riparian zone much better explained major elements rather than this over the entire catchment. Anthropogenic land uses (i.e., urban and agriculture however could not explain water chemical variables, albeit EC, TDS, anthropogenic markers (Cl(-, NO(3(-, SO(4(2, Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ significantly increased during 2005-2010, which was corroborated by principal component analyses (PCA that indicated anthropogenic inputs. Observations demonstrated much higher solute concentrations in the industrial-polluted river. Our results suggested that seasonal evolution of water quality in combined with spatial analysis at multiple scales should be a vital part of identifying the controls on spatio-temporal patterns of water quality.

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5) and the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins.

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  4. Evaluation of soil erosion as a basis of sediment yield in mountainous catchments: a preliminary study in the River Douro Basin (Northern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Martinho Lourenço, José M.; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The River Corgo drains a meso-scale mountainous rural catchment with an area of 295 km2, underlain by crystalline rocks, in a temperate climate, which integrates the transboundary River Douro Basin, in the northeast of Portugal. A geochemical survey on oxic fluvial sediments of the river network shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (soils and weathering products. Moreover, taking into account the hydrological pattern of the catchment, the seasonal and spatial variability of metal contents associated to the sediments suggests that the control of metal in the sediments by their mineralogical, geochemical and physical properties is governed primarily at the level of the basin soils system, especially in the Wet Period, when the sediments are frequently remobilised (Reis, 2010). Although the soil particles are a common pathway of transport and entrance of metals in the fluvial network by runoff derived erosion, this mechanism is naturally more marked in mountainous catchments. Modelling sediment and adsorbed contaminant transport within catchments can help to identify possible contaminant sources, as well as to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants. In catchments with the described morphological features, monitoring the transport of sediments poses some issues concerning: (a) the low mass yield of suspended sediment from river water, under low-flow conditions; (b) the maintenance of the sediment sampler's devices in the streams, in periods of high-flow or storm events. This study describes the preliminary results of a GIS-based mass balance model of overland sediment transport to the River. The erosion, the first step of sediment transport, was estimated by an empirical model - The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The objective was to construct a GIS based potential soil loss spatial index model and posteriorly estimate the sediment yield for different locations within the catchment. The

  5. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations. Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted

  6. Drainage architecture and sediment routing in erosive catchments within the Ebro Eiver sedimentary basin (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The Ebro Basin (EB) is the result of filling a foreland basin located between active mountain ranges during the Paleogene compressive phases, and later affected by phases of distension in the Neogene. The arrangement of filler material is monocline in the eastern margin and in the contact with the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR). This has repercussions on the model of emptying the erosive basins and in the drainage that took place in the margins of the original sedimentary basin. One can speak of a drainage architecture and sediment routing associated to a monocline erosive basin model. The monocline topography in the original margin of EB encouraged the formation of a string of erosive basins around the contact with CCR, which are the result of headward erosion towards the center of the EB of the rivers draining the CCR towards the Valencia Trough. At the time, the transition from the EB in its initial condition of endorheic to exorheic was through one of these monocline erosive basins. The erosive basins emptied by means of two vectors. On the one hand, growth in surface of the basin by deepening anaclinal streams through resistant beds of monocline stratigraphic succession that empty and link small depressions that increase laterally on the less resistant lithologic member. Moreover, the new drainage system entrenches as the exit point of the basin does, thanks to gradients created by distensional movements of the Neogene Valencia Trough. Growth and entrenchment model of river basins, as well as, sedimentary deposits and landforms generated by these processes are described and analyzed.

  7. The challenges of catchment hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region: a case study from the Dudh Kosi River basin of Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Santosh; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Shea, Joseph; Wahid, Shahriar M.; Shrestha, Arun B.; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2014-05-01

    Catchment-scale hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region suffers from multiple issues that affect our ability to represent the hydrological dynamics of a river system. Due to a lack of monitoring infrastructure, especially in the high-altitude areas, the spatial distribution of precipitation is essentially unknown. Therefore, the regionalization of precipitation in river basins is a challenging task that has implications in the modelling approach at different levels. This paper explores the uncertainty in modelled discharge using different precipitation input datasets in the glaciated catchment of the Dudh Kosi River basin in Eastern Nepal (3712 km2). The basin hosts some of the world's highest mountain peaks, including Mt Everest. Six precipitation stations, which cover mostly the lowland area of the basin, give a station density of one station per 618 km2. First, we examine precipitation dynamics in the study area based on the observed data. Second, the process-oriented distributed J2000 hydrological model is applied in the Dudh Kosi River basin. Third, the model is run with APHRODITE-(V1003R1), CPC-RFE-(2.0) and TRMM-(V7) precipitation products to compare observed and modelled discharge. Nearly 82% of the precipitation occurs during the monsoon season (June - September), and the limited station observations suggest that there is non-uniform distribution of precipitation in which the underlying topography has a great influence. The maximum precipitation occurred at the station which is located on the middle hills region, followed by the station located at the foothills of the Higher Himalaya. Compared to the observed precipitation, the TRMM product is found to be 7% less than the observed data, whereas the other two products were up to 35% less. The model was applied with the six stations data and the regionalization was carried out using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method to simulate the hydrograph. The model was first applied between 1985-1997 in

  8. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  9. The influence of the geomorphological factors on the relief modelling within Eselnita hydrographic basin (Danube catchment/Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V – NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Developed in a mountain landscape, the basin presents different levels held between minimum altitude of 64 m at the confluence with the Danube and maximum altitude of 1107 m, thus presenting a difference of 1043 m. Geological formations within the basin belong predominant to the Danubian Domain, so in central and upper courses, these are represented by a crystalline foundation and by magmatic rocks of intrusive nature covered by very small areas of sediment located in the northwest (belong to the Lower Jurassic and in the south-eastern (belongs to the Upper Cretaceous of the basin. But in the lower course, there are both crystalline and the sedimentary formations, last being integrated to Orşova depression and whose presence is related to the evolution of the Danube. Morphometric indices of Eşelniţa basin allows the distinction of a higher sector, mountainous terrain with high energy under a relatively increased fragmentation and depression sector with low relief energy and also with an intense fragmentation of the existing sedimentary rocks wich favors erosion manifestation in the context of deforestation action.

  10. Analysis of the Course and Frequency of High Water Stages in Selected Catchments of the Upper Vistula Basin in the South of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Walega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the course and frequency of high water stages in selected catchments of the upper Vistula basin in the south of Poland. The following rivers were investigated: the Dunajec–Nowy Targ-Kowaniec cross-section, the Rudawa–Balice cross-section, the Kamienica–Nowy Sącz cross-section, the Wisłok–Tryńcza cross-section and the San–Przemyśl cross-section. Daily flows from the years 1983–2014 were used to determine maximum annual flows and maximum flows per summer and winter half-year. Selected floods were analyzed with reference to the following metrics: POTX (mean size of the flow determined based on high water stages exceeding the assumed threshold value, POT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for each hydrological year, WPOT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the winter half-year and, LOPT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the summer half-year. The determined metrics were analyzed for trend (Mann-Kendall test, homogeneity (Kruskal-Wallis test, and heteroscedasticity (Levene test. Additionally, periodograms were used to determine periodicity of time series for maximum annual flows. The resulting computations indicated upward trends in the analyzed flood metrics but they were not significant in any case. Therefore, in the years 1983–2014 no factors were observed that would significantly affect the size and frequency of high water runoff from the investigated catchments.

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major Rivers Basins in the Conterminous United States: Total Precipitation, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the catchment-average total precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 for 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  12. Expertise and contra expertise independence and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About sixty participants: members of C.L.I., academics, elected representatives, manufacturers, representatives of association, institutional, crossed their experiences. The debate was mainly centred on the role of the expert, the limits of its intervention and its independence. The presented titles are following: experiences of two C.L.I. in expertise; the work of communication of the nuclear experts; interest and limits of the expertise; presentation of the I.R.S.N. and the D.G.S.N.R.; expertise: problems and experiences; presentation of the works realised in work group; the considerations of the C.S.S.I.N.. (N.C.)

  13. Participatory watershed management to decrease land degradation and sediment transport in Kagera and Nyando catchments of Lake Victoria basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kenge, James Gunya

    2009-01-01

    Attention to participatory watershed management is increasing across the developing world as soil erosion continues to degrade agricultural land; reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure are clogged with sediment. The realization of the importance of watersheds is crucial for sustainable utilization especially in developing countries where rural livelihoods and economies are highly dependant on the exploitation of natural resources. The Lake Victoria basin is characterized by high population ...

  14. From the Highest to the Deepest: A River-Sea Dispersal System that Links A Mountainous Catchment to the Deep-Sea Basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. T.; Hsu, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Gaoping River (GPR) is a small mountainous river whose source area is located in the southern Central Range of Taiwan, about 3900 m above sea level. It has an average gradient of 1:150. Both the chemical and physical weathering rates for the GPR catchment are higher than the world average. Approximately 1 km seaward from the mouth of the GPR is the head of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC). GPR annually discharges 35 Mt of sediment into the sea, most of which enters the GPSC. The GPSC owes its existence to tectonic processes related to the collision of the Philippine Plate and the Eurasia Plate. The canyon extents from the mouth of GPR, cutting through the Gaoping shelf and slope, and merges into the northeastern Manila Trench over a distance of about 260 km in water depth over 3000 m. It is a major conduit for the transport of terrestrial sediment to the South China Sea (SCS) and the landward transport of particles of marine origin in the SCS. The thickness of the tidally-dominated benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) in the GPSC can exceed 200 m, in which the temperature, flow, and suspended sediment concentration show distinctive tidal oscillations. Both semidiruanl barotropic and baroclinic tides are important in the canyon. In the GRSC the normal transport of suspended sediment associated with tidal propagation from offshore is up-canyon yet episodic sediment transports associated with episodic gravity-driven events are down-canyon. Typhoon-induced river floods often ignite turbidity currents (TCs) in the GPSC. Therefore, hperpycnal river plume and the ensuing TCs form an effective pathway to transport large amount of terrestrial sediment and carbon (fresh and aged) to the SCS basin. However, due to the extensive disturbance in the GPR catchment by typhoon-related deep erosion of hillslopes and incision of river channels, the ';fresh' flood sediment exported by GPR during and immediately after typhoons contains old sediment as defined by the absence of 7Be

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13 to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73 to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is substantial uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1 to 41% under SRES A1B and −3 to 41% under 2

  16. Isotopic Insights into Catchment Hydrology: Use of Tritium and Oxygen-18 to Interpret Age and Flow Paths of Waters in the Langtang River Basin, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.; Kayastha, R. B.; Hughes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology of glacierized catchments is an important step in assessing vulnerability of water resources to a changing climate. While there have been increased efforts recently to understand the dynamics of Asia's cryosphere, glacier melt dynamics and the contribution of melting ice to river discharge is open question. Tritium samples collected from water and ice in the Langtang Valley, Nepal in 2013, 2014 and 2015 offer new insights into relative age and residence times of different water sources in the basin, and seasonal changes in river water composition. With tritium values below detection limits in terminal glacier ice, values between 1 and 5 Tritium Units (TU) in spring water, and greater than 3 TU but declining with elevation in the Langtang River, the role of glacier melt in river hydrology can be compared to that estimated using oxygen-18 values in two component mixing models. Tritium results suggest that oxygen-18 mixing model results over-estimate glacier ice contributions to river discharge.

  17. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  18. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event

  19. The Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea sediments as archives of climate change in the Aral-Caspian catchment basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-m long core of bottom sediments from the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay of the Caspian Sea, 4- m and 2-m cores from the Issyk Kul Lake of the Thian Shan Mountains, and a 4-m core from the Aral Sea were examined for evidence of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment basin of the Central Asia Region. The distribution of 18O and 13C in the bulk carbonates, 2H in the pore water, radiocarbon age, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the lake water, abundance of CaCO3, MgCO3, and the basic salt ions of Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42- in the cores were measured. The isotope and hydrogeochemical data of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay sediments prove a historical scenario for the basin which suggests that fresh water has been discharged to the Caspian Sea during the Bay's humid episode across the Central Asia Region (∼ 9 Ka BP). Isotope and geochemical evidence indicate that the sedimentation of the upper core segment has taken place during the last ∼2.2 Ka BP in the environment of sea water recharged from the Central Caspian Basin. The period of between 4.3 and 6 Ka BP, which relates to the core depth interval of between 170 cm and 260 cm, demonstrates the most dramatic change in the sedimentation rate in the Issyk Kul Lake. It means that active melting of the mountain glaciers and warming of climate has happened just in this period. The swamp plant peat layers at depths of 230 cm and 130 cm indicate that during 3.5-3.7 Ka BP and 1.6-1.8 Ka BP the Aral Sea dried and broke up into a number of lakes and swamps. Sediment cores taken from the bottom of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea show periodic rise and fall in water levels during the last ∼10 000 years. Two peat layers within the sediment core of the Aral Sea and dated at 1.6-1.8 Ka BP and 3.5-3.7 Ka BP demonstrate that this reservoir also periodically dried. (author)

  20. Flood-initiating catchment conditions: a spatio-temporal analysis of large-scale soil moisture patterns in the Elbe River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Nied, M.; Hundecha, Y.; Merz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose classifying soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and investigating the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence ...

  1. Flood-initiating catchment conditions: a spatio-temporal analysis of large-scale soil moisture patterns in the Elbe river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Nied, M.; Hundecha, Y.; Merz, B.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological event characteristics and pre-event catchment conditions. While the large-scale meteorological conditions have been classified and successfully linked to floods, this is lacking for the large-scale pre-event catchment conditions. Therefore, we propose to classify soil moisture as a key variable of pre-event catchment conditions and to investigate the link between soil moisture patterns and flood occurrence in the Elbe ...

  2. Intelligence as Developing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg

    1999-10-01

    This essay describes how intelligence can be viewed as developing expertise. The general conception of intelligence as developing expertise is described. Then research examples are given that, in conjunction, seem odd under traditional interpretations of abilities but that make sense as a whole in the context of the developing-expertise model. It is concluded that this new model offers potential for better understanding intelligence-related phenomena. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10508532

  3. Impact of altitudinal variability on streamflows in mountainous catchments under changing climate (Upper Indus Basin), Himalayas Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K. M.; Yaseen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pakistan's economy is based on agriculture that is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Various rivers i.e. Chitral, Swat, Kabul, Hunza, Gilgit, Astore, Shigar, Shyok & tributaries contribute water to main Indus River. The elevation of UIB ranges from 254 m to 8570 m a.m.s.l. Changes in climate and related hydrological impacts vary in space and time as affected by local climatic and topographic settings. So, the objective of this study was to assess the climate change and related hydrological impacts resulting from altitudinal variability. Trend analyses were performed by applying Mann-Kendall and Sen's method was applied to estimate slope time series that indicates changes in river flows. The results of this study indicate that maximum temperature in annual, winter, spring and autumn seasons has increased with increased in altitude while annual, winter and autumn minimum temperature has decreased with increased in altitude for the period (1961-2011). Moreover, annual, winter, summer and autumn precipitation has been decreased. The impact of altitudinal variability under changing climate yields that annual and seasonal streamflows in River Indus (at Kharmong, Alam Br. and Khairabad), Sawat (at Kalam) and Kabul (at Nowshera) have decreased whereas in River Shoyk (9%), Shigar (7%) and Indus at Kachura (5%) have been increased. However, annual runoff in Gilgit (1%) and Hunza River (18%) has increased by increasing 2 % annual temperature. A seasonal correlation coefficient between temperature and streamflow has the positive correlation in most of the sub-basins of UIB for both spring and summer. With increased 1 oC temperature in spring yields increased streamflow for rives Gilgit, Chitral, Astore, Shoyk, Shigar, Indus at Kachura & Kharmong and Hunza with percentage of 19, 5, 11, 15, 9, 7, 1 and 12 respectively. The prevailing trends and variability, caused by climate change, have an effect on the flows

  4. Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the northern river catchment of the Lake Tana, Upper Blue Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigussie Ayehu Asrie

    2016-06-01

    decreased by 32% and the simulation results showed on average head decrease of 8.06m over the whole area; with the highest fall 32m in wells to north and a minimum of about 1m in wells to the south of the catchment. In addition, the stream leakage, compared to the simulated steady state value and it was decreased by 75.36%. The simulated value showed an average 2.74m increased head over the whole area. High difference values were observed at Tseda (7.83m and Koladiba (7.3m. The minimum difference 1.08m was recorded at Angereb well field (observation 94. In addition, the stream leakage compared with the steady state value the change was about 87.43%. Keywords: MODFLOW 2000, Groundwater, Modelling, Sensitivity analysis, Simulation, Recharge

  5. Statistical downscaling and projection of future temperature and precipitation change in middle catchment of Sutlej River Basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dharmaveer Singh; Sanjay K Jain; R D Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Ensembles of two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CGCM3 and HadCM3, are used to project future maximum temperature (Max), minimum temperature (Min) and precipitation in a part of Sutlej River Basin, northwestern Himalayan region, India. Large scale atmospheric variables of CGCM3 and HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. The study reveals rise in annual average Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 for CGCM3 model as well as under A2 and B2 scenarios for HadCM3 model in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Increase in mean monthly Min is also observed for all months of the year under all scenarios of both the models. This is followed by decrease in Max during June, July August and September. However, the model projects rise in precipitation in months of July, August and September under A1B and A2 scenarios of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.

  6. Rainfall and runoff regime trends in mountain catchments (Case study area: the upper Hron River basin, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahušiaková Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of trends and causes of changes of selected hydroclimatic variables influencing the runoff regime in the upper Hron River basin (Slovakia. Different methods for identifying trends in data series are evaluated and include: simple mass curve analysis, linear regression, frequency analysis of flood events, use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration software, and the Mann-Kendall test. Analyses are performed for data from two periods (1931-2010 and 1961-2010. The changes in runoff are significant, especially in terms of lower QMax and 75 percentile values. This fact is also confirmed by the lower frequency and extremity of flood events. The 1980s are considered a turning point in the development of all hydroclimatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test shows a significant decrease in runoff in the winter period. The main causes of runoff decline are: the considerable increase in air temperature, the decrease in snow cover depth and changes in seasonal distribution of precipitation amounts.

  7. Essential and Embattled Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that expertise has continued to hold an absolutely assential and profoundly embattled position in the knowledge/expertise/policy nexus. More than this, it suggests that this duality of the and - (rather than the clarity of the either or) is to be welcomed. This argument is mad...

  8. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  9. Groundwater recharge processes in the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin: Analysis of porewater characteristics in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Millicent Obeng; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Chegbeleh, Larry-Pax; Adomako, Dickson; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Vertical infiltration of precipitation has been examined in this study for the purpose of evaluating groundwater recharge processes in parts of the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin. As recharge is an essential component in the detailed assessment of groundwater resources potential in a basin, evaluating its processes is vital in determining the spatial and temporal variability of the resource. Stable isotope data of precipitation, groundwater, surface water and porewater in the area suggest that the local precipitation is largely enriched compared to global meteoric water. This is consistent with the prevailing local conditions in the region and ties in with observations in other parts of the sub-region. The groundwater and porewater data indicate that prior to, and in the process of infiltration and final percolation into the saturated zone, rainwater undergoes evaporative enrichment such that the finally recharged water plots along an evaporation line with a much shallower gradient and intercept compared to the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line. The isotope data further suggest that through the shallow unsaturated zone, a significant fraction of the initial precipitation would have been evaporated by a depth of 3.0 m. Evaporation rates in the range of 38-49% have been estimated for the depth range of 0-3.0 m based on the porewater stable isotope data. Details of the procedures and implications of high evaporation rates within such shallower depths are presented and discussed. Groundwater recharge rates estimated from the chloride mass balance technique report values in the range of 73.26 mm/yr (390 Mm3/yr)-109.89 mm/yr (585.27 Mm3/yr), with an average of 94 mm/yr (500.6 Mm3/yr). These translate into 6.6-10.9% of annual precipitation. Based on the current population trends and per capita water demand of 50 L per capita per day, this study finds that the estimated recharge rates exceed the demand 59 times. This suggests

  10. Expertise and contra expertise independence and transparency; Expertises -contre expertises independance et transparence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarnou, G.; Ades, Y.; Ancelin, G.; Balle, St.; Bardy, J.Ch.; Beringer, F.; Blanc, M.; Bontoux, J.; Bovy, M.; Brunet, F.; Calafat, A.; Cartier, M.; Constant, H.; Delcourt, R.; Duvert, J.C.; Eichholtzer, F.; Fernandez, P.; Fernex, S.; Foechterle, A.; Gatesoupe, J.P.; Geneau, Ch.; Goerg, C.; Gourod, A.; Graschaire, G.; Hubscher Ibert, J.; Jaegert, M.; Lacoste, A.C.; Lacote, J.P.; Laroche, D.; Lazar, Ph.; Lelievre, D.; Levasseur, E.; Levent, L.; Louvat, D.; Manon, Ch.; Maugein, J.; Melguen, M.; Mouchet, Ch.; Mourat, J.P.; Naegelen, L.; Niquet, G.; Perves, J.P.; Potelet, P.; Regent, A.; Romann, J.M.; Rossa, N.; Saut, C.; Sazy, Ch.; Schmitt, P.; Sene, M.; Sene, Raymond; Sornein, J.F.; Sugier, A.; Tfibel, V.; Uhart, M.; Vidal, J.; Vieillard Baron, B.; Vigny, P.; Walgenwitz, G.; Wiest, A.; Wisselmann, R.; Zuberbuhler, A

    2006-07-01

    About sixty participants: members of C.L.I., academics, elected representatives, manufacturers, representatives of association, institutional, crossed their experiences. The debate was mainly centred on the role of the expert, the limits of its intervention and its independence. The presented titles are following: experiences of two C.L.I. in expertise; the work of communication of the nuclear experts; interest and limits of the expertise; presentation of the I.R.S.N. and the D.G.S.N.R.; expertise: problems and experiences; presentation of the works realised in work group; the considerations of the C.S.S.I.N.. (N.C.)

  11. Powering Ideas through Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    policy. Corporate reporting for tax purposes is an area where the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, large global accountancy firms and non-governmental organizations have been active. The point of contention here is what form of financial...... reporting multinational corporations should provide to ensure they pay their fair share of tax. Ideas powered by expertise contain shared causal beliefs, as well as principled beliefs about value systems. We demonstrate that professionals can contest the established order when demonstrations of expertise......This contribution discusses how ideas are powered through expertise and moral authority. Professionals compete with each other to power ideas by linking claims to expertise, how things best work, to moral claims about how things should be. To show how, we draw on a case of battles over global tax...

  12. Global Networks of Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    to global networks of expertise through alumni network structures created in the 1960s. One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programs is the inclusion of experts from the south. The paper shows how the Japanese bilateral programs adapted...... the multilateral framework initiated in the 1950s to make networks of expertise global by enabling South-South and South-North connections....

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River...

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Saturation Excess-Overland Flow, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average value of saturation overland flow, in percent of total streamflow, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected...

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Daily Maximum Temperature, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average daily maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002, , compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected...

  16. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  17. Debris-flow frequency and dynamics of an Alpine catchment during the past 150 years, the Schimbrig drainage basin, Central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Sara; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on links between landsliding and debris-flow activity in a ca. 4 km2-large drainage basin located at the northern foothills of the Central Swiss Alps. Debris-flow frequency of the recent past was reconstructed using dendrogeomorphic methods. In addition, the source area was mapped in detail to assess the spatial distribution of landslides, and to determine the connectivity between hillslopes and the channel network. The geomorphic map indicates that the hillslopes host abundant landslides sourced in Paleogene Flysch and Molasse sandstone-mudstone alternations. Major differences in the landscape architecture between the eastern and western sides were identified. In particular, the eastern segment is characterized by a >300'000 m2 large earth flow (Schimbrig landslide) that is 5-10 m deep. This flow experienced a phase of high slip rates >2m day-1 between September 1994 and May 1995, transferring a total of 350'000 m3 of material. In contrast, the western side is characterized by a network of deeply incised channels (>50 m) bordered by hillslopes that host landslides that generally measure <15'000 m2. On these hillslopes, the downslope transfer of sediment is dominated by soil creep or by rotational and translational slip. The depositional fan at the outlet of the catchment has an approximate size of 50'000 m2. The surface is characterized by levees, lobes and channels and is covered by a conifer forest comprising spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and firs (Abies alba Mill.). A total of 325 increment cores were sampled from 162 trees obviously influenced by past debris-flow activity. Preliminary analysis of the tree samples indicate that 64% of the tree grew up between 1900 and 2009. 34% of the tree samples showed germination dates between 1800 and 1900, and the remaining 2% of the sampled specimens germinated before 1800. Dendrogeomorphic analyses depict that nearly 50% of the sampled trees were affected by debris-flow activity in the 1990s. This

  18. Coevolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeo; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Present-day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment coevolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density and slope-area relationship) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow-duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found a significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The intra-annual flow variability was also significantly related to catchments age. Younger catchments tended to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibited more flashy runoff. The decrease in baseflow with catchment age is consistent with the existing hypothesis that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways change over time from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in a set of similar, but younger volcanic catchments in the Oregon Cascades, in which drainage density increased with age. In that case, older catchments were thought to show more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths. Our results suggests two competing hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in mature catchments. One is that as catchments continue to age, the hydrologically active channels retreat

  19. Sediments in urban river basins: identification of sediment sources within the Lago Paranoá catchment, Brasilia DF, Brazil - using the fingerprint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Makeschin, F; Weiß, H; Lorz, C

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective sediment management strategies is a key requirement in tropical areas with fast urban development, like Brasilia DF, Brazil, because of the limited resources available. Accurate identification and management of sediment sources areas, however, is hampered by the dearth of reliable information on the primary sources of sediment. Few studies have attempted to quantify the source of sediment within fast urbanizing, mixed used, tropical catchments. In this study, statistically verified composite fingerprints and a multivariate mixing model have been used to identify the main land use specific sources of sediment deposited in the artificial Lago Paranoá, Central Brazil. Because of the variability of urban land use types within the Lago Paranoá sub-catchments, the fingerprinting approach was additionally undertaking for the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment. The main contributions from individual source types (i.e. surface materials from residential areas, constructions sites, road deposited sediment, cultivated areas, pasture, farm tracks, woodland and natural gullies) varied between the whole catchment and the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment, reflecting the different proportions of land uses. The sediments deposited in the silting zones of the Lago Paranoá originate largely from urban sources (85 ± 4%). Areas with (semi-) natural vegetation and natural gullies contribute 10 ± 2% of the sediment yield. Agricultural sites have only a minor sediment contribution of about 5 ± 4% within the whole catchment. Within the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment there is a significant contribution from urban (53 ± 4%) source, such as residential areas with semi-detached housings (42 ± 3%) with unpaved roads (12 ± 3%) and construction sites (20 ± 3%) and agricultural areas (31 ± 2%). The relative contribution from land use specific sources to the sediment deposition in the silting zone of the Lago Paranoá demonstrated that most of the sediment is derived from

  20. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. This principle also applies to catchments. However, to be useful, soil classifications have to be based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time. When defining permanent catchment characteristics, discharge data would therefore appear to be less suitable. But permanent soil characteristics do not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards the required functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for three recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous soils with varying soil structures during the year and about spatial and temporal variability. The suggestion is made therefore to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, possibly incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a catchment classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we suggest to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates. Such characteristics may well be derived from societal issues being studied, as is illustrated for the Green Water Credits program.

  1. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  2. Expertise in chess

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of research into chess expertise. After an historical background and a brief description of the game and the rating system, it discusses the information processes enabling players to choose good moves, and in particular the trade-offs between knowledge and search. Other topics include blindfold chess, talent, and the role of deliberate practice and tournament experience.

  3. Rituals of environmental expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Use of experts in media reports about the environment is not confined to its information function. Voices of expertise also serve a ritual function in societal communication by enacting collective sentiments and common world views cast around consensus as well as conflict. This article presents t...

  4. Programs and Expertise

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Description of programs and expertise implemented by Radiation Protection Centre is presented. RPC implements study assessing the doses received by air crew members of Lithuanian Airlines. In 2001 RPC started measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the houses of regions with karst formations, commenced new program analyzing amounts of radionuclides in typical diet of hospital patients.

  5. Global Networks of Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programs is the inclusion of experts from the South in overseas networks. Today more than half a million people from current and former developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America...... to global networks of expertise through alumni network structures created in the 1960s....

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) catchment-average total annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1...

  7. Human impact variability on soil erosion during the Holocene based on valley floor sediments study in a Parisian basin fluvial catchment (France): crossing sedimentological, archaeological and palynological proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, E.; Cyprien, A. L.; Gay-Ovejero, I.; Hinschberger, F.; Joly, C.; Macaire, J. J.; Poirier, N.; Visset, L.; Zadora-Rio, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work is part of the French CNRS ECLIPSE program « Impact anthropique sur l'érosion des sols et la sédimentation dans les zones humides associées durant l'Holocène ». It aims to reconstitute the evolution of human impact on soil erosion at various periods via the study of Holocene sedimentary archives. In this framework the Choisille catchment (288 km²; elevation: 50 - 200 m), tributary of the River Loire near Tours (France), has been the subject of an interdisciplinary study (sedimentology, geophysics, archaeology, palynology). 3 areas are investigated: a downstream stretch, a silicated sub-catchment area and a carbonated sub-catchment area. In the downstream stretch, located near ancient populated areas, drillings were performed along cross sections through valley floor alluviums. They show that a more or less organic clayey silty sedimentation started at the beginning of the Holocene. The sedimentation rates strongly increased at the beginning of the Subbatlantic (Bronze Age), simultaneously with the anthropogenic pressure advent (on set of agriculture), as shown by archaeological and palynological evidences (agricultural settlements, massive loggings on slopes, stockbreeding on valley-floor grasslands). In the silicated sub-catchment area, located upstream, drillings have shown that clayey silty sedimentation began at the end of the Roman Period, continued during the Early Middle Ages and increased during the High Middle Ages. Spatial archaeological prospecting has revealed a faint anthropogenic presence at the Roman Period, then a decline of population until the High Middle Ages, characterised by an agricultural revival. Palynological analyses have shown that, in this area, grasslands were dominant since the Early Middle Ages, with an increase in cereal cultures at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. In the carbonated sub-catchment area, drillings have shown that the more or less organic clayey silty sedimentation has begun during the Bronze Age

  8. Interactional Expertise and Embodiment

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, I introduce the idea of interactional expertise while in Part 2, I focus on its implications for philosophical theories of the importance of the body in forming our conceptual world. I argue that the way philosophers have dealt with the body turns attention away from the most important questions and that we cannot answer these questions without making the notion of socialisation, and therefore interactional expertise, a central concept in our thinking. This makes language at least as important, and often more important than bodily practice in our understanding of the world. The notion of a disembodied socialised agent leads in the direction of interesting questions while the notion of an embodied but unsocialised human actor is unimaginable.

  9. Processing Expertise Systematically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小惠

    1991-01-01

    The lack of a systematic approach to the management of expertise represents a major difficulty for knowledge engineers.In this paper,we present a framework for assessing knowledge-based expert systems.We show by examples how this framework may be used to guide the development of these systems.Finally ,we discuss the implications of this work and suggest areas of interest for future research.

  10. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  11. The Value of Marketing Expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Pa\\c{s}a; Steven M. Shugan

    1996-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: (1) to construct a theoretical model that aids in evaluating marketing expertise, (2) to use that theoretical model to identify factors influencing the value of marketing expertise, and (3) to empirically test the model by observing how different market conditions influence whether companies emphasize marketing expertise. We accomplish these objectives as follows. First, we use decision theory to find an expression for the expected value of marketing expertise...

  12. Incorporating flood event analyses and catchment structures into model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Henning; Schumann, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The space-time variability in catchment response results from several hydrological processes which differ in their relevance in an event-specific way. An approach to characterise this variance consists in comparisons between flood events in a catchment and between flood responses of several sub-basins in such an event. In analytical frameworks the impact of space and time variability of rainfall on runoff generation due to rainfall excess can be characterised. Moreover the effect of hillslope and channel network routing on runoff timing can be specified. Hence, a modelling approach is needed to specify the runoff generation and formation. Knowing the space-time variability of rainfall and the (spatial averaged) response of a catchment it seems worthwhile to develop new models based on event and catchment analyses. The consideration of spatial order and the distribution of catchment characteristics in their spatial variability and interaction with the space-time variability of rainfall provides additional knowledge about hydrological processes at the basin scale. For this purpose a new procedure to characterise the spatial heterogeneity of catchments characteristics in their succession along the flow distance (differentiated between river network and hillslopes) was developed. It was applied to study of flood responses at a set of nested catchments in a river basin in eastern Germany. In this study the highest observed rainfall-runoff events were analysed, beginning at the catchment outlet and moving upstream. With regard to the spatial heterogeneities of catchment characteristics, sub-basins were separated by new algorithms to attribute runoff-generation, hillslope and river network processes. With this procedure the cumulative runoff response at the outlet can be decomposed and individual runoff features can be assigned to individual aspects of the catchment. Through comparative analysis between the sub-catchments and the assigned effects on runoff dynamics new

  13. Democracy and expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle of the 1970s when Sweden had realized half of its planned nuclear power programme (six reactors of twelve), nuclear power came up on the top of the political agenda. This paper reports that the new government, who had to make the final decisions about the programme, was divided and disagreed about the future use of nuclear power. When the crucial decisions had to be made the government consulted both the expertise and the general public (in a referendum), but the outcome of these consultations were used only to legitimate the government's decisions

  14. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  15. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  16. Expertise in fingerprint identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2013-11-01

    Although fingerprint experts have presented evidence in criminal courts for more than a century, there have been few scientific investigations of the human capacity to discriminate these patterns. A recent latent print matching experiment shows that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts are exceedingly accurate (and more conservative) compared with novices, but they do make errors. Here, a rationale for the design of this experiment is provided. We argue that fidelity, generalizability, and control must be balanced to answer important research questions; that the proficiency and competence of fingerprint examiners are best determined when experiments include highly similar print pairs, in a signal detection paradigm, where the ground truth is known; and that inferring from this experiment the statement "The error rate of fingerprint identification is 0.68%" would be unjustified. In closing, the ramifications of these findings for the future psychological study of forensic expertise and the implications for expert testimony and public policy are considered.

  17. Catchment Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. F.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Wilkinson, M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.; Proactive Team

    2011-12-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Here, a catchment engineering approach seeks to describe catchment 'function' (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but seeks to work with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes so that multiple benefits accrue. This approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change and impacts but most importantly suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders, namely the general public and policy makers. This inclusive concept under a catchment engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of catchment engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management whilst maintaining economic food production. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Catchment engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties within a catchment to take responsibility for the water quantity and quality that arises from the catchment. Further, any holistic solution requires a bottom up, problem solving

  18. Modeling the impact of development and management options on future water resource use in the Nyangores sub-catchment of the Mara Basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonge, Paul; Herrnegger, Mathew; Fürst, Josef; Olang, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing water insecurity consequent of competing uses, the Nyangores sub-catchment of Kenya is yet to develop an inclusive water use and allocation plan for its water resource systems. As a step towards achieving this, this contribution employed the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system to evaluate selected policy based water development and management options for future planning purposes. Major water resources of the region were mapped and quantified to establish the current demand versus supply status. To define a reference scenario for subsequent model projections, additional data on urban and rural water consumption, water demand for crop types, daily water use for existing factories and industries were also collated through a rigorous fieldwork procedure. The model was calibrated using the parameter estimation tool (PEST) and validated against observed streamflow data, and subsequently used to simulate feasible management options. Due to lack of up-to-date data for the current year, the year 2000 was selected as the base year for the scenario simulations up to the year 2030, which has been set by the country for realizing most flagship development projects. From the results obtained, the current annual water demand within the sub-catchment is estimated to be around 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources including springs, wells and boreholes, while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are insufficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the reference scenario, the WEAP model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 million m3 mostly in the dry season by the year 2030. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is noteworthy in the dry seasons of December through February at the irrigation demand site. The monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth (HPG) was projected to be 1.06 million m3 by the year 2030. However

  19. Managing the impact of gold panning activities within the context of integrated water resources management planning in the Lower Manyame Sub-Catchment, Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Nonhlanhla; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Shoko, Dennis

    Riverbed alluvial gold panning activities are a cause for degradation of river channels and banks as well as water resources, particularly through accelerated erosion and siltation, in many areas of Zimbabwe. The lower Manyame sub-catchment located in the Northern part of the country is one such area. This study analysed the implications of cross-sectoral coordination of the management of panning and its impacts. This is within the context of conflicts of interests and responsibilities. A situational analysis of different stakeholders from sectors that included mining, environment, water, local government and water users who were located next to identified panning sites, as well as panners was carried out. Selected sites along the Dande River were observed to assess the environmental effects. The study determined that all stakeholder groups perceived siltation and river bank degradation as the most severe effect of panning on water resources, yet there were divergent views with regards to coordination of panning management. The Water Act of 1998 does not give enough power to management institutions including the Lower Manyame Sub-catchment Council to protect water resources from the impacts of panning, despite the fact that the activities affect the water resource base. The Mines and Minerals Act of 1996 remains the most powerful legislation, while mining sector activities adversely affect environmental resources. Furthermore, complexities were caused by differences in the definition of water resources management boundaries as compared to the overall environmental resources management boundaries according to the Environmental Management Act (EMA) of 2000, and by separate yet parallel water and environmental planning processes. Environmental sector institutions according to the EMA are well linked to local government functions and resource management is administrative, enhancing efficient coordination.

  20. Teaching and Learning Physics Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-05-01

    I will discuss what has been learned about the nature of expertise and how it is learned. Expertise is largely about asking the right questions and making the right decisions (both conscious and unconscious) at the right time. This includes knowing and using all the relevant information, and recognizing the limitations of those decisions. Expertise is acquired by the learner explicitly practicing, with guiding feedback, the necessary decisions and knowledge organization and application, and reflecting on decisions. Measures of expert decision making clearly reflect the degree to which different teaching methods provide the learner with the necessary explicit practice and feedback. I will start with describing the most general features of expertise, then specific elements of physics expertise, and finally the example of quite detailed components of expertise in DAMOP experimental physics. This will set the stage for the other talks in this session which will discuss examples of applying these concepts about the acquisition of expertise to a variety of specific physics courses and showing their effectiveness. This talk will make it clear why subject expertise is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition to be an effective teacher.

  1. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil classification systems are analysed in relation to the functioning and characterisation of catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. However, such classifications are based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time and this does not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous field soils with varying soil structures during the year and the suggestion is made to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we advise to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates.

  2. Impact of Urbanization on Stormwater Runoff from a Small Urban Catchment: Gdańsk Małomiejska Basin Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechnowicz, Borys; Weinerowska-Bords, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the impact of different forms of urbanization on the basin outflow. The influence of changes in land cover/use, drainage system development, reservoirs, and alternative ways of stormwater management (green roofs, permeable pavements) on basin runoff was presented in the case of a small urban basin in Gdansk (Poland). Seven variants of area development (in the period of 2000-2012) - three historical and four hypothetical - were analyzed. In each case, runoff calculations for three rainfall scenarios were carried out by means of the Hydrologic Modeling System designed by Hydrologic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HEC-HMS). The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Curve Number (CN) method was used for calculations of effective rainfall, the kinematic wave model for those of overland flow, and the Muskingum-Cunge model for those of channel routing. The calculations indicated that urban development had resulted in increased peak discharge and runoff volume and in decreased peak time. On the other hand, a significant reduction in peak values was observed for a relatively small decrease in the normal storage level (NSL) in reservoirs or when green roofs on commercial centers were present. The study confirmed a significant increase in runoff as a result of urbanization and a considerable runoff reduction by simple alternative ways of stormwater management.

  3. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially

  4. Using self-organizing maps to infill missing data in hydro-meteorological time series from the Logone catchment, Lake Chad basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkiaka, E; Nawaz, N R; Lovett, J C

    2016-07-01

    Hydro-meteorological data is an important asset that can enhance management of water resources. But existing data often contains gaps, leading to uncertainties and so compromising their use. Although many methods exist for infilling data gaps in hydro-meteorological time series, many of these methods require inputs from neighbouring stations, which are often not available, while other methods are computationally demanding. Computing techniques such as artificial intelligence can be used to address this challenge. Self-organizing maps (SOMs), which are a type of artificial neural network, were used for infilling gaps in a hydro-meteorological time series in a Sudano-Sahel catchment. The coefficients of determination obtained were all above 0.75 and 0.65 while the average topographic error was 0.008 and 0.02 for rainfall and river discharge time series, respectively. These results further indicate that SOMs are a robust and efficient method for infilling missing gaps in hydro-meteorological time series. PMID:27282595

  5. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  6. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  7. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  8. Expertise, aptitude, and strategic remembering

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Bjorklund, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Second- and fourth-grade children were classified according to their knowledge of soccer (experts vs. novices) and IQ (high vs. low), and given 2 sort-recall tasks. One task included items related to the game of soccer and the other included items from familiar natural language categories. Previous research has shown that expertise in a snbject can compensate for low levels of performance on text comprehension tasks. Our results, the flrst examing the effects of both expertise and intelligenc...

  9. Co-evolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Present day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment co-evolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.22 to 82Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseow index, and flow duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found signicant correlation between drainage density and baseow index with age, but not with climate. The age of the catchments was also signicantly related to intra-annual flow variability. Younger catchments tend to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibit more flashy runoff. The decrease of baseflow with catchment age confirms previous studies that hypothesized that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways have changed over time, from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in similar volcanic catchments but of signicant younger age than the ones explored here. In these younger catchments, an increase in drainage density with age was observed, and it was hypothesized that this was because of more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths in more mature catchments. Our results suggest that as catchments further evolve, hydrologically active channels retreat as less recharge leads to lower average aquifer levels

  10. A multi-proxy lake core record from Lago Lungo, Rieti Basin, Lazio, Italy and its relation to human activities in the catchment during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Paula; Tunno, Irene; Mensing, Scott; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The lakes of the Rieti Basin have experienced extensive human modification dating back to pre-Roman times, yet lake archives indicate that the most profound changes to the aquatic ecosystem have occurred during the last century. Analysis of the upper ˜120 cm segment of a sediment core from Lago Lungo, dating back to ˜1830 CE, show changes in water quality and hydrologic inflow largely attributed to 20th century reclamation and land use activities. Lago Lungo is a shallow, small, eutrophic, hard water lake situated in an intermontaine alluvial plain ˜90 km NE of Rome. It is one of several remnant lakes in a poorly drained wetland area fed by numerous springs. Reclamation activities over the last century have substantially altered the drainage network affecting water delivery to the lakes and their connectivity. There are 3 interesting signals in the core. First, small Stephanodiscus species, associated with hypereutrophic conditions, appear after 1950, peak ˜1990, and may be attributed to increased use of chemical fertilizers and intensification of local agriculture. Elemental proxies from scanning XRF data (abundances of Ti, Si/Ti, and Ca) are consistent with increased eutrophication starting ˜1950. A decline in Stephanodicsus after 1990 reflects some improvement to the water quality following the lake's incorporation into a nature preserve and creation of a narrow vegetation buffer. Intermittent water quality measurements from 1982 onward corroborate the changes in trophic status interpreted from the core record. Second, a large change in the core stratigraphy, elemental geochemistry, and diatom composition occurs ˜1940 and is associated with several major reclamation efforts, including the rerouting of the Santa Susanna channel, which redirected large volumes of artesian inflows away from the lakes and estuarine system. Upstream, dams on the Turano and Salto rivers were also constructed, further affecting hydrological inflows into the basin. From ˜1900

  11. Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

    Resource-poor smallholder farmers in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge districts face food insecurity on an annual basis due to a combination of poor and erratic rainfall (average 500 mm/a and 345 mm/a, respectively, for the period 1970-2003) and technologies inappropriate to their resource status. This impacts on both household livelihoods and food security. In an attempt to improve food security in the catchment a number of drip kit distribution programmes have been initiated since 2003 as part of an on-going global initiative aimed at 2 million poor households per year. A number of recent studies have assessed the technical performance of the drip kits in-lab and in-field. In early 2005 a study was undertaken to assess the impacts and sustainability of the drip kit programme. Representatives of the NGOs, local government, traditional leadership and agricultural extension officers were interviewed. Focus group discussions with beneficiaries and other villagers were held at village level. A survey of 114 households was then conducted in two districts, using a questionnaire developed from the output of the interviews and focus group discussions. The results from the study showed that the NGOs did not specifically target the distribution of the drip kits to poor members of the community (defined for the purpose of the study as those not owning cattle). Poor households made up 54% of the beneficiaries. This poor targeting of vulnerable households could have been a result of conditions set by some implementing NGOs that beneficiaries must have an assured water source. On the other hand, only 2% of the beneficiaries had used the kit to produce the expected 5 harvests over the 2 years, owing to problems related to water shortage, access to water and also pests and diseases. About 51% of the respondents had produced at least 3 harvests and 86% produced at least 2 harvests. Due to water shortages during the dry season 61% of production with the drip kit occurred during

  12. Isotopic monitoring (2H, 18O) of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers between 1997 and 2003- Links with interannual climatic variability and hydrological processes in their catchment basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2004-05-01

    This study based on a water isotope (18O and 2H) monitoring of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers (Canada) is a contribution to the international IAEA project: Isotopes tracing of hydrologic processes in large river basins [Gibson et al., 2002. EOS 83: 613 et p.]. Sampling of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa river waters started in 1997, on a biweekly to weekly basis. Monitoring stations are located at Montreal (i.e., at the outlet of the Great Lakes), Quebec City (the estuary of the St. Lawrence) and at the Carillon hydroelectric dam, near the outlet of a major tributary, the Ottawa River into the St. Lawrence itself. The goal of the study was to examine the seasonal and interannual variability of isotopic signatures of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, in relation notably with interannual climatic variations, and seasonal hydrologic processes in the watershed (summer evaporation, snowmelt, transit time of precipitation signals into runoff). Waters sampled at the three stations depict distinct isotopic compositions. At Montreal, relatively stable isotopic composition are observed with a mean weighted annual value of -54 % for 2H and -7.1 % for 18O. The Ottawa River water at Carillon also displays stable isotopic compositions but much lighter values (weighted mean annual values: -80 % for 2H and -10.8 % for 18O). Finally, isotopic compositions at Quebec City are intermediate between those of Montreal and Carillon, but show a much larger variability. They reflect mixing between the heavy isotope enriched Great Lakes water, the lighter water from the Ottawa River, and highly variable inputs from smaller tributaries (from the Laurentides and Appalachian mountains). The mean weighted isotopic compositions at Quebec City are -65 % and -8.6 %, respectively for 2H and 18O). Evaporative enrichment, in particular during low water level episodes, seem to be more important in the Ottawa River catchment than in the Great Lakes basin, based on a comparison of isotopic clusters at

  13. Understanding Expertise from Elite Badminton Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Badminton is a growing sport with a limited amount of expertise both in players and coaches so attempts are being made to extend the expertise internationally. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of coaching expertise in badminton because such an understanding might have implications for a more general understanding of expertise,…

  14. Controls on Water Storage, Mixing and Release in a Nested Catchment Set-up with Clean and Mixed Physiographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J.; Hissler, C.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Klaus, J.

    2015-12-01

    With catchment water storage being only rarely determined, storage dynamics remain largely unknown to date. However, storage bears considerable potential for catchment inter-comparison exercises, as well as it is likely to have an important role in regulating catchment functions. Catchment comparisons across a wide range of environments and scales will help to increase our understanding of relationships between storage dynamics and catchment processes. With respect to the potential of catchment storage for bringing new momentum to catchment classification and catchment processes understanding we currently investigate spatial and temporal variability of dynamic storage in a nested catchment set-up (16 catchments) of the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe), covering a wide range of geological settings, catchment areas, contrasted landuse, and hydro-meteorological and tracer series. We define catchment storage as the total amount of water stored in a control volume, delimited by the catchment's topographical boundaries and depth of saturated and unsaturated zones. Complementary storage assessments (via input-output dynamics of natural tracers, geographical sounding, groundwater level measurements, soil moisture measurements, hydrometry) are carried out for comparison purposes. In our nested catchment set-up we have (1) assessed dependencies between geology, catchment permeability and winter runoff coefficients, (2) calculated water balance derived catchment storage and mixing potential and quantified how dynamic storage differs between catchments and scales, and (3) examined how stream baseflow dD (as a proxy for baseflow transit time) and integrated flow measures (like the flow duration curve) relate to bedrock geology. Catchments with higher bedrock permeability exhibited larger storage capacities and eventually lower average winter runoff coefficients. Over a time-span of 11 years, all catchments re-produced the same winter runoff coefficients year after year

  15. Catchment Systems Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. F.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Catchment Systems Engineering seeks to describe catchment the function (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment Systems Engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but rather works with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes to accrue multiple benefits. The approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change, impacts and most importantly, suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders. This inclusive concept under a Catchment Systems Engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of Catchment Systems Engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management, whilst maintaining economic food production. Examples using soft engineered features such as wetlands, ponds, woody debris dams and infiltration zones will be shown. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Evidence that impacts can be achieved at local catchment scale will be introduced. Catchment Systems Engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties

  16. E-expertise modern collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gubanov, Dmitry; Novikov, Dmitry; Raikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

      This book focuses on organization and mechanisms of expert decision-making support using modern information and communication technologies, as well as information analysis and collective intelligence technologies (electronic expertise or simply e-expertise). Chapter 1 (E-Expertise) discusses the role of e-expertise in decision-making processes. The procedures of e-expertise are classified, their benefits and shortcomings are identified, and the efficiency conditions are considered. Chapter 2 (Expert Technologies and Principles) provides a comprehensive overview of modern expert technologies. A special emphasis is placed on the specifics of e-expertise. Moreover, the authors study the feasibility and reasonability of employing well-known methods and approaches in e-expertise. Chapter 3 (E-Expertise: Organization and Technologies) describes some examples of up-to-date technologies to perform e-expertise. Chapter 4 (Trust Networks and Competence Networks) deals with the problems of expert finding and grouping...

  17. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Temesgen, M.; Wenninger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The water balances of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach based on Budyko’s hypotheses. The objective of this study is to obtain better understanding of water balance dynamics of upper Blue Nile catchments on annual and monthly time sc

  18. Co-evolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment co-evolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow duration curves and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index. We found significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The age of the catchments was also significantly related to intra-annual flow variability. Younger catchments tend to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibit more flashy runoff. The decrease of baseflow with catchment age confirms previous studies that hypothesized that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways have changed over time, from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in similar volcanic catchments but of significant younger age than the ones explored here. In these younger catchments, an increase in drainage density with age was observed, and it was hypothesized that this was because of more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths in more mature catchments. Our results suggests two hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in matured catchments. One is that as

  19. Teaching metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Velzen

    2012-01-01

    Teacher educators’ knowledge about metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise can provide for insights about teaching these ‘difficult’ constructs. In this explorative study, six teacher educators’ remarks regarding metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise were examined. The teacher ed

  20. Coordinating Expertise in Software Development Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Faraj; Lee Sproull

    2000-01-01

    Like all teams, knowledge teams must acquire and manage critical resources in order to accomplish their work. The most critical resource for knowledge teams is expertise, or specialized skills and knowledge, but the mere presence of expertise on a team is insufficient to produce high-quality work. Expertise must be managed and coordinated in order to leverage its potential. That is, teams must be able to manage their skill and knowledge interdependencies effectively through expertise coordina...

  1. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  2. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  3. How old is upland catchment water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  4. Land use and land use dynamics in the upper-Ruizi river catchment, Southwestern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Vanonckelen, Steven; Isabirye, Moses; Deckers, Seppe; Poesen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In the effort to assess the land uses and land use dynamics in the Lake Victoria basin, a field survey is carried out in the Ruizi river catchment, Southwestern Uganda. The catchment plays a crucial role in the food production of the entire country and it is probably a major contributor of water and sediment to Lake Victoria. A land use map of relevant sub-catchments is constructed by field visits and GPS mapping. The land use dynamics are researched in two micro-catchments by compari...

  5. Expertise and Environment in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of the research team Expertise and Environment in Translation (PETRA, Spanish acronym is to study as many aspects of the translation process as possible under the same scope. PETRA is interested in expertise and its development, considers intuitive problem-solving in translation as related to emergence and construction of meaning, and interprets skills acquisition and development as routine interiorization and improvement of mental efficiency. Characteristic of PETRA's approach are homogeneous research methodologies through internal standards, and theoretical feedback from cognitive linguistics, situated and embodied cognition, and social constructivism. Research methods include pilot testing, subjects' and texts' profiling, test repetition, non-invasive data collection, previous typing period, length and frequency to determine pause relevance, post-test questionnaires, data triangulation, blind product cross-evaluation, statistical and ecological validity checks. Results of Martín de León (2003, Lachat (2003, De Rooze (2003, Gómez (2006 and Conde (2009, and ongoing projects by Castro, Marín, Muñoz, and Perea are summarized.

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Inputs from Fertilizer and Manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N&P), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, in kilograms for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major...

  7. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  8. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  9. Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. PMID:24961431

  10. Musical expertise and second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-06-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research.

  11. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  12. Adaptive expertise in work life:implications for collaboration and shared expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Palosaari-Aubry, P. (Päivi)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at drawing a picture of adaptive expertise in work life, more precisely in the context of collaboration and shared expertise. The need for my study stems from the complex nature of today’s work life, which is under constant change. Thus, mere domain-specific expertise and routine expertise are not sufficient. There is a need for adaptive experts who are flexible, able to adapt to uncertain situations (Bransford, 2004; Hatano & Inagaki, 1986), successful learners and able to de...

  13. Empirical relations between catchment characteristics and discharge patterns in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, G.; Dahné, J.; Arheimer, B.

    2012-04-01

    In hydrological modelling it is often assumed that catchment characteristics, such as soil type, vegetation, land-use, slope, altitude and climate influence both the magnitude and dynamics of the water discharge characteristics. This presentation demonstrates an inter-site comparison on similarities and dissimilarities in hydrological response from Swedish unregulated catchments with an area less than 2000 km2. Observed daily time-series for about 20 years from 198 sites were analysed to search for and quantify statistical relationships between catchment characteristics and flow characteristics. A number of flow characteristics were calculated, such as the mean, mean annual maximum, peakiness, skewness and percentiles. The catchments were grouped dependent on catchment characteristics (for example >80% forest). The differences between the discharges from different catchment types were analysed both graphically and statistically. A T-test was performed to see if the mean value for the flow characteristics was significantly different from the rest of the catchments. Following the t-test, a set of box-whisker diagrams were made for visual inspection of the results. The results showed that lake percentage is the most important catchment characteristic for most of the flow characteristics. The effect of lakes was therefore treated separately. For lake-free basins soil type was in general more important than land-use. For instance, coarse soils exhibit a sustained base flow, whereas thin soils and bare rock are characterised by peak flows with short duration. Finally, the presentation will give some examples on how the retrieved empirical information was included in a national modelling approach to simulate spatial variability in Swedish water discharge patterns.

  14. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  15. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  16. Hydrologic comparison between a lowland catchment (Kielstau, Germany and a mountainous catchment (XitaoXi, China using KIDS model in PCRaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fohrer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The KIDS model (Kielstau Discharge Simulation model is a simple rainfall-runoff model developed originally for the Kielstau catchment. To extend its range of application we applied it to a completely different catchment, the XitaoXi catchment in China. Kielstau is a small (51 km2 lowland basin in Northern Germany, with large proportion of wetland area. And XitaoXi is a mesoscale (2271 km2 mountainous basin in the south of China. Both catchments differ greatly in size, topography, landuse, soil properties, and weather conditions. We compared two catchments in these features and stress on the analysis how the specific catchment characteristics could guide the adaptation of KIDS model and the parameter estimation for streamflow simulation. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.73 for Kielstau and 0.65 for XitaoXi. The results suggest that the application of KIDS model may require adjustments according to the specific physical background of the study basin.

  17. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we coupled general principles of hydro-geomorphic processes with computer tools to characterize the fluvial landscape. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to topography, valley morphology, river network structure, and fan and terrace landforms. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  18. A methodological comparison of catchment storages in mountainous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Staudinger, Maria; Stölzle, Michael; Seeger, Stefan; Seibert, Jan; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important functions of catchments is the temporary storage of water, which directly influences runoff dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation, partitioning of evaporation and runoff fluxes, and accessibility of water to plants. Generally, a large catchment storage is considered beneficial and in particular increases the transit times and hence the buffer functioning related to water quality. Many different methods have been developed to assess catchment storage, however, there are hardly any direct comparisons of several of these methods. One challenge is the definition of water storage, while some methods allow estimation of the entire water storage in a catchment, other methods quantify only the dynamic storage. In addition, most studies focused more on lowland catchments with rain-dominated runoff regimes and observed groundwater fluctuations. Furthermore, these studies often focus on one or two catchments, but do not consider the influence of different climates on the relevance of water storage in the catchment. We applied a range of different methods to assess catchment storage characteristics in 18 catchments in the Swiss Alps, ranging from 500 to 2000m of mean elevation and hence from rainfall- to snowmelt dominated runoff regimes. The first method use only discharge information during recession periods and with varying approaches to extract discharge and storage changes between high flow and low flow, the dynamic catchment storage can be derived. In the next methods the conceptual hydrological model HBV is calibrated to the runoff dynamics and the dynamic and total catchment storages of the different compartments are being evaluated. The last methods are based on stable water isotope data analysis. We use the model TRANSEP to derive the dynamic storage as well as the total water storage of the catchment based on the transit times using several years of fortnightly isotope data in streamflow. The results show that the derived catchment

  19. Streamflow Characteristics of Two Forested Catchments in the Sopron Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBOVSZKI, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central issues in hydrology is today to establish a relationship between thehydrological and biological processes in ecosystems. One question of this theme is the vegetationimpact on the water budget of the catchment. Water use by vegetation can closely be linked tostreamflow patterns on a variety of time scales. At present many details of these connections arepoorly understood.Investigation on small catchments is the best way of studying hydrological processes in headwater,forested watersheds. In this paper drainage basin morphology and streamflow characteristics (baseflow and quick flow have been analysed under conditions of forest management in two neighbouringsmall forested catchments (the Farkas Valley and Vadkan Valley located in the prealpine hillsbordering to Austria on the basis of streamflow data collected during 2001.

  20. Equitable water allocation in a heavily committed international catchment area: the case of the Komati Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomo, Sakhiwe; van der Zaag, Pieter

    This paper investigates water availability and use in the Komati catchment. The Komati catchment is shared by Swaziland and South Africa and forms part of the Incomati basin, with Mozambique as the third riparian country. In 2002 the three countries reached agreement about how the scarce water should be allocated, based on the principle of equitable and sustainable utilization, as stipulated by the SADC Protocol. The Komati catchment has five main water uses: afforestation, irrigation, the environment, urban/industrial/mining (UIM), and interbasin water transfers (for industrial use). In addition, South Africa and Swaziland have committed themselves to satisfy a certain cross border flow to downstream Mozambique. Frequently, debate has arisen between users and riparian countries on the direction that water resources development has taken in the catchment. Downstream farmers have often complained about interbasin transfers taking place in the upstream portions of the catchment. There has also been animosity about effecting environmental flow releases. A relatively simple, spreadsheet-based water resources model (Waflex) was developed to analyse water availability and use under current and future scenarios. The results were then compared to results obtained from another model that was used in a joint study by Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. The Waflex model showed a high degree of consistency with the one used for comparison, especially in terms of trends. It was found that the recent completion of two new dams has improved water supply to irrigation in the two countries. Future water demands will result in appreciable shortages for irrigation and domestic use. The agreed maximum development levels will soon outstrip the ability of the catchment’s supply. The paper shows that a combination of measures will be required to ensure equitable and sustainable water utilisation in the Komati catchment. These will have to be agreed by the riparian countries

  1. Climate change and catchment hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter catchment hydrology through changes in extremes of flooding and drought. River catchments are complex, dynamic systems and it is important to develop our understanding of how these systems are likely to respond to changes in climate. Work is ongoing in using EC-Earth simulations to further our understanding of how climate change will affect catchment hydrology and flood risk. In Ireland, the importance of this task is emphasised ...

  2. The Importance of Domain-Specific Expertise in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John

    2015-01-01

    Although creativity and expertise are related, they are nonetheless very different things. Expertise does not usually require creativity, but creativity generally does require a certain level of expertise. There are similarities in the relationships of both expertise and creativity to domains, however. Research has shown that just as expertise in…

  3. The committee of scientific expertise coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placed under the MIES control, the Committee of scientific expertise coordination defines the needs, the contain and the planing of expertises realized in function of Climate national and international decisions and negotiations calendars. The Committee verifies the different expertises and offers the administrations, scientific tools and techniques useful for the negotiations. It can also define long-dated research needs which require the scientific community mobilization. This paper provides some document of the Committee: objectives, operating and priorities of the Committee, scenarios ''Factor 4'' and ''crack technology'', perceptions and practices, developing countries (China, India...), Euromed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Ensemble approach for hydrological forecasting in ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, Annie; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Andreassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the application of ensemble approaches to forecast flows in ungauged catchments. The aim is to study the best strategy to search for information in gauged "donor" basins and to transfer it to the ungauged site. We investigate what information is needed to set up a rainfall-runoff model and to perform forecast updating in real time. These two components of a flood forecasting system are thus decoupled in our approach. The methodology adopted integrates the scenarios of regional transfer of information and the scenarios of ensemble weather forecasting together in a forecasting system. The approach of ensemble forecasting is thus generalised to the particular case of hydrological forecasting in ungauged basins. The study is based on 211 catchments in France and on an archive of about 4.5 years of ensemble forecasts of rainfall, which are used for hydrological modelling on a daily time step. Flow forecasts are evaluated with special attention paid to the attributes of reliability and accuracy of the forecasts. The results show that forecast reliability in ungauged sites can be improved by using several sets of parameters from neighbour catchments, while forecast accuracy is improved with the transfer of updating information from gauged neighbour catchments.

  5. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives a

  6. Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  7. Preserving skills and expertise for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For many decades to come the international nuclear sector will require a wide range of highly trained, experienced and competent personnel. However, with the decline in the availability of nuclear expertise which is being felt in many countries, maintaining safety competence for both the industry and the regulator becomes a difficult challenge. Assessing the extent of the decline now and predicting what is the likely need for expertise in the future is an important task for all countries. Assessment should take account of likely scenarios for change in the nuclear industry and should aim to identify areas of expertise most likely to be at risk. International Agencies are playing a key role in raising awareness about regulatory concern and are starting to coordinate response and exchange good practice. Regulatory responsibility for preserving skills and expertise and International Agency leadership are essential for a successful outcome to the issue. (author)

  8. Deference, expertise and information-gathering powers

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, C

    2012-01-01

    This article explores two questions. First, in adjudicating claims under the Human Rights Act 1998, should the court defer to the executive or legislature on the ground that the latter two institutions possess superior expertise or information-gathering powers, when such expertise or powers fail to generate persuasive first-order reasons for the court? This article argues that rationality requires courts to defer on these second-order grounds of institutional capacity in situations of judicia...

  9. Traumatic brain injuries: Forensic and expertise aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuleković Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Traumatic brain injuries have major socio-economic importance due to their frequency, high mortality and serious consequences. According to their nature the consequences of these injuries may be classified as neurological, psychiatric and esthetic. Various lesions of brain structures cause neurological consequences such as disturbance of motor functions, sensibility, coordination or involuntary movements, speech disturbances and other deviations, as well as epilepsy. Psychiatric consequences include cognitive deficit, emotional disturbances and behavior disturbances. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries and litigation. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries expertise understands the qualification of these injuries as mild, serious and qualified serious body injuries as well as the expertise about the mechanisms of their occurrence. Litigation expertise includes the estimation of pain, fear, diminished, i.e. lost vital activity and disability, esthetic marring, and psychological suffer based on the diminished general vital activity and esthetic marring. Competence and timing of expertise. Evaluation of consequences of traumatic brain injuries should be performed only when it can be positively confirmed that they are permanent, i.e. at least one year after the injury. Expertise of these injuries is interdisciplinary. Among clinical doctors the most competent medical expert is the one who is in charge for diagnostics and injury treatment, with the recommendation to avoid, if possible, the doctor who conducted treatment. For the estimation of general vital activity, the neurological consequences, pain and esthetic marring expertise, the most competent doctors are neurosurgeon and neurologist. Psychological psychiatric consequences and fear expertise have to be performed by the psychiatrist. Specialists of forensic medicine contribute with knowledge of criminal low and legal expertise.

  10. Introduction: Recent advances in expertise research.

    OpenAIRE

    Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    During the 55th meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA, 2004) in San Diego, a symposium was organized on Recent Advances in Expertise Research. Most papers in this special issue of Applied Cognitive Psychology were presented in this symposium. The aim of this special issue is to provide a representative overview of recent developments and current directions in expertise research and to discuss their implications for theoretical and applied cognitive psychology, particu...

  11. SOILS VULNERABILITY OF CATCHMENT ALMAŞ AT GEOMORPHOLOGIC CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS; I. A. IRIMUȘ

    2015-01-01

    Soils vulnerability of the Catchment Almas geomorphologic processes. Almas Basin, signed lower lithologic Miocene soils deposits, shows six classes: Cernisols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Hydrosols, Pelisols, Protosols (after SRTS, 2003). The largest share is attributed to Luvisols class (60%), followed by undeveloped soil represented by Protosols and Antrisols (15%), followed by the remaining classes with lower weights: Cambisols (13%), Cernisols (7%), Pelisols (4%), Hydrosols (1%). Contemporary ge...

  12. E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise: Does Expertise in System Change Management and Information Technology Auditing Mediate E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish PATHAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A global survey of 203 E-commerce auditors was conducted to investigate the perceptions about the potential determinants of expertise in E-commerce audits. We hypothesize and find evidence indicating that information technology and communication expertise are positively related to expertise in E-commerce audit judgment. We also find that system change management expertise and information technology audit expertise mediate this relationship.

  13. E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise: Does Expertise in System Change Management and Information Technology Auditing Mediate E-Commerce Audit Judgment Expertise?

    OpenAIRE

    Jagdish PATHAK; Mary LIND; Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A global survey of 203 E-commerce auditors was conducted to investigate the perceptions about the potential determinants of expertise in E-commerce audits. We hypothesize and find evidence indicating that information technology and communication expertise are positively related to expertise in E-commerce audit judgment. We also find that system change management expertise and information technology audit expertise mediate this relationship.

  14. Modeling of matters removal from swampy catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inishev, N. G.; Inisheva, L. I.

    2010-05-01

    This work shows the results of fixed study of geochemical conditions in the system of landscape oligotrophic profile at Vasyugan mire spurs, and also we make an approach to processes modelling of compounds removal from swampy catchment. During investigation of symbolic model of chemical matters removal from the surface of a catchment basin and their movement along the channel network it was taken into account that removal of chemical elements during the period of spring flood and rain high waters occur mainly with overland flow. During calculation of dissolved matters movement the following admissions take place: 1. The problem is solved at one-dimension set-up. Concentration of investigated components is taken as averaged one along the flow cross section or effective area of slope cross-section for overland runoff, i.e. it changes only lengthways and in time. 2. It is considered that dissolved matters spread due to movement of water and together with its particles. 3. Processes of water self-clarification are not considered. The model is calculated on the basis of discharge of the investigated ingredient, i.e. matter mass moving through the given flow cross-section into time unit. This is the peculiarity of the model. Matter removal together with water flow is determined if necessary. Everyday impurity consumptions and its concentration can be estimated at the outlet at the moment of time according to convolution integral. Estimation of overland runoff and water inflow into the channel network is based on the mathematic model of outflow formation from peatland areas which considers basic processes carrying out at catchment and basin channel network. Stored moisture estimation of snow cover is taken according to snow survey data before snow melting. Everyday water supply to the surface of water collection was determined according to the results of snow melt intensity estimation by the methods of temperature coefficient and water yield from snow (A.G. Kovzel). All

  15. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sikora; Roman Cieśliński

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża), quickly react to any e...

  16. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  17. Calibration at regional scale for rainfall-runoff modeling in ungauged catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montosi, E.; Montanari, A.; Toth, E.; Parajka, J.; Blöschl, G.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore one possible solution to optimise the parameters of rainfall-runoff models in ungauged catchments. We propose a cross-calibration procedure based on the adoption, for selected pairs of catchments, of a unique, space- invariant parameter set, which can be identified by using information that refers to gauged catchments in the same region. A basin in turn in the study region is selected and identified as target catchment and treated as ungauged. We will refer to all the remaining catchments in the same region as the donors. The R-R model is calibrated on each donor in turn, therefore identifying the donor which provides the most reliable parameter set. Then, a similarity measure is elaborated to assist in the selection of the most performing donor catchment, therefore proposing a quantitative criteria to identify the most appropriate information to be used in ungauged conditions. The similarity measure, which depends on geomorphoclimatic behaviours, can be used to identify more than one donor catchment in the case one needs to increase the consistency of the available data-base. We want to analyse the trade-off between assuming the parameters homogeneous in space and adding new information as the cross-calibration evolves. The analysis is performed by referring to the case study of a set of 7 catchments located in Northern Italy.

  18. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  19. Arnetminer: expertise oriented search using social networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanzi LI; Jie TANG; Jing ZHANG; Qiong LUO; Yunhao LIU; Mingcai HONG

    2008-01-01

    Expertise Oriented Search (EOS) aims at pro-viding comprehensive expertise analysis on data from dis-tributed sources. It is useful in many application domains, for example, finding experts on a given topic, detecting the confliction of interest between researchers, and assigning reviewers to proposals. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our expertise oriented search system, Arnetminer (http://www.arnetminer.net). Arnetminer has gathered and integrated information about a half-million computer science researchers from the Web, including their profiles and publications. Moreover, Arnetminer constructs a social network among these researchers through their co-authorship, and utilizes this network information as well as the individual profiles to facilitate expertise oriented search tasks. In particular, the co-authorship information is used both in ranking the expertise of individual researchers for a given topic and in searching for associations between researchers. We have conducted initial experiments on Arnetminer. Our results demonstrate that the proposed relevancy propagation expert finding method outperforms the method that only uses person local information, and the proposed two-stage association search on a large-scale social network is order of magnitude faster than the baseline method.

  20. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  1. [False forensic expertise--analysis of occurrences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Main problems that await the modern Polish forensic psychiatry are presented. The most common mistakes made in forensic expertise are discussed and their causes are shown. The need for a change in the manner of teaching forensic psychiatry at an academic, as well as post graduate level to medical students/doctors as well as law officials, has been stressed. The criteria for calling on experts, system of control and evaluation of the expertise formulated and rules of payment to the experts--all need changing. The altered criminal structure and possibilities of putting pressure on experts through corruption, threatening or blackmail were noted. The clearly defined status of the forensic psychiatric expert gives him a guarantee of legal defence and through this an unbiased position. Giving forensic expertise is not only part of the diagnostics in forensic psychiatry. An even layout of protection, treatment and rehabilitation of psychiatrically ill criminals has to be present in this system.

  2. Runoff predictions in ungauged catchments in southeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fapeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zongxue; Liu, Changming; Zhou, Yanchun; Liu, Wenfeng

    2014-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a key role on both hydrology and climate for southern and eastern Asia. Improving runoff predictions in ungauged catchments in the TP is critical for surface water hydrology and water resources management in this region. However, a detailed runoff prediction study in this region has not been reported yet. To fill the gap, this study evaluates two regionalization approaches, spatial proximity and physical similarity, for predicting runoff using two rainfall-runoff models (SIMHYD and GR4J). These models are driven by meteorological inputs from eight large non-nested catchments (4000-50,000 km2) in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin located in southeast TP. For each catchment, the two models are calibrated using data from the first two-thirds of the observation period and validated over the remaining period. The calibrated and validated Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of monthly runoff (NSE) varies from 0.73 to 0.93 for the SIMHYD model, and are similar to or slightly better than those obtained for the GR4J model. The incorporation of snowfall-snowmelt processes into the rainfall-runoff models does not noticeably improve the runoff predictions in the study area. The main reason is that monthly runoff is dominated by summer precipitation and snowfall in winter accounts for a small percentage (less than 14%). The results from both models show that the spatial proximity approach marginally outperforms the physical similarity approach and both approaches are better than random selection of a donor catchment. This is consistent with recent regionalization studies carried out in Europe and Australia. The study suggests that conceptual rainfall-runoff models are powerful and simple tools for monthly runoff predictions in large catchments in southeast TP, and incorporation of more catchments into regionalization can further improve prediction skills.

  3. Longterm Measurements of Bedload-Transport in alpine Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achleitner, Stefan; Kammerlander, Johannes; Eichner, Bernhard; Schöber, Johannes; Chiari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the necessity of predicting the long-term behavior of sediment transport has increased. On the one hand, the effects of technical measures (e.g. retaining measures, hydropower, etc.) in the natural system are to be evaluated. On the other hand long term ecological studies that are strongly linked to the sediment budgets and its variation are more and more evolving. The ACRP Project DevoBeta-CC addresses the dynamics of long term sediment transport dynamics and its temporal altering. The focus is put on smaller tributary catchments enabling the model development. In total the data from ten catchments connected to the hydropower station Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) and eleven catchments linked to the power plant group Sellrain-Silz (Tyrol/Austria) are available. The considered catchments vary regarding their characteristics such as size (3 km³ to 27 km²), glaciation (0 % to 53 %), mean catchment slope (53 % to 92 %) and mean channel gradient (4 % to 49 %). The main data basis are records from the water intake structures operated (partly since 1965) by the TIWAG (Tiroler Wasserkraft AG). The sedimentation dynamics and operational flushings of the connected settling basins are used to measure the transported sediments. Since 1985 even high resolution data (15min intervals) are available. At selected catchments, the operationally recorded data (flushings, load membrane measurements,...) are verified within measuring campaigns using bed load traps upstream. Further, the sedimentation dynamics and grain size distributions in the settling basins are evaluated. Therefor two water intakes were put temporally out of operation, allowing an improved measurement of settled volumes by means of terrestrial surveying. Uncertainty assessments reveal an overall accuracy of estimated annual bed load volumes lower than a factor of two. Additionally, the data set enables to address sediment transport at a sub-annual basis, hence, the presented data set is unique regarding

  4. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    the simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...... by calculating travel potential along the line. The article shows how the different approaches result in differences in the examined catchment areas. It shows how the Service Area approach prevents inaccessible areas to be included in the catchment area and how it allows for detours in feeder routes to....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...

  5. Expertise in Psychological Inquiry: A Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert

    The ways in which experience and academic training influence the types of questions therapists ask of their clients were studied. Psychologists and psychology students of varying degrees of expertise (n=138) were provided an artificial intelligence program that simulated a date rape client's responses to typed questions and were asked to conduct a…

  6. Financial Expertise as an Arms Race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glode, V.; Green, R.C.; Lowery, R.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model in which firms involved in trading securities overinvest in financial expertise. Intermediaries or traders in the model meet and bargain over a financial asset. As in the bargaining model in Dang (2008), counterparties endogenously decide whether to acquire information, and improv

  7. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  8. Universities and the Public Recognition of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that new sites of knowledge production, increasingly cultivated by the mass media, are threatening the role of academics and universities as traditional sources of expertise. Drawing upon the conceptual categories of Pierre Bourdieu, the article suggests an alternative way of understanding this "crisis of legitimacy."

  9. Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

  10. Introduction: Recent advances in expertise research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    During the 55th meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA, 2004) in San Diego, a symposium was organized on Recent Advances in Expertise Research. Most papers in this special issue of Applied Cognitive Psychology were presented in this symposium. The aim of this special issue is

  11. The committee of scientific expertise coordination; Le comite de coordination d'expertise scientifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Placed under the MIES control, the Committee of scientific expertise coordination defines the needs, the contain and the planing of expertises realized in function of Climate national and international decisions and negotiations calendars. The Committee verifies the different expertises and offers the administrations, scientific tools and techniques useful for the negotiations. It can also define long-dated research needs which require the scientific community mobilization. This paper provides some document of the Committee: objectives, operating and priorities of the Committee, scenarios ''Factor 4'' and ''crack technology'', perceptions and practices, developing countries (China, India...), Euromed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  13. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-10-01

    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  14. Keeping it simple: a conceptual model of DOC dynamics in a subarctic alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessels, J. S.; Tetzlaff, D.; Carey, S. K.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding hydrological processes in subarctic alpine catchments characterised with discontinuous permafrost is important in order to understand carbon exports. Subarctic catchments have large storages of carbon in organic and permafrost soils. Active layer depth is one of the largest controlling factors of the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) due to its control on runoff pathways. Therefore, any change of this depth will affect the amount of DOC mobilised from these catchments. Simple low parameterised conceptual models offer the ability to characterise hydrological processes and linked DOC dynamics without introducing many of the uncertainties linked to high parameterised models. Lumped models can also be used to identify sources of DOC within catchments. Here, we investigate hydrological sources, flow pathways and consequently DOC dynamics in the Granger Basin, Canada, a subarctic alpine catchment using data collected from 2001 to 2008. The catchment is distinguished by aspect dependant discontinuous permafrost and seasonal frost, compounded further by differences in soil and vegetation types. Applying a simple low parameterised conceptual model allowed identification of the dominant flow paths of the main hydrological response units. The results showed that it was necessary to include active layer dynamics combined with aspect to represent the hydrological and DOC dynamics. The model provides information on the effect of climatic conditions on DOC releases. By identifying the key flow paths and relating these to spring freshet DOC exports over multiple years it is possible to gain an insight of the how climatic changes might affect hydrological processes within subarctic catchments.

  15. A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective teaching requires an understanding of both what (content knowledge and how (process knowledge to teach. While previous studies involving medical students have compared preceptors with greater or lesser content knowledge, it is unclear whether process expertise can compensate for deficient content expertise. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare the effect of preceptors with process expertise to those with content expertise on medical students' learning outcomes in a structured small group environment. Methods One hundred and fifty-one first year medical students were randomized to 11 groups for the small group component of the Cardiovascular-Respiratory course at the University of Calgary. Each group was then block randomized to one of three streams for the entire course: tutoring exclusively by physicians with content expertise (n = 5, tutoring exclusively by physicians with process expertise (n = 3, and tutoring by content experts for 11 sessions and process experts for 10 sessions (n = 3. After each of the 21 small group sessions, students evaluated their preceptors' teaching with a standardized instrument. Students' knowledge acquisition was assessed by an end-of-course multiple choice (EOC-MCQ examination. Results Students rated the process experts significantly higher on each of the instrument's 15 items, including the overall rating. Students' mean score (±SD on the EOC-MCQ exam was 76.1% (8.1 for groups taught by content experts, 78.2% (7.8 for the combination group and 79.5% (9.2 for process expert groups (p = 0.11. By linear regression student performance was higher if they had been taught by process experts (regression coefficient 2.7 [0.1, 5.4], p Conclusions When preceptors are physicians, content expertise is not a prerequisite to teach first year medical students within a structured small group environment; preceptors with process expertise result in at least equivalent, if not

  16. 巢湖流域丰乐河洪水事件营养盐输出动态研究%DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF NUTRIENT EXPORT DURING FLOOD EVENTS FROM FENGLE RIVER CATCHMENT OF CHAO LAKE BASIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储茵; 潮洪武; 马友华; 郑珊珊; 潘应生

    2013-01-01

    洪水期是非点源污染输出的关键时期.通过对巢湖典型农业型流域丰乐河桃溪断面两次暴雨洪水过程(发生于2010年6月初的Event06和8月底的Event08)进行集中取样监测,结合该断面流量数据,分析了洪水过程中氮和磷营养盐不同指标(包括总氮、铵氮、硝态氮、总磷和可溶磷)浓度和瞬时负荷的动态变化规律.结果表明:Event06氮磷各指标浓度最小值、最大值及平均值均比Event08大,这与6月初农作物大量施肥,氮磷来源丰富有很大关系.丰乐河洪水事件氮输出的形式以可溶性无机氮(铵氮和硝态氮)为主,而磷则以颗粒态为主,但在涨水段的初、中期颗粒态氮和颗粒态磷所占比例比其它时段高.洪水过程中主要氮、磷指标浓度和瞬时负荷随流量增大而总体呈上升趋势(除了硝态氮),在流量峰值前达到最大值,然后呈总体下降趋势.总磷、总氮浓度与流量呈比较典型的顺时针圈形结构,表明暴雨洪水较强烈的冲刷输送作用.虽然进一步的负荷累积分析并没有显示显著的初期冲刷效应,但洪水期,特别是涨水段营养盐输出的重要性已较明显.丰乐河流域面积较大、地势较平坦,以农业活动为主,水体污染的非点源来源与农业活动有关,具体的洪水过程对营养盐的输出动态也有一定影响.%Non-point source pollutants are mainly transported during flood events.The Fengle River,one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake in the middle-east part of China,was chosen to study non-point source nutrient export characteristics in a large-sized agricultural catchment.Two summer events (Event06,in the beginning of June and Event08,at the end of August,2010) were intensively sampled at Taoxi section of the river and analyzed for Total Nitrogen (TN),Ammonia,Nitrate,Total Phosphorus (TP) and Dissolved Phosphorus.Hourly discharge and rainfall data were also available at the same section.The drainage

  17. Catchment Very-High Frequency Hydrochemistry: the Critex Chemical House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floury, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Tallec, G.; Blanchouin, A.; Ansart, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploring the variations of river quality at very high frequency is still a big challenge that has fundamental implications both for understanding catchment ecosystems and for water quality monitoring. Within the French Critical Zone program CRITEX, we have proposed to develop a prototype called "Chemical House", applying the "lab on field" concept to one of the stream of the Orgeval Critical Zone Observatory. The Orgeval catchment (45 km2) is part of the Critical Zone RBV ("Réseau des bassins versants") network. It is a typical temperate agricultural catchment that has been intensively monitored for the last 50 years for hydrology and nutrient chemistry. Agricultural inputs and land use are also finely monitored making Orgeval an ideal basin to test the response of the Critical Zone to agricultural forcing. Geology consists of a typical sedimentary basin of Cenozoic age with horizontal layers of limestones, silcrete and marls, covered by a thin loamy layer. Two main aquifers are present within the catchment: the Brie and the Champigny aquifers. Mean runoff is 780 mm/yr. The Chemical House is a fully automated lab and installed directly along the river, which performs measurement of all major dissolved elements such as Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, NO3, SO4 and K every half hour. It also records all physical parameters (Temperature, pH, conductivity, O2 dissolved, Turbidity) of the water every minute. Orgeval Chemical House started to measure river chemistry on June 12, 2015 and has successfully now recorded several months of data. We will present the architecture of the Chemical House and the first reproducibility and accuracy tests made during the summer drought 2015 period. Preliminary results show that the chemical house is recoding significant nychtemeral (day/night) cycles for each element. We also observe that each element has its own behaviour along a day. First results open great prospects.

  18. Expertise and Processing Distorted Structure in Chess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eBartlett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been or degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how the expert brain processes within-domain stimuli that have been distorted enough to be perceived as impossible or wrong, and yet still are perceived as within the domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly on the board. Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure – a kind of exploratory chunking – that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.

  19. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  20. [Simulation of deafness in expertise affairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K; Solzbacher, D

    2005-07-01

    The simulation of deafness rarely occurs in the course of medical expertise. However, it is a problem that needs to be recognized and demonstrated by proving methods of investigation. For this purpose, a number of subjective and objective hearing tests exist which can provide evidence for the simulation of uni- or bilateral hearing loss. These methods include the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions, brainstem-evoked response audiometry and the determination of the stapedius reflex threshold as well as subjective methods such as Stenger- and Lee-test. Among the expertise carried out in our department during the past few years, we found 5 cases of simulation of deafness. In these cases -- as opposed to simulated traffic accidents -- there was no criminal prosecution regarding insurance fraud.

  1. Effects of expertise on football betting

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal Yasser; Chatton Anne; Billieux Joël; Bizzini Lucio; Monney Grégoire; Fresard Emmanuelle; Thorens Gabriel; Bondolfi Guido; El-Guebaly Nady; Zullino Daniele; Khan Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...

  2. Scientific economics, expertise and policy making

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the financial crisis that struck in 2008, Europe is still in the midst of a grave economic downturn, and some of the most immediate issues facing policy makers revolve around how to respond to the current economic turmoil. One recurrent response has been to increase the power of technocratic institutions, as well as appointing people with economic expertise to positions of high power. These experts derive their legitimacy, not from democratic principles, but from the sourc...

  3. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of off-slope sediment delivery for small catchments subject to shallow landslides within the Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katie E.; Preston, Nicholas J.

    2012-03-01

    The Waipaoa catchment in New Zealand has one of the highest measured specific suspended sediment yields measured in New Zealand compared to basins of comparable size. A significant source of this sediment is from shallow landslides which are often triggered on a regional scale during large magnitude storm events, defined as ~ 200 mm rainfall within 72 h. The first step of this sediment cascade is removal of landslide material from the slope and into the fluvial system when the debris tail is in physical contact and hence considered connected. The difference between the volume of sediment liberated in the event and the volume remaining on the slope immediately following the event is termed the off-slope sediment delivery ratio. This value ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 for small sub-catchments within the Waipaoa catchment depending on catchment morphology, landslide and triggering event characteristics. In the Waipaoa catchment a decrease in the catchment sediment delivery ratio is observed as the sub-catchment size increased. A human induced process which may affect off-slope sediment delivery is regolith exhaustion, as scars move further upslope in response to removal of preferred weathered material during previous events on the lower sections of slope. However, it appears that temporal scar migration away from the channels is not prevalent. Therefore, the hypothesis that hillslope relaxation since deforestation is prevalent in this setting is considered null. Rather the temporal pattern to sediment delivery ratios supports the context of evolving catchment in response to deforestation in the Terrain Event Resistance Model.

  5. Conflict Resolution and Public Participation Center of Expertise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — On October 17, 2008, the Conflict Resolution and Public Participation Center (CPCX) was named a Corps Center of Expertise (CX) and Directory of Expertise (DX). The...

  6. Transit times of water particles in the vadose zone across catchment states and catchments functional units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the water movement in the vadose zone and its associated transport of solutes are of major interest to reduce nutrient leaching, pollution transport or other risks to water quality. Soil physical models are widely used to asses such transport processes, while the site specific parameterization of these models remains challenging. Inverse modeling is a common method to adjust the soil physical parameters in a way that the observed water movement or soil water dynamics are reproduced by the simulation. We have shown that the pore water stable isotope concentration can serve as an additional fitting target to simulate the solute transport and water balance in the unsaturated zone. In the presented study, the Mualem- van Genuchten parameters for the Richards equation and diffusivity parameter for the convection-dispersion equation have been parameterized using the inverse model approach with Hydrus-1D for 46 experimental sites of different land use, topography, pedology and geology in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. With the best parameter set we simulated the transport of a conservative solute that was introduced via a pulse input at different points in time. Thus, the transit times in the upper 2 m of the soil for different catchment states could be inferred for each location. It has been shown that the time a particle needs to pass the -2 m depth plane highly varies from the systems state and the systems forcing during and after infiltration of that particle. Differences in transit times among the study sites within the Attert basin were investigated with regards to its governing factors to test the concept of functional units. The study shows the potential of pore water stable isotope concentration for residence times and transport analyses in the unsaturated zone leading to a better understanding of the time variable subsurface processes across the catchment.

  7. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  8. Using isotope, hydrochemical methods and energy-balance modelling to estimate contribution of different components to flow forming process in a high-altitude catchment (Dzhancuat river basin case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Chizhova, Julia; Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Tokarev, Igor; Budantseva, Nadine; Vasilchuk, Yurij

    2016-04-01

    A multicomponent structure of sources of river runoff formation is characteristic of high-altitude territories: ice and firn melting; seasonal snow melting on glacier covered and non-glacier area of a watershed; liquid precipitation; underground waters. In addition, each of these components can run off the watershed surface in different ways. Use of isotopic, hydrochemical methods and energy balance modelling provides possibility to estimate contribution of different components to river runoff that is an essential to understand the mechanism of flow formation in mountainious areas. A study was carried out for Dzhancuat river basin that was chosen as representative for North Caucasus in course of the International Hydrological Decade. Complex glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observation have been carried in the basin since 1965. In years 2013-2015 the program also included daily collecting of water samples on natural stable isotopes on the Dzhancuat river gauging station, and sampling water nourishment sources (ice, snow, firn, liquid precipitation) within the study area. More then 800 water samples were collected. Application of an energy balance model of snow and ice melt with distributed parameters provided an opportunity to identify Dzhancuat river runoff respond to glaciers melt regime and seasonal redistribution of melt water. The diurnal amplitude of oscillation of the Dzhakuat river runoff in the days without precipitation is formed by melting at almost snow-free areas of the Dzhancuat glacier tongues. Snowmelt water from the non-glacierized part contributes to the formation of the next day runoff. A wave of snow and firn melt in upper zones of glacier flattens considerably during filtration through snow and run-off over the surface and in the body of the glacier. This determines a general significant inertia of the Dzhacuat river runoff. Some part of melt water is stored into natural regulating reservoirs of the watershed that supply the

  9. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  10. Expertise in Clinical Pathology: Combining the Visual and Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2)…

  11. Legacy Contaminantion in UK catchments since the mid-19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Noacco, V.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    We present data from UK catchments to characterise impacts of industrial and agricultural development of UK river catchments since the mid-19th century. We draw heavily on the world's longest continuous water quality monitoring programme in the Thames River Basin (1868-date) and discuss the implications of both agricultural development, social and industrial change, and the impact of legislation on coupled land and water resource systems. Our review draws on both data and model analysis over a 145-year period and explores how a multitude of inter-linked drivers affects process-function and practical water resource management decision-support. Our work uncovers key drivers, catchment responses and emergent challenges for process science and regulation, with particular emphasis on the technical challenge for catchment scientists to provide both insight and workable solutions to maintain food and water security in intensively management river basins. We discuss issues of appropriate methods for both data capture and subsequent analyses to support short- and long-term decision making, and particularly considers the importance of advanced techniques to clarify uncertainties in extrapolation of short-term observations to inform long-term goals. We speculate as to future trajectories of catchment responses to current pressures, and potential pitfalls to immediate concerns that may often be at odds with overall requirements for continued use of natural resources in the future.

  12. AN APPROACH TO THE MODEL USE FOR MEASURING SUSPENDED SEDIMENT YIELD IN UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokchhay Heng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of water resources studies require the information of Suspended Sediment Yield (SSY in different time resolutions. In ungauged watersheds where hydrometeorogical time series are not available, the mean annual SSY (SSYa is solely predictable and catchment area is traditionally used as the predictor because it is the most important variable and generally determined during project planning. Firstly, this research tried to advance the traditional SSYa model by additionally associating global topographic data. Based on the jack-knife procedure, the modified method considering catchment area with slope greater than 15% was evaluated in 17 gauged catchments in the Lower Mekong Basin and the overall predictive accuracy was improved about 66% in term of mean absolute percentage error. Secondly, the predicted SSYa in each modeled catchment was monthly distributed using Unit mean annual Sedimentograph (USGa. The double-average USGa superior to the single-average one provides overall better quality results than the regionalized USGa dependent upon the spatial proximity approach. The model performance measured by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE is about 0.66 in median value and satisfactory results (NSE >0.50 are obtained in 11 catchments. Lastly, the validated regional model was regarded as a potential and feasible tool in solving sediment-ungauged issues in the basin.

  13. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tekleab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological behavior and functioning of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach that is based on Budyko's hypotheses. The objective is to obtain better understanding of catchment response for prediction in ungauged catchments. The water balance analysis using Budyko-type curve at annual scale reveals that the aridity index does not exert a first order control in most of the catchments. This implies the need to increase model complexity to a monthly time scale to include the effects of seasonal soil moisture dynamics. The dynamic water balance model used in this study predicts the direct runoff and other processes based on limit concept. The uncertainty of model parameters has been assessed using the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation. The results show that the majority of the parameters are reasonably well identifiable. Moreover, a multi-objective model calibration strategy has been employed within the GLUE framework to emphasize the different aspects of the hydrographs on low and high flows. The model has been calibrated and validated against observed streamflow time series and it shows good performance for the twenty catchments of the upper Blue Nile. During the calibration period (1995–2000 the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency for monthly flow prediction varied between 0.52 to 0.93 during high flows, while it varied between 0.32 to 0.90 during low flows (logarithms of flow series. The model is parsimonious and it is suggested that the resulting parameters can be used to predict monthly stream flows in the ungauged catchments of the Upper Blue Nile basin, which accounts about 60% of total Nile basin flow.

  14. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stabl

  15. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartínez-Montes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants or close to (Small deviants the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception is discussed.

  16. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Wagener, T.; Sawicz, K.

    2013-06-01

    release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less) E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more) efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungauged basins.

  17. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: Signatures of catchment co-evolution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.; Sivapalan, M.; Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.

    2013-12-01

    release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less) E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more) efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungaged basins.

  18. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Troch

    2013-06-01

    subsurface storage release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungauged basins.

  19. Flowpaths, source water contributions and water residence times in a Mexican tropical dry forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2015-10-01

    Runoff in forested tropical catchments has been frequently described in the literature as dominated by the rapid translation of rainfall to runoff through surface and shallow subsurface pathways. However, studies examining runoff generation in tropical catchments with highly permeable soils have received little attention, particularly in tropical dry forests. We present a study focused on identifying the dominant flowpaths, water sources and stream water residence times in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During the wet season, pre-event water contributions to stormflow ranged from 72% to 97%, with the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium closely coupling the geochemistry of baseflow and groundwater from the narrow riparian/near-stream zone. Baseflow from the intermittent stream showed a strongly damped isotopic signature and a mean baseflow residence time of 52-110 days was estimated. These findings all suggest that instead of the surface and near-surface subsurface lateral pathways observed over many tropical catchments, runoff is generated through vertical flow processes and the displacement and discharge of stored water from the saturated zone. As the wet season progressed, contributions from the saturated zone persisted; however, the stormflow and baseflow geochemistry suggests that the contributing area of the catchment increased. Our results show that during the early part of the wet season, runoff originated primarily from the headwater portion of the catchment. As the wet season progressed and catchment wetness increased, connectivity among sub-basin was improved, resulting in runoff contributions from across the entire catchment.

  20. The nature of expertise and human resource functions supporting expertise in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The nuclear industry worldwide faces the challenge of preserving the existing expertise, competence and knowledge despite of the ageing workforce and upcoming retirements. Challenges are also imposed by the reducing amount of new recruits and students entering the nuclear industry, which amounts to fewer young professionals that have the potential to become nuclear experts in the future. Although many other industries share similar challenges, the preservation of expertise in the nuclear industry is even more important due to the safety-critical nature of the nuclear operations and the special characteristics that high-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants have. As a response to the risk of knowledge loss, nuclear organizations have engaged in knowledge capturing efforts. New information systems and organizational practices have been implemented to safeguard nuclear expertise. Recently, IAEA has proposed nuclear organizations to design and adopt people-centered programs that encompass themes such as workforce planning, recruitment, training, succession planning, leadership development and knowledge management. Thus, in order to address the current risks to nuclear expertise, attention should be focused on these different areas and corresponding human resources (HR) functions within the nuclear organizations. Our paper presents results from a project which examines the nature of expert work and human resources (HR) functions that support the development and preservation of expertise. The study adopts a qualitative cross-sectional case study design. Two organizational units from different nuclear industry organizations have been selected as cases. The research data will be gathered in April-May 2007 and preliminary results will be presented in the International Conference of Knowledge Management in Nuclear Facilities, in June 2007. The main data will comprise of thematic interviews to experts, their managers and HR representatives

  1. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża, quickly react to any excess water. Heavy rain combined with the discharge of water through the storm sewer system results of increasing the flow and runoff in streams, among others, Strzyża river.

  2. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  3. Cognitive Expertise: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Lotze, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-01-01

    Expert performance constitutes the endpoint of skill acquisition and is accompanied by widespread neuroplastic changes. To reveal common mechanisms of reorganization associated with long-term expertise in a cognitive domain (mental calculation, chess, language, memory, music without motor involvement), we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis and compared brain activation of experts to nonexperts. Twenty-six studies matched inclusion criteria, most of which reported an increase and not a decrease of activation foci in experts. Increased activation occurred in the left rolandic operculum (OP 4) and left primary auditory cortex and in bilateral premotor cortex in studies that used auditory stimulation. In studies with visual stimulation, experts showed enhanced activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (area PGp) and the right lingual gyrus. Experts' brain activation patterns seem to be characterized by enhanced or additional activity in domain-specific primary, association, and motor structures, confirming that learning is localized and very specialized. PMID:26467981

  4. Digital Student Expertise in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie

    all around the world and their entry has not escaped the attention from teachers, school managers and policy makers. A current trend within education management, in Denmark as well as internationally, is to incorporate the students’ digital skills or ‘expertise’ as a resource in teaching, e.g. through......Digital Natives, iGens’ or New Millennium Learners (Prensky 2001, Raphelson 2014, OECD 2008). There are many labels for the generation of young (western) citizens who have grown up with digital, web based technologies as a crucial part of their everyday life. This genera-tion now inhabits schools...... digital student production (Sørensen 2010). This trend is based on the widespread idea that students of the digital generation by default are competent and creative users of technology in virtue of their early interaction with technology, and that the digital expertise resides within the individual...

  5. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  6. Important progress on the use of isotope techniques and methods in catchment hydrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The use of isotope techniques and methods in catchment hydrology in the last 50 years has generated two major types of progress: (1) Assessment of the temporal variations of the major stocks and flows of water in catchments, from which the estimation of wa-ter residence times is introduced in this paper. (2) Assessment of catchment hydrologic processes, in which the interactions be-tween different waters, hydrographical separation, and bio-geochemical process are described by using isotopes tracers. Future progress on isotope techniques and methods in hydrology is toward the understanding of the hydrological process in large river basins. Much potential also waits realization in terms of how isotope information may be used to calibrate and test distributed rainfall-runoff models and regarding aid in the quantification of sustainable water resources management.

  7. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  8. Developer's Expertise and Dynamicsof Financial Innovation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Helios Herrera; Enrique Schroth

    2004-01-01

    We study product innovation and imitation in the market of corporate underwriting with a dynamic model where client switching costs and the bankers’ expertise in deal structuring characterize the life cycle of a security. While the clientele loyalty allows positive rent extraction, the superior expertise can account for the documented market leadership of the innovator. As expertise on product structuring is acquired by imitators, the innovator’s market share advantage decreases. Also, the sp...

  9. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result

  10. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modeling in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data-scarce regions such as the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile Basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile Basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile Basin well and yields a useful

  11. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dessie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall–runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall–runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44–48% in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18–19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall–runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin

  12. Physical variables, nutrient status and primary productivity of Kyoga Basin lakes of Lemwa, Omunuo, Gawa, Adois and Owapet

    OpenAIRE

    Ochieng, H.; Ochaya, H.; Anguzu, A.; Magezi, G.

    2007-01-01

    The review report on Kyoga basin lakes (NAFIRRI 2007) described Kyoga basin lakes as important natural resource for the communities within the basin and the surrounding areas. Fisheries of the basin provide a source of protein, income, and employment to generally poor communities in the area. The lakes also generate revenue to the local Governments within the catchment. This indicates that the fisheries of Kyoga basin lakes are a key instrument in poverty eradication and food security. The la...

  13. Expertise synthesis on the CSPE; Synthese d'expertise sur la CSPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonde, G.; Poizat, F

    2008-01-15

    This document presents a synthesis of the results of an expertise realized on the CSPE, the compensation tax of the electric public service. This tax concerns the management of the electricity production additional costs in isolated areas, the solidarity, a policy to favor the energy efficiency and the renewable energies. The document explains the historical aspects of the tax elaboration, its financial importance, the consequences and the impacts on the competition. (A.L.B.)

  14. 10Be-derived denudation rates from the Burdekin catchment: The largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Chappell, John; Austin, Jenet M.; Fifield, Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Thompson, Chris J.; Furuichi, Takahisa

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs) such as Beryllium-10 (10Be) are now routinely used to reconstruct erosional rates over tens of thousands of years at increasingly large basin scales (> 100,000 km2). In Australia, however, the approach and its assumptions have not been systematically tested within a single, large drainage basin. This study measures 10Be concentrations in river sediments from the Burdekin catchment, one of Australia's largest coastal catchments, to determine long-term (> 10,000 years), time-integrated rates of sediment generation and denudation. A nested-sampling design was used to test for effects of increasing catchment scale on nuclide concentrations with upstream catchment areas ranging from 4 to 130,000 km2. Beryllium-10 concentrations in sediment samples collected from the upstream headwater tributaries and mid-stream locations range from 1.8 to 2.89 × 105 atoms g- 1 and data confirm that nuclide concentrations are well and rapidly mixed downstream. Sediment from the same tributaries consistently yielded 10Be concentrations in the range of their upstream samples. Overall, no decrease in 10Be concentrations can be observed at the range of catchment scales measured here. The mean denudation rate for all river sediment samples throughout the Fanning subcatchment (1100 km2) is 18.47 m Ma- 1, which compares with the estimate at the end of the Burdekin catchment (130,000 km2) of 16.22 m Ma- 1. Nuclide concentrations in the lower gradient western and southern catchments show a higher degree of variability, and several complications emerged as a result of the contrasting geomorphic processes and settings. This study confirms the ability of TCNs to determine long-term denudation rates in Australia and highlights some important considerations in the model assumptions that may affect the accuracy of limited sampling in large, low-gradient catchments with long storage times.

  15. Recasting catchment water balance for water allocation between human and environmental purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebalancing water allocation between human consumptive uses and the environment in water catchments is a global challenge. The conventional water balance approach which partitions precipitation into evapotranspiration (ET and surface runoff supports the optimization of water allocations among different human water use sectors under the cap of water supply. However, this approach is unable to support the emerging water management priority issue of allocating water between societal and ecological systems. This paper recast the catchment water balance by partitioning catchment total ET into ET for the society and ET for the natural ecological systems, and estimated the impacts of water allocation on the two systems in terms of gross primary productivity (GPP, in the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB of Australia over the period 1900–2010. With the recast water balance, the more than 100 year water management in the MDB was divided into four periods corresponding to major changes in basin management: period 1 (1900–1956 expansion of water and land use by the societal system, period 2 (1956–1985 maximization of water and land use by the societal system, period 3 (1985–2002 maximization of water diversion for the societal system, and period 4 (2002–present rebalancing of water and land use between the societal and ecological systems. The recast water balance provided new understandings of the water and land dynamics between societal and ecological systems in the MDB, and it highlighted the experiences and lessons of catchment water management in the MDB over the last more than 100 years. The recast water balance could serve as the theoretical foundation for water allocation to keep a dynamic balance between the societal and ecological systems within a basin for sustainable catchment development. It provides a new approach to advance the discipline of socio-hydrology.

  16. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-05-01

    Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet

  17. A framework of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic models using synthetic rainfall for flash flood hazard mapping of ungauged catchments in tropical zones

    OpenAIRE

    Lohpaisankrit, Worapong; Meon, Günter; Tingsanchali, Tawatchai

    2016-01-01

    Flash flood hazard maps provide a scientific support to mitigate flash flood risk. The present study develops a practical framework with the help of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic modelling in order to estimate the potential flash floods. We selected a small pilot catchment which has already suffered from flash floods in the past. This catchment is located in the Nan River basin, northern Thailand. Reliable meteorological and hydrometric data are missing in the cat...

  18. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment. PMID:19717181

  19. How microtopography and soil morphology can help decipher flow paths and processes in headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, J. P.; McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S.

    2012-12-01

    Headwater catchments dominate the drainage basins of larger rivers and determine the water quality of downstream water bodies. In these catchments, hydrology strongly influences soil development and soil chemistry, thereby determining stream water quality. This study aims to explain spatial and temporal variations of flow paths and fine scale variations in hydrologic regimes at the headwater catchment scale utilizing a hydropedological approach. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), defined by differing soil morphological characteristics provide a framework for describing the function of different soil types in a catchment. Preliminary analysis and field observations also indicate that HPU locations will be predictable based on surface microtopography calculated from a 1-meter, LiDAR (Light Detection and Range) derived digital elevation model. We show that water table data from 50 wells distributed throughout the catchment confirms HPUs are indicative of specific hydrologic flow regimes, including threshold behavior, consistent with predictions based on soil morphology alone. This study focuses on three intensive study sites representative of typical soil morphological development in a small catchment. Furthering the water table analysis, measures of saturated and unsaturated hydrologic regimes, surface topographic characteristics, subsurface characteristics, and soil morphology were compared for the three intensive sites in an effort to quantify the effect of surface microtopography on the proposed hydropedologic system. Preliminary analysis shows matric potential gradients develop laterally down slope at site locations hypothesized to be indicative of lateral podsolization based on site topography and soil morphology. These results are in agreement with our findings describing threshold behavior in water table development at the same sites. The results of this study suggest a hydropedological approach may be a useful tool for describing catchment runoff response as well

  20. Development and application of the distributed hydrologic model based on the two-source PET model and the hybrid runoff model: A case study of Laoha River catchment, Liaohe River Basin%基于双源蒸散和混合产流的分布式水文模型构建及应用——以辽河老哈河流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓帆; 任立良; 徐静; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    The Laoha River catchment, Liaohe River Basin in the semi-arid region of northern China is selected for study. The interception evaporation,canopy transpiration and soil evaporation are computed by a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model in each grid cell of the basin. The calculated potential evapotranspiration is regarded as the input of the hybrid runoff model instead of the pan evaporation. Then the grid-basod distributed hydrologic model is built for daily runoff simulation during 1970 - 1979 in the target basin by coupling the two-source PET model in the hybrid runoff model framework. The results show that the two-source PET model can reflect the effects of vegetation type, vegetation physiological features and phonological characteristics on the evapotranspiration. And the grid-based distributed hydrologic model which can illuminate the role of runoff generation and runoff muting is applicable for runoff simulation in the target basin.%以北方半干旱地区的辽河老哈河流域为研究对象,采用网格离散化方法进行水文模拟单元划分,利用具有物理基础的双源蒸散发能力估算模型,计算每个栅格单元的截留蒸发、植被蒸腾能力和土壤蒸发能力,并取代蒸发皿资料作为混合产流模型的蒸散发能力输入,从而构建摹于双源蒸散与混合产流的分布式水文模型,并对老哈河流域1970-1979年的日径流过程进行模拟分析,结果表明双源蒸散发能力计算模型能够考虑植被类型及其生理、物候特性对蒸散发能力的影响.将其与混合产流模型进行嵌套构建的分布式水文模型能较合理地揭示研究区域的产汇流规律,适用于该地区的水文过程模拟.

  1. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  2. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  3. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  4. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research. PMID:17621416

  5. Technical Nuclear Expertise in Europe - Institutional Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a PowerPoint presentation addressing the following items: - The present situation and forecasts for nuclear power generation in the EU countries (from 15 countries 8 are 'Nuclear'; 143 NPPs contribute 36% of electricity production (in 2003) vs 161 NPPs with 40% of electricity production (in 2004) and 168 NPPs with 38% of electricity production (in 2007)); - European Union Nuclear Framework as Proposed by EC (EU - EC policy, EU - EC legislation and EU - EC technical basis); - Objectives (To present the current situation of the technical nuclear institutional expertise in the EU accession countries based on the existing framework; To identify some common patterns; To initiate a discussion); - Approach (To collect and to analyse officially available information and basis); - Scope (EU accession countries in 2004 with NPPs; EU technical nuclear institutional experts); - Areas (organization; funds; staffing); - Results (Identified common areas with good practices; Identified common areas for improvement. In conclusion the technical nuclear institutional experts in the EU 2004 accessing countries are comparable with the Western European practice while the technical competence is internationally recognised and the same TSOs assist both the Regulator and Operator. Concerning the staffing, the current NRA staff is still below the planned one and the current NRA financial resources are still not sufficient. Concerning the staff training, there is a need of training in the area of news responsibilities, inspection practices and QA

  6. Winter streamflow analysis in frozen, alpine catchments to quantify groundwater contribution and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzle, Michael; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    contributions is helpful to assess the water sustainability of alpine catchments functioning as water towers for downstream water basins. We outline how well-known hydrograph and recession analyses in alpine catchments can help to explore the role of catchment storage and to advance our understanding of (ground-)water management in alpine environments.

  7. Knowing in Practice: Re-Conceptualising Vocational Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reconceptualizes vocational expertise to present a dynamic, negotiated, and situated view of expertise that builds on the contributions of cognitive psychology, anthropology, cultural psychology, and sociocultural theory. Proposes that relations between the individuals' acting and the social practice in which they act are the bases for knowing and…

  8. The Development of Expertise: The Journey from Acclimation to Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    The Model of Domain Learning (MDL) is an alternative perspective on expertise that arose from studies of student learning in academic domains, such as reading, history, physics, and biology. A comparison of the MDL and traditional models of expertise is made. The key components and stages of the MDL are then overviewed. Discussion concludes with a…

  9. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  10. Leadership Development Expertise: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda B.; Chapman, Bernadine; Fort, Edward

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of graduate curriculum, experience, and standards in the development of leadership expertise were examined. The major goals of the study were to (1) examine the impact of college content curriculum in the development of leadership expertise, (2) examine the impact of on the job experience in the development of leadership…

  11. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  12. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  13. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  14. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  15. Isotope techniques in catchment behaviour studies with particular emphasis on snowmelt runoff investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of runoff occurring mainly by snowmelt have been investigated by the aid of environmental isotopes. Regular samples collected from river water and snow cover throughout 1978 to 1981 at two selected catchment basins in eastern Turkey were analysed for their oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium contents. The tritium results together with detailed hydrological and hydro-meteorological data have enabled to study the time distribution of various component flow systems involved in the total runoff resulting from snowmelt

  16. The role of high frequency monitoring in understanding nutrient pollution processes to address catchment management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth; Barber, Nick; Adams, Russell; ODonnell, Greg; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    The process insights afforded to catchment scientists through the availability of high frequency time series of hydrological and nutrient pollution datasets are invaluable. However, the observations reveal both good and bad news for the WFD. Data for flow, N, P and sediment (taken at 30 min intervals) from the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment and several other detailed UK studies, will be used to discuss nutrient fluxes in catchments between 1km2 and 10km2. Monitoring of the seasonal groundwater status and the forensic analysis of numerous storm events have identified dominant flow pathways and nutrient losses. Nonetheless, many of the management questions demanded by the WFD will not be resolved by collecting these datasets alone. Long term trends are unlikely to be determined from these data and even if trends are found they are unlikely to be accurately apportioned to the activities that have caused them. The impacts of where and when an action takes place will not be detected at the catchment scale and the cost effectiveness of any mitigation method is unlikely to be quantifiable. Even in small well instrumented catchments the natural variability in rainfall, antecedent patterns and the variability in farming practices will mask any identifiable catchment scale signal. This does not mean the cost of the data acquisition has been wasted, it just means that the knowledge and expertise gained from these data should be used in new novel ways. It will always be difficult to quantify the actual losses occurring at the farm or field scale, but the positive benefits of any mitigation may still be approximated. The evidence for the rate of nutrient removal from a local sediment trap, wetland and a pond can be shown with high resolution datasets. However, any quantifiable results are still highly localised and the transfer and upscaling of any findings must be done with care. Modelling these datasets is also possible and the nature of models have evolved in the

  17. Hydrological dynamics of a Mediterranean catchment in a global change context. (Romanyac catchment, Cap de Creus, Girona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latron, J.; Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are characterized by unevenly distributed water resources, and consequently a more precise knowledge of the main hydrological processes and their variability and changes is crucial for a better management of water resources. However, the lack of hydrological information and data in most areas of the Mediterranean basin greatly difficult the analyses of changes in water resources at relevant scales. In this context, the Soil Science Unit GRCT48 from the University of Girona is conducting an integrated study of hydrological response, soil erosion and soil degradation processes in fragile Mediterranean areas undergoing changes in use and management. The study area is located in the Cap de Creus Peninsula (NE Spain), where land abandonment has been the outstanding characteristic over the last decades. The area is covered by terraced soils, most of them abandoned, and stands for a representative Mediterranean environment. Current land cover is a mosaic of areas with different shrubs according to wildfire occurrence. Residual patches of cork and pine trees are also present as well as small extensions of pastures. Finally some localized areas of vineyards and olive trees are still cultivated. The approach is based on the complementary use of plot and catchment scales to assess the effect of land cover and land use change on physical, chemical and biological parameters of soil quality and on rainfall-runoff-erosion relationships. Along the study period, observed rainfall-runoff response at the plot scale was highly variable among sites but also for a given environment, depending on antecedent wetness conditions and rainfall characteristics. Overall, surface runoff responses were low in all environments. Soil loss associated to rainfall-runoff events showed very large variations among sites, and also for a given site, between the different rainfall events. At the catchment scale, preliminary results obtained from the monitoring, of three catchments of

  18. Multiscale investigations in a mesoscale catchment – hydrological modelling in the Gera catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krause

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the hydrological process-oriented model J2000 (J2K is part of a cooperation project between the Thuringian Environmental Agency (Thüringer Landesanstalt für Umwelt und Geologie – TLUG and the Department of Geoinformatics of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena focussing on the implementation of the EU water framework directive (WFD. In the first project phase J2K was parametrised and calibrated for a mesoscale catchment to quantify if it can be used as hydrological part of a multi-objective tool-box needed for the implementation of the WFD. The main objectives for that pilot study were: The development and application of a suitable distribution concept which provide the spatial data basis for various tasks and which reflects the specific physiogeographical variability and heterogeneity of river basins adequately. This distribution concept should consider the following constraints: The absolute number of spatial entities, which forms the basis for any distributive modelling should be as small as possible, but the spatial distributed factors, which controls quantitative and qualitative hydrological processes should not be generalised to much. The distribution concept of hydrological response units HRUs (Flügel, 1995 was selected and enhanced by a topological routing scheme (Staudenrausch, 2001 for the simulation of lateral flow processes. J2K should be calibrated for one subbasin of the pilot watershed only. Then the parameter set should be used on the other subbasins (referred as transfer basins to investigate and quantify the transferability of a calibrated model and potential spatial dependencies of its parameter set. In addition, potential structural problems in the process description should be identified by the transfer to basins which show a different process dominance as the one which was used for calibration does. Model calibration and selection of efficiency criteria for the quantification of the model quality

  19. Reciprocal Expertise Affirmation and Shared Expertise Perceptions in Work Teams : Their Implications for Coordinated Action and Team Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutterink, Hanneke; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Molleman, Eric; Jehn, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we argue that reciprocal expertise affirmationi.e. the mutual recognition by team members that they respect, value, and affirm each other's expertiseis positively related to team performance, but only in teams with high levels of shared expertise perceptions. Moreover, we propose that

  20. Should We Value Knowledge and Expertise? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As I write this editorial, I am on an airplane, reflecting on the EBLIP6 conference, held June 27-30, 2011 in Salford, U.K. In my personal opinion, the conference was a great success. There were a wide variety of concurrent paper sessions from an international group of delegates, thought provoking keynotes, and just the right amount of social activity, including the main conference dinner at the Manchester United Football Club! This journal will have a Feature section in our next issue (December that highlights the conference, including keynote presentations, some of the papers that were presented, and commentaries from attendees about the conference itself. So for now, I’ll just offer my warmest congratulations to the organizers.As I left Salford and tried to reflect on what I had learned and discussed with others, there were many things that came to mind. Immediate things that stood out for me had to do with impact, reflection, and the complexity of decision making. The theme of EBLIP6 was “Valuing Knowledge and Expertise”. This is a somewhat controversial theme for an evidence based practice conference, where research evidence and its implementation are the focus, and expert opinion is not generally held in high regard. None of the keynote speakers’ presentations spoke directly to the theme, however several paper presentations did include some reference to the importance of professional knowledge.Expertise is a loaded word, filled with notions of snobbery and over-confidence, even close-mindedness. If anything, those involved with EBLIP remove themselves as far from the notion of “expert” as they can. But if we consider an expert to be someone who has built up a significant amount of professional knowledge (both through experience and research on a topic, then the EBLIP movement should not simply dismiss this notion of “expert”. Perhaps, we more appropriately should consider expert voices (knowledgeable, reasonable

  1. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  2. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the estimated area of level 3 ecological landscape regions (ecoregions), as defined by Omernik (1987), compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is Level III Ecoregions of the Continental United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4

  3. Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMottem, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5

  4. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

    2013-02-01

    The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during

  5. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieusma, Dean

    Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction

  6. Modelling riverflow in the Volta Basin of West Africa : a data-driven framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amisigo, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, a riverflow modelling framework developed for monthly riverflow prediction in the 400,000 km2 Volta Basin of West Africa is presented. By analysing available catchment rainfall, runoff and potential evapotranspiration series in the basin using methods such as correlation plots, autor

  7. Parsimonious hydrological modeling of urban sewer and river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Del Giudice, Dario; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryA parsimonious model of flow capable of simulating flow in natural/engineered catchments and at WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) inlets was developed. The model considers three interacting, dynamic storages that account for transfer of water within the system. One storage describes the “flashy” response of impervious surfaces, another pervious areas and finally one storage describes subsurface flow. The sewerage pipe network is considered as an impervious surface and is thus included in the impervious surface storage. In addition, the model assumes that water discharged from several CSOs (combined sewer overflows) can be accounted for using a single, characteristic CSO. The model was calibrated on, and validated for, the Vidy Bay WWTP, which receives effluent from Lausanne, Switzerland (population about 200,000), as well as for an overlapping urban river basin. The results indicate that a relatively simple approach is suitable for predicting the responses of interacting engineered and natural hydrosystems.

  8. SOILS VULNERABILITY OF CATCHMENT ALMAŞ AT GEOMORPHOLOGIC CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils vulnerability of the Catchment Almas geomorphologic processes. Almas Basin, signed lower lithologic Miocene soils deposits, shows six classes: Cernisols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Hydrosols, Pelisols, Protosols (after SRTS, 2003. The largest share is attributed to Luvisols class (60%, followed by undeveloped soil represented by Protosols and Antrisols (15%, followed by the remaining classes with lower weights: Cambisols (13%, Cernisols (7%, Pelisols (4%, Hydrosols (1%. Contemporary geomorphological processes (surface and deep erosion, mass movements change agricultural areas and forest ratio or flow out of economic network tens of hectares annually. Soil vulnerability to the manifestation of these processes is expressed by disturbing soil horizons, coastal springs appearance and growth of the adjoining excess moisture, soil sealing productive by dropping or by alienation.

  9. Use of modeling to protect, plan, and manage water resources in catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another

  10. Use of modeling to protect, plan, and manage water resources in catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another

  11. Data-based information gain on the response behaviour of hydrological models at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    A data-based approach is presented to analyse the response behaviour of hydrological models at the catchment scale. The approach starts with a number of sequential time series processing steps, applied to available rainfall, ETo and river flow observation series. These include separation of the high frequency (e.g., hourly, daily) river flow series into subflows, split of the series in nearly independent quick and slow flow hydrograph periods, and the extraction of nearly independent peak and low flows. Quick-, inter- and slow-subflow recession behaviour, sub-responses to rainfall and soil water storage are derived from the time series data. This data-based information on the catchment response behaviour can be applied on the basis of: - Model-structure identification and case-specific construction of lumped conceptual models for gauged catchments; or diagnostic evaluation of existing model structures; - Intercomparison of runoff responses for gauged catchments in a river basin, in order to identify similarity or significant differences between stations or between time periods, and relate these differences to spatial differences or temporal changes in catchment characteristics; - (based on the evaluation of the temporal changes in previous point:) Detection of temporal changes/trends and identification of its causes: climate trends, or land use changes; - Identification of asymptotic properties of the rainfall-runoff behaviour towards extreme peak or low flow conditions (for a given catchment) or towards extreme catchment conditions (for regionalization, ungauged basin prediction purposes); hence evaluating the performance of the model in making extrapolations beyond the range of available stations' data; - (based on the evaluation in previous point:) Evaluation of the usefulness of the model for making extrapolations to more extreme climate conditions projected by for instance climate models. Examples are provided for river basins in Belgium, Ethiopia, Kenya

  12. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  13. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for

  14. Comprehensive Management of the Heihe Catchment:A Success in Coupling Water-Ecological Setting with Local Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the arid regions of northwestern China, water is considered as the "life blood" of all living organisms and economic activities.An oasis will grow greener with ample supply of water, whereas the green will fade if water is in short supply. An inland river catchment constitutes an independent unit of ecological functions in which interactions and transformation occur between mountainous areas and plains, between oases and wastelands, and between ground surface runoffs and underground water. The sustainability of a catchment is deeply rooted in the coordination of hydrological, ecological and economical processes in a drainage basin.

  15. Integrated flow and temperature modeling at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Maria C.; Davidsen, Hasse Kampp; Butts, Michael; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Changes in natural stream temperature levels can be detrimental to the health of aquatic ecosystems. Water use and land management directly affect the distribution of diffuse heat sources and thermal loads to streams, while riparian vegetation and geomorphology play a critical role in how thermal loads are buffered. In many areas, groundwater flow is a significant contribution to river flow, particularly during low flows and therefore has a strong influence on stream temperature levels and dynamics. However, previous stream temperature models do not properly simulate how surface water-groundwater dynamics affect stream temperature. A coupled surface water-groundwater and temperature model has therefore been developed to quantify the impacts of land management and water use on stream flow and temperatures. The model is applied to the simulation of stream temperature levels in a spring-fed stream, the Silver Creek Basin in Idaho, where stream temperature affects the populations of fish and other aquatic organisms. The model calibration highlights the importance of spatially distributed flow dynamics in the catchment to accurately predict stream temperatures. The results also show the value of including temperature data in an integrated flow model calibration because temperature data provide additional constraints on the flow sources and volumes. Simulations show that a reduction of 10% in the groundwater flow to the Silver Creek Basin can cause average and maximum temperature increases in Silver Creek over 0.3 °C and 1.5 °C, respectively. In spring-fed systems like Silver Creek, it is clearly not feasible to separate river habitat restoration from upstream catchment and groundwater management.

  16. Impact of papyrus wetland encroachment on spatial and temporal variabilities of stream flow and sediment export from wet tropical catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryken, N; Vanmaercke, M; Wanyama, J; Isabirye, M; Vanonckelen, S; Deckers, J; Poesen, J

    2015-04-01

    During the past decades, land use change in the Lake Victoria basin has significantly increased the sediment fluxes to the lake. These sediments as well as their associated nutrients and pollutants affect the food and water security of millions of people in one of Africa's most densely populated regions. Adequate catchment management strategies, based on a thorough understanding of the factors controlling runoff and sediment discharge are therefore crucial. Nonetheless, studies on the magnitude and dynamics of runoff and sediment discharge are very scarce for the Lake Victoria basin and the African Rift region. We therefore conducted runoff discharge and sediment export measurements in the Upper Rwizi, a catchment in Southwest Uganda, which is representative for the Lake Victoria basin. Land use in this catchment is characterized by grazing area on the high plateaus, banana cropping on the slopes and Cyperus papyrus L. wetlands in the valley bottoms. Due to an increasing population pressure, these papyrus wetlands are currently encroached and transformed into pasture and cropland. Seven subcatchments (358 km2-2120 km2), with different degrees of wetland encroachment, were monitored during the hydrological year June 2009-May 2010. Our results indicate that, due to their strong buffering capacity, papyrus wetlands have a first-order control on runoff and sediment discharge. Subcatchments with intact wetlands have a slower rainfall-runoff response, smaller peak runoff discharges, lower rainfall-runoff ratios and significantly smaller suspended sediment concentrations. This is also reflected in the measured annual area-specific suspended sediment yields (SYs): subcatchments with encroached papyrus swamps have SY values that are about three times larger compared to catchments with intact papyrus vegetation (respectively 106-137 ton km(-2) y(-1) versus 34-37 ton km(-2) y(-1)). We therefore argue that protecting and (where possible) rehabilitating these papyrus wetlands

  17. Integration of sewer system maps in topographically based sub-basin delineation in suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Due to the increase of urbanization, suburban areas experience a fast change in land use. The impact of such modifications on the watershed hydrological cycle must be quantified. To achieve this goal, distributed hydrological models offer the possibility to take into account land use change, and more particularly to consider urbanized areas and anthropogenic features such as roads or ditches and their impact on the hydrological cycle. A detailed definition of the hydrographical drainage network and a corresponding delineation of sub-basins is therefore necessary as input to distributed models. Sub-basins in natural catchments are usually delineated using standard GIS based terrain analysis. The drainage network in urbanised watersheds is often modified, due to sewer systems, ditches, retention basins, etc.. Therefore, its delineation is not only determined by topography. The simple application of terrain analysis algorithms to delineate sub-basins in suburban areas can consequently lead to erroneous sub-basin borders. This study presents an improved approach for sub-basin delineation in suburban areas. It applies to small catchments connected to a sewage plant, located outside the catchment boundary. The approach assumes that subsurface flow follows topography. The method requires a digital elevation model (DEM), maps of land use, cadastre, sewer system and the location of measurement stations and retention basins. Firstly, the topographic catchment border must be defined for the concerning flow measurement station. Standard GIS based algorithms, like the d8-flow direction algorithm (O'Callaghan and Mark, 1984) can be applied using a high resolution DEM. Secondly, the artificial catchment outlets have to be determined. Each catchment has one natural outlet - the measurement station on the river- but it can have several artificial outlets towards a sewage station. Once the outlets are determined, a first approximation of the "theoretical maximal contributing area

  18. FORENSIC EXPERTISE ELEMENTS IN INFANTICIDE, WITH VALUE TO JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Perju-Dumbrava,; Ovidiu Sorin Chiroban

    2013-01-01

    This criminalization of infanticide generates theoretical controversies in judicial practice, due to difficulties in proving the elements of the offense. A decisive role inproving the crime of infanticide resides in the forensic expertise.

  19. Negotiating knowledges and expertise in refugee resettlement organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Steimel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.

  20. Inferring expertise in knowledge and prediction ranking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Steyvers, Mark; de Young, Mindy; Miller, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We apply a cognitive modeling approach to the problem of measuring expertise on rank ordering problems. In these problems, people must order a set of items in terms of a given criterion (e.g., ordering American holidays through the calendar year). Using a cognitive model of behavior on this problem that allows for individual differences in knowledge, we are able to infer people's expertise directly from the rankings they provide. We show that our model-based measure of expertise outperforms self-report measures, taken both before and after completing the ordering of items, in terms of correlation with the actual accuracy of the answers. These results apply to six general knowledge tasks, like ordering American holidays, and two prediction tasks, involving sporting and television competitions. Based on these results, we discuss the potential and limitations of using cognitive models in assessing expertise. PMID:22253187

  1. ELABORATION OF A JUDICIAL ACCOUNTING EXPERTISE REPORT. AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEACONU SORIN-CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting expert profession should be a noble one. It should be respected by third parties as well as the accounting professional in question. The work of a professional accountant involves, among other responsibilities, the elaboration of judicial accounting expertise reports. Unfortunately, the content of certain reports filed in court is not entirely professionally written and eloquent for the judge. The elaboration of a report has to be done according to the rules stipulated in professional standard no. 35 Accounting expertise. One sensitive point in the elaboration of expertise reports is the submission of the lists from the local offices to the courts of law. Most of the times these lists only include some of the experts whose reports are incondite. This article presents an expertise reports with two objectives formulated by the court

  2. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land-use, or land-use management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the time variability of catchment characteristics in the Meuse basin through its effect on catchment response. The approach uses a conceptual model to represent rainfall-runoff behaviour of this catchment, and evaluates possible time-dependence of model parameters. The main hypothesis is that conceptual model parameters, although not measurable quantities, are representative of specific catchment attributes (e.g. geology, land-use, land management, topography. Hence, we assume that eventual trends in model parameters are representative of catchment attributes that may have changed over time. The available hydrological record involves ninety years of data, starting in 1911. During this period the Meuse catchment has undergone significant modifications. The catchment structural modifications, although documented, are not available as "hard-data". Hence, our results should be considered as "plausible hypotheses". The main motivation of this work is the "anomaly" found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse basin, where ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent overestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the "anomaly", including climatic variability, land-use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This aspect influenced the model design, which has been configured to account for different evaporation demand of growing forest. As a result of our analysis, we conclude that the lag time of the catchment has decreased significantly over time, which we attribute to more intensive drainage and river training works. Furthermore, we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land-use change on

  3. The Effect of Expertise in Evaluating Emotions in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Morreale, Fabio; Masu, Raul; De Angeli, Antonella; Fava, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the role of expertise in the listener judgment of emotion in music. Previous studies suggest that the most important factors are mode and tempo, respectively influencing valence and arousal. The effect is stronger when the two parameters converge (major mode combined with fast tempo and vice versa), whereas tempo predominates when they do not converge. An open question is whether and how these judgments vary with the expertise of the listener. Our hypothesis is that no...

  4. Professional Expertise in Magic – Reflecting on professional expertise in magic:An interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli eRissanen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  5. Spectral Analysis in Catchment Hydrology and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.; Feng, X.; Renshaw, C. E.; Neal, C.

    2001-12-01

    Spectral analysis of chemical tracer time series can be used to probe the internal workings of catchments. It has recently been shown that catchments act as fractal filters for inert chemical tracers like chloride, converting "white noise" rainfall chemistry inputs into fractal "1/f noise" runoff chemistry time series (Kirchner et al., 2000). This implies that catchments have long-tailed travel time distributions, and thus retain soluble contaminants for unexpectedly long timespans. Long-term monitoring data from North America, Britain, and Scandinavia show that this fractal behavior characterizes a wide array of catchments. How can this fractal scaling arise in such diverse settings? One can show that advection and dispersion of spatially distributed rainfall tracer inputs will generate fractal tracer time series, as long as the flow system is highly dispersive (Kirchner et al., in press). This implies that subsurface flow in small catchments is dominated by large conductivity contrasts, such as arise from macropores, fracture networks, and similar large-scale heterogeneities in subsurface conductivity. One can also use spectral methods to analyze long-term time series of water fluxes in rainfall and streamflow. Spectral analysis of hydrologic time series measures the downslope propagation of the hydraulic potential waves that mobilize runoff, whereas spectral analysis of tracer time series clocks the propagation of water itself through the catchment. Water fluxes in streamflow exhibit non-fractal scaling, instead of the fractal 1/f scaling shown by chemical tracers. These observations imply that hydrologic signals are transmitted downslope more rapidly, and with much less dispersion, than chemical tracer signals are. Thus small upland catchments transmit hydraulic potentials (which drive runoff) much less dispersively than they transport water itself. These observations provide important constraints for theoretical models of subsurface flow and transport in

  6. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  7. Impact Assessment of Uncertainty Propagation of Ensemble NWP Rainfall to Flood Forecasting with Catchment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansik Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common approach to quantifying the precipitation forecast uncertainty is ensemble simulations where a numerical weather prediction (NWP model is run for a number of cases with slightly different initial conditions. In practice, the spread of ensemble members in terms of flood discharge is used as a measure of forecast uncertainty due to uncertain precipitation forecasts. This study presents the uncertainty propagation of rainfall forecast into hydrological response with catchment scale through distributed rainfall-runoff modeling based on the forecasted ensemble rainfall of NWP model. At first, forecast rainfall error based on the BIAS is compared with flood forecast error to assess the error propagation. Second, the variability of flood forecast uncertainty according to catchment scale is discussed using ensemble spread. Then we also assess the flood forecast uncertainty with catchment scale using an estimation regression equation between ensemble rainfall BIAS and discharge BIAS. Finally, the flood forecast uncertainty with RMSE using specific discharge in catchment scale is discussed. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon “Talas” of 2011 over the 33 subcatchments of Shingu river basin (2,360 km2, which is located in the Kii Peninsula, Japan.

  8. CATCHMENT-WIDE ANALYSIS OF THE SEDIMENT REGIME WITH RESPECT TO RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helmut M. HABERSACK; Konrad BOGNER; Josef SCHNEIDER; Michael BRAUNER

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss a catchment-wide approach for analysing the sediment regime with respect to reservoir sedimentation, based on the Alpine Solk-basin in Austria. On a scaling perspective the boundary conditions and major processes of a catchment, like the geomorphological setting, are given by longterm developments. On the basis of field mapping these effects are discussed with respect to sediment availability, being affected e.g. by deep-seated gravitational slope deformations and slope creeping. Within these longterm processes, short-term unsteady sediment supply, erosion, transfer, deposition and remobilisation processes determine reservoir sedimentation and management. An intensive field monitoring program, including bedload and suspended sediment measurements, supplies data for the subsequent rainfall-runoff-erosion and sediment transport modeling (input, calibration and validation data). Instead of aiming to predict sediment transport processes in a purely deterministic manner the use of stochastic concepts allows to define locations in the catchment with a high probability for delivering significant amounts of sediments to the channels and finally the reservoir. Results show that landuse, channel regulation and avalanches are of great importance for sediment supply and that catchment management (beside managing the reservoir itself)has to address these.

  9. Socio-hydrological water balance for water allocation between human and environmental purposes in catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Huang, Y.; Wei, Y.; Wang, G.

    2015-08-01

    Rebalancing water allocation between human consumptive uses and the environment in water catchments is a global challenge. This paper proposes a socio-hydrological water balance framework by partitioning catchment total evapotranspiration (ET) into ET for society and ET for natural ecological systems, and establishing the linkage between the changes of water balance and its social drivers and resulting environmental consequences in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia, over the period 1900-2010. The results show that the 100-year period of water management in the MDB could be divided into four periods corresponding to major changes in basin management within the socio-hydrological water balance framework: period 1 (1900-1956) - expansion of water and land use for the societal system, period 2 (1956-1978) - maximization of water and land use for the societal system, period 3 (1978-2002) - maximization of water use for the societal system from water diversion, and period 4 (2002-present) - rebalancing of water and land use between the societal and ecological systems. Most of management changes in the MDB were passive and responsive. A precautionary approach to water allocation between the societal and ecological systems should be developed. The socio-hydrological water balance framework could serve as a theoretical foundation for water allocation to evaluate the dynamic balance between the societal and ecological systems in catchments.

  10. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  11. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  12. The value of practice: A critique of interactional expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Lima, Francisco P A

    2016-04-01

    Collins and Evans have proposed a 'normative theory of expertise' as a way to solve the 'problem of demarcation' in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the 'political' phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the 'technical' phases. In this article, Collins and Evans' typology of expertise--in particular, the idea of 'interactional expertise'--is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise--namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through 'linguistic socialization alone', (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the 'the minimal embodiment thesis' that the individual human body or, more broadly, 'embodiment' is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals' abilities and understandings vary according to the 'type of immersion' they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another 'perspective'. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the 'problem of demarcation'. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities. PMID:27263240

  13. Radar altimetry assimilation in catchment-scale hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Michailovsky, C. I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite-borne radar altimeters provide time series of river and lake levels with global coverage and moderate temporal resolution. Current missions can detect rivers down to a minimum width of about 100m, depending on local conditions around the virtual station. Water level time series from space-borne radar altimeters are an important source of information in ungauged or poorly gauged basins. However, many water resources management applications require information on river discharge. Water levels can be converted into river discharge by means of a rating curve, if sufficient and accurate information on channel geometry, slope and roughness is available. Alternatively, altimetric river levels can be assimilated into catchment-scale hydrological models. The updated models can subsequently be used to produce improved discharge estimates. In this study, a Muskingum routing model for a river network is updated using multiple radar altimetry time series. The routing model is forced with runoff produced by lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff models in each subcatchment. Runoff is uncertain because of errors in the precipitation forcing, structural errors in the rainfall-runoff model as well as uncertain rainfall-runoff model parameters. Altimetric measurements are translated into river reach storage based on river geometry. The Muskingum routing model is forced with a runoff ensemble and storages in the river reaches are updated using a Kalman filter approach. The approach is applied to the Zambezi and Brahmaputra river basins. Assimilation of radar altimetry significantly improves the capability of the models to simulate river discharge.

  14. The precipitation-/runoff model ZEMOKOST: development of a practical model for the determination of flood runoff in the catchment areas of torrents, including improved data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hydrology a basic task is the estimation of design discharges and runoff changes in ungauged catchments. However, traditional empirical rules of thumb as well as regionalization of measured discharges are subject to uncertainty. It seems that precipitation-runoff modelling is the only comprehensible way to predict discharge alterations due to changes in ungauged basins, even though the results are perhaps not less uncertain. In order to minimize this uncertainty this work presents a new methodology for discharge estimation in ungauged basins by introducing runoff coefficients derived from field assessment, by a new adapted precipitation-runoff model (ZEMOKOST) and routines for a plausibility check. Subsequently ten gauged Austrian catchments were used as hypothetical ungauged catchments for application and verification of this method. Except for special questions in karst- and glacier-hydrology the procedure showed satisfying results. (author)

  15. Expertise and governance of climate change; Expertise et gouvernance du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas de Munagorri, R.; Colson, R. [Nantes Univ. (France); Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ. and Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Leclerc, O. [Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Defense Univ. (France); Rousseau, S. [CNRS, Lab. Droit et Changement Social (France); Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, Lab. Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l' Economie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become in few years a prominent problem which requires the implementation of a world governance to be solved. However, the share of human activities in the global warming phenomenon and the actions susceptible to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission generate scientifical, political and legal conflicts at the same time. Assessing the taking into account of climate change by international institutions raises several questions. By what process a true fact can become established at the world scale? Are experts free or constrain by procedure rules? How to regulate the worldwide carbon trade? Is the governance requirement foreseen in international systems respected by decision making practices? How to explain experts' omnipresence in the observance mechanisms of climate change treaties? Is their influence determining, at the international and internal scale, in the elaboration of a climate law? These questions, analyzed by researchers in law and political science, are indissociable of method stakes with an inter-disciplinary horizon. This book, result of a collective work, is not limited to a description of standards and actors' practices in force. Its ambition is to apprehend law, science and politics in their interactions. Climate change is an appropriate topic to think about the links between the different scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a prospective about the contribution of laws analysis to expertise which involves the dogmatic, realistic and epistemologic aspects. (J.S.)

  16. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa eAlves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task. In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship.

  17. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  18. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation.

  19. An Open-Source Approach for Catchment's Physiographic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, M.; Di Stefano, M.

    2013-12-01

    A water catchment's hydrologic response is intimately linked to its morphological shape, which is a signature on the landscape of the particular climate conditions that generated the hydrographic basin over time. Furthermore, geomorphologic structures influence hydrologic regimes and land cover (vegetation). For these reasons, a basin's characterization is a fundamental element in hydrological studies. Physiographic descriptors have been extracted manually for long time, but currently Geographic Information System (GIS) tools ease such task by offering a powerful instrument for hydrologists to save time and improve accuracy of result. Here we present a program combining the flexibility of the Python programming language with the reliability of GRASS GIS, which automatically performing the catchment's physiographic characterization. GRASS (Geographic Resource Analysis Support System) is a Free and Open Source GIS, that today can look back on 30 years of successful development in geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics and maps production, spatial modeling and visualization. The recent development of new hydrologic tools, coupled with the tremendous boost in the existing flow routing algorithms, reduced the computational time and made GRASS a complete toolset for hydrological analysis even for large datasets. The tool presented here is a module called r.basin, based on GRASS' traditional nomenclature, where the "r" stands for "raster", and it is available for GRASS version 6.x and more recently for GRASS 7. As input it uses a Digital Elevation Model and the coordinates of the outlet, and, powered by the recently developed r.stream.* hydrological tools, it performs the flow calculation, delimits the basin's boundaries and extracts the drainage network, returning the flow direction and accumulation, the distance to outlet and the hill slopes length maps. Based on those maps, it calculates hydrologically meaningful shape factors and

  20. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  1. Cultivating Data Expertise and Roles at a National Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    As research becomes more computation and data-intensive, it brings new demands for staff that can manage complex data, design user services, and facilitate open access. Responding to these new demands, universities and research institutions are developing data services to support their scientists and scholarly communities. As more organizations extend their operations to research data, a better understanding of the staff roles and expertise required to support data-intensive research services is needed. What is data expertise - knowledge, skills, and roles? This study addresses this question through a case study of an exemplar research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO. The NCAR case study results were supplemented and validated with a set of interviews of managers at additional geoscience data centers. To date, 11 interviews with NCAR staff and 19 interviews with managers at supplementary data centers have been completed. Selected preliminary results from the qualitative analysis will be reported in the poster: Data professionals have cultivated expertise in areas such as managing scientific data and products, understanding use and users, harnessing technology for data solutions, and standardizing metadata and data sets. Staff roles and responsibilities have evolved over the years to create new roles for data scientists, data managers/curators, data engineers, and senior managers of data teams, embedding data expertise into each NCAR lab. Explicit career paths and ladders for data professionals are limited but starting to emerge. NCAR has supported organization-wide efforts for data management, leveraging knowledge and best practices across all the labs and their staff. Based on preliminary results, NCAR provides a model for how organizations can build expertise and roles into their data service models. Data collection for this study is ongoing. The author anticipates that the results will help answer questions on what are

  2. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of transpiration (T may serve as an alternative to quantify carbon budget. To apply this concept, we estimated long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2 in Korea and examined its implication for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET was derived from the long term precipitation (P and discharge (Q data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES, evaporation from intercepted rainfall (El, and transpiration. ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. T was estimated from ET after accounting for El and ES. For the Han River basin, the estimated annual T from 1966 to 2007 was 22–31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains catchment scale carbon uptake in terms of water use efficiency (WUE, we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relations provide a simple and practical way to assess the distribution and strength of carbon sink.

  3. Simulating future trends in hydrological regime of a large Sudano-Sahelian catchment under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelland, D.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Collet, L.; Roucou, P.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThis paper assesses the future variability of water resources in the short, medium and long terms over a large Sudano-Sahelian catchment in West Africa. Flow simulations were performed with a daily conceptual model. A period of nearly 50 years (1952-2000) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability. Calibration and validation were performed on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit indices. The climate models HadCM3 and MPI-M under SRES-A2 were used to provide future climate scenarios over the catchment. Outputs from these models were used to generate daily rainfall and temperature series for the 21st century according to: (i) the unbias and delta methods application and (ii) spatial and temporal downscaling. A temperature-based formula was used to calculate present and future potential evapotranspiration (PET). The daily rainfall and PET series were introduced into the calibrated and validated hydrological model to simulate future discharge. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criterion is over 89% for both calibration and validation periods, and the volume error between simulation and observation is close to null for the overall considered period. With regard to future climate, the results show clear trends of reduced rainfall over the catchment. This rainfall deficit, together with a continuing increase in potential evapotranspiration, suggests that runoff from the basin could be substantially reduced, especially in the long term (60-65%), compared to the 1961-1990 reference period. As a result, the long-term hydrological simulations show that the catchment discharge could decrease to the same levels as those observed during the severe drought of the 1980s.

  4. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.-S.; Kim, S.

    2010-06-01

    Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information needed to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of ecosystem water use may serve as an alternative to quantify Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). To examine this concept, we estimated a long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2) in Korea and examined its application for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET) was derived from the long term precipitation (P) and discharge (Q) data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with other hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES), evaporation from intercepted rainfall (EI, and transpiration (T). ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. The annual T, estimated from ET after accounting for EI and ES for the Han River basin from 1966 to 2007, was 22~31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains the catchment scale GPP in terms of water use efficiency (WUE), we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relationship would provide a simple and practical way to assess the spatial distribution of ecosystem GPP, provided the WUE estimates in terms of GPP/T at ecosystem scale could be obtained. For carbon and water tracking toward a sustainable Asia, ascertaining such a spatiotemporally representative WUE and their variability is a requisite facing the flux measurement and modeling communities.

  5. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  6. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (catchment, the soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil. PMID:23652539

  7. Controls on old and new water contributions to stream flow at some nested catchments in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Kendall, C.; Smith, T.E.; Wolock, D.M.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors controlling the partitioning of old and new water contributions to stream flow were investigated for three events in four catchments (three of which were nested) at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. In the 1993 snowmelt period, two-component isotopic hydrograph separations showed that new water (meltwater) inputs to the stream ranged widely from 41 to 74%, and increased with catchment size (41 to 11 125 ha) (with one exception) and with open land cover (0-73%). Peak dissolved organic carbon concentrations and relative alkalinity dilution in stream water ranked in the same order among catchments as the new water fractions, suggesting that new water followed shallow flow paths. During the 1994 snowmelt, despite similar timing and magnitude of melt inputs, the new-water contribution to stream flow ranged only from 30 to 36% in the four catchments. We conclude that the uncommonly high and variable new water fractions in streamwater during the 1993 melt were caused by direct runoff of meltwater over frozen ground, which was prevalent in open land areas during the 1993 winter. In a high-intensity summer rainstorm in 1993, new water fractions were smaller relative to the 1993 snowmelt, ranging from 28 to 46%, but they ranked in the identical catchment order. Reconciliation of the contrasting patterns of new-old water partitioning in the three events appears to require an explanation that invokes multiple processes and effects, including: 1 topographically controlled increase in surface-saturated area with increasing catchment size; 2 direct runoff over frozen ground; 3 low infiltration in agriculturally compacted soils; 4 differences in soil transmissivity, which may be more relevant under dry antecedent conditions. These data highlight some of the difficulties faced by catchment hydrologists in formulating a theory of runoff generation at varying basin scales. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  9. Testing the transferability of regression equations derived from small sub-catchments to a large area in central Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need to apply hydrological models to catchments where streamflow data are unavailable or to large geographical regions where calibration is not feasible. Estimation of model parameters from spatial physical data is the key issue in the development and application of hydrological models at various scales. To investigate the suitability of transferring the regression equations relating model parameters to physical characteristics developed from small sub-catchments to a large region for estimating model parameters, a conceptual snow and water balance model was optimised on all the sub-catchments in the region. A multiple regression analysis related model parameters to physical data for the catchments and the regression equations derived from the small sub-catchments were used to calculate regional parameter values for the large basin using spatially aggregated physical data. For the model tested, the results support the suitability of transferring the regression equations to the larger region. Keywords: water balance modelling,large scale, multiple regression, regionalisation

  10. Exceptional hydrological phenomena in the Gemenea catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina LIVARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods, accompanied by high waters and regular floods, represent the most dangerous natural hazards in the Gemenea catchment, inducing other risks such as geomorphologic, environmental, social and economical risks. Flash floods occurred during the 1969 to 2014 monitoring interval are characterized by extremely high discharge values, of 68.9 m3/s in 2006 and 95.3 m3/s in 2008 and a magnitude 2.5 times higher than the average discharge recorded until that timeframe. With an area of 77.7 km2, the Gemenea catchment falls into the category of small catchments, where the peak discharge during exceptional hydrological phenomena is caused by torrential rainfall. Flash floods of particularly high intensities caused serious damages through: total destruction or damage of the torrent correction works, clogging of culverts on catchment forest roads, failure of river banks and deterioration of the bridges that affected roads and homes in Gemenea, Slătioara and Stulpicani villages. These floods have also caused damage to the forest/agriculture fund through deep and lateral erosion, failure of river banks and landslides. Within this study we aim to emphasize the magnitude, frequency, duration and area of manifestation of such phenomena in the Gemenea catchment. Furthermore, we aim to advance our knowledge of the genesis and specific mechanisms of flash flood occurrence for reducing their negative impacts on the local environment and communities

  11. Response of paleofloods to climate variability in alpine catchments of different size reconstructed from floodplain sediments. Similarities or differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Lothar; Carvalho, Filipe; Llorca, Jaime; Monterrubio, Glòria; Peña, Juan Carlos; Cabrera-Medina, Paula; Gómez-Bolea, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Continuous palaeohydrological time series are generally attributed to lake sediments rather than to those of fluvial sediments. However, most of the alpine lakes analysed are fed by small catchments (few km2). Recent studies show the high potential of flood reconstruction form sedimentary floodplain proxies of mid-size catchments (hundreds of km2) when calibrated by historical sources or other markers. Despite of different catchment sizes, flood pulses achieved from lake and flood plain sediments coincides in some cases. Nevertheless, these correlations must not be taken for granted, because catchment response can be strongly influenced by local physiographic and climatic parameters such as the unequal spatial distribution of precipitation caused by summer thunderstorms and advective rainfall events. To contribute to this discussion, our study investigate new proxy data of three cores retrieved from a small basin in the Bernese Alps, fed by the alluvial fans of Eistlenbach (4 km2) and Farnigraben (2 km2) which were compared with the floodplain records from the nearby Aare (596 km2) and Lütschine (379 km2) catchments. Following the same methodology developed previously in the other alpine basins, a 3200-yr long flood series were reconstructed from sedimentary and geochemical data applying XRF-core scan techniques, conventional XRF, LOI and grain size analysis. Flood pulses were identified by 30 flood layers, and a higher number of Zr/Ti, Sr/Ti, Ca/Ti peaks and Factor 1 scores. Modern flood signals were calibrated by historical sources, maps, aerial photographs and instrumental data. Not all events were recorded by coarse-grained beds because of the spatial variations of alluvial fan channels and their connectivity to the small distal basin. Recurrence intervals of the tipping points of the fan channel oscillation are traced by key changes of sedimentation rates and facies. However, geochemical proxies correlate not only very close with the historical local data

  12. Radiofrequency and health. Expertise update. Opinion of the ANSES. Collective expertise report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a context of development of new technologies of wireless communications, and therefore of radio-electric signals used to transmit information, this voluminous document reports a detailed study on the effects of radiofrequency on health. It is notably based on a large literature survey and on an assessment of the level of proof of these effects by experts (proved, possible, probable, insufficiently proved, or no effect on mankind). These effects can be either biological or on health. The report presents the context, scope and modalities of the expertise study, presents the main artificial and natural sources of radiofrequency radiation, gives a detailed presentation of new exposure sources (new signals, new radio-electric networks and their applications like mobile phones, pads, mobile television, local wireless networks, RFID, so on). It describes metrology and dose measurement techniques for electromagnetic fields (exposure characterization in laboratory, characterization of the electromagnetic environment, individual exposure measurement devices, digital dosimetry). It addresses the efficiency of anti-wave devices. The next part presents the literature survey (method, analysis, results). The authors then report an assessment of the risk level related to radio-frequencies for the central nervous system (neurotoxicity mechanisms, cognitive functions, memory and behaviour, sleep and circadian rhythms, hearing functions, neurological and neuro-degenerative diseases), and an assessment of the risk level of radio-frequencies for other non-carcinogenic effects (possible mechanisms, reproduction, immunology, endocrine system, and so on). They discuss the researches on potential carcinogenic mechanisms. They give an overview of the evolutions of regulations and management measures in France, and propose a set of recommendations

  13. 太湖上游水源保护区生态补偿支付意愿问卷调查——以天目湖流域为例%Questionnaire survey on willingness to pay about ecological compensation of Lake Tianmu catchment, Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 张落成; 武清华

    2011-01-01

    在天目湖流域建立生态补偿机制,形成上游生态保护激励机制,对于太湖流域水环境改善有着极为重要的作用.本文通过问卷调查的方式,首先,调查了解天目湖流域居民对环境保护和生态补偿的认知状况,得出天目湖流域居民环境保护意识很强,生态补偿需求旺盛.其次,对居民和旅游者的生态补偿支付意愿进行了解.最后,对最大支付意愿公式进行改进,在原有水费反哺的基础上结合了旅游者门票反哺的最大支付意愿,算出天目湖流域生态补偿总额为12924.08万元.同时生态补偿不仅仅是物质或货币的补偿,更重要的是从国家与省市层面上对天目湖这一重要生态功能区给予一定的政策倾斜.%It is important for improving water quality of Lake Taihu that ecological compensation mechanism and incentive mechanism for upstream ecological protection is carried out in Lake Tianmu catchment. Firstly, we acquainted of residents'cognitive status of environmental protection and ecological compensation in Lake Tianmu catchment, and found a strong environmental protection awareness and a great ecological compensation demand. Then, we investigated the willingness to pay for ecological compensation of both local residents and visitors. Finally, we improved the original formula of the greatest willingness to pay. We summed up a total ecological compensation amount of 12924.08 thousand yuan in Lake Tianmu catchment by integrating the greatest back-feeding willingness of tourist tickets to pay into water fee regurgitation-feeding. It was not enough for ecological compensation merely at the material or monetary compensation, and more important way of Lake Tianmu catchment ecological compensation was that some policy inclination of this important eco-function areas from both state and provincial level.

  14. Detangling Value: A study into the benefits of using in-house CSR expertise compared with the benefits of using CSR consultancy expertise

    OpenAIRE

    MacCarthy, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The topic of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an area with an increasing breadth of literature. However, literature regarding how CSR expertise is sourced for developing CSR projects and programmes within companies is distinctly weak. This study takes, arguably, the two most predominant forms of CSR expertise, in-house CSR expertise and CSR consultancies, and investigates what value these different types of expertise offer in sourcing for CSR activities. Bey...

  15. Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tekleab

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The water balances of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach based on Budyko's hypotheses. The objective of this study is to obtain better understanding of water balance dynamics of upper Blue Nile catchments on annual and monthly time scales and on a spatial scale of meso scale to large scale. The water balance analysis using a Budyko-type curve at annual scale reveals that the aridity index does not exert a first order control in most of the catchments. This implies the need to increase model complexity to monthly time scale to include the effects of seasonal soil moisture dynamics. The dynamic water balance model used in this study predicts the direct runoff and other processes based on the limit concept; i.e. for dry environments since rainfall amount is small, the aridity index approaches to infinity or equivalently evaporation approaches rainfall and for wet environments where the rainfall amount is large, the aridity index approaches to zero and actual evaporation approaches the potential evaporation. The uncertainty of model parameters has been assessed using the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results show that the majority of the parameters are reasonably well identifiable. However, the baseflow recession constant was poorly identifiable. Parameter uncertainty and model structural errors could be the reason for the poorly identifiable parameter. Moreover, a multi-objective model calibration strategy has been employed to emphasize the different aspects of the hydrographs on low and high flows.

    The model has been calibrated and validated against observed streamflow time series and it shows good performance for the twenty study catchments in the upper Blue Nile. During the calibration period (1995–2000 the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (E NS for monthly flow prediction varied between 0.52 to 0.93 (dominated by

  16. Sound management of sediment yields at the catchment scale by small detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Wasilewicz, M.; Banasik, K.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: small detention pond, sediment deposits, reservoir silting, urban catchment Globally observed land use and climate changes have a clear impact on the sediment yields deriving from the catchment. Released sediments may originate from different point and non-point sources. Thereby it is difficult to manage and reduce sediment loads directly at the source without undertaking detailed and expensive monitoring programs. Small detention ponds are therefore frequently used water management systems in urban settlements to improve water quality at the catchment scale. Such ponds located at the outlet of small basins allow reducing sediment loads downstream. Additionally, they capture sediment-associated contaminants as heavy metals, nutrients and micropollutants. On the other hand, a sedimentation within the pond may be a severe problem because it decreases over the time its retention capacity. This is especially significant for small detention ponds, where the siltation rate is high. These ponds can loose their total capacity already after few years of their exploitation when no dredging operations are considered. Unfortunately, maintenance costs of small ponds are expensive and usually not taken into account when planning and constructing such ponds. Consequently, many small detention ponds become inefficient after an entire use of their capacity. Therefore careful planning of maintenance options is essential to keep an effectiveness of such ponds on the expected level. Within presented here study we addressed the problem of silting small detention ponds and we assessed an applicability of such ponds to manage sediment yields discharged from small urban catchments. To this end, a periodic measurement of deposited sediments within a small detention pond (1.35 ha, 5 years old, Warsaw, Poland) has been undertaken. This pond receives a polluted runoff from a small urbanized basin (30 km2), for which no routine sediment measurement exists. The spatial sediment

  17. Evaluating hydrological ensemble predictions using a large and varied set of catchments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Andreassian, V.; Perrin, C.; Loumagne, C.

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted that local and national operational early warning systems can play a key role in mitigating flood damage and losses to society while improving risk awareness and flood preparedness. Over the last years, special attention has been paid to efficiently couple meteorological and hydrological warning systems to track uncertainty and achieve longer lead times in hydrological forecasting. Several national and international scientific programs have focused on the pre-operational test and development of ensemble hydrological forecasting. Based on the lumped soil-moisture-accounting type rainfall-runoff model GRP, developed at Cemagref, we have set up a research tool for ensemble forecasting and conducted several studies to evaluate the quality of streamflow forecasts. The model has been driven by available archives of weather ensemble prediction systems from different sources (Météo-France, ECMWF, TIGGE archive). Our approach has sought to combine overall validation under varied geographical and climate conditions (to assess model robustness and generality) and site-specific validation (to locally accept or reject the hydrologic forecast system and contribute to defining its limits of applicability). The general aim is to contribute to methodological developments concerning a wide range of key aspects in hydrological forecasting, including: the links between predictability skill and catchment characteristics, the magnitude and the distribution of forecasting errors, the analysis of nested or neighbouring catchments for prediction in ungauged basins, as well as the reliability of model predictions when forecasting under conditions not previously encountered during the period of setup and calibration of the system. This presentation will cover the aforementioned topics and present examples from studies carried out to evaluate and inter-compare ensemble forecasting systems using a large and varied set of catchments in France. The specific need to

  18. A simple hydrologic model for rapid prediction of runoff from ungauged coastal catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Konyha, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    We developed a lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff model for rapid prediction of runoff generated in the unique hydrological setting with flat terrain, sandy soils, high groundwater table, and a dense drainage canal network in south Florida. The model is conceptualized as rainfall and evapotranspiration filling and emptying the root zone and excess rainfall recharging three storage zones. Outflows from these storage zones, routed with parallel arrangement of three linear reservoirs, represent different flow components of catchment runoff, i.e., slow drainage (shallow subsurface flow), medium drainage (interflow and saturation excess overland flow), and fast drainage (direct runoff from impervious urban areas or from water table management in agricultural land). The model is parsimonious with eight model parameters along with two optional water management parameters. A regionalization study was conducted through model parameterization to achieve target hydrological behavior of typical land uses, which are the most significant basin descriptor affecting catchment hydrology in south Florida. Cross validation with 16 gauged basins dominated by urban, agricultural, and natural lands, respectively, indicated that the model provides an effective tool for rapid prediction of runoff in ungauged basins using the regionalized model parameters. A case study is presented, involving application of the model to support real-time adaptive management to hydrological operations for protection of estuarine ecosystems.

  19. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  20. Catchment classification: empirical analysis of hydrologic similarity based on catchment function in the eastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sawicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic similarity between catchments, derived from similarity in how catchments respond to precipitation input, is the basis for catchment classification, for transferability of information, for generalization of our hydrologic understanding and also for understanding the potential impacts of environmental change. An important question in this context is, how far can widely available hydrologic information (precipitation-temperature-streamflow data and generally available physical descriptors be used to create a first order grouping of hydrologically similar catchments? We utilize a heterogeneous dataset of 280 catchments located in the Eastern US to understand hydrologic similarity in a 6-dimensional signature space across a region with strong environmental gradients. Signatures are defined as hydrologic response characteristics that provide insight into the hydrologic function of catchments. A Bayesian clustering scheme is used to separate the catchments into 9 homogeneous classes, which enable us to interpret hydrologic similarity with respect to similarity in climatic and landscape attributes across this region. We finally derive several hypotheses regarding controls on individual signatures from the analysis performed here.

  1. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene

    2010-05-01

    Rural land management is known to affect both the generation and propagation of flooding at the local scale, but there is still a general lack of good evidence that this impact is still significant at the larger catchment scale given the complexity of physical interactions and climatic variability taking place at this level. The National Trust, in partnership with the Environment Agency, are managing an innovative project on the Holnicote Estate in south west England to demonstrate the benefits of using good rural land management practices to reduce flood risk at the both the catchment and sub-catchment scales. The Holnicote Estate is owned by the National Trust and comprises about 5,000 hectares of land, from the uplands of Exmoor to the sea, incorporating most of the catchments of the river Horner and Aller Water. There are nearly 100 houses across three villages that are at risk from flooding which could potentially benefit from changes in land management practices in the surrounding catchment providing a more sustainable flood attenuation function. In addition to the contribution being made to flood risk management there are a range of other ecosystems services that will be enhanced through these targeted land management changes. Alterations in land management will create new opportunities for wildlife and habitats and help to improve the local surface water quality. Such improvements will not only create additional wildlife resources locally but also serve the landscape response to climate change effects by creating and enhancing wildlife networks within the region. Land management changes will also restore and sustain landscape heritage resources and provide opportunities for amenity, recreation and tourism. The project delivery team is working with the National Trust from source to sea across the entire Holnicote Estate, to identify and subsequently implement suitable land management techniques to manage local flood risk within the catchments. These

  2. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management.

  3. France bundles knowledge and expertise in intelligent energy networks; Frankrijk bundelt kennis en expertise in intelligente energienetwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kooij, E.

    2012-03-15

    The networks that provides cities, office buildings, houses, cars and mobile phones with energy, is expected in the coming years to be digitized. The French innovation cluster Systematic has recently taken the initiative to set up a knowledge partnership which should connect knowledge and expertise with regard to future smart grids [Dutch] Het netwerk dat onze steden, kantoren, huizen, auto's en mobieltjes van energie voorziet, zal naar verwachting in de komende jaren een digitalisering ondergaan. Het Franse innovatiecluster Systematic heeft onlangs het initiatief genomen een samenwerkingsverband op te richten die kennis en expertise op het gebied van toekomstige intelligente energienetwerken bij elkaar brengt.

  4. Estimation of groundwater contribution in runoff from small agricultural dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Jansons, Viesturs; Lagzdiņš, Ainis

    2013-04-01

    Latvia. Each set consisted of a field providing both surface and subsurface runoff located within the catchment. Different filters were tested but the one developed by Chapman & Maxwell (1996) was selected. An improved filter parameter value was obtained, resulting in more realistic values for BFI in Norwegian catchments, being in the order of 10%. The values for the Latvian catchments were slightly higher, the main reason for this being soil types and geological settings. The results indicate that care should be taken in selecting the digital filter value for catchments having flashy runoff behaviour. This might lead to wrong estimates of baseflow contribution which can have negative effects on modelling hydrology, pollutant transport and the selection of mitigation measures at the scale of small agricultural catchments. References Chapman, T.G., Maxwell, A.I . 1996. Baseflow separation - comparison of numerical methods with tracer experiments. Institute Engineers Australia National Conference. Publ. 96/05, 539-545 Deelstra, J., Eggestad, H.O., Iital, A., Jansons, V. and Barkved, L.J. (2010), "Time resolution and hydrological characteristics in agricultural catchments", in Hermann, A. and Schumann, S. (Eds), Status and Perspectives of Hydrology in Small Basins, Vol. 336, IAHS Publication, pp. 138 - 143.

  5. PSYCHIC A process-based model of phosphorus and sediment transfers within agricultural catchments. Part 2. A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömqvist, J.; Collins, A. L.; Davison, P. S.; Lord, E. I.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThis paper describes the preliminary evaluation of the PSYCHIC catchment scale (Tier 1) model for predicting the mobilisation and delivery of phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) in the Hampshire Avon (1715 km 2) and Herefordshire Wye (4017 km 2) drainage basins, in the UK, using empirical data. Phosphorus and SS transfers to watercourses in the Wye were predicted to be greater than corresponding delivery in the Avon; SS, 249 vs 33 kg ha -1 yr -1; DP, 2.57 vs 1.26 kg ha -1 yr -1; PP, 2.20 vs 0.56 kg ha -1 yr -1. The spatial pattern of the predicted transfers was relatively uniform across the Wye drainage basin, whilst in the Avon, delivery to watercourses was largely confined to the river corridors and small areas of drained land. Statistical performance in relation to predicted exports of P and SS, using criteria for relative error (RE) and root mean square error (RMSE), reflected the potential shortcomings associated with using longer-term climate data for predicting shorter-term (2002-2004) catchment response and the need to refine calculations of point source contributions and to incorporate additional river basin processes such as channel bank erosion and in-stream geochemical processing. PSYCHIC is therefore best suited to characterising longer-term catchment response.

  6. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  7. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Costanzo, M.E.; Artino, A.R.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Wittich, C.M.; Roy, M.J.H.M. van; Holmboe, E.S.; Schuwirth, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconsci

  8. Institutionalized Ignorance as a Precondition for Rational Risk Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The present case study seeks to explain the conditions for experts’ rational risk perception by analyzing the institutional contexts that constitute a field of food safety expertise in Denmark. The study highlights the role of risk reporting and how contextual factors affect risk reporting from...

  9. The Role of Human Expertise in Enhancing Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddouri, Abdelaaziz

    2011-01-01

    Current data mining (DM) technology is not domain-specific and therefore rarely generates reliable, business actionable knowledge that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banking industry. DM is mainly an autonomous, data-driven process with little focus on domain expertise, constraints, or requirements…

  10. A Step Forward: Investigating Expertise in Materials Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Kim, Mija; Ya-Fang, Liu; Nava, Andrea; Perkins, Dawn; Smith, Anne Margaret; Soler-Canela, Oscar; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the textbook evaluation techniques of novice and experienced teachers, which was conducted by the Language Teaching Expertise Research Group (or LATEX) within Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Three ELT teachers were chosen to evaluate the student and teacher…

  11. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  12. Ritualizing Expertise: Non-Montessorian View of the Montessori Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossentino, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the practice of Montessori education through the lens of ritual. Anchored by description and analysis of a lesson in an elementary classroom, the lesson is viewed as a series of ritualized interactions in which both teacher and student act out multiple layers of expertise within the cultural frame of the Montessori method.…

  13. Using Information Expertise to Enhance Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahraj, Katy

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth not yet universally acknowledged that a venture based on information must be in want of a librarian. Librarians offer expertise in organizing and managing information, clarifying and supporting people's information needs, and enhancing people's information literacy skills. There are innumerable endeavors today in education, health,…

  14. The Role of Context Expertise when Comparing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrall, Cynthia; Nisbet, Steven; Mooney, Edward; Jansem, Sinchai

    2011-01-01

    Our research addresses the role that context expertise plays when students compare data. We report findings from a study conducted in 3 countries: Australia, United States, and Thailand. In each country, six middle school students analyzed authentic data relating to selected students' areas of interest. We examined the data analysis processes and…

  15. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  16. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  17. Expertise in Performance Assessment: Assessors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important…

  18. Using the Global Web as an Expertise Evidence Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdyukov, P.; Hiemstra, D.; Aly, R.B.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the details of our participation in expert search task of the TREC 2007 Enterprise track. The presented study demonstrates the predicting potential of the expertise evidence that can be found outside of the organization. We discovered that combining the ranking built solely on t

  19. The Makana Regional Centre of Expertise: Experiments in Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di

    2010-01-01

    This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might see RCE's…

  20. Detecting deception in a bluffing body: The role of expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebanz, N.; Shiffrar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of deception detection traditionally have focused on verbal communication. Nevertheless, people commonly deceive others through nonverbal cues. Previous research has shown that intentions can be inferred from the ways in which people move their bodies. Furthermore, motor expertise within a g

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  2. Elevational dependence of climate change impacts on water resources in an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatichi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest is directed toward understanding impacts of climate change on water related sectors in a particularly vulnerable area such as the Alpine region. We present a distributed hydrological analysis at scale significant for water management for pristine, present-days, and projected future climate conditions. We used the upper Rhone basin (Switzerland as a test case for understanding anthropogenic impacts on water resources and flood risk in the Alpine area. The upper Rhone basin includes reservoirs, river diversions and irrigated areas offering the opportunity to study the interaction between climate change effects and hydraulic infrastructures. We downscale climate model realizations using a methodology that partially account for the uncertainty in climate change projections explicitly simulating stochastic variability of precipitation and air temperature. We show how climate change effects on streamflow propagate from high elevation headwater catchments to the river in the major valley. Changes in the natural hydrological regime imposed by the existing hydraulic infrastructure are likely larger than climate change signals expected by the middle of the 21th century in most of the river network. Despite a strong uncertainty induced by stochastic climate variability, we identified an elevational dependence of climate change impacts on streamflow with a severe reduction due to the missing contribution of water from ice melt at high-elevation and a dampened effect downstream. The presence of reservoirs and river diversions tends to decrease the uncertainty in future streamflow predictions that are conversely very large for highly glacierized catchments. Despite uncertainty, reduced ice cover and ice melt are likely to have significant implication for aquatic biodiversity and hydropower production. The impacts can emerge without any additional climate warming. A decrease of August-September discharge and an increase of hourly

  3. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  4. Understanding Water and Solute Fluxes in Diverse Catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Godsey, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Catchments integrate incoming hydrological and geochemical fluxes via the mixing and reaction processes occurring within their boundaries. The catchment science community still seeks realistic and internally consistent models which explain integrated catchment behavior. It is known that the amount of streamflow responds quickly to rainfall, that stream water is predominantly "old" water which has been stored for long periods within the catchment, and that streamflow chemistry varies with flow...

  5. Juvenile salmon investigations River Wenning catchment 1981-86

    OpenAIRE

    Ingersent, B.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the River Lune juvenile salmonid investigation, a number of sites on the River Wenning catchment were electrofished annually from 1981 - 1985. Particularly low Salmon parr populations were evident for much of the Wenning catchment which has caused some concern. All the Wenning catchment electrofishing results are reported in this paper and comparisons are made with designated groups of sites on the remainder of the Lune catchment. These groups of sites are: River Lune and t...

  6. 珠江流域湖库型水源集水区酞酸酯(PAEs)类污染物环境健康风险评估%Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters Like Pollutants in Reservoir or Lake Type Water ;Source Catchments in the Pearl River Basin.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺涛; 许振成; 魏东洋; 白中炎; 任明忠; 白小舰

    2014-01-01

    以饮用水源集水区为中心,沿支流采集水样,采用美国环境保护署( USEPA)暴露风险评价方法,结合该地区的参数计算环境健康风险。结果表明:(1)所有采样点均检出PAEs类污染物邻苯二甲酸正丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DOP)和邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP),其中DOP高于DBP和DEP。(2)该饮用水源集水区3种PAEs污染物质量浓度均高于流域内其他乡镇饮用水源,在国内外同类地区也属于中上水平。 DOP是集水区内需首要控制的PAEs类污染物。(3)在人类活动干扰少的地区河流污染物的环境健康风险水平较低,而在人口密集区和工业集中区风险水平较高。河流上游风险值低,中游高,下游和库区又逐渐回落。该水源集水区的PAEs类污染物环境健康风险值未超过USEPA规定,但与国内外其它地区相比属于中上水平,存在一定的潜在健康风险,需要根据PAEs的可能来源在水源地环境风险管理中加以防范。%Water samples were collected along the tributaries of a drinking water source catchment for analysis in line with the procedure for risk assessment of the USEPA, and environment health risk of phthalic acid esters ( PAEs) was assessed by taking into account the parameters of the region. Results show that ( 1) all the samples were found to have PAEs like pollutants, including di (2⁃ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di⁃n⁃butyl phthalate (DBP), among which DOP was higher than the other two, displaying an order of DOP > DEP > DBP.(2) The concentrations of DOP, DEP and DBP in the water catchment were all higher than their respective ones in other drinking water source catchments in the region and could also be sorted into the moderate or upper level of contamination in similar areas in the country and others. DOP was designated the primarily controlled contaminant of the water source

  7. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  8. Space-time modeling of catchment scale drought characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallaksen, L.; Hisdal, H.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Drought may affect all components of the water cycle and covers commonly a large part of the catchment area. This paper examines drought propagation at the catchment scale using spatially aggregated drought characteristics and illustrates the importance of catchment processes in modifying the drough

  9. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 2: Flood and low flow studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of methods that predict low flows and flood runoff in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the similarities and differences between catchments in different places, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate-landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 14 low flow prediction studies reported in the literature involving 3112 catchments, and 20 flood prediction studies involving 3023 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the regionalisation method. The results indicate that both flood and low flow predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be less accurate in arid than in humid climates and more accurate in large than in small catchments. There is also a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region, while geostatistical methods tend to perform better than other methods. Of the various flood regionalisation approaches, index methods show significantly lower performances in arid catchments than regression methods or geostatistical methods. For low flow regionalisation, regional regressions are generally better than global regressions.

  10. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 2: Flood and low flow studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Salinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of methods that predict low flows and flood runoff in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the similarities and differences between catchments in different places, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate-landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 14 low flow prediction studies reported in the literature involving 3112 catchments, and 20 flood prediction studies involving 3023 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the regionalisation method. The results indicate that both flood and low flow predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be less accurate in arid than in humid climates and more accurate in large than in small catchments. There is also a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region, while geostatistical methods tend to perform better than other methods. Of the various flood regionalisation approaches, index methods show significantly lower performance in arid catchments than regression methods or geostatistical methods. For low flow regionalisation, regional regressions are generally better than global regressions.

  11. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 1: Runoff-hydrograph studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assessment is to compare studies predicting runoff hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the differences and similarities between catchments in different locations, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate and landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 34 studies reported in the literature involving 3874 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the chosen regionalisation method. The results indicate that runoff-hydrograph predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be more accurate in humid than in arid catchments and more accurate in large than in small catchments. The dependence of performance on elevation differs by regions and depends on how aridity varies with elevation and air temperature. The effect of the parameter regionalisation method on model performance differs between studies. However, there is a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region. In humid catchments spatial proximity and similarity methods perform best while in arid catchments similarity and parameter regression methods perform slightly better. For studies with a large number of catchments (dense stream gauge network there is a tendency for spatial proximity and geostatistics to perform better than regression or regionalisation based on simple averaging of model parameters from gauged catchments. There was no clear relationship between predictive performance and the number of regionalised model parameters. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of model building.

  12. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 1: Runoff hydrograph studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assessment is to compare studies predicting runoff hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the differences and similarities between catchments in different locations, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate and landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 34 studies reported in the literature involving 3874 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the chosen regionalisation method. The results indicate that runoff hydrograph predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be more accurate in humid than in arid catchments and more accurate in large than in small catchments. The dependence of performance on elevation differs by regions and depends on how aridity varies with elevation and air temperature. The effect of parameter regionalisation method on model performance differs between studies. However, there is a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region. In humid catchments spatial proximity and similarity methods perform best while in arid catchments similarity and parameter regression methods perform slightly better. For studies with a large number of catchments (dense stream gauge network there is a tendency for spatial proximity and geostatistics to perform better than regression or regionalisation based on simple averaging of model parameters from gauged catchments. There was no clear relationship between predictive performance and the number of regionalised model parameters. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of model building.

  13. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Droogers, P.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Hunink, J.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Kauffman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to so

  14. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Droogers, P.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Hunink, J.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Kauffman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil classification systems are analysed in relation to the functioning and characterisation of catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhe

  15. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  16. Assessment of water availability in Chindwinn catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water balance over Chindwinn Catchment has been carried out by using three decades of available climatological and hydrological data (i.e. from 1967). The study was based on the monthly, annual and normal values. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) computed by as well as on the using Penman (1963) as well as Hargreaves (1985) methods. Some of the reliable data of evaporation at the stations were also used to estimate actual evaporation with the pancoefficient value 0.7. The values of actual evapotranspiration estimated by Hargreaves method was lower than the values estimated by Penman, but most followed the same significant trend. The soil moisture deficiency generally occurs during November and April. A few cases of soil moisture deficiency do occur in August, September and October. However, on the overall availability of water in the catchment is quite promising. The residual resulted from the water balance estimation may be assumed as soil moisture in the catchment by neglecting some losses from the catchment. (author)

  17. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Blackie; Robinson, M.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the envi...

  18. Boron water quality for the Plynlimon catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron concentrations in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow for Spruce stands, mist, streamwater and groundwater are compared with chloride to assess atmospheric sources and catchment input-output balances for the Plynlimon catchments. In rainfall, boron concentration averages about 4.5 μg-B l-1 and approximately two thirds of this comes from anthropogenic sources. In through-fall and stemflow, boron concentrations are approximately a factor of ten times higher than in rainfall. This increase is associated with enhanced scavenging of mist and dry deposition by the trees. As the sampling sites were close to a forest edge, this degree of scavenging is probably far higher than in the centre of the forest. The throughfall and stemflow concentrations of boron show some evidence of periodic variations with time with peak concentrations occurring during the summer months indicating some vegetational cycling. In mist, boron concentrations are almost twenty times higher than in rainfall and anthropogenic sources account for about 86% of this. Within the Plynlimon streams, boron concentrations are about 1.4 to 1.7 times higher than in rainfall. However, after allowance for mist and dry deposition contributions to atmospheric deposition, it seems that, on average, about 30% of the boron input is retained within the catchment. For the forested catchments, felling results in a disruption of the biological cycle and a small increase in boron leaching from the catchment results in the net retention by the catchment being slightly reduced. Despite the net uptake by the catchment, there is clear evidence of a boron component of weathering from the bedrock. This is shown by an increased boron concentration in a stream influenced by a nearby borehole which increased groundwater inputs. The weathering component for boron is also observed in Plynlimon groundwaters as boron concentrations and boron to chloride ratios are higher than for the streams. For these

  19. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  20. Drought characteristics and related risks in large and mesoscale tropical catchments in Latin-America and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Ribbe, Lars; Birkel, Christian; Célleri, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in water abundant tropical countries and are expected to become more frequent in the future. Unusual water shortage in the past months and years has severely affected societies living in the Paraiba do Sul river basin (Brazil), the Mekong, as well as in a number of basins in Central America and Vietnam among many others. Preparedness, however, is absent and site appropriate water management measures and strategies are not available. While drought related research and water management in recent years has been widely addressed in water scarce subtropical regions, the US and Europe, not much attention has been paid to drought risk in tropical catchments. Available daily or monthly precipitation and runoff time series for catchments in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Mekong region and Vietnam were analysed to compare historical meteorological and hydrological drought frequency (SPI/SRI). The role of tropical catchment characteristics, storage and climate variability in seasonal drought evolvement was investigated by applying the conceptual semi-distributed HBV light model to two undisturbed catchments in Central Vietnam and 18 catchments of a size of 70-5000 km² in Costa Rica. For the Mekong and the Paraíba de Sul, the hydrological module of the WEAP model was applied to undisturbed subcatchments with the same objective. To understand and separate the anthropogenic impact on drought evolvement, the abstractions (irrigation, reservoirs, water supply) and hydrological alterations were observed and quantified by applying water allocation and balance model WEAP. We conclude that such a combined model-data analysis that equally accounts for landscape related and anthropogenic impacts on the local hydrological cycle is a useful approach for drought management in tropical countries.

  1. Climate model validation and selection for hydrological applications in representative Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22-degree (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the E-OBS dataset, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of 4 RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the XXI century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, to some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and hint for an audience of researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more in general, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean.

  2. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, both to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning and to quantify the long-distance effect of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, especially in Europe, very few studies paid attention on catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line, with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors, including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the Central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. Differently to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentration in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3-N and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate, but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high elevation catchments, with a contrasting effect on N and C pools.

  3. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  4. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  5. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  6. Integrating LCA and EHS expertise in the assessment of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Hankin, Steve; Chaudry, Qasim

    DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently with the devel......DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently...... with the development of new production technology for lightweight materials used in e.g. wind turbine blades. As the new technology involves the use of nanoparticles, the health and safety workpackage is needed to examine the potential exposure and effects of these particles. An LCA is also performed to evaluate...

  7. Memory Kernel in the Expertise of Chess Players

    CERN Document Server

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L; Billoni, Orlando V

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate a mechanism for the emergence of long-range time correlations observed in a chronologically ordered database of chess games. We analyze a modified Yule-Simon preferential growth process proposed by Cattuto et al., which includes memory effects by means of a probabilistic kernel. According to the Hurst exponent of different constructed time series from the record of games, artificially generated databases from the model exhibit similar long-range correlations. In addition, the inter-event time frequency distribution is well reproduced by the model for realistic parameter values. In particular, we find the inter-event time distribution properties to be correlated with the expertise of the chess players through the memory kernel extension. Our work provides new information about the strategies implemented by players with different levels of expertise, showing an interesting example of how popularities and long-range correlations build together during a collective learning process.

  8. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBishop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronisation. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinettists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronised. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronised was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  9. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  10. [Topical issues of organisation and implementation of forensic medical expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A V; Isaev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The shaped-up experience of management and implementation of expertise as applicable to civil and criminal cases and with respect to the requirements of new legislative acts was analyzed. Issues connected with composing a commission of experts, with the range of competence of forensic medical expert and of clinical practitioner, as well as with the content and form of the expert conclusions are under discussion.

  11. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  12. Integrating LCA and EHS expertise in the assessment of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Hankin, Steve; Chaudry, Qasim

    2009-01-01

    DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently with the development of new production technology for lightweight materials used in e.g. wind turbine blades. As the new technology involves the use of nanoparticles, the health and safety workpackage is needed to ...

  13. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  14. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  15. Recognition of Translator Expertise using Sequences of Fixations and Keystrokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez, Pascual Martínez; Minocha, Akshay; Huang, Jin;

    2014-01-01

    Professional human translation is necessary to meet high quality standards in industry and governmental agencies. Translators engage in multiple activities during their task, and there is a need to model their behavior, with the objective to understand and optimize the translation process...... and keystrokes into activities and model translation sessions with the objective to recognize translator expertise. We show significant error reductions in the task of recognizing certified translators and their years of experience, and analyze the characterizing patterns....

  16. Expertise development in sport: contributions under cognitive psychology perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Gallego, Damián; García González, Luis; García Calvo, Tomás; León del Barco, Benito; Villar Álvarez, Fernando del

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper has been that of revising and updating research about expertise development in sport under the cognitive psychology approach. At first, the structure of sport action in open contexts is analysed, differentiating cognitive and execution components. Secondly, having as a reference frame Anderson’s cognitive theory, it is possible to remark the importance of the process of building knowledge as a forerunner variable of ability. Finally, the most relevant and consistent find...

  17. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  18. The ecosystem of expertise: complementary knowledges for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Brand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines the approach of technical experts, including engineers, natural scientists, architects, planners, and other practitioners, who are attempting to create more sustainable forms of economic development, environmental protection, and social equity. The authors identify four principal characteristics of expertise–ontological assumptions, epistemological approaches, power inequalities, and practical issues–and employ this framework to test the capability of traditional experts to deliver sustainable development. The authors then provide four alternatives to conventional forms of expertise: the outreach expert who communicates effectively to non-experts, the interdisciplinary expert who understands the overlaps of neighboring technical disciplines, the meta-expert who brokers the multiple claims of relevance between different forms of expertise, and the civic expert who engages in democratic discourse with non-experts and experts alike. All of these alternative forms are needed to manage the often-competing demands of sustainable development projects and they can be described collectively as an “ecosystem of expertise.”

  19. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  20. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bishop

    Full Text Available Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1 while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2 while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  1. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  2. A sociological analysis of ethical expertise: The case of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Emmerich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.

  3. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  4. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  5. Estimating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI in the Lake Dianchi Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI with components of atmospheric N deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, agricultural N fixation and N in net food and feed imports from 15 catchments in Lake Dianchi Basin were determined over an 11 year period (2000–2010. The 15 catchments range in size from 44 km2 to 316 km2 with an average of 175 km2. To reduce uncertainty from scale change methodology, results from data extracting by area-weighting and land use-weighting methods were compared. Results show that methodology for extrapolating data from county scale to watersheds has a great influence on NANI computation for catchments in the Lake Dianchi Basin, and estimates of NANI between two methods have an average difference of 30% on catchments basis while a smaller difference (15% was observed on the whole Lake Dianchi Basin basis. The riverine N export has stronger linear relationship with NANI computed by land use-weighting method, which we believe is more reliable. Overall, nitrogen inputs assessed by the NANI approach for the Lake Dianchi Basin are 9900 kg N km−2 yr−1, ranging from 6600 to 28 000 kg N km−2 yr−1 among the 15 catchments. Synthetic N fertilizer is the largest component of NANI in most subwatersheds. On average, riverine flux of nitrogen in catchments of the Lake Dianchi Basin averages 83% of NANI, far higher than generally observed in North America and Europe. Saturated N sinks and limited capacity for denitrification in rivers may be responsible for this high percent of riverine N export. A negative intercept observed in the linear relationship between NANI and riverine N export suggests the influence of pollution control measures on N flux in small watershed. The NANI methodology should be applicable in small watersheds when sufficiently detailed data are available to estimate its components.

  6. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A. [Univ. of Montana, Polson, MT (United States). Flathead Lake Biological Station; Ward, J.V. [EAWAG/ETH, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Limnology; Liss, W.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  7. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms, contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  8. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  9. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  10. The contribution of sea-level rise to flooding in large river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Hopson, T. M.; Gilleland, E.; Lamarque, J.; Hu, A.; Simmer, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to both impact sea level rise as well as flooding. Our study focuses on the combined effect of climate change on upper catchment precipitation as well as on sea-level rise at the river mouths and the impact this will have on river flooding both at the coast and further upstream. We concentrate on the eight catchments of the Amazonas, Congo, Orinoco, Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna, Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Danube and Niger rivers. To assess the impact of climate change, upper catchment precipitation as well as monthly mean thermosteric sea-level rise at the river mouth outflow are taken from the four CCSM4 1° 20th Century ensemble members as well as from six CCSM4 1° ensemble members for the RCP scenarios RCP8.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 2.6. Continuous daily time series for average catchment precipitation and discharge are available for each of the catchments. To arrive at a future discharge time series, we used these observations to develop a simple statistical hydrological model which can be applied to the modelled future upper catchment precipitation values. The analysis of this surrogate discharge time series alone already yields significant changes in flood return levels as well as flood duration. Using the geometry of the river channel, the backwater effect of sea-level rise is incorporated in our analysis of both flood frequencies and magnitudes by calculating the effective additional discharge due to the increase in water level at the river mouth outflow, as well as its tapering impact upstream. By combining these effects, our results focus on the merged impact of changes in extreme precipitation with increases in river height due to sea-level rise at the river mouths. Judging from our preliminary results, the increase in effective discharge due to sea-level rise cannot be neglected when discussing late 21st century flooding in the respective river basins. In particular, we find that especially in countries with low elevation gradient, flood

  11. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may differ considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. For two months after application in 2009, water samples were taken at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess. This is in contrast to earlier studies in the Swiss Plateau, demonstrating that saturation excess overland flow was the dominant process.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not directly reach the channel. It mostly got retained in small sinks in the catchment. From there, it reached

  12. Establishing a connection between hydrologic model parameters and physical catchment signatures for improved hierarchical Bayesian modeling in ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L. A.; Weber, K.; Smith, T. J.; Greenwood, M. C.; Sharma, A.

    2012-12-01

    In an effort to improve hydrologic analysis in areas with limited data, hydrologists often seek to link catchments where little to no data collection occurs to catchments that are gauged. Various metrics and methods have been proposed to identify such relationships, in the hope that "surrogate" catchments might provide information for those catchments that are hydrologically similar. In this study we present a statistical analysis of over 150 catchments located in southeast Australia to examine the relationship between a hydrological model and certain catchment metrics. A conceptual rainfall-runoff model is optimized for each of the catchments and hierarchical clustering is performed to link catchments based on their calibrated model parameters. Clustering has been used in recent hydrologic studies but catchments are often clustered based on physical characteristics alone. Usually there is little evidence to suggest that such "surrogate" data approaches provide sufficiently similar model predictions. Beginning with model parameters and working backwards, we hope to establish if there is a relationship between the model parameters and physical characteristics for improved model predictions in the ungauged catchment. To analyze relationships, permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests are used that suggest which hydrologic metrics are most appropriate for discriminating between calibrated catchment clusters. Additional analysis is performed to determine which cluster pairs show significant differences for various metrics. We further examine the extent to which these results may be insightful for a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach that is aimed at generating model predictions at an ungauged site. The method, known as Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) works to pool information from similar catchments to generate informed probability distributions for each model parameter at a data-limited catchment of interest. We demonstrate the effect of selecting

  13. Expertise in Clinical Psychology. The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, Sabine; Spada, Hans; Caspar, Franz; Burri, Salome

    2013-01-01

    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competence to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgr...

  14. Forest management effects on snow, runoff and evapotranspiration in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. L.; Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    We used intensive field measurements and data-intensive hydro-ecological modeling to investigate the impact of forest vegetation management on the sensitivity of snow accumulation, evapotranspiration and discharge at seven headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada. Catchments are located in dense mixed-conifer forest, at elevations of 1500 - 2100 m, and receive a mix of rain and snow precipitation. Management scenarios for reducing forest density by uniform thinning and forest clearings were implemented in the Regional Hydro-ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). Results obtained using inherent model equations to separate total precipitation into snow and rain underestimated snow water content in some of the catchments, requiring manual input of snow and rain for accurate simulations. Modeling precipitation phase accurately was critical for the current forest condition, as the change in vegetation has differing effects on rain, snow and snowmelt. Results using RHESSys show that light, uniform thinning alone (<20% canopy) may not be enough to change water yield significantly, but this threshold of canopy reduction is lowered by creating gaps in the forest alone or in combination with uniform thinning, and has potential to measurably increase water yield beyond background variation. Clarifying these specific impacts of forest vegetation on snow processes and water yield is essential for simulating forest management in the Sierra Nevada and it shows the forest structure has significant influence on the catchment water balance. However, modifying forest canopy density and canopy cover to calculate average levels of snow water equivalent at a basin-scale may not be detailed enough to incorporate all the complex forest structure effects on snow processes in mountain watersheds.

  15. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TO GEOMORPHIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENT YIELD FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchoul Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sediment yield and the factors controlling it provides useful information for estimating erosion intensities within river basins. The objective of this study was to build a model from which suspended sediment yield could be estimated from ungauged rivers using computed sediment yield and physical factors. Researchers working on suspended sediment transported by wadis in the Maghreb are usually facing the lack of available data for such river types. Further study of the prediction of sediment transport in these regions and its variability is clearly required. In this work, ANNs were built between sediment yield established from longterm measurement series at gauging stations in Algerian catchments and corresponding basic physiographic parameters such as rainfall, runoff, lithology index, coefficient of torrentiality, and basin area. The proposed Levenberg-Marquardt and Multilayer Perceptron algorithms to train the neural networks of the current research study was based on the feed-forward backpropagation method with combinations of number of neurons in each hidden layer, transfer function, error goal. Additionally, three statistical measurements, namely the root mean square error (RMSE, the coefficient of determination (R², and the efficiency factor (EF have been reported for examining the forecasting accuracy of the developed model. Single plot displays of network outputs with respect to targets for training have provided good performance results and good fitting . Thus, ANNs were a promising method for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged Algerian catchments.

  17. Impact of land use changes on connectivity in a rural catchment with mild topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Ghaffari, Golaleh

    2016-04-01

    Concept of sediment connectivity and quantitative assessment of its spatial distribution became important tool for analysis of spatial connectivity of sediment transport processes in basins. Most of the first connectivity studies is focused on montane basins with high rates of erosion originating in steep slopes in headwater areas. However, less attention is paid to the mild landscapes in highland and lowland landscape, with often high connectivity. It applies to the rural areas where the sediment transport and erosion control are of key importance. Assessment of connectivity and its control in such environment thus can contribute to the efficient and sustainable landscape management. In our study we have tested applicability of the concept of index of sediment connectivity (IC) in mid-latitude rural catchment with mild topography and extensive share of arable land. The aim of the study was (i) to test the GIS-based IC calculation in specific topographic conditions, (ii) to assess the effects of land use changes on the sediment connectivity and (iii) to identify the landscape features affecting connection between hillslopes and stream channels. The study area - Loucka River Basin, Czech Republic with area of 386 sq km is located in highland landscape with 60% share of arable land. The basin study area has a reverse pattern of topography compared to the typical montane catchments - the extensive headwater areas, used for agriculture, are flat and are drained into steep valleys in downstream. The basin is equipped with long-term monitoring of suspended sediment transport. We have used the high resolution 5 meter DEM derived from aerial LiDAR scanning as a base for analysis of topographic controls of sediment connectivity and for calculation of connectivity topographic index. The index of connectivity was calculated in a multitemporal scale of two decades since 1990 to analyze the the changes of sediment connectivity and its spatial distribution in response to the

  18. Reducing model structural uncertainty in predictions for ungauged basins via Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Cristina; Le Vine, Nataliya; Vitolo, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Medina, Raúl

    2016-04-01

    A catchment is a complex system where a multitude of interrelated energy, water and vegetation processes occur at different temporal and spatial scales. A rainfall-runoff model is a simplified representation of the system, and serves as a hypothesis about an inner catchment working. In predictions for ungauged basins, a common practice is to use a pre-selected assumed-to-be-perfect model structure to represent all catchments under analysis. However, it is unlikely that the same model structure is appropriate for diverse catchments due to the 'uniqueness of the place'. At the same time, there is no obvious justification to select a single model structure as a suitable description of the system. The contribution of this research is a move forward in the 'one size fits all' problem for predicting flows in ungauged basins. We present a statistical methodology, which allows regionalization that considers the information given by different hydrological model structures. First, the information to be regionalised is compactly represented via Principal Component Analysis. Second, the most significant principal components are regionalised using non-linear regionalisation method based on Random Forests. Third, a regionalisation error structure is derived based on the gauged catchments to be used in the Bayesian condition of the rainfall-runoff structures and their parameters. The methodological developments are demonstrated for predicting flows in ungauged basins of Northern Spain; and the results show that the methodology allows improving the flow prediction.

  19. Runoff generation mechanism at two distinct headwater catchments - isotopic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Michal; Votrubová, Jana; Šanda, Martin; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomáš; Dušek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    Data from two headwater catchments indicate considerably different runoff formation mechanisms. The contributions of different surface and subsurface runoff mechanisms to the catchment discharge formation at these two small forested headwater catchments are studied with help of the natural isotopic signatures of the observed fluxes. The Uhlirska catchment (1.78 sq. km, Jizera Mts., Czech Republic) is situated in headwater area of Cerna Nisa stream. Deluviofluvial granitic sediments in the valley bottom areas (riparian zones/wetlands) are surrounded by gentle hillslopes with shallow soils developed on crystalline bedrock. The Liz catchment (0.99 sq. km, Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic) belongs to hillslope-type catchments without riparian zones situated in headwater area of Volynka River. The soil at Liz is developed on biotite paragneiss bedrock. Autocorrelation analysis of the measured catchment discharge rates reveals different hydrograph characteristics for each of the two catchments. Estimated autocorrelation lengths differ by an order of magnitude. Variations of oxygen-18 isotope concentrations in precipitation, groundwater and streamflow were analyzed. Several significant rainfall-runoff events at each of the two catchments were analyzed in detail. These events exhibit substantial difference in isotopic compositions of event and pre-event water, which facilitates hydrograph separation. Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteretic relationships between the stream discharge and its isotope concentration were identified. Results were confronted with the previously published concepts of the runoff formation at the catchments under study. The research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation, project No. 14-15201J.

  20. Design of a Rainwater Catchment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Cammardella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain dimensions of a rainwater catchment and storage system were optimized using climatological and sociological data. Using only daily demand and average daily rain fall data, the following dimensions were optimized: 1 The horizontal roof area needed to collect the daily demand of water, 2 The tank size needed to store all the water collected during a heavy rain event, 3 When full, how long the tank will be able to provide water without rain, and 4 The diameter of the outlet flow orifice. With these calculations, we can design a rainwater catchment system that can capture the daily demand and store excess water for use during periods of low rain.

  1. Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucumán, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, L. M.

    2006-09-01

    A morphometric analysis was done to determine the drainage characteristics of Lules River basin using land-sat imageries and topographical maps. This catchment was divided into seven sub-basins for the analysis: Liquimayo, Hoyada, Ciénaga, De Las Tablas, Siambón, Potrerillo and San Javier. Yungas ecoregion covers almost all the watershed. The drainage patterns of the sub-basins are dendritic and parallel. The basin includes seventh order stream and lower streams order mostly dominate the basin. The development of stream segments is affected by slope and local relief. The mean bifurcation ratio indicates that the drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures. The shape parameters also reveal the elongation of the basin and sub-basins.

  2. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    collaborative information sharing can have a direct influence on agricultural practice. We apply a nutrient management scheme to a model of an example catchment with several individual networks. The networks are able to correlate catchment events to events within their zone of influence, allowing them to adapt their monitoring and control strategy in light of wider changes across the catchment. Results indicate that this can lead to significant reductions in nutrient losses (up to 50%) and better reutilization of nutrients amongst farms, having a positive impact on catchment scale water quality and fertilizer costs. 1. EC, E.C., Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, 2000. 2. Rivers, M., K. Smettem, and P. Davies. Estimating future scenarios for farm-watershed nutrient fluxes using dynamic simulation modelling-Can on-farm BMPs really do the job at the watershed scale? in Proc.29th Int.Conf System Dynamics Society, 2011. 2010. Washington 3. Liu, C., et al., On-farm evaluation of winter wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N in North China Plain. Agronomy Journal, 2008. 100(6): p. 1527-1534. 4. Kotamäki, N., et al., Wireless in-situ sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring on a river basin scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a data user's perspective. Sensors, 2009. 9(4): p. 2862-2883.

  3. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    OpenAIRE

    L. Benda; MILLER, D; J. Barquín

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tribu...

  4. Influence of topography and forestry on catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Rasmus,

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic development of terrestrial and aquatic environments in boreal catchments is controlled by the factors of parent material, climate, topography, biota, time, and anthropogenic activity. This thesis explores two of these factors, topography and the anthropogenic activity of forestry, as well as their control on the redistribution of solutes in the landscape. On a local scale for two undisturbed sites, the calculation of the topographical wetness index, TWI, was varied to better corre...

  5. A Project for Developing an Original Methodology Intended for Determination of the River Basin/Sub-Basin Boundaries and Codes in Western Mediterranean Basin in Turkey with Perspective of European Union Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökgöz, Türkay; Ozulu, Murat; Erdoǧan, Mustafa; Seyrek, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    From the view of integrated river basin management, basin/sub-basin boundaries should be determined and encoded systematically with sufficient accuracy and precision. Today basin/sub-basin boundaries are mostly derived from digital elevation models (DEM) in geographic information systems (GIS). The accuracy and precision of the basin/sub-basin boundaries depend primarily on the accuracy and resolution of the DEMs. In this regard, in Turkey, a survey was made for the first time within the scope of this project to identify current situation, problems and needs in General Directorates of State Hydraulic Works, Water Management, Forestry, Meteorology, Combating Desertification and Erosion, which are the major institutions with responsibility and authority. Another factor that determines the accuracy and precision of basin/sub-basin boundaries is the flow accumulation threshold value to be determined at a certain stage according to a specific methodology in deriving the basin/sub-basin boundaries from DEM. Generally, in Turkey, either the default value given by GIS tool is used directly without any geomorphological, hydrological and cartographic bases or it is determined by trial and error. Although there is a system of catchments and rivers network at 1:250,000 scale and a proper method has already been developed on systematic coding of the basin by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, it is stated that a new system of catchments, rivers network and coding at larger scale (i.e. 1:25,000) is needed. In short, the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are not available currently at the required accuracy and precision for the fulfilment of the obligations described in European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this case, it is clear that there is not yet any methodology to obtain such products. However, a series of projects should be completed such that the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are the fundamental data infrastructure. This task

  6. Variability in riparian zone potential and actual evapotranspiration in a 1st order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. English

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological and hydrological measurements were made over one growing season using automatic weather stations and weighing lysimeters at several locations within a multiple land-use agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario. This paper compares modelled potential evapotranspiration (PET and measured actual evapotranspiration (AET values obtained from the soil weighing lysimeters, and determines the spatial variability in riparian zone AET in a multiple land-use agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario. Two sites were chosen in two different riparian areas of the watershed, representing the surface conditions dominant in the upper and lower reaches of the basin. The results indicated that AET was higher in the northern end of the basin than in the southern portion of the basin, while the hydrological and energy balance components were similar at both sites. The causes of the different rates are attributed to the surrounding vegetation on adjacent fields and the differing wind regimes.

  7. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  8. Public scientific expertise and judicial risks: the case of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, radon has emerged as a public health issue mainly at the initiative of scientists. Even if public authorities have set up an embryo of regulations, for a long time scientists faced the radon issue alone, in producing knowledge, informing about their results, providing advice to public authorities, various bodies and individuals, and in participating in the process of technical standardisation. These functions are identified in the paper in order to sketch out a typology of different situations, formal and informal, in which researchers transformed into experts are called to collaborate. During their missions, experts are exposed to 'judicial risks', particularly in terms of civil liability or 'professional' responsibility and even criminal responsibility. They face legal difficulties because of the lack of a legal framework for public scientific expertise. The situation is confused: there is a growing will to involve scientific experts in decision-making in the field of public health, especially when the precautionary principle is at stake, and in parallel, no real materialisation of this expertise in terms of regulations, which puts on experts' shoulders some new responsibilities. Moreover we can observe a generalised increase in the attribution of blame and penal responsibility in French society which make the position of all actors involved more uncomfortable. We know that radon, as a domestic risk, is particular in many ways. Nevertheless, it can be used in an analysis of scientists' roles/actions and of the legal difficulties they face, to illustrate appropriately the problems that arise as expertise is developed about new risks. (author)

  9. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km2 Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments.

  10. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  11. The art of assessment in psychology: ethics, expertise, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, J A

    1999-05-01

    Psychological assessment is a hybrid, both art and science. The empirical foundations of testing are indispensable in providing reliable and valid data. At the level of the integrated assessment, however, science gives way to art. Standards of reliability and validity account for the individual instrument; they do not account for the integration of data into a comprehensive assessment. This article examines the current climate of psychological assessment, selectively reviewing the literature of the past decade. Ethics, expertise, and validity are the components under discussion. Psychologists can and do take precautions to ensure that the "art" of their work holds as much merit as the science. PMID:10392793

  12. Advances of Simulation and Expertise Capabilities in CIVA Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, L.; Calmon, P.; Sollier, Th.; Mahaut, S.; Benoist, Ph.

    2006-03-01

    Simulation is more and more widely used by the different actors of industrial NDT. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched the development of expertise software for NDT named CIVA which, at its beginning, only contained ultrasonic models from CEA laboratories. CIVA now includes Eddy current simulation tools while present work aims at facilitating integration of algorithms and models from different laboratories and to include X-ray modeling. This communication gives an overview of existing CIVA capabilities and its evolution towards an integration platform.

  13. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  14. Models of clinical expertise in American nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D R

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes nursing job descriptions that compose a career ladder. These job descriptions, an ethnomodel of expertise, are compared to the Dreyfus model that describes five stages of skill acquisition. While the Dreyfus model posits the replacement of analytic reasoning with intuitive response as the characteristic of expert practice, the ideal posited in the nursing model places theoretical knowledge at the apex. Nursing job descriptions can best be understood in the context of this profession's search for greater power and legitimacy. PMID:3738566

  15. Selected Micropollutants as Indicators in a Karst Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Schiperski, Ferry; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    High flow dynamics and variations in water quality are typical for karst springs and reflect the complex interaction of different flow and storage components within a karst system. Event-based monitoring of mobile micropollutants in spring water combined with information on their input is used (1) to quantify the impact of certain contamination scenarios on spring water quality and (2) to gain additional information on the intrinsic characteristics of a karst system. We employ the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate as source specific indicators for sewage along with the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon for agriculture. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (SDB, combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality. Most of the sewer system is situated in the SW of the catchment. Most agricultural land is found in the NE. Neither atrazine nor significant amounts of isoproturon were detected in wastewater. Concentrations and mass fluxes of acesulfame and cyclamate in wastewater were determined. The combined evaluation of the persistent compound acesulfame with the rather degradable cyclamate allows for the distinction of long and short transit times and thus slow and fast flow components. The same applies for atrazine (persistent) and isoproturon (degradable). In Germany, acesulfame was licensed in 1990, atrazine was banned shortly after, in 1991. During low flow conditions only atrazine (max. 4 ng/L) and acesulfame (max. 20 ng/L) were detected in spring water. After a recharge event without SDB overflow concentrations as well as mass fluxes of both compounds decreased, reflecting an increasing portion of event water in spring discharge. A breakthrough of isoproturon (max. 9 ng/L) indicated the arrival of water from croplands. After a recharge event accompanied by a SDB overflow cyclamate was detected at max

  16. Seasonal and regional patterns in performance for a Baltic Sea Drainage Basin hydrologic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, S.W.; Meidani, Roya; Velde, van der Ype; Dahlke, H.E.; Swaney, D.P.; Mörth, Carl Magnus; Humborg, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Catchment SIMulation (CSIM) hydrologic model to describe seasonal and regional variations in river discharge over the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin (BSDB) based on 31 years of monthly simulation from 1970 through 2000. To date, the model has been success

  17. Metaphor in Natural Resource Gaming: Insights from the RIVER BASIN GAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Bruce; Watson, Drennan

    2007-01-01

    The RIVER BASIN GAME is a dialogue tool for decision makers and water users tested in Tanzania and Nigeria. It comprises a physical representation of a river catchment. A central channel flows between an upper watershed and a downstream wetland and has on it several intakes into irrigation systems. Glass marbles, representing water, roll down the…

  18. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  19. A catchment scale water balance model for FIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Famiglietti, J.S.; E. F. Wood; Sivapalan, M.; Thongs, D. J

    1992-01-01

    A catchment scale water balance model is presented and used to predict evaporation from the King's Creek catchment at the First ISLSCP Field Experiment site on the Konza Prairie, Kansas. The model incorporates spatial variability in topography, soils, and precipitation to compute the land surface hydrologie fluxes. A network of 20 rain gages was employed to measure rainfall across the catchment in the summer of 1987. These data were spatially interpolated and used to drive the model during st...

  20. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  1. Characterization of physical parameters and environmental sanitation for experimental-representative catchment located in the lowlands of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Pimentel da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics and environmental sanitation aspects for a drainage area inserted in the region of Morto river catchment, taken as experimental and representative of Jacarepaguá Lowland Basin in Rio de Janeiro, where city´s growth is taking place very fast. It is expected that this study will support the development of public policies that may guide the conservation of water and sustainable development of the region. The methodology used for watershed delimitation and the physical characteristics calculation involved the application of small computational procedures associated to ArcGis 9.2, ArcHydro®. It was determined the area, the perimeter, the compactness index, shape factor, drainage density, average extension of runoff and catchment´s slope. The observed low slope along the river coast combined with the physical parameters of the basin, enabled to conclude that this catchment is susceptible to floods especially during concomitant events of high tide and heavy rain. The analysis of social and environmental sanitation aspects took into account IBGE`s 2000 Census results. It was observed that illiteracy rates for the catchment area was doubled of that observed for the city as whole and that services such as water supply, sewage and garbage collection are more precarious in the catchment area than in the neighborhood of Jacarepaguá or the city of Rio de Janeiro. In relative terms, sewage collection was in the worst situation while the garbage collection services were in the best for the studied basin.

  2. Examining runoff generation processes in the Selke catchment in central Germany: Insights from data and semi-distributed numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: We examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff generating mechanisms on the sub-basin level on seasonal basis. Our analysis reveals that the runoff generation in the Selke catchment is primarily dominated by shallow sub-surface flow and very rarely the contribution from Dunne overland flow exceeds sub-surface flow. Runoff generated by Hortonian mechanism is very infrequent and almost negligible. We also examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff coefficients on seasonal basis as well as for individual storms. Due to higher precipitation and topographic relief in the upland catchment of Silberhutte, the runoff coefficients were consistently higher and its peak was found in winter months due to lower evapotranspiration.

  3. The geochemical quality of soils in the Clyde basin, Scotland, UK : main controls and anthropogenic impacts [abstract only

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona; Everett, Paul; Bearcock, Jenny; Lister, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the British Geological Survey’s (BGS) Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project carried out extensive surveys of rural and urban soil quality in the River Clyde catchment (Clyde basin) on the west coast of Scotland. The Clyde basin is interesting as it extends from a rural upland environment in the south, to the River Clyde estuary in the north. The catchment contains an historic lead mining area known as Leadhills that was active until the mid 20th century. In...

  4. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    -applications include the impact analysis of planned hydraulic structures or land use changes and the predicted impact of climate change on water availability. One of the obstacles hydrologists face in setting up river basin models is data availability, whether because the datasets needed do not exist or because....... Many types of RS are now routinely used to set up and drive river basin models. One of the key hydrological state variables is river discharge. It is typically the output of interest for water allocation applications and is also widely used as a source of calibration data as it presents the integrated...... response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study...

  5. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Assaf

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts' process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts' scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic and unpredictable.

  6. Social and psychological risks expertise in crisis communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging and development of crises in the communities leads to considerable increase of individual's risks' quality and quantity. Irrespectively of risk scale - partial or total influence on a community - a number of tendencies of risks increase could be identified. On social level risks result from the tendency of social protection decrease and restriction in free choice of activities' forms and kinds. On group level confrontation and clashes emerge, increase intolerance and decrease tolerance are identified. On interpersonal (micro group) level aggression and abuse intensify. On individual level a complex of negative psychological statuses develops, which is diverse both as for its content and forms. Reasons of crisis development and its dynamics determine the content and concrete forms of risks on all levels. Systematic description of risks and development of psychological support programmes for population in risk presupposes organization and delivering of comprehensive social and psychological expertise of situation. Such an expertise makes it possible to unite in a comprehensive model of the multi-professional descriptions of crisis situations on the above mentioned levels, the subjective concepts of the population (or its separate groups) together with evaluation of various projects and programmes on crisis coping and risks decrease options. (author)

  7. Music Reading Expertise Selectively Improves Categorical Judgment with Musical Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetta Kwailing Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different domains of perceptual expertise often lead to different hemispheric engagement (e.g. Kanwisher et al., 1997. Recent work suggests that the neural substrates engaged in musical reading are shifted from left hemisphere novice processing to bilateral processing in experts (Wong & Gauthier, 2010. To relate this shift to behavior, we tested whether music-reading training improves categorical and coordinate perceptual judgments, which are argued to rely on the left and right hemisphere respectively (Kosslyn et al., 1989. Music-reading experts and novices judged whether two sequentially presented music sequences were identical. The notes were either on a staff (categorical or without a staff (coordinate in either trained or untrained (90° rotated orientations. Experts performed better than novices for categorical judgments, and the advantage was larger for the trained than untrained orientation. The two groups performed similarly for coordinate judgments. Music-reading fluency predicted performance in categorical judgments in the trained orientation in experts, while it predicted performance in all conditions in novices. This suggests that music-reading training selectively improves categorical judgments in the trained orientation, while music-reading ability in novices reflects general perceptual ability with notes. Future studies will clarify how these findings are related to the hemispheric shift in music-reading expertise.

  8. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  9. Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group: an original experience of pluralistic expertise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Thierry; Lochard, Jacques [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles [MUTADIS, Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    Following the Publication of the epidemiological study on the risk of radiation induced leukemia in the Nord Cotentin region where the reprocessing plant of La Hague is located, in 1997 by the professor J.F. Viel, a pluralistic expertise group was set up by the French Ministries of Health and of Environment. This group Performed an assessment of the exposure levels to ionising radiations for the children of the region and the associated risk of leukaemia. The aim of this paper is to point out the specificity of this pluralistic approach according to its historical context. After a brief description of the main steps of the evaluation process adopted and ts results, this paper underlines the new perspectives provided by the experience of the group in terms of stakeholders involvement in the assessment and the management of the radiological risk. Although some members of the group have expressed restrictions about. the expertise process and the interpretation of the results, this experience of the Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group is of interest in the perspective of developing a new management of the health and environmental impacts associated with the releases of industrial installations.

  10. The nature of chess expertise: knowledge or search?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Vasyukova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we briefl y survey studies of the nature of expertise, and we presentthe results of research directed at evidence of the complicated nature of expertise,which is most eff ectively seen in experts’ use of a transfer mechanism. Thephenomenon of the transfer of verbalized operational senses (VOS is analyzedand is investigated on the basis of the sense theory of thinking, as proposed byTikhomirov (1969, 1984.It is shown that VOS transfer manifests itself in diverse forms. It seems to be dependenton the factors of chess position and the age and skill level of the player.Diverse forms of transferring are associated with a change in separate indices ofVOS volume, structure, depth, and degree of consciousness in a connected position.VOS transfer is found more in skilled than in unskilled chess players; skilledplayers demonstrate selectivity of search in a connected position. VOS transfer isassociated not simply with the repetition and copying of some forecasts, whichgive the direction of search, but also with using and transforming the results ofprevious verbal searches.

  11. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists). PMID:23842668

  12. Methods for sharing tacit nuclear knowledge and expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a growing concern about the preservation of nuclear knowledge due to many concurrent development trends: the ageing of workforce, the lack of training programs and recruits, and the decline in R and D activities. Internal training through enterprise universities, tutorage of young scientists by seniors, international mobility of workers, teamwork, meetings, on-the-job training, site visits, cross-training, shift changes and peer-to-peer communication have been seen as potential solutions for preserving nuclear knowledge. Especially it has been viewed that 'hard' knowledge can be captured relatively easily but challenges lie in 'tacit learning' deeply embodied in the life-long experience of employees. For example, it has been found that to share tacit 'lessons learned', the context in which lessons are learned must also be shared. Knowledge management systems may not store sufficient context for a novice to understand and use the stored knowledge. This paper presents results of a qualitative case study in the context of Finnish nuclear power plants. Based on 17 thematic interviews and group discussions the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it as well as methods for sharing it were examined. This paper presents preliminary results of seven interviews in terms of the methods for sharing tacit knowledge and expertise. Overall, six methods were identified. Three methods were connected to sharing tacit knowledge in a tacit form. (1) Mentoring had been used to systematically socialize a novice worker to the work culture of the organization. New recruits had been assigned a mentor, who assisted in problematic situations. In order to share the expertise of employees about to retire, (2) apprenticeship was utilized. New employees had been recruited and given responsibility whilst the experts were still available to give guidance and answer to evoking questions. Moreover, if a more complex or rare procedure was to be carried out in

  13. Sustainable network of independent technical expertise for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: SITEX is a 24-month FP7 project led by IRSN and bringing together 15 organisations representing technical safety organisations (TSO) and safety authorities, as well as civil society outreach specialists involved in the 'regulatory' review process of geological disposal of radioactive waste. SITEX aims at establishing the conditions required for developing a sustainable network of experts from various horizons (authorities, TSO, academic organisations, civil society,...) capable of developing and coordinating the technical expertise that is required from the stakeholders in charge of delivering opinion, independently from the waste management organisations (WMO), on the safety of geological disposals. The SITEX programme of work is split into a set of six work packages that address technical and organisational issues allowing to propose a structure of the missions and operating mode of the future network. These issues relate on the one hand to the study of the potential for sharing and developing technical expertise practices amongst stakeholders, on the other hand on the ability to implement co-ordinated R and D programmes run by TSO in order to develop the scientific knowledge necessary to perform independent technical assessments. Two major perspectives are identified for the future of the SITEX network: its ability to foster co-operation between regulatory bodies, TSO, implementers and civil society with a view to enhancing common understanding of key safety issues and challenges and to identifying possible harmonisation of practices; the constitution of a scientific task force (mainly driven by TSO) for research definition and implementation at the European level allowing to improve the co-ordination of scientific programmes between TSO and developing its own skills and analytical tools, independently of the WMO. A comprehensive list of safety issues relevant to the development and implementation of a geological repository has

  14. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information needed to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of ecosystem water use may serve as an alternative to quantify Gross Primary Productivity (GPP. To examine this concept, we estimated a long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2 in Korea and examined its application for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET was derived from the long term precipitation (P and discharge (Q data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with other hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES, evaporation from intercepted rainfall (EI, and transpiration (T. ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. The annual T, estimated from ET after accounting for EI and ES for the Han River basin from 1966 to 2007, was 22~31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains the catchment scale GPP in terms of water use efficiency (WUE, we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relationship would provide a simple and practical way to assess the spatial distribution of ecosystem GPP, provided the WUE estimates in terms of GPP/T at ecosystem scale could be obtained. For carbon and water tracking toward a sustainable Asia, ascertaining such a spatiotemporally representative WUE and their variability is a

  15. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Bataille, Clement; Liu, Zhongfang; Ale, Srinivasulu; VanDeVelde, Justin; Roswell, Charles R.; Bowling, Laura C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryDrainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of NO3--laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. In this study, we quantified the flux and hydrological pathways of agricultural NO3- and road-salt Cl- from catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of NO3- to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both NO3- and Cl) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of Cl--laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in NO3- occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of Cl- and NO3- differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  16. Extreme Rainfall Impacts in Fractured Permeable Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Serious groundwater flooding events have occurred on Chalk catchments in both the UK and north west Europe in the last decade, causing substantial amounts of disruption and economic damage. These fractured, permeable catchments are characterized by low surface runoff, high baseflow indices and strongly attenuated streamflow hydrographs. They have a general resilience to drought and pluvial/fluvial flooding. The small pore size of the Chalk matrix (~ 1 µm) exerts a high suction, such that dynamic storage is primarily due to the fractures, and amounts to ~ 1% of the total volume. As a result, under sustained rainfall the water table can rise up to exceptional levels leading to surface water emergence from springs and valleys. Floodwater may slowly drain with the topography, or, in localized depressions, it may simply pond until the groundwater levels decline. In winter 2000/1, a sequence of individually unexceptional rainfall events over several months led to large scale flooding in the Pang catchment, Berkshire, UK. By contrast, an extreme rainfall event on 20th July 2007 in the same catchment caused a very rapid response at the water table, but due to the antecedent conditions did not lead to flooding. The objective of this study is to quantify how the water table in a fractured permeable catchment responds to different types of rainfall, and the implications of this for groundwater flooding. We make use of measurements from the Pang catchment, including: rainfall (tipping bucket gauges); actual evaporation (eddy flux correlation); soil water content (profile probes and neutron probes); near surface matric potential (tensiometers and equitensiometers); deep (>10m) matric potential (deep jacking tensiometers); and water table elevation (piezometers). Conventional treatment of recharge in Chalk aquifers considers a fixed bypass component of rainfall, normally 15%, to account for the role of the fractures. However, interpretation of the field data suggest three modes

  17. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  18. Evaluation of TOPLATS on three Mediterranean catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, Javier; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    Physically based hydrological models are complex tools that provide a complete description of the different processes occurring on a catchment. The TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS) simulates water and energy balances at different time steps, in both lumped and distributed modes. In order to gain insight on the behavior of TOPLATS and its applicability in different conditions a detailed evaluation needs to be carried out. This study aimed to develop a complete evaluation of TOPLATS including: (1) a detailed review of previous research works using this model; (2) a sensitivity analysis (SA) of the model with two contrasted methods (Morris and Sobol) of different complexity; (3) a 4-step calibration strategy based on a multi-start Powell optimization algorithm; and (4) an analysis of the influence of simulation time step (hourly vs. daily). The model was applied on three catchments of varying size (La Tejeria, Cidacos and Arga), located in Navarre (Northern Spain), and characterized by different levels of Mediterranean climate influence. Both Morris and Sobol methods showed very similar results that identified Brooks-Corey Pore Size distribution Index (B), Bubbling pressure (ψc) and Hydraulic conductivity decay (f) as the three overall most influential parameters in TOPLATS. After calibration and validation, adequate streamflow simulations were obtained in the two wettest catchments, but the driest (Cidacos) gave poor results in validation, due to the large climatic variability between calibration and validation periods. To overcome this issue, an alternative random and discontinuous method of cal/val period selection was implemented, improving model results.

  19. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed open-quotes lithogenicclose quotes solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing open-quotes cosmogenicclose quotes nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing open-quotes thermonuclearclose quotes nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing open-quotes in-situclose quotes lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading open-quotes cosmogenic nuclidesclose quotes, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system

  20. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  1. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and

  2. ANN modeling for flood prediction in the upstream Eure's catchment (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Ouissem; masson, Eric; Blanpain, Olivier; Lallahem, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall-Runoff relationship at basin scale is strongly depending on the catchment complexity including multi-scale interactions. In extreme events cases (i.e. floods and droughts) this relationship is even more complex and differs from average hydrological conditions making extreme runoff prediction very difficult to achieve. However, flood warning, flood prevention and flood mitigation rely on the possibility to predict both flood peak runoff and lag time. This point is crucial for decision making and flood warning to prevent populations and economical stakes to be damaged by extreme hydrological events. Since 2003 in France, a dedicated state service is in charge of producing flood warning from national level (i.e. SCHAPI) to regional level (i.e. SPC). This flood warning service is combining national weather forecast agency (i.e. Meteo France) together with a fully automated realtime hydrological network (i.e. Rainfall-Runoff) in order to produce a flood warning national map online and provide a set of hydro-meteorological data to the SPC in charge of flood prediction from regional to local scale. The SPC is in fact the flood service delivering hydrological prediction at operational level for decision making about flood alert for municipalities and first help services. Our research in collaboration with the SPC SACN (i.e. "Seine Aval et fleuves Côtiers Normands") is focused on the implementation of an Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) for flood prediction in deferent key points of the Eure's catchment and main subcatchment. Our contribution will focus on the ANN model developed for Saint-Luperce gauging station in the upstream part of the Eure's catchment. Prediction of extreme runoff at Saint-Luperce station is of high importance for flood warning in the Eure's catchment because it gives a good indicator on the extreme status and the downstream propagation of a potential flood event. Despite a good runoff monitoring since 27 years Saint Luperce flood

  3. Characterization of physical parameters and environmental sanitation for experimental-representative catchment located in the lowlands of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Pimentel da Silva; Ezer Urpia Rosa; Caroline Pereira Pires da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics and environmental sanitation aspects for a drainage area inserted in the region of Morto river catchment, taken as experimental and representative of Jacarepaguá Lowland Basin in Rio de Janeiro, where city´s growth is taking place very fast. It is expected that this study will support the development of public policies that may guide the conservation of water and sustainable development of the region. The methodology used for watershed...

  4. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, C.A.;

    2014-01-01

    and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  5. Design of a Rainwater Catchment System

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Cammardella

    2011-01-01

    Certain dimensions of a rainwater catchment and storage system were optimized using climatological and sociological data. Using only daily demand and average daily rain fall data, the following dimensions were optimized: 1) The horizontal roof area needed to collect the daily demand of water, 2) The tank size needed to store all the water collected during a heavy rain event, 3) When full, how long the tank will be able to provide water without rain, and 4) The diameter of the outlet flow orif...

  6. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i) to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time o...

  7. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  8. A numerical solution to define channel heads and hillslope parameters from digital topography of glacially conditioned catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Baumann, Sebastian; Kober, Florian; Robl, Jörg; Heiniger, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    region shows a distinct increase of mean elevation from the major overdeepend valleys near the Foreland to the alpine main divide at around 4000 m.a.s.l. within a distance of only 150 km. To define channel heads we first analyzed the variations to fine-scale topography of catchments by calculating the plan curvature at low topographic wavelengths. Higher elevated catchments more frequently impacted by glacial erosion show a higher degree in topographic flattening than catchments with a lower mean elevation where rougher fluvial (steady state) channels dominate. We found that this process of glacial destruction of fine-scale topography can well be analyzed by extracting the plan curvature from a DEM (1-30 m resolution). We furthermore found that the plan curvature frequency depends on the mean elevation of a catchment. Accordingly, the correlation between mean elevation of basins and the related density of pixels with a certain curvature is highly controlled by the used curvature threshold (e.g. used range of curvature pixels). A statistically derived optimum of the negative plan curvature was taken to define a threshold for the concavity of channels. The resulting fragmented network of channel segments was then fully integrated by utilizing a steepest descent algorithm. The upstream-most point of this fully integrated network was then defined as channel head. Our approach offers not only a consistent method to derive (i) hillslope and channel parameters in formerly glaciated catchments but also to (ii) measure the degree in glacial conditioning and therefore (iii) separating non-glacial from glacial catchments.

  9. Hydrological effects of within-catchment heterogeneity of drainage density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Michele; Zarlenga, Antonio; Volpi, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Local drainage density (dd) has been traditionally defined as the inverse of twice the distance one has to walk before encountering a channel. This formalization easily allows to derive raster-based maps of dd extracted straight off from digital elevation model data. Maps of local dd, which are continuous in space, are able to reveal the appearance of strong heterogeneities in the geological and geomorphological properties of natural landscapes across different scales. In this work we employ the information provided by these spatial maps to study the potential effects of the within-catchment variability of dd on the hydrologic response. A simple power law relationship between runoff yield at the local scale and the value of dd has been adopted; the hypothesis is supported by a large number of past empirical observations and modeling. The novel framework proposed (ddRWF) embeds this spatially variable runoff weight in the well-known Rescaled Width Function (RWF) framework, based on the more general geomorphological theory of the hydrologic response. The model is applied to four sub-basins in the Cascade Range Region (Oregon, USA) where strong contrasts in dissection patterns due the underlain geology have been broadly addressed in previous literature. The ddRWF approach is compared with the classic RWF in terms of shape, moments and peak of the simulated hydrograph response. Results hint that the variability of runoff yield due to the heterogeneity of dd (i.e. of hillslope lengths) determines a more rapid concentration of runoff, which implies shorter lag times, larger skewness and higher peak floods, especially in the case hillslope velocity is much smaller than channel velocity. The potential of the proposed framework relies on accounting for spatially variable losses related to geomorphologic heterogeneity in lumped rainfall-runoff models, still keeping the simple and robust structure of the IUH approach.

  10. Standardised survey method for identifying catchment risks to water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D L; Ferguson, C M; Chier, P; Warnecke, M; Watkinson, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a systematic methodology to identify and quantify risks in drinking water and recreational catchments. The methodology assesses microbial and chemical contaminants from both diffuse and point sources within a catchment using Escherichia coli, protozoan pathogens and chemicals (including fuel and pesticides) as index contaminants. Hazard source information is gathered by a defined sanitary survey process involving use of a software tool which groups hazards into six types: sewage infrastructure, on-site sewage systems, industrial, stormwater, agriculture and recreational sites. The survey estimates the likelihood of the site affecting catchment water quality, and the potential consequences, enabling the calculation of risk for individual sites. These risks are integrated to calculate a cumulative risk for each sub-catchment and the whole catchment. The cumulative risks process accounts for the proportion of potential input sources surveyed and for transfer of contaminants from upstream to downstream sub-catchments. The output risk matrices show the relative risk sources for each of the index contaminants, highlighting those with the greatest impact on water quality at a sub-catchment and catchment level. Verification of the sanitary survey assessments and prioritisation is achieved by comparison with water quality data and microbial source tracking. PMID:27280603

  11. Analysis of groundwater flow in mountainous, headwater catchments with permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Liang, Sihai

    2015-12-01

    Headwater catchments have a direct impact on the water resources of downstream lowland regions as they supply freshwater in the form of surface runoff and discharging groundwater. Often, these mountainous catchments contain expansive permafrost that may alter the natural topographically controlled groundwater flow system. As permafrost could degrade with climate change, it is imperative to understand the effect of permafrost on groundwater flow in headwater catchments. This study characterizes groundwater flow in mountainous headwater catchments and evaluates the effect of permafrost in the context of climate change on groundwater movement using a three-dimensional, finite element, hydrogeologic model. The model is applied to a representative headwater catchment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results from the model simulations indicate that groundwater contributes significantly to streams in the form of baseflow and the majority of groundwater flow is from the shallow aquifer above the permafrost, disrupting the typical topographically controlled flow pattern observed in most permafrost-free headwater catchments. Under a warming scenario where mean annual surface temperature is increased by 2°C, reducing the areal extent of permafrost in the catchment, groundwater contribution to streamflow may increase three-fold. These findings suggest that, in headwater catchments, permafrost has a large influence on groundwater flow and stream discharge. Increased annual air temperatures may increase groundwater discharge to streams, which has implications for ecosystem health and the long-term availability of water resources to downstream regions.

  12. Financial managers' costing expertise is needed in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D A; Balas, E A; West, T D

    2000-01-01

    In addition to providing comparable and verifiable evidence regarding outcomes, clinical trials could also serve as sources of accurate and replicable financial information. Trial reports that identify expenses associated with effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions enable cost controls. Standardized cost calculations could help clinicians and administrators identify more efficient health care technologies. Unfortunately, relatively few published trials include economic analyses and when they do, data are incomplete. Based on analyses of 97 clinical trial reports, this article proposes a standard costing format. Health care financial managers have the costing expertise necessary to implement and interpret standardized cost calculations for clinical trials. With the active involvement of financial managers, a standard costing format for clinical trials can be achieved. PMID:10961828

  13. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor.

  14. A conceptual review of interprofessional expertise in child safeguarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rick; Gillespie, Judy; Davies, Jonathon

    2016-07-01

    It is increasingly accepted that practitioners across a range of professional fields must work together in order to promote children's welfare and protect them from harm. However, it has also become apparent that interprofessional working is a challenging area of practice that cannot simply be prescribed through protocols and procedures, nor acquired as a set of technical competences. This article develops the concept of interprofessional expertise in order to explain how practitioners become more proficient at working with others to manage complex child welfare issues. Key principles are outlined with reference to relevant theoretical frameworks, including models of skill acquisition. The article concludes by discussing some potential implications for future research and contemporary developments in child safeguarding practice. PMID:27294315

  15. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity. PMID:27264831

  16. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  17. Expertise in diagnostic radiology: Reasoning or pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that errors in diagnosis could be reduced if attention is given to features of the radiograph or to an explicit combination of cues. To explore the nature of the diagnostic process the authors asked five expert radiologists, five residents, and five clinical clerks to read a series of 36 chest radiographs, and we documented the accuracy of the interpretation and the time readers took to reach a diagnostic decision. The overall accuracy ranged from 65% for clerks to 79% for experts. The results suggest that expertise in diagnostic radiology may be associated with an automatic patient recognition process, and approaches to improving diagnosis that improve explicit consideration of cues may impede rather than improve the accuracy of interpretation

  18. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  19. Malpractice and system of expertise in anaesthetic procedures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, M Hakan; Cekin, Necmi; Can, I Ozgür; Hilal, Ahmet

    2005-10-29

    Deaths which occur during the administration of anaesthetics require medicolegal investigations. The objective of this study is to form a database for future comparisons related to anaesthetic-associated malpractice claims and also to investigate the system of expertise, pertaining to such procedures. The decisions of the Supreme Health Council, whose expert opinion is requested by legal authorities (judges, prosecutors) for health workers brought to trial in a criminal court, were examined retrospectively over the period 1995-1999. In 21 (2.3%) of the 888 decision reports prepared by the council the team members (the anaesthesiologist , the anaesthetic assistant, the anaesthetic technician, the nurse) were directly interrogated. Data concerning these 21 council decisions were evaluated within the scope of this study. It was found that 57% of the 21 decisions were related to medical procedures carried out in state hospitals. Of the 21 cases, 62% were males, 38% females. General anaesthesia was applied to 19 of the cases while one received regional (local) anaesthesia and one axillary blockade. Twenty died of complications associated with anaesthesia. Autopsy was performed on 11 (55%) of the dead. Health workers were found to have different degrees of liability in the 16 (76%) of the 21 decision reports. In their medical practices, anaesthesiologists , like other specialists, are subject to legal procedures in the country where they perform their duties, to national and international principles of ethics, and to diagnostic and curative standards/procedures relevant to the scientific level of the country concerned. In anaesthetic malpractice claims, certain standards need to be followed in inquiries and approaches so as to determine the real reasons behind the disabilities and/or deaths which occur. In order that sound evaluations could be made in such cases, the experts as well as the system of expertise should be efficient and authorized.

  20. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  1. Solid discharge and landslide activity at basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Iadanza, C.; Rossi, M.; Spizzichino, D.; Trigila, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a preliminary analysis aimed at understanding the relationship between landslide sediment supply and sediment yield at basin scale in central and southern Italy. A database of solid discharge measurements regarding 116 gauging stations, located along the Apennines chain in Italy, has been compiled by investigating the catalogues, named Annali Idrologici, published by Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Italiano in the period from 1917 to 1997. The database records several information about the 116 gauging stations, and especially reports the sediment yield monthly measurements (103 ton) and the catchments area (km2). These data have been used to calculate the average solid yield and the normalized solid yield for each station in the observation period. The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) has been used to obtained the size of the landslides, in order to estimate the landslide mobilization rates. The IFFI Project funded by the Italian Government is realized by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - Geological Survey of Italy) in partnership with the 21 Regions and Self Governing Provinces. 21 of the 116 gauging stations and the related catchments have been selected on the basis of the length of the solid discharge observation period and excluding the catchments with dams located upstream the stations. The landslides inside the selected catchments have been extracted from the IFFI inventory, calculating the planimetric area of each landslide. Considering both the shallow and deep landslides, the landslide volume has been estimated using an empirical power law relation (landslide area vs. volume). The total landslide volume in the study areas and the average sediment yield measured at the gauging stations have been compared, analysing the behaviour of the basins which drainage towards the Tyrrhenian sea and the basins which drainage towards the Adriatic sea.

  2. Oxygen-18 studies of catchment runoff generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how runnoff is generated in catchments is important for landuse management. The authors used the response of streams to inputs of rainfall and oxygen-18 to give insight into the process of generating runoff. At Maimai, a West Coast pine forest catchment converted from native beech, streams rise to high levels very quickly after rainfall. Oxygen-18 studies have shown that most of the water discharged during a rainfall event is actually from displaced soil water not current rainfall. The authors have identified the size of this large soil water store as well as the amounts of water flowing from the macropores (with rapid release) and micropores (slow release) within the soil. In contrast, at Glendhu in tussock grassland of upland Otago, streams continue to flow strongly even when there is no rain. The authors found that more baseflow is sources from the soil B-horizon (a compact loess layer) of the surrounding hillslopes and less from the extensive headwater wetlands than was previously thought. This suggests there may be adverse effects on the baseflow if the area is forested and B-horizon water is access by trees

  3. Modelling spring flood in the area of the Upper Volga basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helms

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river-basin management for the Volga river requires understanding and modelling of the flow process in its macro-scale tributary catchments. At the example of the Kostroma catchment (16 000 km2, a method combining existing hydrologic simulation tools was developed that allows operational modelling even when data are scarce. Emphasis was placed on simulation of three processes: snow cover development using a snow-compaction model, runoff generation using a conceptual approach with parameters for seasonal antecedent moisture conditions, and runoff concentration using a regionalised unit hydrograph approach. Based on this method, specific regional characteristics of the precipitation-runoff process were identified, in particular a distinct threshold behaviour of runoff generation in catchments with clay-rich soils. With a plausible overall parameterisation of involved tools, spring flood events could successfully be simulated. Present paper mainly focuses on the simulation of a 16-year sample of snowmelt events in a meso-scale catchment. An example of regionalised simulation in the scope of the modelling system "Flussgebietsmodell" shows the capabilities of developed method for application in macro-scale tributary catchments of the Upper Volga basin.

  4. Water Yield and Sediment Yield Simulations for Teba Catchment in Spain Using SWRRB Model: Ⅰ. Model Input and Simulation Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water yield and sediment yield in the Teba catchment, Spain, were simulated using SWRRB (Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins) model. The model is composed of 198 mathematical equations. About 120 items (variables) were input for the simulation, including meteorological and climatic factors, hydrologic factors, topographic factors, parent materials, soils, vegetation, human activities, etc. The simulated results involved surface runoff, subsurface runoff, sediment, peak flow, evapotranspiration, soil water, total biomass,etc. Careful and thorough input data preparation and repeated simulation experiments are the key to get the accurate results. In this work the simulation accuracy for annual water yield prediction reached to 83.68%.``

  5. GIS-Based KW-GIUH hydrological model of semiarid catchments: The case of Faria Catchment, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs. Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs. Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged, arid and semiarid catchments. To overcome such difficulties, the use of physically based rainfall-runoff process of Faria Catchment using the lately developed KW-GIUH. Faria catchment, located in the northeastern part of the West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment. The Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment. A GIS based KW-GIUH hydrological model was used to stimulate the rainfall-runoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria, namely: Al-Badan, Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi. The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KW-GIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments. (author)

  6. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Atmospheric (Wet) Deposition of Inorganic Nitrogen, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer, of inorganic nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set for wet deposition was from the USGS's raster data set atmospheric (wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen for 2002 (Gronberg, 2005). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years (2007-2008), an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris

  7. Multi-objective, multiple participant decision support for water management in the Andarax catchment, Almeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cauwenbergh, N.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Frances, I.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-04-01

    Water management in the Andarax river basin (Almeria, Spain) is a multi-objective, multi-participant, long-term decision-making problem that faces several challenges. Adequate water allocation needs informed decisions to meet increasing socio-economic demands while respecting the environmental integrity of this basin. Key players in the Andarax water sector include the municipality of Almeria, the irrigators involved in the intensive greenhouse agricultural sector, and booming second residences. A decision support system (DSS) is developed to rank different sustainable planning and management alternatives according to their socio-economic and environmental performance. The DSS is intimately linked to sustainability indicators and is designed through a public participation process. Indicators are linked to criteria reflecting stakeholders concerns in the 2005 field survey, such as fulfilling water demand, water price, technical and economical efficiency, social and environmental impacts. Indicators can be partly quantified after simulating the operation of the groundwater reservoir over a 20-year planning period and partly through a parallel expert evaluation process. To predict the impact of future water demand in the catchment, several development scenarios are designed to be evaluated in the DSS. The successive multi-criteria analysis of the performance indicators permits the ranking of the different management alternatives according to the multiple objectives formulated by the different sectors/participants. This allows more informed and transparent decision-making processes for the Andarax river basin, recognizing both the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of water resources management.

  8. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  9. THE STEPWISE ALGORITHM OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EXPERTISE FOR ANALYSTS NOT HAVING SPECIAL TRAINING AND SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Boshno, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Law «On anti-corruption expertise of normative and legal acts and drafts of normative and legal acts» was adopted in 2008. According to it, the law-making bodies are required to provide the expertise to identify and eliminate corruption-genetic factors. In accordance with the legislation, different actors may carry out anti-corruption expertise: public authorities and local government bodies, boards of prosecution and justice, independent experts. Qualification of experts may grea...

  10. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  11. Nitrogen budget of Lago Maggiore: the relative importance of atmospheric deposition and catchment sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele TARTARI

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and chemical data of 1996 and 1997 are used to evaluate the relative contributions of atmospheric deposition and urban/industrial wastewaters to the nitrogen budget of Lago Maggiore. The atmospheric load of nitrogen was about 80% of the total input to the lake, with negligible variations in dry (1997 and wet (1996 years. A comparison of the two study years with the yearly N budgets evaluated from 1978 to 1998, showed that the N load was higher with increasing amounts of precipitation/water inflow. Soils and vegetation act as N sinks; the % retention varies between 40-60% for the forested catchments with low population density in the central-northern part of the basin, to values close to zero or even negative in the south, indicating a net leaching from the soils. The Traaen & Stoddard (1995 approach revealed that all the catchments of the major inflowing rivers were oversaturated with nitrogen. The long-term trend of nitrogen concentrations in Lago Maggiore (1955-99 is analogous to the trend for atmospheric deposition (1975-99, which is related to emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia in the atmosphere. The relationships between the present N load and in-lake concentrations are discussed using a budget model, which is also used to infer the pristine load of N. The close relationships between N trends in lakes Maggiore, Como and Iseo, and the geographical and anthropogenic features common to their catchments, suggest that the results obtained for Lago Maggiore can be extended to a wider area.

  12. Pursuing realistic hydrologic model under SUPERFLEX framework in a semi-humid catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lingna; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Gao, Hongkai; Chen, Xi

    2016-04-01

    Model realism is pursued perpetually by hydrologists for flood and drought prediction, integrated water resources management and decision support of water security. "Physical-based" distributed hydrologic models are speedily developed but they also encounter unneglectable challenges, for instance, computational time with low efficiency and parameters uncertainty. This study step-wisely tested four conceptual hydrologic models under the framework of SUPERFLEX in a small semi-humid catchment in southern Huai River basin of China. The original lumped FLEXL has hypothesized model structure of four reservoirs to represent canopy interception, unsaturated zone, subsurface flow of fast and slow components and base flow storage. Considering the uneven rainfall in space, the second model (FLEXD) is developed with same parameter set for different rain gauge controlling units. To reveal the effect of topography, terrain descriptor of height above the nearest drainage (HAND) combined with slope is applied to classify the experimental catchment into two landscapes. Then the third one (FLEXTOPO) builds different model blocks in consideration of the dominant hydrologic process corresponding to the topographical condition. The fourth one named FLEXTOPOD integrating the parallel framework of FLEXTOPO in four controlled units is designed to interpret spatial variability of rainfall patterns and topographic features. Through pairwise comparison, our results suggest that: (1) semi-distributed models (FLEXD and FLEXTOPOD) taking precipitation spatial heterogeneity into account has improved model performance with parsimonious parameter set, and (2) hydrologic model architecture with flexibility to reflect perceived dominant hydrologic processes can include the local terrain circumstances for each landscape. Hence, the modeling actions are coincided with the catchment behaviour and close to the "reality". The presented methodology is regarding hydrologic model as a tool to test our

  13. How relevant is the interannual vegetation's dynamic in the water cycle at catchment scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría Martinez, Carlos Antonio; Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix

    2016-04-01

    To effectively analyse a portion of the Earth's surface from a hydrological perspective, it is important to understand that water cycle and vegetation dynamics are strongly connected. Vegetation holds an important role in land surface water balance, in particular considering that vegetation physiology and spatial parameters are dynamic in time. A traditional hydrological model considerates vegetation as a static parameter through years, representing very well observed streamflow. Nowadays, the tendency is to include the vegetation as a state variable. In this way, we obtain a better simulation of both, blue water and green water, as well as the ratio between them. Applying the hydrological distributed model TETIS, this work presents the comparison of considering static vegetation or dynamics vegetation. The study catchment was characterized by a good availability of input data in the analysis period (from 1990 to 2011) and it is mainly covered by forested areas. The selected basin is the upper part of the Turia River, up to the Benageber Reservoir, analyzing if is relevant to use dynamics vegetation instead of static vegetation for the water resources evaluation in semiarid Mediterranean catchments. Both model variations were applied in three different scenarios: a dry year, a normal year and a wet year. In each scenario the model was applied considering both static vegetation and vegetation dynamics. At the catchment scale, considering vegetation as an stationary parameter both, green water and the ratio between blue and green water, were underestimated. Consequently, not considering the vegetation's dynamic in semiarid conditions can produce the underestimation of the amount of green water, which introduces a higher uncertainty in the resulting water balance in present conditions but also in future climate change scenarios.

  14. Anatomy of a catchment: the relation of physical attributes of the Plynlimon catchments to variations in hydrology and water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brandt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plynlimon headwater catchments in mid-Wales have been a landmark study of water resources in the UK uplands for over 30 years. The main physical features of the catchments have been digitised as the basis for linking new model developments and process understanding. Examples are given of how the main physical attributes are related to land management, hydrology and water quality. These data are also being used to provide insights into catchment processes that may underpin the development of new research. This work is particularly relevant given the need for the assessment of water status under the Water Framework Directive. The paper presents hypothetical management scenarios for the catchments, to show how ecological status may be improved, for example, by selectively restructuring areas of commercial forest. Keywords: Plynlimon, GIS, catchment study, forestry, hydrology, WFD

  15. The role of technical expertise in judicial probation work in Romania and in the comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria GRĂMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical expertise is a research, interpretation and elucidation of situations actually using scientific data. Starting with a brief history of the sample with technical expertise, this paper details the role of information and scientific capacity of technical expert / specialist in explaining and arguing circumstances which have led to a state of affairs which belongs to civil or criminal. The author highlights the multitude of problems whose nature is beyond the concern of a science, expertise gained interdisciplinary - called complex expertise examination.

  16. Brain correlates of aesthetic expertise: A parametric fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram;

    2009-01-01

    a dissociable role between these regions in the reward processing of expertise. Finally, categorical responses (irrespective of aesthetic ratings) resulted in expertise effects in memory-related areas such as hippocampus and precuneus. These results highlight the fact that expertise not only modulates cognitive...... of non-architects. This design allowed us to test whether level of expertise modulates neural activity in brain areas associated with either perceptual processing, memory, or reward processing. We show that experts and non-experts recruit bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and subcallosal...

  17. Stabilization of large drainage basins over geological time scales : Cenozoic West Africa, hot spot swell growth, and the Niger River

    OpenAIRE

    Chardon, Dominique; Grimaud, J. L.; Rouby, D.; BEAUVAIS, Anicet; Christophoul, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolving geometry of large river catchments over geological time scales is crucial to constraining yields to sedimentary basins. In the case of Africa, it should further help deciphering the response of large cratonic sediment routing systems to Cenozoic growth of the basin-and-swell topography of the continent. Mapping of dated and regionally correlated lateritic paleolandscape remnants complemented by onshore sedimentological archives allows the reconstruction...

  18. Catchment- and reach-scale controls on the distribution and expectation of geomorphic channel adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenby, Peyton E.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.

    2016-05-01

    Variability in channel function (behavior) can be assessed by characterizing different forms of adjustment over time. Here, historical channel adjustments in three tributary systems of the Lockyer Valley, Southeast Queensland (SEQ) are analyzed in order to evaluate the range of catchment- and reach-scale controls on channel behavior. Over 300 individual adjustments and 13 forms of adjustment were identified over a ˜130 year time span. We measured the width-to-depth ratio (W:D), mean stream power (ω), and basin area (A) at the location of all observed adjustments. The most common forms of adjustment were avulsions, lateral expansion of the channel, and bend adjustments. The tributary systems behave distinctly different from one another according to statistical comparisons between the W:D, ω, and A data for these forms of adjustment. We find that it is possible to develop process domains or typologies for forms of geomorphic adjustment found in the Lockyer Valley. These domains or typologies provide the foundations for synoptic comparisons between catchments and assessing the expectation of channel adjustment (forecasting), which should be included in process-based river management practice.

  19. Response of rock-fissure seepage to snowmelt in Mount Taihang slope-catchment, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    The complex physiographic and hydrogeological systems of mountain terrains facilitate intense rock-fissure seepages and multi-functional ecological interactions. As mountain eco-hydrological terrains are the common water sources of river basins across the globe, it is critical to build sufficient understanding into the hydrological processes in this unique ecosystem. This study analyzes infiltration and soil/rock-fissure seepage processes from a 65 mm snowfall/melt in November 2009 in the typical granitic gneiss slope catchment in the Taihang Mountains. The snowfall, snowmelt and melt-water processes are monitored using soil-water time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and tipping bucket flowmeters. The results suggest that snowmelt infiltration significantly influences soil/rock water seepage in the 0-100 cm soil depth of the slope-catchment. It is not only air temperature that influences snowmelt, but also snowmelt infiltration and rock-fissure seepage. Diurnal variations in rock-fissure seepage are in close correlation with air temperature (R(2) > 0.7). Temperature also varies with soil/rock water viscosity, which element in turn influences soil/rock water flow. Invariably, water dynamics in the study area is not only a critical water supply element for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, but also for food security and social stability.

  20. Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, A. J.; Berkum, S. W.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-07-01

    In many rainfall-runoff models, at least some calibration of model parameters has to take place. Especially for ungauged or poorly gauged basins this can be problematic, because there is little or no data available for calibration. A possible solution to overcome the problems caused by data scarcity is to set up a measurement campaign for a limited time period. In this study, we determine the minimum amount of data required to determine robust parameter values for a simple model with two parameters. The model is constructed such that the parameters can be determined not only with automatic calibration, but also by recession analysis and a priori from Boussinesq theory. The model has been applied to a research catchment in Switzerland. For automatic calibration and recession analysis, one season (5 months) is found to be sufficient to give robust parameters for simulation of high flows over the full observation period. For automatic calibration, this should be the season with the highest precipitation, for recession analysis the season with least evapotranspiration. The Boussinesq equation is able to give good parameter estimates for modeling high flows, but detailed in situ knowledge of the catchment is required. Automatic calibration outperforms recession analysis and Boussinesq theory by far when it comes to parameter estimation with a focus on prediction of low flows. It was shown that a single set of parameters cannot simultaneously describe high and low flows with a reasonable accuracy, suggesting that more than two parameters are needed to characterize subsurface properties.