WorldWideScience

Sample records for catchment area health

  1. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  2. How size matters: exploring the association between quality of mental health services and catchment area size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Sadeniemi, Minna; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli; Kontio, Raija; Pirkola, Sami; Joffe, Grigori; Oranta, Olli; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2016-08-12

    The diversity of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) available to service users is seen as an indicator of the quality of the service system. In most countries MHS are provided by a mix of public, private and third sector providers. In Finland, officially, the municipalities are responsible for organizing the services needed, but the real extent and roles of private and third sector service providers are not known. Our previous study showed that the catchment area population size was strongly associated with diversity of mental health services. It is not known whether this was due to some types of services or some provider types being more sensitive to the size effect than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between area population size and diversity of mental health services, i.e. which types of services and which service providers' contributions are sensitive to population size. To map and classify services, we used the ESMS-R. The diversity of services was defined as the count of main types of care. Providers were classified as public, private or third sectors. The diversity of outpatient, residential and voluntary services correlated positively with catchment area population size. The strongest positive correlation between the size of population and services available was found in third sector activities followed by public providers, but no correlation was found for diversity of private services. The third sector and public corporations each provided 44 % of the service units. Third sector providers produced all self-help services and most of the day care services. Third sector and private companies provided a significant part (59 %) of the residential care service units. Significant positive correlations were found between size of catchment area population and diversity of residential, outpatient and voluntary services, indicating that these services concentrate on areas with larger population bases. The third sector

  3. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    /from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... the simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...

  4. Spatial accessibility of primary health care utilising the two step floating catchment area method: an assessment of recent improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrail Matthew R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Results Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. Conclusion This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions.

  5. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Balad?n Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, Jos? Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients ...

  6. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar, Ignacio; Baladón, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador Carulla, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods: A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatient...

  7. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Baladón Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-06-06

    There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients with mental disorders in an area of 640,572 adult inhabitants in South Barcelona (Spain). To calculate costs, a seven-step methodology with novel definition of agitation was used along with a staff survey, a database of containment events, and data on aggressive incidents. A micro-costing analysis of specific containment interventions was used to estimate both prevalence and direct costs from the healthcare provider perspective, by means of a mixed approach with a probabilistic model evaluated on real data. Due to the complex interaction of the multivariate covariances, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to have empirical bounds of variability. During 2013, 918 patients were admitted to the Acute Inpatient Unit. Of these, 52.8% were men, with a mean age of 44.6 years (SD = 15.5), 74.4% were compulsory admissions, 40.1% were diagnosed with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis, with a mean length of stay of 24.6 days (SD = 16.9). The annual estimate of total agitation events was 508. The cost of containment interventions ranges from 282€ at the lowest level of agitation to 822€ when verbal containment plus seclusion and restraint have to be used. The annual total cost of agitation was 280,535€, representing 6.87% of the total costs of acute hospitalisation in the local area. Agitation events are frequent and costly. Strategies to reduce their number and severity should be implemented to reduce costs to the Health System and alleviate patient suffering.

  8. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    simple method using only the Euclidean distance from the examined stop and the paper describes the differences in detail-level of the results. Furthermore, the paper describes how the Service Area method can be used to examine increments in the catchment areas by adding extra entrances to stations...... or by making changes in the street network around the station. The paper also discusses the degree of realism in the used GIS networks and how it can affect the size of the catchment areas. It is concluded that the Service Area method improves the detail-level and accuracy in catchment area analyses......The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  9. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manny Mathuthu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1 was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U, thorium-232 (232Th, and potassium-40 (40K for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards.

  10. Help Received for Perceived Needs Related to Mental Health in a Montreal (Canada Epidemiological Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ, and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Most help received was in the form of counselling, followed by medication and information. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who reported receiving help for all their needs were more likely to have psychological distress, to be non-verbally aggressive, to consult more healthcare professionals, to be men and to be somewhat older. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who received partial help were more likely to be not addicted to drugs or alcohol, to consult more healthcare professionals, and to be older. Healthcare services should prioritize strategies (e.g., early detection, outreach, public education on mental and addiction disorders that address barriers to help seeking among youth, as well as individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol or those presenting with aggressive behavior.

  11. Prevalence of psychological distress and mental disorders, and use of mental health services in the epidemiological catchment area of Montreal South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Jean

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report presents the initial results of the first Epidemiological Catchment Area Study in mental health in Canada. Five neighbourhoods in the South-West sector of Montreal, with a population of 258,000, were under study. The objectives of the research program were: 1 to assess the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress, mental disorders, substance abuse, parasuicide, risky behaviour and quality of life; 2 to examine the links and interactions between individual determinants, neighbourhood ecology and mental health in each neighbourhood; 3 to identify the conditions facilitating the integration of individuals with mental health problems; 4 to analyse the impact of the social, economic and physical aspects of the neighbourhoods using a geographic information system. 5 to verify the adequacy of mental health services. Method A longitudinal study in the form of a community survey was used, complemented by focused qualitative sub-studies. The longitudinal study included a randomly selected sample of 2,433 individuals between the ages of 15 and 65 in the first wave of data collection, and three other waves are projected. An overview of the methods is presented. Results The prevalence of psychological distress, mental disorders and use of mental health services and their correlates are described for the first wave of data collection. Conclusion Several vulnerable groups and risk factors related to socio-demographic variables have been identified such as: gender, age, marital status, income, immigration and language. These results can be used to improve treatment services, prevention of mental disorders, and mental health promotion.

  12. Airport Catchment Area- Example Warsaw Modlin Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachut, Jakub

    2017-10-01

    The form and functions of airports change over time, just like the form and function of cities. Historically, airports are understood as places of aircraft landing, control towers operation and location of other facilities used for communication and transport. This traditional model is giving way to the concept of so-called Airport Cities, based on the assumption that, in addition to its infrastructure and air services, also non-air services are performed, constituting a source of income. At the same time, their reach and impact on the economy of the areas around the airport are expanding. Idea City Airport appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century. The author is J. D. Kasarda, he believes that it is around these big air ports that airport cities develop. In the world, there are currently 45 areas which can be classified in this category, out of which 12 are located in Europe. Main air traffic hubs in Europe are not only the most important passenger traffic junctions, but also largest centres dispatching goods (cargo). It can be said that, among the 30 largest airports, 24 are the largest in terms of both passenger and freight traffic. These airports cover up to 89.9% of the total freight transport of all European airports. At the same time, they serve 56.9% of all passengers in Europe. Based on the concept of Airport City was developed document THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL POLYCENTRIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR THE WARSAW MODLIN AIRPORT CATCHMENT AREA. The plan developed takes into account the findings of the Mazovian voivodeship spatial development plan, specifying the details of its provisions where possible. The development is the first step for the implementation of the concept of the Modlin Airport City. The accomplishment of this ambitious vision will only be possible with hard work of a number of entities, as well as taking into account the former Modlin Fortress, currently under revitalisation, in concepts and plans.

  13. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... Lake Kariba catchment area, this study used the low-level atmospheric circulation (850 hPa geopotential height fields) of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM) over southern Africa, statistically downscaled to gridded seasonal rainfall totals over the catchment. This downscaling ...

  14. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the Potential Travellers in Catchment Areas for Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the actual street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the service area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared...... to stations or by making changes in the street network around the station. It is concluded that the Network Analyst method improves the detail-level and accuracy in catchment area analyses. It is these improvements which makes it possible to examine changes in station entrances and/or street network....

  16. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions......In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...

  17. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions......In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...

  18. Rates of First Episode of Psychosis in a Defined Catchment Area in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis sh...

  19. Phytotoxic substances in runoff from forested catchment areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimvall, Anders; Bengtsson, Maj-Britt; Borén, Hans; Wahlström, Dan

    Runoff from different catchment areas in southern Sweden was tested in a root bioassay based on solution cultures of cucumber seedlings. Water samples from agricultural catchment areas produced no signs at all or only weak signs of inhibited root growth, whereas several water samples from catchment areas dominated by mires or coniferous forests produced visible root injuries. The most severe root injuries (very short roots, discolouration, swelling of root tips and lack of root hairs) were caused by samples from a catchment area without local emissions and dominated by old stands of spruce. Fractionation by ultrafiltration showed that the phytotoxic effect of these samples could be attributed to organic matter with a nominal molecular-weight exceeding 1000 or to substances associated with organic macromolecules. Experiments aimed at concentrating phytotoxic compounds from surface water indicated that the observed growth inhibition was caused by strongly hydrophilic substances. Previous reports on phytotoxic, organic substances of natural origin have emphasized interaction between plants growing close together. The presence of phytotoxic substances in runoff indicates that there is also a large-scale dispersion of such compounds.

  20. Ecological management of the Mau catchment area and its impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of human activities in the Mau catchment area and Lake Nakuru National Park. The increase in human population has led to increased pressure and diminishing of natural resources such as forests, grassland and water. This has led to conflicts over these resources.

  1. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  2. FISHERY MANAGEMENT IN THE DANUBE CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three successive regions of the Danube, each of which has to deal with its own problems in fisheries. Sport fishing and ecological recontruction problem matters predominate in the upper flow. These problems also characterize the middle flow, where to a certain extent, commercial fishery is coming into view, while the lower flow has to deal with commercial fishery problems to full extent. The difference is not so much due to the morphometry as to the development and state of the economy of the countries in the river basin, their legislation on fishery and the manner in which the legislation is applied. Numerous dams of the upper flow of the Danube (29 in Germany, 9 in Austria, influence significantly the ichthyocenoses. An extreme example of that is Gabčikovo dam at the Slovak-Hungarian border where fish catch decreased to one fourth. In the lower segment of the Danube fish catch falls down to one third and is followed, by a drastically negative change of fish species composition. The records show that highly valued species as sturgeons, pike and tench are in drastic decline over the last few years. The changes were caused by physical barriers, like dams and weirs, by water pollution, by increasing concentration of nutrients and heavy metals, by poaching and by overexploitation. For all those alarming reasons, some legal interventions in commercial fishery must be undertaken. In the middle flow, where the Danube flows through Croatian territory, there have also been declining trends of bentivore and phytophyl species respectively. The law supports the coexistence of sport and commercial fishery in this area and although sport fishing should be given the advantage, commercial fishing should be rigorously supervised and allowed only when there is a naturally produced surplus. Because of fish migrations and political frontiers of Danube area, it is essential that the neighboring countries coordinate their efforts in managing fisheries

  3. Agroecology and biodiversity of the catchment area of Swat River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ahmed, R.

    2003-01-01

    Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)

  4. Sedimentation studies at MUDA catchment area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Juhari Yusuf; Wan Abdul Aziz; Juhari Latiff

    2000-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area

  5. Rates of first episode of psychosis in a defined catchment area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the two sectors in terms of patients' age, gender, family and social status, profession and duration of untreated psychosis (median duration 6 months). Patients who were abusing substances and had no family psychiatric history were less likely been treated in the public sector. Immigrants comprised only a small proportion of the patients, probably because they have difficulties in accessing the mental health system.

  6. Pollutant removal by gully pots in different catchment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grottker, M. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Gully pot systems have to fulfill two functions which are the efficient discharge of surface water and the removal of pollutants. Since the removal efficiency is limited by the hydraulic loading, these are contrary tasks. In order to produce a more efficient design for a gully pot, about two hundred gully pots in different catchment areas have been examined and the pollutant removal analysed. A simulation model is calibrated using these data and the model used to predict the pollutant removal and the frequency of gully pot cleansing for different kinds of gully pots. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  7. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM SOMESUL CALD CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Battes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.

  8. Diatoms from the Vaal dam catchment area Transvaal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, REM

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available that A. mi,mtissima reproduces best in oxygen rich, weakly alkaline water, and cannot tolerate a high osmotic pressure or a high concentration of or ganic nitrogenous materials. Consequently when this species occurs in great numbers it indicates water...?TZING (cf. T-IUSTEDT 1930: 345, F. 634). CHOLNOKY (1957a: 42, 1960b 234; 1962a: 10; 1962b: 63) regarded this species as autochthonous in neutral to slightly alkaline waters having a low osmotic pressure. In the catchment area it occurred in many...

  9. IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY IN KAYANGAN CATCHMENT AREA, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Fitria Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential synthetic aperture radar in terferometry (DInSAR technique is applied to the ALOS PALSAR data to observe su rface displacement in Kayangan catchment area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Change detecti on is implemented to extract information on several landslides that occurred in the region in a time span between 2007 and 2009. The advanced DInSAR processing of im ages (2007–2009 has shown slight surface movements before the landslide events. These results are compared and validated with available GPS measurements. Our analysis reveals that Kayangan catchment area exhibits clear indication of surface displacements varying from 5.2 to 57.9 cm/year. The occurence of landslides has been analy zed in relation to the following terrain parameters; elevation, slope, distance to stream network, geology, landuse, and distance from road. Among these factors, it is found that 18% of landslides occur in elevation >100 m, 56% in slope 30–40°, 34% in <25 m distance to stream networks, 100% in kebobutak formation, 67% in mix garden of land use types, and 100% in <25 m distance from road. The landuse is the most in fluential factor, since there are only four types of landuse that can lead to lands lide occurrence, i.e., mixed garden, dryland agriculture, bush, and settlement. The analys is of land deformation is promising for assessing acceleration caused by a destabilizing anthropogenic change, and relationship between seasonal precipitation a nd deformation variability.

  10. Defining rational hospital catchments for non-urban areas based on travel-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzybowski Stefan CW

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost containment typically involves rationalizing healthcare service delivery through centralization of services to achieve economies of scale. Hospitals are frequently the chosen site of cost containment and rationalization especially in rural areas. Socio-demographic and geographic characteristics make hospital service allocation more difficult in rural and remote regions. This research presents a methodology to model rational catchments or service areas around rural hospitals – based on travel time. Results This research employs a vector-based GIS network analysis to model catchments that better represent access to hospital-based healthcare services in British Columbia's rural and remote areas. The tool permits modelling of alternate scenarios in which access to different baskets of services (e.g. rural maternity care or ICU are assessed. In addition, estimates of the percentage of population that is served – or not served -within specified travel times are calculated. Conclusion The modelling tool described is useful for defining true geographical catchments around rural hospitals as well as modelling the percentage of the population served within certain time guidelines (e.g. one hour for specific health services. It is potentially valuable to policy makers and health services allocation specialists.

  11. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...... analyses with different approaches depending on the desired level of detail. A simple but straightforward approach to implement is the Circular Buffer Approach where catchment areas are circular. A more detailed approach is the Service Area Approach where catchment areas are determined by a street network...... search to simulate the actual walking distances. A refinement of the Service Area Approach is to implement additional time resistance in the network search to simulate obstacles in the walking environment. This paper reviews and compares the different GIS-based catchment area approaches, their level...

  12. An assessment of the validity of the nutritional indices among under-fives in the catchment area of rural health and training center of a teaching institute in Bareilly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Katyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. There is a growing realization that adequate nutrition is a necessary first step in the improvement of quality of life. Malnutrition and infection are connected by a vicious cycle. It is one of the greatest international health problems and the biggest challenges being faced today. Thus, to know the magnitude of undernutrition among preschool children and to find out the sensitive tool for detection of undernutrition, this study was conducted among children under - 5 years of age. Aims: To assess the validity of the nutritional indices for screening malnutrition. Settings and Designs: The study was a community-based, cross-sectional survey carried out in the catchment area of Rural Health Training Center, Rohilkhand Medical College, Bareilly. Subjects and Methods: Various anthropometric criteria like, Kanawati, McLaren, Rao, Dugdale and weight for age according to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP (modified Gomez classification were used to define nutritional status. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves (sensitivity vs. 1 - specificity were calculated for all the above mentioned indices. Results: Age dependent criteria such as IAP (48.2% malnourished and McLaren (48.3% malnourished were followed by the age independent criteria such as Kanawati (74.3% malnourished, Dugdale (45.5% malnourished, and Rao (33.1% malnourished to classify the mild to moderate malnutrition. ROC showed Dugdale as the best index for the judgement of malnutrition showing maximum area under the curve. Conclusions: Malnutrition being a public health problem leads to morbidity which is a vicious cycle and needs proper attention to curb its detrimental effect on the children.

  13. Integrated catchment modelling in a Semi-arid area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in South Africa is increasingly being shifted towards the public domain as was intended by the National Water Act (1998). This means that water managers, managing Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) or similar bodies...

  14. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  15. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  16. Does estuarine health relate to catchment land-cover in the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible links between catchment and buffer zone land-cover class composition and the health of the East Kleinemonde Estuary were explored. There was a relationship between catchment land-cover and estuarine health within all assessed catchment delineations. Natural land-cover was determined to be the best ...

  17. Health at the Sub-catchment Scale: Typhoid and Its Environmental Determinants in Central Division, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Aaron Peter; Jupiter, Stacy; Mueller, Ute; Jenney, Adam; Vosaki, Gandercillar; Rosa, Varanisese; Naucukidi, Alanieta; Mulholland, Kim; Strugnell, Richard; Kama, Mike; Horwitz, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The impact of environmental change on transmission patterns of waterborne enteric diseases is a major public health concern. This study concerns the burden and spatial nature of enteric fever, attributable to Salmonella Typhi infection in the Central Division, Republic of Fiji at a sub-catchment scale over 30-months (2013-2015). Quantitative spatial analysis suggested relationships between environmental conditions of sub-catchments and incidence and recurrence of typhoid fever. Average incidence per inhabited sub-catchment for the Central Division was high at 205.9/100,000, with cases recurring in each calendar year in 26% of sub-catchments. Although the numbers of cases were highest within dense, urban coastal sub-catchments, the incidence was highest in low-density mountainous rural areas. Significant environmental determinants at this scale suggest increased risk of exposure where sediment yields increase following runoff. The study suggests that populations living on large systems that broaden into meandering mid-reaches and floodplains with alluvial deposition are at a greater risk compared to small populations living near small, erosional, high-energy headwaters and small streams unconnected to large hydrological networks. This study suggests that anthropogenic alteration of land cover and hydrology (particularly via fragmentation of riparian forest and connectivity between road and river networks) facilitates increased transmission of typhoid fever and that environmental transmission of typhoid fever is important in Fiji.

  18. Water balance of a small catchment with permeable soils in Ile-Ife area, southwester Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2000-01-01

    Three - year and annual catchment water balances were drawn for a small l catchment (44 ha.) in southwestern Nigeria. The equation: P - Q - E T - Δs = O was not resolved. Rather, the terms on the left did not sum to zero. The residual, which are between 4% and 5% of total rainfall, were consistently negative. A probable source of error is the use of Thornthwaite's potential evaporation in estimating catchment evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration is higher than actual evapotranspiration in the study area due to the limited evaporation opportunity during the approximately five - mouth dry season. Given that the study catchment had runoff patterns that are simi liar to those of larger rivers in the region the computed catchment water balance indicated that 37% of annual rainfall may be taken as the runoff coefficient for the region. This suggests that the engineer's coefficient (0.35 - 0.45) used in assessment of surface water resources in southwestern Nigeria, is reasonable

  19. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  20. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Broch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  1. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroactive forecasts are produced for lead times of up to 5 months and probabilistic forecast performances evaluated for extreme rainfall thresholds of the 25th and 75th percentile values of the climatological record. The verification of the retroactive forecasts shows that rainfall over the catchment is predictable at extended ...

  2. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  3. Estimating the prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adults from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdon, K H; Rae, D S; Locke, B Z; Narrow, W E; Regier, D A

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey is a comprehensive, community-based survey of mental disorders and use of services by adults, ages 18 and older. Diagnoses are based on the criteria in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," third edition, and were obtained in five communities in the United States through lay-interviewer administration of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results from the surv...

  4. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene

    2015-01-01

    stable at 32 minutes. Up to 75.1% of patients were directly transferred by pre-hospital triage, of whom 82.7% had ECG-to-balloon .... The quality of a centre reflects governance, training, resources and pre-hospital triage, rather than catchment population and STEMI incidence, as long as a minimum volume is guaranteed. Resources can be utilised better by merging neighbouring centres, without negative effects on quality of care....

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Disorders in Asylum Seekers and Refugees Resettled in an Italian Catchment Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Turrini, Giulia; Imoli, Maria; Ballette, Francesca; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Cucchi, Francesca; Padoan, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Barbui, Corrado

    2018-04-01

    In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in asylum seekers and refugees resettled in an Italian catchment area. In the catchment area of Verona, all male asylum seekers and refugees aged 18 or above included in the Italian protection system for asylum seekers and refugees during a period of 1 year were screened for psychological distress and psychiatric disorders using validated questionnaires. During the study period, 109 asylum seekers or refugees were recruited. The frequency of traumatic events experienced was very high. More than one-third of the participants (36%) showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and one-fourth (25%), met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, mainly PTSD and depressive disorders. In multivariate analyses, time after departure, length of stay in the host country and number of traumatic events were independent factors associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. In an unselected sample of male asylum seekers and refugees, after around 1 year of resettlement in an Italian catchment area, the frequency of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders was substantial and clinically relevant. Health care systems should include a mental health component to recognise and effectively treat mental health conditions.

  6. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  7. A review on the establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Wang, Chuanhai; Hua, Wenjuan

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviewed some specific conceptions of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) while found that the traditional definition of 'catchment' may be difficult to meet in plain areas. According to the review of development history and current situation of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China, 4 stages were shown besides the recent 10 years, i.e., 'golden stage(1952-1966)', 'backward stage(1966-1986)', 'short recovery stage(1986-1989)' and 'stagnant stage(1986-2006)'. It gets new impetus since 2006 with some investigation work promoted by the government. Furthermore, some historic problems during establishing experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas were revealed based on the document literature and a few meaningful lessons were drawn from the past. It was also the first time to collect and classify the details of both 11 representative experimental areas in China and abroad, after that a brief comparison about the measurement level and research directions was made between two regions. Additionally, we took the experimental research work in the plain of Taihu Lake Basin as example and introduced the particular research goals and the corresponding establishing process, including how to design the experimental area, eg, size, location, land use type, arranging the measurement instruments et al. We hope such case can provide a reference for newly-building, recovering and extending hydrological experimental areasin plain areas in the future. Finally, this paper prospected the future development in establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas. It may be more common to see the cooperation between model scientists and field experts. Because of the comprehensive goals in water problems, researchers from various fields would work together in the future experimental research work. Scale study and modelling in plain areas will be a promising branch after some typical experimental areas

  8. Temporal distribution of sediment yield from catchments covered by different pine plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sedimentation are environmental problems faced by tropical countries. Many researches on soil erosion-sedimentation have been conducted with various results. Quantifying soil erosion-sedimentation and its temporal distribution are important for watershed management. Therefore, a study with the objective to quantify the amount of suspended sediment from catchments under various pine plantation areas was conducted. The research was undertaken during 2010 to 2017 in seven catchments with various percentage of pine coverage in Kebumen Regency, Central Java Province. The rainfall data were collected from two rainfall stations. A tide gauge was installed at the outlet of each catchment to monitor stream water level. The water samples for every stream water level increment were analyzed to obtain sediment concentration. The results showed that monthly suspended sediment of the catchments was high in January to April and October to December, and low in May to September. The annual suspended sediment fluctuated during the study period. Non-linear correlations were observed between suspended sediment and rainfall as well as suspended sediment and percentage pine areas. The line trend between suspended sediment and percentage of pine areas showed that the increase in pine areas decreased suspended sediment, with the slope of the graph is sharp at the percentage of pine areas from 8% to 40%, then is gentle for pine plantation areas more than 40%.

  9. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zamri Daud; Pereira, J.J.; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH 3 -N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH 3 -N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH 3 -N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH 3 -N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and

  10. Critical level of water recharges in the catchment areas of Manna watershed Bengkulu Province Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Khairul; Nugraha, Loparedo; Barchia, Muhammad Faiz

    2017-11-01

    Land use changes in Manna watershed are caused degradation in the watershed functions. When water infiltration goes down, some water runs off flowing to Manna River cause submerged on the downstream. The aim of this study is to analyze how the Manna watershed overcoming environmentally degraded conditions. The critical level of the Manna catchment areas was determined by overlaying some digital maps based on procedure applying in the Ministry of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia (P.32/MENHUT-II/2009). Measuring the critical level of the catchment also needed natural and actual infiltrations map, and the interpretation process of the analysis used ArcGIS 10.1 software. Based on the spatial data analysis by overlaying maps of slope, soils, and rainfall, the natural infiltration rate in the Manna watershed categorized high level (44.1%). While, the critical level of the catchment areas of the Manna watershed classified in good condition cover about 64,5 % of the areas, and starting to degraded state cover about 35,5 % of the watershed areas. The environment degradation conditions indicated the land use changes in the Manna watershed could deteriorate infiltration rates. The cultivated agricultural activities neglected conservation rule could accelerate the critical catchment areas in the Manna watershed.

  11. Karst groundwater protection in the Kupa River catchment area and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondić, B.; Biondić, R.; Kapelj, S.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most significant water resources in the Republic of Croatia is the catchment area of the Kupa River, located in the region bordering the Republic of Slovenia. About 88% of the total amount of water in this catchment originates in Croatia and just 12% from Slovenia; therefore, the largest part of the catchment area (about 1000 km2) is on the Croatian side of the border. It is a typical karst area of the Dinarides with aquifers characterized by a relatively rapid water exchange, high groundwater flow velocities and aquifers open to human impact from the surface. Consequently, the aquifers are highly vulnerable and at risk. Due to the availability of large quantities of high-quality spring water (about 6 m3/s), the entire area has a strategic importance within the context of any future development strategy pertaining to the western part of Croatia. The catchment area on the Croatian side was investigated using a wide range of research methods that included a classical hydrogeological approach, the detailed hydrologic calculation of water balance to the hydrogeochemical analyses and modelling. The objective was to determine protection zones and protection measures for the whole area. The difficulties are increased due to the fact that the karst catchment area is crossed by major traffic corridors, oil pipelines and a railway and that many settlements and a highly developed wood industry are present. The combination of protecting water resources with adequate prevention measures and necessary remedial activities that should satisfy the very strict requirements necessary for the protection of the karst aquifers while still allowing for present and future human activities is difficult but not impossible to achieve. One good example is the present highway with a closed dewatering system and waste water treatment before the water passes into the karst underground system.

  12. Catchment management in semi-arid area of central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This accentuates the need for wise decisions by catchment management agencies (CMAs), especially in water-scarce semi-arid areas. ... A financial analysis also showed that gross margin of option, expressed as R/ m3 of rainwater utilised, was estimated to be between 0.0234 to 0.0254 under Option 1 and 0.0354 for ...

  13. An appraisal of the CORINE land cover database in airport catchment area analysis using GIS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suau-Sanchez, P.; Burghouwt, G.; Pallarres-Barbera, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a free available dataset, the CORINE land cover that helps dealing with the biases caused by pre-defined and heterogeneous census district boundaries in airport catchment area analysis in Europe. Using this dataset and a conventional GIS software it is possible to measure the

  14. Environmental monitoring of 137Cs in the Vardar River catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anovski, T.; Cvetanovska-Nastevska, L.; Jovanovski, N.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of Cs-137, as one of the most important anthropogenic radioactive pollutant on the environment, in various samples within the Vardar river catchment area has been determined. By application of adequate radioecological model, an effective equivalent dose for different transfer media and exposure pathways as a contribution of Cs-137 to the total exposure of man of different age, were calculated. (author)

  15. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszczapińska Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll “a”, reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy. The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  16. Impact of Catchment Area Activities on Water Quality in Small Retention Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczapińska, Katarzyna; Skoczko, Iwona; Szczykowska, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate catchment area impact on small water reservoirs condition in Podlasie. The researches were conducted in two different catchment areas. Topiło reservoir, located in Podlasie area in the south-east of Białowieża Forest, has typical sylvan catchment. Second reservoir, Dojlidy, is located also in Podlasie, in the south-east of Białystok as a part of Dojlidy Ponds. In contrast to Topiło, Dojlidy has agricultural catchment. Water samples collected from five sites along each reservoir were analysed for the presence of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chlorophyll "a", reaction, turbidity and conductivity. Researches took place in spring, summer and autumn 2013 (Topiło Lake) and 2014/2015 (Dojlidy). The lowest trophic state was observed in autumn and the highest in summer. Because of the high loads of phosphorus received by the reservoirs, this element did not limit primary production. Calculated TSI values based on total phosphorus were always markedly higher than calculated on chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen. Both reservoirs demonstrated TSI indexes specific to hypertrophic lakes due to large amount of total phosphorus.

  17. Sediment yield during typhoon events in relation to landslides, rainfall, and catchment areas in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Oguchi, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Saito, Hitoshi; Chen, Hongey; Lin, Guan-Wei; Wei, Lun-Wei; Chao, Yi-Chiung

    2018-02-01

    Debris sourced from landslides will result in environmental problems such as increased sediment discharge in rivers. This study analyzed the sediment discharge of 17 main rivers in Taiwan during 14 typhoon events, selected from the catchment area and river length, that caused landslides according to government reports. The measured suspended sediment and water discharge, collected from hydrometric stations of the Water Resources Agency of Taiwan, were used to establish rating-curve relationships, a power-law relation between them. Then sediment discharge during typhoon events was estimated using the rating-curve method and the measured data of daily water discharge. Positive correlations between sediment discharge and rainfall conditions for each river indicate that sediment discharge increases when a greater amount of rainfall or a higher intensity of rainfall falls during a typhoon event. In addition, the amount of sediment discharge during a typhoon event is mainly controlled by the total amount of rainfall, not by peak rainfall. Differences in correlation equations among the rivers suggest that catchments with larger areas produce more sediment. Catchments with relatively low sediment discharge show more distinct increases in sediment discharge in response to increases in rainfall, owing to the little opportunity for deposition in small catchments with high connectivity to rivers and the transportation of the majority of landslide debris to rivers during typhoon events. Also, differences in geomorphic and geologic conditions among catchments around Taiwan lead to a variety of suspended sediment dynamics and the sediment budget. Positive correlation between average sediment discharge and average area of landslides during typhoon events indicates that when larger landslides are caused by heavier rainfall during a typhoon event, more loose materials from the most recent landslide debris are flushed into rivers, resulting in higher sediment discharge. The high

  18. Uniform Transnational Assessment of the Environmental Indices from the Romanian Catchment Area of the Tisa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-FLORIN FONOGEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure, the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.

  19. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  20. Forests in catchment areas with special reference to the MUDA and Ahning dams: their roles in biodiversity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    During the field surveys conducted at the Muda and Ahning catchment areas, several rare and endemic plant species were recorded. The presence of relatively high population of Lagerstroemia speciosa in Muda is one of the conspicuous features of the forest in this catchment area. Unlike the Muda lake, a blue green algal bloom Oscillatoria kawamurde was observed at some parts of the Ahning lake particularly at the water surface. These catchment areas not only act as a buffer zone in the overall forest hydrological cycle but also play important roles in protecting and harbouring various species of plants and animals. (Author)

  1. Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care in England: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Floating Catchment Area Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Ruth; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-07

    To analyze the general practitioners (GPs) with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Small area population data and GP practice data in England. We used a floating catchment area method to measure spatial GP accessibility with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Data were collected from the Office for National Statistics and the general practice census and analyzed using a geographic information system. In all, 25.8 percent of the population in England lived in areas with a significant low GP accessibility (mean z-score: -4.2); 27.6 percent lived in areas with a significant high GP accessibility (mean z-score: 7.7); 97.8 percent of high GP accessibility areas represented urban areas, and 31.1 percent of low GP accessibility areas represented rural areas (correlation of accessibility and urbanity: r = 0.59; psocial deprivation was present (r = -0.19; paccessibility throughout England. However, socially deprived areas did not have poorer spatial access to GPs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Predicting forested catchment evapotranspiration and streamflow from stand sapwood area and Aridity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub

  3. Watershed area ratio accurately predicts daily streamflow in nested catchments in the Catskills, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C. Gianfagna

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Watershed area ratio was the most important basin parameter for estimating flow at upstream sites based on downstream flow. The area ratio alone explained 93% of the variance in the slopes of relationships between upstream and downstream flows. Regression analysis indicated that flow at any upstream point can be estimated by multiplying the flow at a downstream reference gage by the watershed area ratio. This method accurately predicted upstream flows at area ratios as low as 0.005. We also observed a very strong relationship (R2 = 0.79 between area ratio and flow–flow slopes in non-nested catchments. Our results indicate that a simple flow estimation method based on watershed area ratios is justifiable, and indeed preferred, for the estimation of daily streamflow in ungaged watersheds in the Catskills region.

  4. A sedimentation study in the Muda catchment area using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Roslan Mohd Ali; Juhari Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile was conducted in a selected area of the Muda Dam catchment area, Kedah. The objective of the study was to establish baseline data of the input sedimentation with regard to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified, namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and the Muda Reservoir. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment generally ranged from clay to gravel size. In the reservoir and downstream the river, most of the samples studied consisted of fine sediment Le, silt and clay (< 63 μm). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consisted of fine to coarse sand. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising the dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and the deposited sediment in the reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed using nuclear gauges, i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. The result also showed that the thickness of bed sediment varied from one location to another, whereby the thickness variation could reach up to 0.75 metre in some areas. This study could assist local authorities (AMDA) in identifying the rates and sources of accumulated sediment as well as quality and quantity of water in the study area in order to sustain distribution of good quality water to the farmers. (Author)

  5. Applying Thiessen Polygon Catchment Areas and Gridded Population Weights to Estimate Conflict-Driven Population Changes in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan) as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP), in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12) increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24) experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  6. Balancing ecosystem health and pollution risk in contrasting water supply catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ashleigh; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Froyd, Cynthia

    2017-04-01

    Prescribed fires are an important tool in many regions of the world for (i) minimising fuel loads to reduce the risk of severe wildfire occurrence, and (ii) for maintaining ecosystem services, biological diversity and ecological health. Despite the continued application of prescribed burning as a management technique in a number of regions across the world, its usage has declined in recent decades in some areas of the UK. A new project has been launched to provide an environmental impact assessment that accompanies the reintroduction of more regular management burning practices into the Brecon Beacons National Park (Wales), which aims to address the effects of the reduction in upland grazing. Its outputs will inform management practices within the region in relation to the trade-offs between burning, ecosystem services and the specific water supply catchment needs, whilst also providing a comparable British context to the growing body of international literature. In order to supplement this broad research area into the impacts of management burning, spacial-temporal changes in the risks to off-site water quality will be monitored as an impact of varying burn use-intensity. This topic has received little research in comparison to work on the effects on vegetation and soil hydrological processes. The wider implications of burn use-intensity on Welsh upland areas will also be evaluated, including an assessment of biological diversity and ecological health both on and off-site within the study catchments. This contribution will provide a brief summary of the current state of knowledge in this field, along with a research design that will be adopted to deliver the anticipated research outputs

  7. Anxiety and risk of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lauren E; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-12-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and is also commonly comorbid with anxiety. However, few studies have examined whether anxiety is predictive of diabetes risk. The objectives of this study are to examine the prospective relationship between anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia) and risk of type 2 diabetes over an 11-year period, and to investigate the association between anxiety and risk of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Data come from the 1993/6 and 2004/5 waves of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (N=1920), a population-based prospective cohort. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The prospective association between anxiety and incident type 2 diabetes was evaluated using a series of nested multivariable logistic regression models. At baseline, 315 participants (21.8%) had an anxiety disorder. The relationship between anxiety and risk of developing type 2 diabetes was not statistically significant after controlling for demographic characteristics (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.75, 2.18). There was no relationship between anxiety and diabetes risk after controlling for health behaviors and depression status (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.89). There was no significant relationship between anxiety and development of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 0.61, 6.74). Anxiety disorders are not associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes or risk of diabetes complications among those who have diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  9. Source Areas of Water and Nitrate in a Peatland Catchment, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    In nitrogen polluted forests, stream nitrate concentrations increase and some unprocessed atmospheric nitrate may be transported to streams during stormflow events. This understanding has emerged from forests with upland mineral soils. In contrast, catchments with northern peatlands may have both upland soils and lowlands with deep organic soils, each with unique effects on nitrate transport and processing. While annual budgets show nitrate yields to be relatively lower from peatland than upland-dominated catchments, little is known about particular runoff events when stream nitrate concentrations have been higher (despite long periods with little or no nitrate in outlet streams) or the reasons why. I used site knowledge and expansive/extensive monitoring at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota, along with a targeted 2-year study to determine landscape areas, water sources, and nitrate sources that affected stream nitrate variation in a peatland catchment. I combined streamflow, upland runoff, snow amount, and frost depth data from long-term monitoring with nitrate concentration, yield, and isotopic data to show that up to 65% of stream nitrate during snowmelt of 2009 and 2010 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate. Up to 46% of subsurface runoff from upland soils during 2009 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate, which shows the uplands to be a stream nitrate source during 2009, but not during 2010 when upland runoff concentrations were below the detection limit. Differences are attributable to variations in water and nitrate sources. Little snow (a nitrate source), less upland runoff relative to peatland runoff, and deeper soil frost in the peatland caused a relatively larger input of nitrate from the uplands to the stream during 2009 and the peatland to the stream during 2010. Despite the near-absence of stream nitrate during much of rest of the year, these findings show an important time when nitrate transport affected downstream aquatic ecosystems, reasons

  10. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  11. A commuter-based two-step floating catchment area method for measuring spatial accessibility of daycare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Koos; Neutens, Tijs; De Maeyer, Philippe; Deruyter, Greet

    2015-03-01

    This paper puts forward a commuter-based version of the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method, which has gained acceptance in studies on spatial health care accessibility. Current implementations of the 2SFCA method are static in that they consider centroid-based night-time representations of the population. The proposed enhancement to the 2SFCA approach addresses this limitation by accounting for trip-chaining behavior. The presented method is illustrated in a case study of accessibility of daycare centers in the province East Flanders in Belgium. The results show significant spatial differences in accessibility between the original and commuter-based version of the 2SFCA (CB2SFCA). They highlight the importance of giving heed to more complex travel behavior in cases where the need for detailed accessibility calculations is apparent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    that are dominated by a hierarchy of physical processes. The complexity is further enhanced by local human alteration of the physical structure, natural processes and alteration of the riparian areas. The aim of the study was to analyse variations in land use and riparian characteristics along small Danish streams...... and coverage of macrophytes. Riparian land use, valley form and information on channelisation and channel dredging were also collected. Small headwater streams were either dominated by forests or semi-natural land use. In contrast, the riparian areas of the streams in the larger streams were dominated...... by agricultural or semi-natural / meadow land use. The results suggest that a combination of within-system variations in geomorphological, hydrological and geological conditions as well as human alterations of the natural environment in small Danish catchments facilitate discontinuous changes to the stream bed...

  13. Climate change and its impact on the Crn Drim Catchment Area In Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovik, Oliviia; Aleksovska, Nina; Rikaloska, Gorica

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it will be presented the overview of the climate change and climate regimes of the world in general according different scenarios in the latest assessment (the 3d Report published in 2001) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its impact on the Crn Drim catchment area in Macedonia.This analysis and interpretation only provides a preliminary investigation into climate change and how it will affect Ohrid and Prespa lake system as a part of Crn Drim catchment area, which is already attacked by the climate changed. From the climatological aspect two elements: temperature and rainfall, will be' calculated and their expected changes over the century in the same area. Dates used in these analyses are from the Hydro meteorological Service of Republic of Macedonia archives In the graphs are shown changes in average seasonal climate for the period around the 2080s, relative to 1961-1990 climate. Results are shown for the SRES A2 scenario, which assumes a future world of fairly conventional energy development, i.e., continuing dependence on fossil carbon fuels. The projections for average seasonal climate for temperature and precipitation are estimated and shown separately for two seasons: winter and summer. The estimated values are compared with annual mean global worming for the 2080s,-and for the SRES A2 scenario, as calculated by the IPCC (a value of about 3.2 o C). The results show rate of worming greater in summer than in winter for Ohrid Lake as well as for Prespa Lake. Concerning the precipitation, it increases slightly in winter and decreases substantially in summer, by around 30 per cent. As the conclusion it is obviously that the temperature will rise in all Crn Drim catchment area with implications for increasing water temperature and water quality, which would be degraded by higher water temperature. This will increase evaporation and as the results can be expected water level decreasing. Also, higher temperatures and heat

  14. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  15. Assessment of Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Floods in the Bâsca Chiojdului Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REMUS PRĂVĂLIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.

  16. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape formation in a gully catchment area in Northern Hesse, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    , the Holocene landscape development and soil erosion history are investigated using anthropogenic soil sediments and alluvial fan sediments. Until now, a combination of these approaches has not been applied to a gully catchment to this extent. The distribution of the different Quaternary sediments enables...... and intercalated reworked loess. As the gully channels cut through the periglacial cover beds, especially the upper layer, the gully system is of Holocene age. At least two phases of gully erosion are identified in the alluvial fan sediments. The initial gully erosion is dated to the time span between the Late...... the application of the concept of periglacial cover beds to reconstruct landscape formation and limits it to areas where the periglacial upper layer is still preserved. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved....

  17. ESTIMATION AND MAPPING OF EXTREME RAINFALL IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF BATNA (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guellouh SAMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical estimation of rainfall associated with extreme events is of major interest for hydrologists in terms of risk prevention. Comprehending the spatial distribution of extreme rainfalls that cover the entire catchment area, the impluvium, of Batna, requires as a first step a frequency analysis of annual maximum daily rainfall time series with the application of empirical distributions, namely the GEV distribution, the Gumbel distribution and the log-normal distribution. This has allowed us to estimate the quantiles of extreme rainfall with return periods of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years for ten rainfall stations. Subsequently, this has allowed us to map the quantiles matching the centennial return period using three types of interpolations.

  18. [Decentralized outpatient teams in community-based psychiatric care: comparison of two Bavarian rural catchment areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Stauber, J; Putzhammer, A; Kilian, R

    2014-05-01

    Psychiatric outpatient clinics (PIAs) are an indispensable care service for crisis intervention and multidisciplinary treatment of people suffering from severe and persistent mental disorders. The decentralization of outpatient clinics can be understood as a further step in the deinstitutionalization process. This cross-sectional study (n=1,663) compared the central outpatient clinic with the decentralized teams for the year 2010 by means of analyses of variance, χ(2)-tests and robust multivariate regression models. The longitudinal assessment (descriptively and by means of Prais-Winsten regression models for time series) was based on all hospitalizations for the two decentralized teams (n = 6,693) according to partial catchment areas for the time period 2002-2010 in order to examine trends after their installation in the year 2007. Decentralized teams were found to be similar with respect to the care profile but cared for relatively more patients suffering from dementia, addictive and mood disorders but not for those suffering from schizophrenia and personality disorders. Decentralized teams showed less outpatient care costs as well as psychopharmacological expenses but a lower contact frequency than the central outpatient clinic. Total expenses for psychiatric care were not significantly different and assessed hospitalization variables (e.g. total number of annual admissions, cumulative length of inpatient-stay and annual hospitalizations per patient) changed slightly 3 years after installation of the decentralized teams. The number of admissions of people suffering from schizophrenia decreased whereas those for mood and stress disorders increased. Decentralized outpatient teams seemed to reach patients in rural regions who previously were not reached by the central outpatient clinic. Economic figures indicate advantages for the installation of such teams because care expenses are not higher than for patients treated in centralized outpatient clinics and

  19. Flash flood warning in mountainaious areas: using damages reports to evaluate the method at small ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Javelle, Pierre; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Andreassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    In Europe, flash floods mainly occur in the Mediterranean area on small catchments with a short concentration time. Anticipating this kind of events is a major issue in order to reduce the resulting damages. But for many of the impacted catchments, no data are available to calibrate and evaluate hydrological models. In this context, the aims of this study is to develop and evaluate a warning method for the Southern French Alps. This area is of particular interest, because it regroups different hydrological regimes, from purely Mediterranean to purely Alpine influences. Two main issues should be addressed: - How to define the hydrological model and its parameterization for an application in an ungauged context? - How to evaluate the final results on 'real' ungauged catchments? The first issue is a classic one. Using a 'observed' data set (154 streamflow stations with catchment areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km² and distributed rainfall available on the 1997-2006 period), we developed a regional model specifically for the studied area. For this purpose, the AIGA method, initially developed for Mediterranean catchments was adapted, in order to take into account snowmelt and to produce baseflows. Then, different parameterizations were tested, derived from different simple regionalisation techniques: - the same parameters set for the whole area defined as the median of the local calibrated parameters; - the same technique as the previous case, but by considering different sub-areas, defined as "hydro-climatically" homogeneous by previous studies; - and finally the neighbour's method. The second issue is more original. Indeed, in most studies the final evaluation is done using gauged stations as they were 'ungauged', ie keeping the at-site discharge data only for validation ant not for calibration. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the evaluation is made at the scale of the gauged catchments, which are in general greater than the catchments impacted by flash

  20. A spatial decision support tool for estimating population catchments to aid rural and remote health service allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen; Berube, Myriam

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting pressure on healthcare planners to manage and contain costs. In rural regions, there is a particular need to rationalize health service allocation to ensure the best possible coverage for a dispersed population. Rural health administrators need to be able to quantify the population affected by their allocation decisions and, therefore, need the capacity to incorporate spatial analyses into their decision-making process. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) can provide this capability. In this article, we combine geographical information systems (GIS) with a web-based graphical user interface (webGUI) in a SDSS tool that enables rural decision-makers charged with service allocation, to estimate population catchments around specific health services in rural and remote areas. Using this tool, health-care planners can model multiple scenarios to determine the optimal location for health services, as well as the number of people served in each instance.

  1. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  2. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  3. FLOOD FORECASTING MODEL USING EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR A SMALL CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG L. JUN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The two most destructive natural disasters in Malaysia are monsoonal and flash floods. Malaysia is located in the tropical area and received on average, around 2800 mm of rainfall every year. Due to this high amount, a reliable and timely flood forecasting system is necessary to provide early warning to minimize the destruction caused by flash flood. This study developed and checked the adaptability and adequacy of the flood forecasting model for 93 km2 catchment area, Kampung Kasipillay, in Kuala Lumpur. The Empirical Unit Hydrograph Model was used in this study and past rainfall data, water level and stagedischarge curve were used as inputs. A Rainfall-Runoff Model (RRM which transforms the rainfall to runoff hydrograph, was developed using excel. Since some data, such as properties of the watershed, are not always complete and precise, some model parameters were calibrated through trial and error processes to fine-tune the parameters of the model to get reliable estimation. The simulated unit hydrograph model was computed in prior runs of the flood forecasting model to estimate the model parameters. These calibrated parameters are used as constant variables for flood forecasting model when the runoff hydrograph was regenerated. The comparison between the observed and simulated hydrograph was investigated for the selected flood events and performance error was determined. The performance error achieved in this study of 15 flood events ranged from -2.06% to 5.82%.e.

  4. Long-term air temperature and precipitation variability in the Warta River catchment area

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    Ilnicki Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the mean annual air temperature and precipitation totals in three periods: 1848–2010, 1951–2010 and 1981–2010 was investigated in the large Warta River basin, being the area with lowest rainfall in Poland. For the purposes of research, nine meteorological stations with the longest measurement series were selected. Air temperature increase in this river basin was similar than in neighbouring countries. In the last 30 years this trend kept increasing. The precipitation in the whole studied period was slightly increasing in the northern part of the Warta River basin, but decreasing in the southern part. The mean annual precipitation totals in the catchment area did not change visible. In the period 1981–2010, the precipitation totals show a small increase in the winter and spring and a decrease in summer. A negative influence of this climate change was not visible in the Warta River discharge. The main objectives of this study were the collection long-term records of air temperature and precipitation in the Warta River basin, and the statistical analysis of climate variability.

  5. A hydro-geochemical study of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area: Fluvial metal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfali, Samira

    2004-01-01

    peaks only to calcite, dolomite and quartz. No speciation of metals in flood plain soils was done, nor XRD. The flood plain contains mostly terra rossa soils high in oxides and it is expected that the Ferric soil phase would have a major role in metal retention. The objective of this study is a complete hydro-geochemical survey of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area and this study would clarify fluvial metal transport within the catchment area. The outcome of this work might assess the factors that influence water quality. This is attained through an improved knowledge of river hydrology, texture of sediment and soil, minerals in soil and sediment and soil and sediment geochemistry

  6. Determining source areas of biodegradable dissolved organic matter in two peatland catchments with different upland forest types, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Funke, M.; Cotner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota have shown that peatland catchments have distinct landscape areas (peatlands or upland mineral soils), with unique hydrological and biogeochemical processes that affect flows of water and solutes. Nonetheless, little has been known about the relative importance of source areas or forest cover types on the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as waters water move from bogs or uplands to outlet streams. In this study, we measured biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) from multiple sources (upland surface and subsurface runoff, upland-peatland interfaces in laggs, and stream outlets) in two catchments having different upland forest types, deciduous or coniferous. We measured: total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to calculate DOC:TN and DOC:DON; short-term (48-hour) bacterial respiration (BR); long-term (one-year), bottle incubation assays of BDOC; streamflow; and volumes of upland runoff along surface and subsurface flowpaths. We also experimented by mixing various waters to assess priming effects on BDOC concentrations and BR. The BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in upland surface runoff than in subsurface flow, laggs, or outlets, indicating that DOC in the upland surface runoff was most biodegradable. We did not observe priming effects with the mixing of any waters. In terms of catchment hydrology, most streamflow (43 to 87%) was derived from bogs, not uplands. Consequently, bogs were more important sources of biodegradable DOC. Nonetheless, there was some effect of upland cover type: BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in the outlet of the coniferous catchment than the deciduous catchment, which could be due to greater TN relative to carbon in the coniferous than in the deciduous upland catchment (C:N < 100 versus 130-150; respectively). The results show that source areas and compositional differences among catchments

  7. Mapping for the management of diffuse pollution risks related to agricultural plant protection practices: case of the Etang de l'Or catchment area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghirbi, Oussama; Bord, Jean-Paul; Le Grusse, Philippe; Mandart, Elisabeth; Fabre, Jacques

    2018-03-08

    Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France. Risk mapping represents a support-decision tool that enables the different field actors to identify and locate vulnerable areas, so as to determine action plans and agri-environmental measures depending on the context of the natural environment. This work shows that mapping is helpful for managing risks related to the use of pesticides in agriculture by employing indicators of pressure (TFI) and risk on the applicator's health (IRSA) and on the environment (IRTE). These indicators were designed to assess the impact of plant protection practices at various spatial scales (field, farm, etc.). The cartographic analysis of risks related to plant protection practices shows that diffuse pollution is unequally located in the North (known for its abundant garrigues and vineyards) and in the South of the Etang de l'Or catchment area (the Mauguio-Lunel agricultural plain known for its diversified cropping systems). This spatial inequity is essentially related to land use and agricultural production system. Indeed, the agricultural lands cover about 60% of the total catchment area. Consequently, this cartographic analysis helps the territorial actors with the implementation of strategies for managing risks of diffuse pollution related to pesticides use in agriculture, based on environmental and

  8. Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA

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    NURHENI WIJAYANTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wijayanto N (2011 Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA. Biodiversitas 12: 52-58. In order to improve land productivity surrounding the LTCA, the existing ITTO project tries to establish agroforestry system. The system will be designed to meet consideration of both sides. on one side is to generate the people awareness of the forest and land rehabilitation, and on the other side is to support the poverty reduction. The aims of this research are: species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at LTCA. Data collecting was carried out with: interview, group discussion, field observation, divining manual study, and PRA. The diversity of the available crop kind shows the number of choices to be developed by the farmer. The farmers generally have the economic objective to develop agroforestry, including increase in net income, risk reduction, increase in environmental service, and the wealth and savings accumulation. Various types of agricultural crops, plantations and forest trees were found in LTCA. They can be the basis for building a wide variety of agroforestry systems.

  9. Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, R. C. G.; Sajidu, S. M. I.; Mwatseteza, J. F.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    Likangala is one of the perennial rivers in Malawi that flow into a closed Lake Chilwa, a designated wetland ratified by Ramsar Convention in 1997. Earlier work conducted on this river revealed considerable social-economic activities at riverbanks resulting in indiscriminate disposal of wastes. This study intended to evaluate water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area. Water samples were collected thrice (dry, early rainy and mid rainy seasons) and tested for major physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The EC, pH, and selected ions ( NO3-, PO43-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+) were analysed in soil samples obtained in crop fields along the river banks. Elevated EC levels (>1035.00 μS/cm) were measured during mid rainy season at site S15 (Zomba Sewage Works), near and in the lake. Most of the water samples (86%, n = 28) registered phosphate levels above 1.50 mg/L during mid rainy season with a maximum value (10.70 ± 0.01 mg/L) at site S15. Lower amounts (behavioural change and integrated control of water, land use and waste management in order to prevent escalation of the effects.

  10. Risk factor modifications and depression incidence: a 4-year longitudinal Canadian cohort of the Montreal Catchment Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Brunet, Alain; Turecki, Gustavo; Liu, Aihua; D'Arcy, Carl; Caron, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined the effect of risk factor modifications on depression incidence. This study was to explore psychosocial risk factors for depression and quantify the effect of risk factor modifications on depression incidence in a large-scale, longitudinal population-based study. Methods Data were from the Montreal Longitudinal Catchment Area study (N=2433). Multivariate modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR). Population attributable fractions were also used to estimate the potential impact of risk factor modifications on depression incidence. Results The cumulative incidence rate of major depressive disorder at the 2-year follow-up was 4.8%, and 6.6% at the 4-year follow-up. Being a younger adult, female, widowed, separated or divorced, Caucasian, poor, occasional drinker, having a family history of mental health problems, having less education and living in areas with higher unemployment rates and higher proportions of visible minorities, more cultural community centres and community organisations, were consistently associated with the increased risk of incident major depressive disorder. Although only 5.1% of the disease incidence was potentially attributable to occasional drinking (vs abstainers) at the 2-year follow-up, the attribution of occasional drinking doubled at the 4-year follow-up. A 10% reduction in the prevalence of occasional drinking in this population could potentially prevent half of incident cases. Conclusions Modifiable risk factors, both individual and societal, could be the targets for public depression prevention programmes. These programmes should also be gender-specific, as different risk factors have been identified for men and women. Public health preventions at individual levels could focus on the better management of occasional drinking, as it explained around 5%~10% of incident major depressive disorders. Neighbourhood characteristics could also be the target for public prevention

  11. The potential benefits of herbicide regulation: a cautionary note for the Great Barrier Reef catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; Benson, Ash

    2014-08-15

    Industry transitions away from traditional photosystem II inhibiting (PSII) herbicides towards an 'alternative' herbicide suite are now widely advocated as a key component of improved environmental outcomes for Australia's Great Barrier Reef and improved environmental stewardship on the part of the Queensland sugar industry. A systematic desktop risk analysis found that based on current farming practices, traditional PSII herbicides can pose significant environmental risks. Several of the 'alternatives' that can directly fill a specific pre-emergent ('soil residual') weed control function similar to regulated PSII herbicides also, however, presented a similar environmental risk profile, regardless of farming systems and bio-climatic zones being considered. Several alternatives with a pre-emergent residual function as well as alternative post-emergent (contact or 'knockdown') herbicides were, predicted to pose lower environmental risks than the regulated PSII herbicides to most trophic levels, although environmental risks could still be present. While several herbicides may well be viable alternatives in terms of weed control, they can still present equal or possibly higher risks to the environment. Imposing additional regulations (or even de-registrations) on particular herbicides could result in marginal, and possibly perverse environmental impacts in the long term, if usage shifts to alternative herbicides with similar risk profiles. Regardless of any regulatory efforts, improved environmental sustainability outcomes in pesticide practices within the Great Barrier Reef catchment area will hinge primarily on the continuing adoption of integrated, strategic pest management systems and technologies applied to both traditional and 'alternative' herbicides. One of the emerging policy challenges is ensuring the requisite technical and extension support for cane growers to ensure effective adoption of rapidly evolving farming system technologies, in a very dynamic and

  12. Watershed Modeling with ArcSWAT and SUFI2 In Cisadane Catchment Area: Calibration and Validation of River Flow Prediction

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    Iwan Ridwansyah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of natural resources utilization as a result of population growth and economic development has caused severe damage on the watershed. The impacts of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts become more frequent. Cisadane Catchment Area is one of 108 priority watershed in Indonesia. SWAT is currently applied world wide and considered as a versatile model that can be used to integrate multiple environmental processes, which support more effective watershed management and the development of better informed policy decision. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of SWAT model for modeling mountainous catchments, focusing on Cisadane catchment Area in west Java Province, Indonesia. The SWAT model simulation was done for the periods of 2005 – 2010 while it used landuse information in 2009. Methods of Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI2 and combine with manual calibration were used in this study to calibrate a rainfall-runoff. The Calibration is done on 2007 and the validation on 2009, the R2 and Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE of the calibration were 0.71 and 0.72 respectively and the validation are 0.708 and 0.7 respectively. The monthly average of surface runoff and total water yield from the simulation were 27.7 mm and 2718.4 mm respectively. This study showed SWAT model can be a potential monitoring tool especially for watersheds in Cisadane Catchment Area or in the tropical regions. The model can be used for another purpose, especially in watershed management.

  13. Distribution of 127Cs and 90Sr in southern part of Pyajyanne lake and in its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Yaakkola, T.

    1998-01-01

    Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137 Cs concentration is decreasing. 90 Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137 Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137 Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90 Sr washing out. The role of 137 Cs and 90 Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes

  14. Which catchment properties determine runoff behavior in small catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. D.; Lischeid, G.; Steidl, J.; Dannowski, R.

    2012-04-01

    The complexity of Pleistocene landscape and various anthropogenic influences complicate the classification of runoff characteristics of small catchments in northeast Germany. Such a classification would be of use for scientists and water managers in order to estimate the catchments' vulnerability regarding floods and low flows, transfer results to ungauged catchments as well as planning of measures to adapt to climate change. The objective of our study is the use of dimensional reduction technique solely on discharge time series in order to classify runoff behavior of small catchments (Health and Consumer Protection of the Federal State of Brandenburg. Principal Component Analysis was applied to reduce dimensionality to as few principal components as possible explaining still most of the variance in the data. Additionally, meteorological data and catchment properties derived from hydrogeologic, soil and land use maps were included to better understand the results and to check hypotheses about underlying processes and driving forces. The first six components exhibited an eigenvalue exceeding one and explained 73% of the total variance. Analysis of the loadings and comparison with meteorological and catchment properties allowed assigning runoff generating processes to the principal components. The first principal component represented the mean runoff behavior of the time series from all catchments. Further components could be related to precipitation patterns that exhibited a northwest-southeast and southwest-northeast gradient, a higher evapotranspiration by wetlands and river lakes, water management activities and specific behavior or measurement errors at single gauges. Despite our hypothesis that soil, groundwater and land use properties are crucial to understand discharge patterns at small catchments the results show that precipitation patterns and the area of river lakes and wetlands explain most of the variance in our data set. Our method was suited to extract

  15. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2-0.3 Bq/L and 2-7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1-0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below the

  16. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2–0.3 Bq/L and 2–7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1–0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below

  17. Study Of Land Cover And Condition Catchment Area Groundwater Aquifer In Tanah Merah North Samarinda District Using Resistivity Geoelectric Sounding

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    Djayus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is a biophysical cover that maintains land conditions in water balance. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of land cover water catchment groundwater aquifer and correlation. This research begins by collecting data on land cover soil type rainfall slopes and groundwaterinformation. Field activities include observation and data collection of land cover geological conditions community wells and geoelectric sounding. Land cover data is classified according to circumstances and conditions. Geoelectric sounding data was analyzed with IP2WIN software interpretation of lithologic variation of rocks and depth based on resistivity value. Plot the position of each lithology sounding with Surfer software obtained kontour rock field boundary and 3D model of the aquifer position.The results showed that the land cover consisted of vegetated areas forests 27221 Ha 4032 and agricultural land 18336 Ha 2716 non-vegetation area 9880 Ha 1464 constructed land Open land 116.33 Ha 17.23 and water body 4.35 Ha 0.64 The condition of land cover in this water catchment area has decreased 6838 Ha 1014 from the previous condition 34059 Ha 5046 to 27221 Ha 4032. Referring to Permenhut RI No. 32 in 2009 total score catchment area 33 including the somewhat critical condition. Groundwater aquifers based on 3D sounding geolistrik modeling consist of a free aquifer for shallow groundwater depth of water level between 2-30 m with thickness 2-65 m and a distorted aquifer for groundwaterin depth of water between 75-150 m With thickness 75-125 m depth of community well 10-45 m. The transfer of land into open pit mines resulted in the destruction of the balance and water system the decreasing decreasing the discharge of the well water of the community drill the failure and the lack of new water discharge of the new wells the loss of groundwaterin several dug wells landslides and mud floods on the farmland

  18. Typology of potential high contribution areas in the sediment budget in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (≈12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary

  19. THE FIRST PLAN FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT OF SOMEȘ-TISA CATCHMENT AREA

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    SOFRONIE C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With time, after Romania’s accession to the E.U., the national legislation adhered to the Water Framework Directive. In the study we present the Someş and Tisa river catchments management and development plans, from the beginnings till today. We also conclude that the ecological and chemical state for the water bodies in agreement with the Water Framework Directive represents the main challenge for the future of these waters.

  20. MODEL SWAT (SOIL AND WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL UNTUK ANALISIS EROSI DAN SEDIMENTASI DI CATCHMENT AREA SUNGAI BESAR KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Febrianti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is a natural process that occurs naturally causing sedimentation in a stream. The transported sediment material can reduce channel capacity and increase the risk of flooding, as happened in the Big River Fishing Area, Karang Intan Subdistrict, Banjar District. Therefore it is necessary to determine the value of erosion and the latest sediment in order to be the basis of consideration of management actions. Watershed management analysis using hydrological model. Soil And Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is one of the hydrological models that can be used to analyze erosion and sedimentation with parameters such as rainfall data, temperature, land cover, soil and slope. SWAT model simulation using land use data, soil, rainfall and climate data of 2016, the amount of sedimentation and erosion in Catchment Area of large river is 58,48 ton/ha/year and 4,82 ton/ha/year. The level of sedimency in the Catchment Area of the Great River which belongs to very low class is 1635,38 ha, low grade 57,31 ha, middle class 385,21 ha and very high class that is 3.221,48 ha. While the level of erosion that includes very light class of 2334,24 ha, lightweight 2.692.31 ha and middle class area of 272.83 ha.

  1. Eco-physiological Study on the Influence of Contaminated Waters from the Topolnitza River Catchment Area on Some Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Velcheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for an investigation of the water conditions in the Topolnitza Dam Lake, Topolnitza River and its catchment area. The sensitivity of seeds and young wheat, sunflower and mustard plants to heavy metal stress was examined at laboratory conditions. Our results showed that seedling growth was more sensitive to heavy metals in comparison to seed germination. The length of shoot and root has been adversely affected due to water contamination when compared to the control. A certain negative effect on the photosynthetic pigments content was registered.

  2. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  3. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  4. Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Medium Scale for Rainfall-Induced Earthflows: Catakli Catchment Area (Cayeli, Rize, Turkey

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    H. A. Nefeslioglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to introduce a probabilistic approach to determine the components of the risk evaluation for rainfall-induced earthflows in medium scale. The Catakli catchment area (Cayeli, Rize, Turkey was selected as the application site of this study. The investigations were performed in four different stages: (i evaluation of the conditioning factors, (ii calculation of the probability of spatial occurrence, (iii calculation of the probability of the temporal occurrence, and (iv evaluation of the consequent risk. For the purpose, some basic concepts such as “Risk Cube”, “Risk Plane”, and “Risk Vector” were defined. Additionally, in order to assign the vulnerability to the terrain units being studied in medium scale, a new more robust and more objective equation was proposed. As a result, considering the concrete type of roads in the catchment area, the economic risks were estimated as 3.6×106€—in case the failures occur on the terrain units including element at risk, and 12.3×106€—in case the risks arise from surrounding terrain units. The risk assessments performed in medium scale considering the technique proposed in the present study will supply substantial economic contributions to the mitigation planning studies in the region.

  5. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  6. Carbon (δ13C and Nitrogen (δ15N Stable Isotope Signatures in Bat Fur Indicate Swarming Sites Have Catchment Areas for Bats from Different Summering Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi L Segers

    Full Text Available Migratory patterns of bats are not well understood and traditional methods to study this, like capture-mark-recapture, may not provide enough detail unless there are many records. Stable isotope profiles of many animal species have been used to make inferences about migration. Each year Myotis lucifugus and M. septentrionalis migrate from summering roosts to swarming caves and mines in the fall, but the pattern of movement between them is not well understood. In this study, fur δ13C and δ15N values of 305 M. lucifugus and 200 M. septentrionalis were analyzed to make inferences about migration patterns between summering areas and swarming sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. We expected that there would be greater variability in δ13C and δ15N among individuals at swarming sites because it was believed that these sites are used by individuals originating from many summering areas. There was extensive overlap in the standard ellipse area, corrected for small sample sizes (SEAc, of bats at swarming sites and much less overlap in SEAc among groups sampled at summering areas. Meaningful inference could not be made on M. septentrionalis because their low variation in SEAc may have been the result of sampling only 3 summering areas. However, for M. lucifugus, swarming sites had larger SEAc than summering areas and predictive discriminant analysis assigned swarming bats to multiple summering areas, supporting the contention that swarming bats are mixed aggregations of bats from several summering areas. Together, these data support the contention that swarming sites have catchment areas for bats from multiple summering areas and it is likely that the catchment areas for swarming sites overlap. These data suggest that δ13C and δ15N profiling of bat fur offer some potential to make inferences about regional migration in bats.

  7. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  8. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catchment Area Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Savarino, J.; Erbland, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; Eisenhauer, A.; Sueltenfuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s.

  9. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  10. Detection of Catchment-Scale Gully-Affected Areas Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully-affected areas detection is the basic work in this region for gully erosion assessment and monitoring. For the first time, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was applied to extract gully features in this region. Two typical catchments in Changwu and Ansai were selected to represent loess tableland and loess hilly regions, respectively. A high-powered quadrocopter (md4-1000 equipped with a non-metric camera was used for image acquisition. InPho and MapMatrix were applied for semi-automatic workflow including aerial triangulation and model generation. Based on the stereo-imaging and the ground control points, the highly detailed digital elevation models (DEMs and ortho-mosaics were generated. Subsequently, an object-based approach combined with the random forest classifier was designed to detect gully-affected areas. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The overall extraction accuracy in Changwu and Ansai achieved was 84.62% and 86.46%, respectively, which indicated the potential of the proposed workflow for extracting gully features. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

  11. Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Banyas Catchment of the Syrian coastal area using GIS and the RISKE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattaa, Bassam; Al-Fares, Walid; Al Charideh, Abdul Rahman

    2010-05-01

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and landuse planning. This contribution aims at estimating aquifer vulnerability by applying the RISKE model in Banyas Catchment Area (BCA), Tartous Prefecture, west Syria. An additional objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the RISKE model and a geographical information system (GIS) as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment. The RISKE model uses five environmental parameters (Rock of aquifer media, Infiltration, Soil media, Karst, and Epikarst) to characterize the hydro-geological setting and evaluate aquifer vulnerability. The elevated eastern and low western part of the study area was dominated by high vulnerability classes, while the middle part was characterized by moderate vulnerability classes. Based on the vulnerability analysis, it was found that 2% and 39% of BCA is under low and high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively, while more than 52% and 5% of the area of BCA can be designated as an area of moderate and very high vulnerability to groundwater contamination, respectively. The GIS technique has provided an efficient environment for analyses and high capabilities of handling a large amount of spatial data. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cascade-pond System Health Assessment Based on Macroinvertebrate Indices and Its Relationship with Impervious Cover and Aquatic Buffer Zone in Urbanized Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cascade-pond system consists of six ponds located at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. Its catchment area is dominated by high density urban area with moderate to high imperviousness. Some of riparian buffers surrounds six ponds are also occupied by high imperviousness that may lead some ecohydrological problems i.e. water quality degradation, declining freshwater biodiversity and food web changes. The aim of this study is assessing the current state of cascade-pond system health. The assessment of macroinvertebrate indices is based on SingScore that have been developed by Public Utilities Board of Singapore for macroinvertebrate biotic index. Impervious cover data is obtained from high-resolution imageries and processed using ArcGIS 10.5. Qualitative statistics methods, Chi-squared test describes the relationship of macroinvertebrate indices with catchment area imperviousness and aquatic buffer zone. The health assessment based on macroinvertebrates indices shows that the lower ponds are relatively healthier than the upper one. There is also any significant relationship between macroinvertebrate indices with impervious cover based on chi square test and cross tabulation analysis.

  13. Environment-friendly flood protection concepts for the Fulda and Diemel catchment areas; Umweltvertraeglicher Hochwasserschutz fuer die Einzugsgebiete von Fulda und Diemel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettcher, Klaus [Roettcher Ingenieurconsult, Kassel (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Under the guidance of the Department of Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering, a flood protection concept for the catchment areas of the Fulda and Diemel Rivers is elaborated from 2003 until the end of 2006. This project is funded as part of the international project ''Creating New Landscapes for Flood Risk Management'' by the EU program INTERREG IIIB. The aim of the German project is, to elaborate with regards to the environment, cost efficiency, and its implementation and effectiveness, an optimized flood protection concept, chosen among the various possibilities of increasing flood protection. Both catchment areas are displayed completely in high resolution by a hydrological model. Various flood protection measures are studied in detail at pilot areas. The results are applied to the entire catchment area. Potential damage studies give a hint to hot spots in the catchment area. A combination of effective measures forms the implementation proposal. The flood protection concept can be seen as a guiding principle for authorities and environment agencies, so that single measures are integrated sensibly into the overall concept, and flood protection is improved stepwise for all residents. (orig.)

  14. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  15. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  16. Evaluation of stream discharges measurement using radioisotope and conventional method at Sungai Weng catchment area, Kedah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul Hizam Yusoff and Wan Zakaria Wan MuhdTahir

    2006-01-01

    A number of discharge measurements using radioisotope and current metering techniques at selected streams in Sg. Weng Experimental Catchment were conducted by MINT and JPS gauging teams starting from 2003-2005. This study aims to prepare stage-discharge relationships or rating curves of the selected streams during variable flow conditions. The rating curve of the stream is one of the important parameters and usually appraised in certain routine operations of hydrological studies. It may be used in the planning of water resources management and flood control scheme. The radioisotope method employed in this study involved the injection of short-lived radioisotope tracer, that is, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc having its half-life ∼ 6.023 hrs) which was supplied from a high activity technetium generator (55.5 Gbq). Measurement of stream discharges were concurrently undertaken by JPS staff using a current meter type 0TT-C2 mounted on a wading rod at selected gauging stations for comparison purposes. Methodologies from the two methods of discharge measurements, comparison of results and identifying the uncertainties (errors) in performing the measurement during low, medium and high turbulent flows were explained in this paper. Generally, the entire results of streamflow data (2003-2005) measured by both methods during low flows (Q 3 /s) exhibit almost comparable values to each other. However, for moderate flows (1.0 m 3 /s 3 /s), the different in gauging results are slightly higher using radioisotope method ( i.e. Q isotope > Q current meter and may goes up to 40%) , and during high turbulent flows (Q>6.0 m 3 /s) the radioisotope method presented more than 40% higher discharge values as compared to the measurement made by the conventional current-meter. Observation made on site anticipated that inaccurate gauging data measured by conventional means during high flow and turbulent conditions are expected. The average estimated measurement error associated with isotope method

  17. The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN MOLDOVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

  18. Pesticide Application among Farmers in the Catchment of Ashaiman Irrigation Scheme of Ghana: Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memuna M. Mattah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75% of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7% of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified.

  19. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  20. Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

  1. Analysis of interrelation between water quality and hydrologic conditions on a small karst catchment area of sinking watercourse Trbuhovica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinic, V; Grzetic, A; Ljubotina, M; Rubinic, J; Ruzic, I; Volf, G; Vuckovic, I; Kvas, N

    2008-01-01

    Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.

  2. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified.

  3. Use of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to investigate drought relative to maize, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masupha, Teboho Elisa; Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond

    2017-12-01

    Drought frequency and severity analysis during the growing period of maize was carried out by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on climatic data from seven weather stations (1975-2014). The index was aggregated at different time scales following three consecutive planting dates (October, November and December), relative to the average start of the rainy season in the area. Temporal analysis of droughts was conducted and trends were evaluated using the non-parametric Spearman's Rank Correlation test. The relative frequency distributions of the different drought categories were plotted for each growth stage of maize, with respect to the three planting dates. Results revealed an average drought occurrence of once every two seasons. The 1991/92 drought was identified as the most extreme drought during the analysis period; and generally there were no significant trends across the catchment, except for weak increasing SPEI at Levubu, Lwamondo and Thohoyandou with Spearman's ρ values of 0.4. This implies that the severity of drought decreased over time in these regions following the respective planting dates. The study further revealed that planting a 120-day maturing maize crop in December would pose a high risk of frequent severe-extreme droughts (SPEI -1.5 to ≤ -2) during the flowering to grain-filling stage at the high and moderate rainfall regions, while results at the low rainfall region indicated this risk following planting in October.

  4. Environmental modelling of Omerli catchment area in Istanbul, Turkey using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, H Gonca; Alparslan, Erhan

    2009-06-01

    Omerli Reservoir is one of the major drinking water reservoirs of Greater Metropolis Istanbul, providing 40% of the overall water demand. Istanbul where is one of the greatest metropolitan areas of the world with a population over 10 million and a rate of population increase about twice that of Turkey. As a result of population growth and industrial development, Omerli watershed is highly affected by the wastewater discharges from the residential areas and industrial plants. The main objective of this study is to investigate the temporal assessment of the land-use/cover of the Omerli Watershed and the water quality changes in the Reservoir. It is not possible to adequately control urbanization and other pollution sources affecting the water quality. Responses of these detrimental effects are due to rapidly increasing population, unplanned and illegal housing, and irrelevant industries at the protection zones of the watershed, together with insufficient infrastructure. The study is focused on the assessment of urbanization in relation to land use and water quality using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques for all the four protection zones of the Reservoir and a time variant analyzing model is obtained. IRS-1C LISS and IRS-1C PAN, LANDSAT-5 TM satellite data of 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2006 are analyzed by confirmation through the ground truth data. RS data have been transferred into UTM coordinate system and image enhancement and classification techniques were used. Raster data were converted to vector data that belongs to study area to analyze in GIS for the purpose of planning and decision-making on protected watersheds.

  5. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the impact of best management practices in Jatigede Catchment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwansyah, Iwan; Fakhrudin, M.; Wibowo, Hendro; Yulianti, Meti

    2018-02-01

    Cimanuk watershed is one of the national priority watersheds for rehabilitation considering its critical condition. In this area, Jatigede Reservoir operates, which is the second largest reservoir in Indonesia, after Jatiluhur Reservoir. The reservoir performs several functions, including flood control, irrigation for 90.000 ha of rice fields, water supply of 3.500 litres per second, and power generation of 110 MW. In 2004 the Jatigede Reservoir catchment area had a critical land area of 40.875 ha (28% of the catchment area). The sedimentation rate in Cimanuk River at Eretan station shows a high rate (5.32 mm/year), which potentially decreases the function of Jatigede Reservoir. Therefore, a strategy of Best Management Practice’s (BMP’s) is required to mitigate the problem by using SWAT hydrology modelling. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of BMP’s on surface runoff and sediment yield in Jatigede Reservoir Catchment Area. Simulations were conducted using land use in 2011. The results of this study suggest that SWAT model is considered as a reasonable modelling of BMP’s simulation concerning Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficients (0.71). The simulation is using terraces, silt pit, and dam trenches as BMP’s techniques. The BMP’s application can reduce surface runoff from 99.7 mm to 75.8 mm, and decrease sediment yield from 61.9 ton/ha/year to 40.8 ton/ha/year.

  6. Identification Types Of Mpts To Life On Of Critical Catchment Areas Of Lake Toba Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifuddin Dalimunthe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing forest while maintaining sustainability is absolutely necessary. Plant Multy Purpose Tree Species PMPTS Adaptive is a solution to increase the income of local forest communities. This study aims to identify the type of PMPTS in the catchmnet areas of Lake Toba are recorded from Dairi regency Samosir Humbang Hasundutan Toba Samosir and Simaungun. The research was conducted from May to July 2016. The method used in this research is the belt transect method. The results were obtained districts Silahisabungan Regency of Dairi is the most commonly found types of MPTS. Mango and hazelnut plants are plants that are most often found in five counties. Removal of saplings is silviculture techniques most widely used by the public reached 87.76 and the biggest obstacle growth MPTS according to respondents is the climate especially the strong winds that 54.60 .

  7. Mapping soil organic carbon stock in the area of Neamtu Catchment, Northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaban, Ana-Ioana; Bobric, Elena-Diana; Breaban, Iuliana-Gabriela; Rusu, Eugen

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of soil organic carbon stocks and its spatial extent is directly influenced by the land cover. The aim of the study is to quantify both the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and stocks under different soil types and land uses in an area of 41.808,04 ha in northeastern part of Romania. It has been studied the evolution of carbon stocks over time, taking into account the change of land use between 1990-2012 under 5 classes: forests, pastures, arable land, orchard and built spaces. Common soils are Cambisols, Fluvisols, Phaezems, and Luvisols, forest being the predominant land use. The most important loss of soil organic carbon occurs as a result of changes in the supply of biomass supplying litter and therefore the process of bioaccumulation. The samples were collected from 100 representative soil profiles and analyzed with Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 with HT 1300 solid module. Based on the soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and texture the values of those parameters varied from high values in Ao and Bv horizons to lower values in C horizon. In order to model soil organic carbon concentration were used different interpolation techniques (regression and ordinary -kriging, IDW) at different sampling densities for each depth to 100 cm, using a Gaussian approach to estimate the uncertainty. It is noticeable that soil organic carbon had a positive correlation with different types of land uses and a negative correlation with the elevation, being a decreasing trend of the carbon stocks sequestered in biomass, litter and soil. In the upper part of the profiles, the soil organic carbon stock considerably varied for forest land between 6.5-7.23 kg C/sqm) and agricultural land (3.67-4.65 kg C/sqm). The kriging regression evidenced a good variability of the calculated root mean square errors of the predicted soil organic carbon stocks.

  8. Prevalence of ICD-10 mental disorders in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura; Walters, Ellen E; Gentil, Valentim; Laurenti, Ruy

    2002-07-01

    The prevalence (lifetime, 12-month, 1-month) of mental disorders, their relationship with sociodemographic features, and the use of services were investigated in the population aged 18 years or older living in the catchment area of a large hospital complex in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A community survey was conducted in two boroughs of São Paulo, on 1,464 residents aged 18 years or older. The assessment of psychopathology was made by CIDI 1.1, yielding diagnoses according to ICD-10 for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, non-affective psychosis, substance use disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, and cognitive impairment. Of the total sample, 45.9 % had at least one lifetime diagnosis of mental disorder, 26.8 % in the year, and 22.2 % in the month prior to interview. The most prevalent disorders (lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month, respectively) were: nicotine dependence (25 %, 11.4 %, 9.3 %), any mood disorder (18.5 %, 7.6 %, 5 %) with depressive episode the most prevalent mood disorder (16.8 %, 7.1 %, 4.5 %), any anxiety disorder (12.5 %, 7.7 %, 6 %), somatoform disorder (6 %, 4.2 %, 3.2 %), and alcohol abuse/dependence (5.5 %, 4.5 %, 4 %). No gender differences were found in overall morbidity. Excluding substance use disorders, women had a higher risk for non-psychotic disorders. The presence of psychiatric diagnosis increased the use of services, with a low proportion of subjects seeking specialty mental care. Our results confirm the high prevalence of mental disorders in the community, similar to findings in other countries. A comparison with findings from other studies with similar methodology is made.

  9. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  10. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  11. First Results of using the Process-based Model PROMAB-GIS for Runoff a Bedload Transport Estimation in the Lainbach Torrent Catchment Area (Benediktbeuern, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, M.; Jenewein, S.; Ploner, A.; Sönser, T.

    2003-04-01

    As growing damage potential makes society more and more vulnerable to natural hazards, the pressure on the official authorities responsible for the guarantee of public safety is increasing rapidly. Modern computer technology, e.g. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), can provide remarkable help in assessing the risks resulting from natural hazards. The modelling in PROMAB-GIS, which is an user friendly software based on ESRI ArcView for assessing runoff and bedload transport in torrent catchments, is strongly based on interdisciplinary process-orientated field investigations. This paper presents results of the application of PROMAB-GIS to estimate the runoff and bedload transport potential of the Lainbach catchment area which has repeatedly been affected by heavy rain storms triggering remarkable events. The operational steps needed to gain process orientated, reproducible results for assessing design events in watersheds are highlighted. A key issue in this context is the need for detailed field-investigation of the geo-, bio-, hydro-inventory of a catchment area. The second part of the paper presents the model results for design events. The data of the event which caused severe damage in June 1990 provides a perfect basis for the evaluation of the model. The results show the potential of PROMAB-GIS for assessing runoff and bedload transport in alpine torrent systems.

  12. A plot tree structure to represent surface flow connectivity in rural catchments: definition and application for mining critical source areas and temporal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Cordier, Marie-Odile; Grimaldi, Catherine; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy; Masson, Veronique; Squividant, Herve; Trepos, Ronan

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural landscapes are structured by a mosaic of farmers'fields whose boundaries and land use change over time, and by linear elements such as hedgerows, ditches and roads, which are more or less connected to each other. Such man-made features are now well known to have an effect on catchment hydrology, erosion and water quality. In such agricultural landscapes, it is crucial to have an adequate functional representation of the flow pathways and define relevant indicators of surface flow connectivity over the catchment towards the stream, as a necessary step for improving landscape design and water protection. A new conceptual object oriented approach has been proposed by building the drainage network on the identification of the inlets and outlets for surface water flow on each farmers' field and surrounding landscape elements (Aurousseau et al., 2009 ; Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2011), then on delineating a set of elementary plot outlet trees labelled by attributes which feed the stream. This drainage network is therefore represented as a global plot outlet tree which conceptualizes the connectivity of the surface flow patterns over the catchment. This approach has been applied to different catchment areas, integrated in modelling (Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2009) and decision support tools. It provides a functional display of data for decision support which can highlight the plots of potential risk regarding the surface runoff, areas which are often shortly extended over catchments (suspended sediment application). Integrated in modelling and mining tools, it allows to catch typologies of the most spatial pattern involved in water quality degradation (herbicides transport model) (Trepos et al., 2012) and test their permanency in time regarding the variations of climate conditions and agricultural practices (Salmon-Monviola et al., 2011). This set of works joins skills in hydrology, agronomy and computer sciences. Aurousseau P., Gascuel-Odoux C., Squividant H

  13. Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, G. T.; Brigandi, G.; Morey, N.

    2010-09-01

    Flash floods are phenomena in which the important hydrologic processes are occurring on the same spatial and temporal scales as the intense precipitation. Most of the catchment in the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) are small, with a steep slope, and characterized by short concentration times. These characteristics make those catchment prone to flash flood formation, as demonstrated by events that occurred in the area around Messina in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy in the last recent years. The events occurred on 25th October 2007 in the Mastroguglielmo torrent on the ionic sea coast, on 11th December 2008 in the Elicona catchment on the Tyrrhenian sea coast and on 1st October 2009 in Racinazzi and Giampilieri torrents on the ionic sea coast are an example of flash floods and debris flow events that caused not only significant economic damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges but also, for this that concern the 1st October 2009 flash flood event, loss of human life. This work is aimed by the 1st October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event where a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 200 million Euro. Main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis of the 2009 flash flood event, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture condition and the consequent flash floods in the catchment of the Giampilieri catchment. Starting from these information another objective has been, then, to document the post-failure stage of event concerning slid materials. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial

  14. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  15. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  16. Chemical composition of natural waters of contaminated area: The case for the Imandra Lake catchment (the Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Z. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Kopylova, J. G.; A, Vorobeva D.

    2016-03-01

    The study of the current chemical composition of natural waters in the eastern and western parts of the Imandra Lake catchment was performed using ion chromatography, potentiometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was found that the content of trace elements in the surface water is considerably higher than that in the groundwater. The nickel and copper concentrations exceed the background levels over 19 and 2 times respectively in groundwater, and 175 and 61 times in the surface waters. These data show that the Severonikel influences negatively air and surface water.

  17. Using catchment areas analysis and GIS based spatial analysis for prioritising spatial investment in non-metro South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Chéri A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available and density analysis was undertaken to test the centrality of all town points at the centre of the catchments. The analysis focussed on the 30km distance range. The reason for this is that, based on the most commonly provided middle-order services... of typical middle-order services. Using the goal of service efficiency in conjunction with accessibility as the departure point, an optimisation analysis of all 1 328 node centroids in South Africa was done to identify optimum locations...

  18. Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Elias

    The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of δO18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and δD = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with δO18 = -4.06 and δD = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (δO18 = -6, δD = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (δO18 = -5, δD = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (δO18 -3.8, δD = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (δO18 -18 = -6, δD = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces

  19. Evolution of Hydrological Drought in Human Disturbed Areas: A Case Study in the Laohahe Catchment, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979 and the disturbed period (1980–2009. A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months. These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management.

  20. Simulation of runoff and recharge and estimation of constituent loads in runoff, Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN) to simulate runoff and recharge and to estimate constituent loads in surface-water runoff in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and runoff data collected during 1970–98 from four gaged basins in the outcrop and catchment area were used to calibrate and test the model. The calibration parameters were applied in simulations of the four calibration basins and six ungaged basins that compose the study area to obtain runoff and recharge volumes for 4 years, 1997–2000. In 1997, simulated runoff from the study area was 5.62 inches. Simulated recharge in the study area was 7.85 inches (20 percent of rainfall). In 1998, simulated runoff was 11.05 inches; simulated recharge was 10.99 inches (25 percent of rainfall). In 1999, simulated runoff was 0.66 inch; simulated recharge was 3.03 inches (19 percent of rainfall). In 2000, simulated runoff was 5.29 inches; simulated recharge was 7.19 inches (21 percent of rainfall). During 1997– 2000, direct infiltration of rainfall accounted for about 56 percent of the total Edwards aquifer recharge in Bexar County. Streamflow losses contributed about 37 percent of the recharge; flood impoundment contributed 7 percent. The simulated runoff volumes were used with event-mean-concentration data from basins in the study area and from other Bexar County basins to compute constituent loads and yields for various land uses. Annual loads for suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total lead were consistently largest from undeveloped land and smallest from commercial land or transportation corridors. Annual loads and yields varied with rainfall, with the maximum loads produced in the wettest year (1998) and the minimum loads produced in the driest year (1999).

  1. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  2. Blending Pan-European and local hydrological models for water resource assessment in Mediterranean areas: lessons learnt from a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Saénz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Pimentel, Rafael; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Global hydrological models provide scientists and technicians with distributed data over medium to large areas from which assessment of water resource planning and use can be easily performed. However, scale conflicts between global models' spatial resolution and the local significant spatial scales in heterogeneous areas usually pose a constraint for the direct use and application of these models' results. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) offers a wide range of both climate and hydrological indicators obtained on a global scale with different time and spatial resolutions. Among the different study cases supporting the SWICCA demonstration of local impact assessment, the Sierra Nevada study case (South Spain) is a representative example of mountainous coastal catchments in the Mediterranean region. This work shows the lessons learnt during the study case development to derive local impact indicator tailored to suit the local end-users of water resource in this snow-dominated area. Different approaches were followed to select the most accurate method to downscale the global data and variables to the local level in a highly abrupt topography, in a sequential step approach. 1) SWICCA global climate variable downscaling followed by river flow simulation from a local hydrological model in selected control points in the catchment, together with 2) SWICCA global river flow values downscaling to the control points followed by corrections with local transfer functions were both tested against the available local river flow series of observations during the reference period. This test was performed for the different models and the available spatial resolutions included in the SWICCA platform. From the results, the second option, that is, the use of SWICCA river flow variables, performed the best approximations, once the local transfer functions were applied to the

  3. Exploring the Linkage between Urban Flood Risk and Spatial Patterns in Small Urbanized Catchments of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global urbanization, urban flood risk in many cities has become a serious environmental issue, threatening the health of residents and the environment. A number of hydrological studies have linked urban flooding issues closely to the spectrum of spatial patterns of urbanization, but relatively little attention has been given to small-scale catchments within the realm of urban systems. This study aims to explore the hydrological effects of small-scaled urbanized catchments assigned with various landscape patterns. Twelve typical residential catchments in Beijing were selected as the study areas. Total Impervious Area (TIA, Directly Connected Impervious Area (DCIA, and a drainage index were used as the catchment spatial metrics. Three scenarios were designed as different spatial arrangement of catchment imperviousness. Runoff variables including total and peak runoff depth (Qt and Qp were simulated by using Strom Water Management Model (SWMM. The relationship between catchment spatial patterns and runoff variables were determined, and the results demonstrated that, spatial patterns have inherent influences on flood risks in small urbanized catchments. Specifically: (1 imperviousness acts as an effective indicator in affecting both Qt and Qp; (2 reducing the number of rainwater inlets appropriately will benefit the catchment peak flow mitigation; (3 different spatial concentrations of impervious surfaces have inherent influences on Qp. These findings provide insights into the role of urban spatial patterns in driving rainfall-runoff processes in small urbanized catchments, which is essential for urban planning and flood management.

  4. Exploring the Linkage between Urban Flood Risk and Spatial Patterns in Small Urbanized Catchments of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei

    2017-02-28

    In the context of global urbanization, urban flood risk in many cities has become a serious environmental issue, threatening the health of residents and the environment. A number of hydrological studies have linked urban flooding issues closely to the spectrum of spatial patterns of urbanization, but relatively little attention has been given to small-scale catchments within the realm of urban systems. This study aims to explore the hydrological effects of small-scaled urbanized catchments assigned with various landscape patterns. Twelve typical residential catchments in Beijing were selected as the study areas. Total Impervious Area ( TIA ), Directly Connected Impervious Area ( DCIA ), and a drainage index were used as the catchment spatial metrics. Three scenarios were designed as different spatial arrangement of catchment imperviousness. Runoff variables including total and peak runoff depth ( Q t and Q p ) were simulated by using Strom Water Management Model (SWMM). The relationship between catchment spatial patterns and runoff variables were determined, and the results demonstrated that, spatial patterns have inherent influences on flood risks in small urbanized catchments. Specifically: (1) imperviousness acts as an effective indicator in affecting both Q t and Q p ; (2) reducing the number of rainwater inlets appropriately will benefit the catchment peak flow mitigation; (3) different spatial concentrations of impervious surfaces have inherent influences on Q p . These findings provide insights into the role of urban spatial patterns in driving rainfall-runoff processes in small urbanized catchments, which is essential for urban planning and flood management.

  5. Verification of operational ECMWF-EPS and COSMO-LEPS precipitation forecasts for the Rhine catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Femke; van Osnabrugge, Bart; den Toom, Matthijs; Verkade, Jan

    2017-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the results of a verification study of precipitation for two probabilistic Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, for the river Rhine, a large river catchment in Central Europe. The operational forecasting system from the Water Management Centre Netherlands produces regular updates of forecasts of discharges and water levels. The primary function of the operational forecasting system is to provide reliable and accurate forecasts during periods of high water. The secondary main function is producing daily predictions for water management and water transport in The Netherlands. In addition, predicting water levels during drought periods is becoming increasingly important as well. At this moment seven different NWP models are used in the operational system. These different weather predictions should give the forecaster qualitative insight in the uncertainty in a particular weather situation. In this case the suitability of COSMO-LEPS and ECMWF-EPS were compared for precipitation averaged to the 134 Rhine subcatchments with a forecast dataset from 2012 to 2015. Actual precipitation and climatology were derived for each catchment by interpolating from the dense network of precipitation gauges available. The ensemble verification system tool (EVS) was used to calculate verification metrics, such as the RMSE, Mean Error, Brier Skill Score and Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) Skill Score. Both the precipitation predictions for COSMO-LEPS and ECMWF-EPS generally demonstrate added value in comparison to the climatology for the Rhine subcatchments, although the forecast skill decreases with increasing lead times. COSMO-LEPS demonstrates a greater accuracy than ECMWF-EPS in general. ECMWF-EPS shows a positive bias for precipitation in this dataset.

  6. Evaluation and Planning of Urban Green Space Distribution Based on Mobile Phone Data and Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space is closely related to the quality of life of residents. However, the traditional approach to its planning often fails to address its actual service capacity and users’ demand. In this study, facilitated by mobile phone location data, more specific features of the spatial distribution of urban residents are identified. Further, population distribution in relation to traffic analysis zones is mapped. On this basis, the two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA is adopted in combination with urban green space planning to evaluate the per capita area of green space and its accessibility in practice. Subsequently, classification of per capita area and spatial distribution of green spaces within the study area are obtained; thus, urban districts currently with low accessibility to green areas are identified and can be deemed as key areas for the planning of green areas in the future. The study concludes that mobile phone data can be used to more accurately map the spatial distribution of residents; while, the 2SFCA offers a more comprehensive quantitative measuring of the supply and demand of green spaces. The two combined can be used as an important basis for decision-making in the planning of urban green spaces. Since urban green space can be regarded as a kind of public facility, the methodology of the present study is also believed to be applicable in studies of other types of urban facilities.

  7. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  8. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  9. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  10. Is organizational change associated with increased rates of readmission to general hospital in suicide attempters? A 10-year prospective catchment area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Jørgensen, Trond; Diep, Lien My; Nrugham, Latha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine predictors for readmissions in patients admitted to a general hospital emergency ward for suicide attempts before and after organizational changes potentially affecting the chain of care. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected by clinicians from 1997 thru 2007. Data from the periods before and after 2004--when the hospital changed its catchment area--were compared. A substantial increase in readmission rates in the period after the organizational change was observed. This increase was not associated with any of the socio-demographic or clinical patient characteristics. Although no causal connection can be inferred, the observed association between organizational change and readmission rates could indicate that established post-discharge care systems for suicide attempters may be vulnerable to such change.

  11. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  12. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  13. Geochronological reconstruction of 137Cs transport from the Coruh river to the SE Black Sea: comparative assessment of radionuclide retention in the mountainous catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S. B.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Martin, J.-M.

    2003-11-01

    The deposition record of 137Cs was traced in the SE Black Sea sediments adjacent to the Coruh river mouth in comparison with the earlier studied chronology of 137Cs deposition in front of the Danube delta (NW Black Sea). In both cases, the 137Cs profiles showed two subsurface peaks attributable to maximum fallout of 'bomb' and Chernobyl radionuclides. The Coruh profile revealed a larger contribution of 'bomb' 137Cs in comparison with the Chernobyl input, suggesting different coverage of NW and SE Black Sea regions with the Chernobyl fallout. The 137Cs-derived dating showed that maximum deposition of particulate bound 137Cs in sediments adjacent to the Coruh river mouth was delayed for ˜14 yr relative to date of Chernobyl accident, reflecting a buffer effect of the watershed soils. This transit time is 3 times longer than in the Danube catchment area, indicating a difference in retention processes in these mountainous (Coruh) and lowland (Danube) river basins. The 137Cs profile in Coruh sediments showed penetration of 137Cs to much greater depth than would be expected from 137Cs fallout chronology, suggesting the sediment mixing rate of 1.3 cm 2 yr -1. This value was used to evaluate deposition chronology of 137Cs, applying the model developed for pulse fallout case. Comparing the measured and modelled data has allowed differentiation of the flood-induced discharge of the 137Cs-containing suspended matter and the slower transit of eroded soil particles from the contaminated catchment areas. The obtained results may be used for the prediction of period when the pollutants, deposited over the river basins, can reach the Black Sea.

  14. Electrical safety in health care area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electrical safety in health care area is necessary to protect patients and staff from potential electrical hazards.Functional, accurate and safe clinical equipment is an essential requirement in the provision of health services. Well-maintained equipment will give clinicians greater confidence in the reliability of its performance and contribute to a high standard of client care. Clinical equipment, like all health services, requires annual or periodic servicing of medical equipment. In addition to planned servicing and preventative maintenance, there may be the unexpected failure of medical (and other) equipment, necessitating repair. In general, clinical equipment that has an electrical power source and has direct contact with the client must be serviced as a first priority. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to the electrical safety in health area,theinternational standard, the distribution of electric power in hospital and protection against shockwill be introduced. Protection system in hospital will be presented in its two ways: inpower distribution in hospitaland inbiomedical equipment design,finally the optimum maintenance technology and safety tests in health care areawill presented also.

  15. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a... Receive Care? § 136a.15 Health Service Delivery Areas. (a) The Indian Health Service will designate and... Federal Indian reservations and areas surrounding those reservations as Health Service Delivery Areas. (b...

  16. Groundwater impact on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, L.; Rozemeijer, J.; Breukelen, B.M. van; Ouboter, M.; Vlugt, C. van der; Broers, H.P.

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and

  17. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments : Monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, B.M.; Ouboter, Maarten; Van Der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage,

  18. A Descriptive Study of the Utilization of Behavioral Health Resources in the Fort Hood Catchment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-15

    perceptions |in children repetitive play may occur in which ttiemes or aspects of the trauma are expressed) • Recurrent, distressing dreams of the event...in children there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content) • Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (including a...Source Gastrointestinal Disorders Pain from Fibromyalgia Chronic musculoskeletal pain in sample of male veterans in outpatient care for PTSD

  19. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  20. Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, north-east part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, G. T.; Brigandí, G.; Morey, N.

    2012-05-01

    This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.

  1. Integrated modeling of agricultural scenarios (IMAS) to support pesticide action plans: the case of the Coulonge drinking water catchment area (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Françoise; Leccia-Phelpin, Odile; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Minette, Sébastien; Miralles, André; Barberis, Delphine; Scordia, Charlotte; Kuentz-Simonet, Vanessa; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems. Water managers need appropriate and user-friendly tools to design agro-environmental policies. These tools should help them to evaluate the potential impacts of mitigation measures on water resources, more clearly define protected areas, and more efficiently distribute financial incentives to farmers who agree to implement alternative practices. At present, a number of reports point out that water managers do not use appropriate information from monitoring or models to make decisions and set environmental action plans. In this paper, we propose an integrated and collaborative approach to analyzing changes in land use, farming systems, and practices and to assess their effects on agricultural pressure and pesticide transfers to waters. The integrated modeling of agricultural scenario (IMAS) framework draws on a range of data and expert knowledge available within areas where a pesticide action plan can be defined to restore the water quality, French "Grenelle law" catchment areas, French Water Development and Management Plan areas, etc. A so-called "reference scenario" represents the actual soil occupation and pesticide-spraying practices used in both conventional and organic farming. A number of alternative scenarios are then defined in cooperation with stakeholders, including socio

  2. A novel approach for runoff modelling in ungauged catchments by Catchment Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of hydrological catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. The advantages of CM are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially applicable in varied catchments. A case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. To comprehensively examine the CM approach, distributed rainfall inputs are utilised in the model, and fractal landscapes are used to morph the land surface from the baseline model to the target model. The preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, which is promising in runoff simulation for ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  3. Glacial Area Changes in the Ili River Catchment (Northeastern Tian Shan in Xinjiang, China, from the 1960s to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ili River originates in the Tian Shan Mountains of Northwest China before flowing into Kazakhstan and Lake Balkash. Melting snow and ice are its major contributors. We analyzed glacial changes in the upper Ili River basin between the 1960s and 2007/2009 using topographic maps and satellite imagery from a Landsat TM. The relationships between glacial changes and glacial size, topographic factors, and debris cover were examined. Our results found that total glacial area decreased by 485 ± 177.3 km2 (24.2% ± 8.8% during the study period, and there were no advancing glaciers. Additionally, 331 glaciers disappeared and 18 disintegrated into two or three smaller glaciers. This study demonstrated a linear relationship between glacial area change and elevation. Changes in glaciers smaller than 1 km2 were affected by both glacial size and topographic factors, while larger ones were affected by size only. Area losses in debris-covered glaciers were smaller by 2.5% to 7.5% compared to clean ice of the same size in this basin. As in other glaciated regions, glacial retreat in the Ili River basin is attributed to global warming. The slightly increasing precipitation over the study period could not offset the ice melting.

  4. Assessment of sediment sources throughout the proglacial area of a small Arctic catchment based on high-resolution digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociuba, Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    The article presents calculations of quantitative modifications of the morphology of selected subsystems of a glacial valley through: (i) identification of the spatial distribution of important sources of sediment, (ii) assessment of the spatiotemporal variety of sediment volume and landform morphology, and (iii) assessment of the role of particular subsystems in sediment distribution. The study involved a comparison of the results of field measurements from 2010 to 2013 performed in the Scott Glacier catchment (10.1 km2) in NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen). The assessment of the landform surface changes was performed by means of a precise Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) survey. The applied field and post-processing techniques for oblique laser scanning permitted the acquisition of digital elevation data at a resolution 0.01 m and density > 500 pt m- 2. This allowed the development of a detailed terrain model, and balancing spatial quantitative changes in six research test areas (10,000 m2) located within two subsystems of the catchment in a cascade arrangement. In the alluvial valley-floor subsystem, the survey covered: 1) the glacier terminus, 2) the intramarginal outwash plain, 3) the extramarginal braid-plain and 4) the alluvial fan, and in the slope subsystem: 5) the erosional-depositional slope in the gorge through terminal moraines, and 6) the solifluction slope. Three zones differing in terms of the spatiotemporal dynamics of geomorphic processes were distinguished within the two analysed valley subsystems. In the valley floor subsystem, these are: (i) the zone of basic supply (distribution throughout the melting season) and (ii) the redeposition zone (distribution particularly during floods), and in the slope subsystem: (iii) zone of periodical supply (distributed mainly in periods of increased precipitation and rapid increases in temperature in summer and during snow avalanches in winter). The glacier and the landforms of the channel and valley

  5. ANALISIS EROSI DAN SEDIMEN SEBAGAI DAMPAK PERUBAHAN LAHAN DI CATCHMENT AREA SUNGAI HAURAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL AGNPS (AGRICULTURALNON POINT SOURCE POLLUTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Astuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedimen yang adapada suatu aliran sungai umumnya terjadi akibat proses erosi yang berkaitan erat dengan siklus hidrologi. Beberapa parameter erosi dan sedimen adalah curah hujan, vegetasi tutupan lahan, jenis tanah dan kemiringan tanah. Catchment Area Sungai Hauran memiliki kondisi vegetasi tutupan lahan berbeda pada tahun 2005 dan 2014. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penentuan nilai erosi dan sedimen terkini serta menganalisa dampak perubahan tutupan lahan tahun 2005 dan 2014 terhadap besarnya erosi dan sedimen pada satu kejadian hujan dengan data hujan yang sama. Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model (AGNPS adalah salah satu model terdistribusi yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisa erosi dan sedimen dengan kejadian hujan tunggal. Pengolahan data menggunakan model AGNPS diperoleh besar erosi persatuan luas yang terjadi pada tahun 2014 sebesar 256,43 ton/ha/tahun menunjukkan tingkat erosi berat dan total sedimen sebesar 17947,79 ton/tahun (17,60 ton/ha/tahun termasuk klasifikasi tingkat sedimen tinggi. Perbandingan tingkat erosi dan sedimen karena adanya perubahan tutupan lahan tahun 2005 dan 2014 dengan input hujan 18,2 mm mengalami peningkatan total erosi persatuan luas dari 1,93 ton/ha menjadi 11,46 ton/ha dan mengalami penurunan total sedimen pada tahun 2014 dari 50,7 ton menjadi 26,15 ton.

  6. A Future Estimation of the Surface Runoff in the Greek Region: A Case Study of one of the Main Catchments Areas (Aravissos - Central Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, C.; Tolika, K.; Vafiadis, M.

    2010-09-01

    According to the IPCC latest report (IPCC, 2007) many semi-arid and arid areas, as the Mediterranean basin, are particularly exposed to the impacts of climate change and may suffer a decrease of water resources in the future. By the middle of the 21st century it is estimated that the annual average river runoff and water availability will decrease over these dry regions at mid-latitudes. So, it is of great importance the study of the future changes in the hydrological cycle, due to the increasing freshwater demands. The main scope of the present study is to estimate the future changes of the surface runoff in the Aravissos area (central Macedonia - Greece) due to the enhanced greenhouse effect until the end of the 21st century. The selection of Aravissos was based to the fact that the water needs of the second largest in population city in Greece (Thessaloniki) are covered mainly by the selected catchments area. Daily precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunlight duration data derived from updated regional climate models, are used for selected grid points covering the domain of study. The main two climatological parameters (precipitation -temperature) are on a first step evaluated in comparison to re-analysis data (E-Obs -Ensembles project) for the same grid points. On a second step, utilizing several different evapotranspiration methods we calculated the surface runoff for two different time periods: the first in the middle and the second at the end of the 21st century. The first results of the study showed that the surface runoff depends on the methodology used for the calculation of the evapotranspiration but also from the regional model. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the CC-WaterS project (Contract number SEE/A/022/2.1/X)

  7. Some physiochemical and heavy metal concentration in surface water stream of Tutuka in the Kenyasi mining catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Tiimub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka in Kenyasi in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana from October 2010 to January 2011. The objectives of the study were to find out the contamination levels of pH, BOD5, Lead, Chromium, and Arsenic in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka to promote public health safety of people patronizing the stream for bathing and cooking. Determination of pH was achieved using Etech instrument (PC 300 series where as BOD5 level was assessed by means of empirical standard laboratory test which determined the relative oxygen requirements of waste water, effluents and polluted water using the standard procedure as per America Public Health Association (2006. An AAS 220 atomic absorption spectrometer was used for the analyses of heavy metals (lead, chromium and arsenic. The Research revealed that, the geometric mean levels of (0.01- 0.02, 0.03 – 0.26, 0 - 0.01, 3.99 – 7.06 mg/L and 5.64 – 6.40 for Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, BOD5 and pH compared to the EPA Maximum Permissible Limits of ( 0.5, 0.1, 0.1, 50 mg/L and 6-9 were respectively within the acceptable standards. However, due to slightly higher concentration of chromium (0.26 mg/L up the stream, the people of Tutuka may develop health effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hallucinations, headaches, depression, sleeping disorders, skin cancers, tumours in lungs, bladder, kidney and liver if they continue to use water from the stream for bathing and cooking.

  8. Study of erosion/deposition distribution using environmental isotope 137Cs on the catchment area of Besai hulu - Lampung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Suhartini and Barokah Alyant

    2007-01-01

    137 Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion/deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137 Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. The study is to investigate distribution of erosion/deposition rate on cultivation area. The study site located at Coffee plantation in West-Lampung. Sampling of soil was done by using scraper (20 x 50) cm for reference site, and coring (d i = 6.9 cm) for distribution of erosion/deposition rate. Eight locations had been chosen for transect sampling and 4 to 12 sampling points were selected for each transect. The result showed that erosion/deposition distribution rate was range from -0.4 to 40.0 t/ha.yr, and the net erosion/deposition for different 8 transect were -5.6 to 11.5 t/ha.yr. (author)

  9. Land Suitability Assessment in the Catchment Area of Four Southwestern Atlantic Coastal Lagoons: Multicriteria and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  10. 640 CLIMATE CHANGE IN GILGEL ABBAY CATCHMENT UPPER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Gilgel Abbay catchment, is one of cereal producing area of Ethiopia, where its productivity is entirely dependent on climatic conditions. This study was aimed at assessing climate change for the last 30 years on this important catchment. Rainfall and temperature data obtained from the catchment stations were used ...

  11. Some physiochemical and heavy metal concentration in surface water streams of Tutuka in the Kenyasi mining catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka in Kenyasi in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana in the months of October and November 2010 and January 2011. The major objectives of the study were to measure levels of pH, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), lead, chromium, and arsenic in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka and to find ways that the community could ensure safe water use. To achieve the objectives of the study, sampling was done over a period of three months and data was collected and analyzed into graphs and ANOVA tables. The research revealed that the levels of arsenic and BOD were high as compared to the standards of WHO and EPA. If the people of Tutuka continue to use the stream, they may experience negative health effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.). The level of pH, chromium and lead was acceptable as compared to the standard of WHO and EPA. (authors)

  12. Land suitability assessment in the catchment area of four Southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoons: multicriteria and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  13. Geoelectrical Monitoring for the characterisation of the near surface interflow in small alpine catchment areas during continuous rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, A.; Römer, A.; Markart, G.; Klebinder, K.; Bieber, G.; Kohl, B.

    2009-04-01

    In a pilot study the bandwidth of the near surface interflow and subsurface stormflow was investigated on a hill slope complex at the military training centre Lizum/Walchen (approx. 2000m above sea level) in Tyrol. High amounts of precipitation (about 250 mm) were applied within 2 days by use of a transportable spray irrigation installation. During the first day water from a creek was applied to the test site. On the following day the site was sprinkled with a salt tracer for an hour followed by creek water for the rest of the day. To characterise the runoff, different measurements techniques were used in the irrigation field. The subsurface runoff was registered in calibrated tanks. Changes in soil moisture were measured with buried TDR-waveguides - arranged in four profiles from 15 cm to 115 cm soil depth in maximum. In addition three geoelectrical profiles were measured. Two geoelectrical profiles were positioned orthogonal to the slope in the precipitation area, where one was reaching over the edge. The third profile was parallel to the slope overlapping with the second profile. Electrode distances were 0.25 cm and 0.50 cm respectively with 48 electrodes per profile. Geoelectrical measurements were done periodically before, during and after the rain simulation experiments. These have been carried out with the newly developed geoelectric instrument of the Geological survey of Austria, GEOMON4D. The advantage of the instrument is that it can measure a resistivity section at high speed and in an automated, meaning monitoring mode. Therefore, it is possible to register small and fast changes in the soil conductivity caused by a tracer. Summarising it can be said that the resistivity soundings give a detailed picture regarding the geological structure of the research area as well as explicit knowledge of how the near surface interflow spreads out in the subsurface. The geoelectric measurements deliver precise information about the behaviour of the salt tracer, its

  14. PEMODELAN DAERAH TANGKAPAN AIR WADUK KELILING DENGAN MODEL SWAT (Keliling Reservoir Catchment Area Modeling Using SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Ferijal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to model watershed area of Keliling Reservoir using SWAT model. The reservoir is located in Aceh Besar District, Province of Aceh. The model was setup using 90m x 90m digital elevation model, land use data extracted from remote sensing data and soil characteristic obtained from laboratory analysis on soil samples. Model was calibrated using observed daily reservoir volume and the model performance was analyzed using RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and percent bias (PBIAS. The model delineated the study area into 3,448 Ha having 13 subwatersheds and 76 land units (HRUs. The watershed is mostly covered by forest (53% and grassland (31%. The analysis revealed the 10 most sensitive parameters i.e. GW_DELAY, CN2, REVAPMN, ALPHA_BF, SOL_AWC, GW_REVAP, GWQMN, CH_K2 and ESCO. Model performances were categorized into very good for monthly reservoir volume with ENS 0.95, RSR 0.23, and PBIAS 2.97. The model performance decreased when it used to analyze daily reservoir inflow with ENS 0.55, RSR 0.67, and PBIAS 3.46. Keywords: Keliling Reservoir, SWAT, Watershed   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk memodelkan daerah tangkapan air Waduk Keliling dengan menggunakan Model SWAT. Waduk Keliling terletak di Kabupaten Aceh Besar, Propinsi Aceh. Dalam penelitian ini Model SWAT dikembangkan berdasarkan data digital elevasi model resolusi 90 m x90 m, tata guna lahan yang diperoleh dari intepretasi citra satelit dan data soil dari hasil analisa sampel tanah yang diperoleh di daerah penelitian. Model dikalibrasi dengan data volume waduk dan kinerja model dianalisa menggunakan parameter rasio akar rata-rata kuadrat error dan standard deviasi observasi (RSR, efesiensi Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE dan persentase bias (PBIAS. Hasil deleniasi untuk daerah penelitian menghasilkan suatu DAS dengan luas 3,448 Ha dan memiliki 13 Sub DAS yang dikelompokkan menjadi 76 unit lahan. Sebagian besar wilayah study

  15. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interannual variability of a precipitation gradient along the semi-arid catchment areas for the metropolitan region of Lima- Peru in relation to atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja

    2013-04-01

    The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the

  17. Assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides activation in terraced areas: the case of the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria (northwestern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Martina; Godone, Danilo; Giordan, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The shallow landslides occurrence is strongly correlated with climatic conditions and environmental settings. In the Liguria region (northwestern Italy), the landscape presents an ancient human intervention represented by terraces and, in the last century, by a general overbuilding, both in the few flat areas and in the steep slope hinterland. From the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture generated a lack of maintenance of terraced areas, which associated to the urban and the road net development, supported the slope susceptibility to instability. This makes the assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides a multidisciplinary task, combining natural and man-made issues. In this work, we try to define all the main predisposing factors of the Rupinaro catchment (southeast Liguria). We operate starting from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) supplied by an airborne LiDAR survey carried out after the autumn 2014 rainfall events. From this DTM, we mapped a total amount of 96 landslides in the study area. Then, we implemented a classification methodology based on a simple parametric score. In GIS environment we overlaid several layers: i) lithological and hydrogeological map, ii) slope iii) aspect, iv) the land use information, available by the CORINE land cover, and iv) the presence of terraces. Each spatial data was than reclassified according a numerical code. The sum, by raster math, of these factors provided an overall score raster for the entire basin. This method allows the characterization of the entire watershed, gathering all the predisposing factors for the shallow landslides activation. A categorization of the landslides area mapped from the DTM and stored in a vector layer has been made. In particular, we estimated the most frequent code within each landslide polygon, obtaining a representative data of the most influential factors that triggered shallow landslides. The results showed the prevalent

  18. Area health education centers and health science library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R T; Howard, F H

    1977-07-01

    A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication.

  19. Determination of the hydrological properties of a small-scale catchment area in Northern Greece from ASTER and SRTM DEMs and accuracy assessment with a local DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanou, E. A.; Vergos, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    The combined use of Geographic Information Systems and recent high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from Remote Sensing imagery offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrological properties of basin and catchment dynamics and derive the hydrological features of specific regions of various spatial scales. Until recently, the availability of global DEMs was restricted to low-resolution and accuracy models, e.g., ETOPO5, ETOPO2 and GTOPO30, compared to local Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from photogrammetric methods and offered usually in the form of topographic maps of various scales. The advent of the SRTM and ASTER missions, offer some new tools and opportunities in order to use their data within a GIS to study the hydrological properties of basins and consequently validate their performance both amongst each other, as well as in terms of the results derived from a local DTM. The present work focuses on the use of the recent SRTM v2 90 m and ASTER v2 30 m DEMs along with the national 500 m DTM generated by the Hellenic Military Geographic Service (HMGS), within a GIS in order to assess their performance in determining the hydrological properties of basins. To this respect, the ArcHydro extension tool of ArcGIS v9.3 and HEC-GeoRAS v4.3 have been exploited to determine the hydrographic data of the basins under study which are located in Northern Greece. The hydrological characteristics refer to stream geometry, curve number, flooding areas, etc. as well as the topographic characteristics of the basin itself, such as aspect, hillshade, slope e.t.c..

  20. Past and future impact of North Atlantic teleconnection patterns on the hydroclimate of the Caspian catchment area in CESM1.2.2 and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, Sri

    2017-04-01

    The Caspian Sea level has undergone dramatic variations of more than 3 m during the past century with important implications for the life of coastal people, economy and the ecosystem. The origin of these variations as well as future changes in the Caspian water budget are still a matter of debate. In this study, we examine the influence of the major seasonal North Atlantic teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the Scandinavian pattern (SCA), and the North Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP), on Caspian hydroclimate variability from 1850-2000 CE. Numerical experiments at different atmospheric grid resolutions (2° and 1°) are carried out with the coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2.2). We test model skills under different resolutions through validation against observational data by various statistical methods (Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Taylor diagrams, linear regressions and Spearman rank correlation). Results reveal the strongest simulated signal in winter (DJF) with high explained variances for 1° CESM1.2.2 NAO (39%) and EA (15.7%), similar to observational data. The model is unable to reproduce the SCA pattern in the third EOF, which is found in the observations. The modelled NAO has a strong influence on winter temperature and rainfall over the Caspian catchment area. A strong winter NCP induces above-average 2-meter temperatures over north Caspian region and lower-than-normal precipitation over the eastern Caspian sea. Our study suggests that the 1° version of CESM1.2.2 (with CAM5 atmosphere physics) shows adequate performance with respect to teleconnection maps during the historical period. Lastly, 1° model climate projections (2005-2100 CE) are performed with different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) to examine potential changes in the teleconnection patterns and their influence on the Caspian region.

  1. Aspects of health education: a neglected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodagoda, N

    1988-01-01

    Much of human suffering is attributable to preventable causes. The area of family health is particularly important in this respect. Ignorance of simple facts relating to one's structure and development, unquestioning acceptance of tradition, belief in misconcepts, and indiscreet yielding to peer and social pressures are often causative of such suffering, particularly among young people. At present, the situation does not appear to be remedied by the influence of school teachers; and, even less by parents. This is the case for a sound programme of Family Life Education (FLE) in schools, for the implementation of which 'gatekeeper' co-operation, curriculum development and teacher training are paramount. A school's FLE programme by itself will not respond to the needs of all young people; for, in the developing world in particular, the rate of drop-out from the formal school education stream is high. These drop-outs cannot often be reached through the usual employment channels. It is therefore necessary to identify means of reaching them in an effective manner. Mass media and traditional educational material are unlikely to fulfill this need. Therefore, special print material has to be developed. For this purpose, well-focussed objectives have to be drawn up, and instructional content has to be compiled. Presentation methodologies have to be evolved in an innovative manner. These need necessarily be locality-specific, based on the findings of behavioural and sociological studies conducted on and around specific target populations.

  2. Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past? - An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kleinen, Thomas; Brigitte Nielsen, Anne; Poska, Anneli; Samuelsson, Patrick; Strandberg, Gustav; Trondman, Anna-Kari

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-climate interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant climate forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic Sea catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce changes in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1°, the sign of the change depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate climate warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is

  3. Air pollution knows no boundaries: defining air catchment areas and making sense of physical and political boundaries in air quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Population Exposure & Human Health Risk • Source location and intensity • Topography • Synoptic climatology 2005 11 25 Scott, Annegarn and Kneen International Practice: European Community • EC Framework Directive 96/62/EC • Guidelines... and Metsimaholo Small area of Orange Farm adjacent to Evaton does not warrant including Joburg area with Vaal Triangle. 2005 11 25 Scott, Annegarn and Kneen Case study 2: Need for a Provincial Priority Zone Witwatersrand - Mine Tailings Dust • Particulate...

  4. Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services: Identifying under-Serviced Neighbourhoods in Canadian Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi

    2016-01-01

    Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC) in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods. This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population), was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms) used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons). An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations. The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs. The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood level. In

  5. Establishing the Ecological Status of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters from Abrud River Catchment Area Using Benthic Diatom Communities (Ros, ia MontanÄă, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The

  6. Potential accessibility scores for hospital care in a province of Japan: GIS-based ecological study of the two-step floating catchment area method and the number of neighborhood hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Akihisa; Mukuda, Kengo; Harada, Masanori; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-26

    For achieving equity of the accessibility to primary healthcare, measuring potential geographical accessibility is essential. The provider-to-population ratio is the most frequently used measure. However, it is difficult to be used in closer region because it does not take into consideration the people and health services beyond its boundary. In order to overcome this problem, we measured the potential access to hospital, using both distance measures and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. The aim of this study was to compare the number of hospitals in the neighborhood and the E2SFCA score with regard to the amount and equity for access to hospitals. This descriptive study used publicly available data from 2010. The E2SFCA score and number of neighborhood hospitals were obtained from Tochigi province in Japan using a geographic information system. Dataset of four measures by each census tract was obtained. The measures were E2SFCA score, number of hospitals within the 5 km range, number of hospitals within the 10 km range, and number of hospitals within the 15 km range. Correlation and disparity analyses with the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were performed. The measures were obtained in a smaller area than municipality considering adjacent areas using a geographical approach. The E2SFCA score was 5.3 [3.2-7.3] hospitals/million (median [quantile range]), compared to 5.6 hospitals/million in total for the given district. The median number of hospitals within the 5 km, 10 km, and 15 km ranges were 1, 39, and 47, respectively. There was no hospital within the 5 km range in one third of the blocks. Both the number of hospitals within the 10 km range and those within the 15 km range were well correlated. Regional difference became smaller as the distance to count the number of hospitals increased. The gap between small number of hospitals and the high E2SFCA score indicated the location of community hospital in depopulated areas

  7. Mental health in remote rural developing areas: concepts and cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    "In this book, we illustrate some of the social and environmental incluences that shape health and mental health care, using examples from rural villages in Alaska as well as other developing areas of the world...

  8. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  9. Performance of maize under micro-catchment rainwater harvesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-catchment rainwater harvesting (RWH) has been defined as a method of collecting run-off from a catchment area (CA) over short distances not exceeding 100 m and supplying it to an adjacent cultivated Basin (CB). It is a system that is designed to concentrate rainwater so as to utilize it more effectively in areas where ...

  10. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  11. Stable isotope hydrology in fractured and detritic aquifers at both sides of the South Atlantic Ocean: Mar del Plata (Argentina) and the Rawsonville and Sandspruit river catchment areas (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glok Galli, Melisa; Damons, Matthew E.; Siwawa, Sitembiso; Bocanegra, Emilia M.; Nel, Jacobus M.; Mazvimavi, Dominic; Martínez, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the isotope composition of water (2H and 18O) in order to establish the relationship between fractured and detritic aquifers in similar hydrological environments located at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The Mar del Plata zone, placed in the Argentine Buenos Aires province in South America, and the Rawsonville and Sandspruit river catchment areas, situated in the Western Cape province in South Africa were compared. Rainwater and groundwater samples from fractured and detritic aquifers were analyzed through laser spectroscopy. In both Argentina and South African study sites, stable isotopes data demonstrate an aquifers recharge source from rainfall. For the Mar del Plata region, two different groups of detritic aquifer's samples with distinct recharge processes can be identified due to the close relationship existing between the present hydrogeological environments, the aquifer's grain size sediments and the isotopes contents: one representing rapid infiltration in aquifer sediments of the creeks' palaeobeds and hills zones (sandy or silt sandy sediments) and the other with slow infiltration of evaporated water in plain zones with an aquitard behavior. In the last group, the evaporation process occurs previous infiltration or in the aquifer's non-saturated zone, because of the existence of very low topographic gradients and fine-grained sediments. The evaporation phenomenon is not evident in the Sandspruit river catchment site's detritic aquifer, because its sandy composition allows a faster infiltration rate than in the loess that compounds the Pampeano aquifer in the interfluves zones of the Argentinian study area.

  12. An approach to predict water quality in data-sparse catchments using hydrological catchment similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Glendell, Miriam; Stutter, Marc I.; Helliwell, Rachel C.

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of catchment response to climate and land use change at a regional scale is necessary for the assessment of mitigation and adaptation options addressing diffuse nutrient pollution. It is well documented that the physicochemical properties of a river ecosystem respond to change in a non-linear fashion. This is particularly important when threshold water concentrations, relevant to national and EU legislation, are exceeded. Large scale (regional) model assessments required for regulatory purposes must represent the key processes and mechanisms that are more readily understood in catchments with water quantity and water quality data monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. While daily discharge data are available for most catchments in Scotland, nitrate and phosphorus are mostly available on a monthly basis only, as typified by regulatory monitoring. However, high resolution (hourly to daily) water quantity and water quality data exist for a limited number of research catchments. To successfully implement adaptation measures across Scotland, an upscaling from data-rich to data-sparse catchments is required. In addition, the widespread availability of spatial datasets affecting hydrological and biogeochemical responses (e.g. soils, topography/geomorphology, land use, vegetation etc.) provide an opportunity to transfer predictions between data-rich and data-sparse areas by linking processes and responses to catchment attributes. Here, we develop a framework of catchment typologies as a prerequisite for transferring information from data-rich to data-sparse catchments by focusing on how hydrological catchment similarity can be used as an indicator of grouped behaviours in water quality response. As indicators of hydrological catchment similarity we use flow indices derived from observed discharge data across Scotland as well as hydrological model parameters. For the latter, we calibrated the lumped rainfall-runoff model TUWModel using multiple

  13. Accessibility to primary health care in Belgium: an evaluation of policies awarding financial assistance in shortage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Bart; Neutens, Tijs; De Weerdt, Yves; Van de Weghe, Nico

    2013-08-22

    In many countries, financial assistance is awarded to physicians who settle in an area that is designated as a shortage area to prevent unequal accessibility to primary health care. Today, however, policy makers use fairly simple methods to define health care accessibility, with physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) within predefined administrative boundaries being overwhelmingly favoured. Our purpose is to verify whether these simple methods are accurate enough for adequately designating medical shortage areas and explore how these perform relative to more advanced GIS-based methods. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we conduct a nation-wide study of accessibility to primary care physicians in Belgium using four different methods: PPR, distance to closest physician, cumulative opportunity, and floating catchment area (FCA) methods. The official method used by policy makers in Belgium (calculating PPR per physician zone) offers only a crude representation of health care accessibility, especially because large contiguous areas (physician zones) are considered. We found substantial differences in the number and spatial distribution of medical shortage areas when applying different methods. The assessment of spatial health care accessibility and concomitant policy initiatives are affected by and dependent on the methodology used. The major disadvantage of PPR methods is its aggregated approach, masking subtle local variations. Some simple GIS methods overcome this issue, but have limitations in terms of conceptualisation of physician interaction and distance decay. Conceptually, the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method, an advanced FCA method, was found to be most appropriate for supporting areal health care policies, since this method is able to calculate accessibility at a small scale (e.g., census tracts), takes interaction between physicians into account, and considers distance decay. While at present in health care research

  14. Alien freshwater polychaetes Hypania invalida (Grube 1860 and Laonome calida Capa 2007 in the Upper Odra River (Baltic Sea catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabis Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polychaete species, Hypania invalida and Laonome calida, were found in the Upper Odra River in 2016. Both species were recorded close to a natural river bank down to 1 m depths. They inhabited sandy-gravelly and sandy-muddy sediments. H. invalida is an alien invasive Ponto-Caspian species, previously known in Poland from the Odra River estuary only. Our results may indicate a further rapid dispersal of H. invalida upstream the Odra River or an accidental introduction. This study is the first record of L. calida in the Baltic Sea catchment. This Australian species has been recently introduced into Europe. Prior to this study, it had been reported from Dutch rivers only. The present data suggest accidental introduction of the species to European rivers; however, our findings show an urgent need for a close monitoring of the polychaete in Europe.

  15. Catchment land use predicts benthic vegetation in small estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perran L.M. Cook

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many estuaries are becoming increasingly eutrophic from human activities within their catchments. Nutrient loads often are used to assess risk of eutrophication to estuaries, but such data are expensive and time consuming to obtain. We compared the percent of fertilized land within a catchment, dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, catchment to estuary area ratio and flushing time as predictors of the proportion of macroalgae to total vegetation within 14 estuaries in south-eastern Australia. The percent of fertilized land within the catchment was the best predictor of the proportion of macroalgae within the estuaries studied. There was a transition to a dominance of macroalgae once the proportion of fertilized land in the catchment exceeded 24%, highlighting the sensitivity of estuaries to catchment land use.

  16. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  17. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  18. Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface and mass transfer of contaminant incoming to water stream from soil. ... rainwater runoff along the surface catchment taking account the transport of pollution which permeates into the water flow from a porous media of soil at the certain areas of this surface.

  19. Prediction of daily spring hydrographs for future climatic scenarios based on an integrated numerical modelling approach: Application on a snow-governed semi- arid karst catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Kassem, A.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of a three-year USAID/NSF- funded PEER Science project, flow in a karst system in Lebanon (Assal Spring; discharge 0.2-2.5 m3/s yearly volume of 22-30 Mm3) dominated by snow and semi arid conditions was simulated using an integrated numerical model (Mike She 2016). The calibrated model (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.77) is based on high resolution input data (2014-2017) and detailed catchment characterization. The approach is to assess the influence of various model parameters on recharge signals in the different hydrological karst compartments (Atmosphere, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone) based on an integrated numerical model. These parameters include precipitation intensity and magnitude, temperature, snow-melt parameters, in addition to karst specific spatially distributed features such as fast infiltration points, soil properties and thickness, topographical slopes, Epikarst and thickness of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity among others. Moreover, the model is currently simulated forward using various scenarios for future climate (Global Climate Models GCM; daily downscaled temperature and precipitation time series for Lebanon 2020-2045) in order to depict the flow rates expected in the future and the effect of climate change on hydrographs recession coefficients, discharge maxima and minima, and total spring discharge volume . Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of individual or coupled major parameters allows quantifying their impact on recharge or indirectly on the vulnerability of the system (soil thickness, soil and rock hydraulic conductivity appear to be amongst the highly sensitive parameters). This study particularly unravels the normalized single effect of rain magnitude and intensity, snow, and temperature change on the flow rate (e.g., a change of temperature of 3° on the catchment yields a Residual Mean Square Error RMSE of 0.15 m3/s in the spring discharge and a 16% error in the total annual volume with

  20. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  1. Diagramas de Voronoi para a definição de áreas de abrangência de hospitais públicos no Município do Rio de Janeiro Defining catchment areas for public hospitals in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro through Weighted Voronoi Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Astolpho Vieira Souto Rezende

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No planejamento de recursos em saúde é importante o conhecimento da área de abrangência de uma unidade. Os Diagramas de Voronoi constituem uma técnica para tal; são polígonos construídos de tal forma que as bordas de polígonos adjacentes encontram-se eqüidistantes de seus respectivos pontos geradores. Uma modificação nas áreas de abrangência assim definidas é sua ponderação (Diagramas de Voronoi ponderados, representando a capacidade da unidade de forma mais real. No presente trabalho foram utilizados, como pontos geradores, 21 hospitais gerais públicos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Inicialmente foram criados os Diagramas de Voronoi sem ponderação, e, a partir destes, os diagramas ponderados, empregando-se como variável de ponderação as estimativas de internação anual para cada unidade. Na divisão clássica, áreas de abrangência similares foram atribuídas a hospitais com características diferenciadas, problema esse contornado no método ponderado. O método é de simples implementação e visualização, utiliza dados de fácil acesso e independe de parâmetros arbitrários ou geopolíticos. Portanto, esses diagramas podem fornecer, a gerentes de saúde, uma visão mais realista para o planejamento da demanda de suas unidades.One of the most important pieces of information for health resources planning is the definition of catchment areas for health units. Voronoi Diagrams are a potential technique for this purpose. They are polygons with the property whereby adjacent polygons have their borders located within the same distance of the respective generator points. One possible adjustment to the catchment areas thus defined is the use of weighted Voronoi Diagrams, which result in an improved representation of a health unit's actual capacity. In this study, the 21 public general hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used as generator points for Voronoi Diagrams. Non-weighted Voronoi Diagrams were initially

  2. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orriols Ramon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease.

  3. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.

  4. Highly resolved reconstruction of the continental development of climate and environment during the time period of the Funnel Beaker Culture in catchment areas of lakes; Hochaufloesende Rekonstruktion der kontinentalen Klima- und Umweltentwicklung waehrend der Trichterbecherzeit in Seeeinzugsgebieten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahrer, Juergen

    2012-07-01

    The research has long been concerned with the identification of the past climatic changes. In the course of the actual public discussion on the interactions between anthropogenic activities and the environmental changes, these investigations experienced a strong revival in the past decades. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration investigates the impact of the climatic conditions on the development of the Funnel Beaker Culture and especially on the agricultural land use in this cultural period. The author tries to answer the following key questions: (a) Do the investigated sequences of sediment contain evidences for synchronous changes in connection with the climatic changes?; (b) Are there also differences in the land use of the catchment areas in view of the point in time of landscape dissemination as well as the duration and intensity of the neolithic land use?.

  5. Mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in surface runoff sediments in the urban catchment area of Guwahati, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Upama; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2018-03-01

    The sediments in stormwater runoff are recognised as the major sink of the heavy metals and affect the soil quality in the catchment. The runoff sediments are also important in the management of contaminant transport to receiving water bodies. In the present work, stormwater during several major rain events was collected from nine principal locations of Guwahati, India. The solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and was investigated for the total contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn as well as their distribution among the prominent chemical phases. Sequential extraction procedure was used for the chemical fractionation of the metals that contains five steps. The total metal concentration showed the trend, Cd mobile and high-risk fractions. Co with medium mobility was also found to be in the high-risk category. On the other hand, the mobilities of Cu and Zn were relatively low and these were, therefore, the least bioavailable metals in the runoff sediments falling in medium-risk category.

  6. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Randall K. Kolka; Frank H. McCormick; Matthew A. Starry

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Results are reported for nine USA ecoregions. Headwater streams represented 74-80% of total catchment stream length. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains ecoregion...

  7. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  8. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  9. Outpatient Nonavailability Statement Procedures, Health Services Command Catchment Areas, First Quarter, FY 1993 with Comparisons to Fourth Quarter, FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-12

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  10. Seasonal and spatial variability of {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu levels in the river catchment area assessed by application of neural-network based classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, 18/19 Sobieskiego Street, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: bosk@chem.univ.gda.pl; Kabat, Krzysztof [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, 18/19 Sobieskiego Street, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Astel, Aleksander [Pomeranian Academy, Biology and Environmental Protection Institute, Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, 22a Arciszewskiego Street, 76-200 Slupsk (Poland)

    2009-02-15

    The present study deals with the application of self-organizing maps (SOM) in order to model, classify and interpret seasonal and spatial variability of {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu levels in the Vistula river basin. The data set represents concentration values for 3 alpha emitters ({sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu) measured in surface water samples collected at 19 different sampling locations (8 in major Vistula stream while 11 in right or left Vistula tributaries) during four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in the framework of a one-year quality monitoring study. The advantages of an SOM algorithm, its classification and visualization ability for environmental data sets, are stressed. The neural-network based classification made it possible to reveal specific patterns related to both seasonal and spatial variability. In the middle and upper part of Vistula catchment as well as in the right-shore tributaries, concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U during summer and winter are the lowest. Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U increase significantly during spring and autumn in the Vistula river catchment, especially in the delta of Vistula river. High concentration of anthropogenic originated {sup 239+240}Pu indicates 'site-specific' character of pollution in two large left-shore tributaries located in the middle part of the Vistula drainage area. Efficient classification of sampling locations could lead to an optimization of river radiochemical sampling networks and to a better tracing of natural and anthropogenic changes along Vistula river stream.

  11. Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Thomas J.; Chenery, Simon R.N.; Pashley, Vanessa; Lord, Richard A.; Ander, Louise E.; Breward, Neil; Hobbs, Susan F.; Horstwood, Matthew; Klinck, Benjamin A.; Worrall, Fred

    2009-01-01

    High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986-88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios range from 2.0744-2.0954 and 0.8413-0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios range from 2.0856-2.1397 and 0.8554-0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.

  12. Health Policy as a Specific Area of Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pekarová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the article was to analyse the work of the health policy which is a very specific part of social policy. In the work we focus on its financing, which is a very important issue in the health care. We try to show, what is the role of the state in the health care system as well as the creation of resources and control costs in the health sector. The work is finding such as financing health care in Slovakia and in other selected countries, and which could be changed for the best operation. Method: The analysis was carried out on the basis of the information which I drew from books and Internet resources. The work is divided into two parts. Contains 9 tables and 3 charts. The first chapter is devoted to a general description of social policy, its funding, with a focus on health policy than its specific area. The second chapter analyses the financing systems of health policy in Slovakia and in selected countries. Results: The results showed that the Slovak health care makes is trying hard to catch up with the level of the best health care systems. However, there are countries, which are doing much worse than us, in terms of funding. Society: It is important to properly invest money but also communication between states. To get help on health and to ensure that citizens know states the best conditions of health care. Limitations / further research: This work is focused on how to bring closer health care and its financing in several different countries economically. IN doing so some other aspects such as what is best level of services, etc. were put aside.

  13. [Occupational health and immigration: skills, perspectives and areas of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, S; Arici, C

    2011-01-01

    The occupational physician (OP) has nowadays to face health and safety of migrant workers on new ethical, scientific, epidemiologic and legislative basis. Objective of our contribution is to describe area of interventions and perspectives in good medical practices for OP when dealing with migrant workers. Risk assessment should focus on differences of immigrants versus natives as regards exposures and effects, quality of and access to health services, organizational issues. Health surveillance should take into account cultural, educational, religious, life style differences, as well as susceptibility; time must be dedicated by the OP to search and evaluate such differences. Counselling, health promotion and case management are part of good medical practice. The professional role of the OP is depicted, trying to identify weaknesses and strengths, as well as priorities for intervention especially in applied research. In conclusion, migrant workers may suffer from occupational health inequalities. By means of good medical practices in risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work and health promotion, OP can proactively improve migrant workers' health and guarantee same levels of protection and prevention in workplaces as for the natives.

  14. A Treatment Train Approach To Catchment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nick; Quinn, Paul; Org, EdenDTC

    2017-04-01

    The treatment train approach has been attempted in a 1.6km2 catchment in the River Eden as part of the UK Demonstration Test Catchment Project. The catchment is one of three detailed study catchments of 10km2 that are investigating diffuse pollution losses from an intense grassland farming system. The catchment is very susceptible to saturation and high losses of fine sediment and phosphorus in storm events. The poster will show how a sequence of mitigation features that target nutrient sources and flow pathways can reduce nutrient losses. 5 features have been installed from farmyard runoff control, along polluting tracks and sediment traps in the farm ditch network. Together the features can slow, store and trap sediment and pollutants. The potential to have further impacts on flood generation and drought mitigation are also being studied. Although the features are currently small in size the ability to directly reduce pollution can be demonstrated. Hence, the potential to scale up these features to a broader catchment scale can be explored and the likely costs and benefits can be simulated. This work builds upon similar work addressing flood control features, sediment trapping on farms and methods for the direct mitigation of fast polluting pathways often referred to as Nature Based Solutions. The designs and construction of the completed features will be shown in the poster. Early results show that the combined effect of the 5 features can significantly impact on sediment and pollution during storm events. The specific yield of the impact was 42 kg of suspended sediment/ha 0.06 kg P/ha of P trapped and 0.16 kg of N/ha. This mitigation impact is derived from an area of only 0.02% of the catchment. The potential to increase the mitigated area is thus large. Payment schemes for farmers could encourage the take up the of these methods and future maintenance regimes for managing the features would also have to be created. However, the potential to mitigate fast

  15. Using biophysical models to manage nitrogen pollution from agricultural sources: Utopic or realistic approach for non-scientist users? Case study of a drinking water catchment area in Lorraine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Yves; Benoît, Marc; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Plantureux, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this comparison of two biophysical models of nitrogen losses were to evaluate first whether results were similar and second whether both were equally practical for use by non-scientist users. Results were obtained with the crop model STICS and the environmental model AGRIFLUX based on nitrogen loss simulations across a small groundwater catchment area (<1 km(2)) located in the Lorraine region in France. Both models simulate the influences of leaching and cropping systems on nitrogen losses in a relevant manner. The authors conclude that limiting the simulations to areas where soils with a greater risk of leaching cover a significant spatial extent would likely yield acceptable results because those soils have more predictable leaching of nitrogen. In addition, the choice of an environmental model such as AGRIFLUX which requires fewer parameters and input variables seems more user-friendly for agro-environmental assessment. The authors then discuss additional challenges for non-scientists such as lack of parameter optimization, which is essential to accurately assessing nitrogen fluxes and indirectly not to limit the diversity of uses of simulated results. Despite current restrictions, with some improvement, biophysical models could become useful environmental assessment tools for non-scientists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  17. How old is upland catchment water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  18. Elevated Annual Runoff Ratios in Pacific Northwest Catchments Impacted by Epidemic Foliage Disease of Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; LeBoldus, J. M.; Segura, C.; Ritokova, G.; Shaw, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Catchments in the Western United States are undergoing unprecedented levels of tree die-off and/or reduced vigor due to increased severity of wildfire, drought, insect outbreaks, and disease. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, Swiss needle cast (SNC) is the most damaging foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), physically obstructing stomata and preventing CO2 uptake and transpiration. A recent analysis in coastal Oregon indicated a substantial increase in area affected by the disease, from 530.5 km2 in 1996 to 2,387.1 km2 in 2015. Deforestation or reduced tree vigor can have profound impacts on catchment hydrology, in theory, producing increased streamflow due to reduced interception and transpiration. However, these increases have not always been detectable as impacts also depend on factors such as climate and vegetation composition. Moreover, press disturbances, such as insect outbreaks or disease, often do not result in complete removal of understorey or canopy vegetation. We analyzed trends in annual runoff ratios (quotient of discharge divided by precipitation) from 1990-2015 in 12 catchments (183-1,744 km2) in western Oregon. In general, runoff ratios increased by 10-27% in catchments with a total area of SNC >10%, with the most substantial runoff increases in catchments with SNC impacting >25% of the area. Interestingly, the most severely impacted catchment ( 90.5% SNC) showed a decrease in runoff. This is consistent with a potential compensatory response from understory western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) trees, a phenomenon observed in the most severely impacted sites. Findings from this study are important for assessing the impacts of biotic forest disturbances on water supply and aquatic ecosystem health.

  19. The identification of suitable areas for afforestation in order to reduce the potential for surface runoff in the upper and middle sectors of Buzãu catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS COSTACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deforestations, besides the global climate change, are the main cause of the intensification of f loods and flash - floods in the latest years. Since surface runoff is the main phenomenon leading to floods or flash - floods, afforestation is necessary, forest coverage being the element that retains most of the water from precipitation. The study area, repr esented by the upper and middle sectors of Buzau River basin, is one of the most affected regions of Romania by torrential phenomena. Also, the study area was chosen due to its considerable deforestation. This paper proposes a methodology created exclusive ly by GIS techniques in order to identify the areas suitable for afforestation. Thus, land cover and slope relief were taken into account when running the GIS model. Database processing and obtaining the final results were possible by implementing a workfl ow in Model Builder from ArcGIS 10.3, which can be later used as a tool for other study areas. The results of the study highlight Balaneasa, Bâsca Chiojdului and Sărăţel river basins, which record the highest shares of areas suitable for afforestation.

  20. Catchment classification and model parameter transfer with a view to regionalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Rita; Hellebrand, Hugo; Casper, Markus C.

    2013-04-01

    Physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics are responsible for catchment response behaviour, whereas hydrological model parameters describe catchment properties in such a way to transform input data (here: precipitation, evaporation) to runoff, hence describing the response behaviour of a catchment. In this respect, model parameters can thus be seen as catchment descriptors. A third catchment descriptor is runoff behaviour, depicted by indices derived from event runoff coefficients and Flow Duration Curves. In an ongoing research project founded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we investigate the interdependencies of these three catchment descriptors for catchment classification with a view to regionalisation. The study area comprises about 80 meso-scale catchments in western Germany. These catchments are classified by Self Organising Maps (SOM) based on a) runoff behaviour and b) physical and climatic properties. The two classifications show an overlap of about 80% for all catchments and indicate a direct connection between the two descriptors for a majority of the catchments. Next, all catchments are calibrated with a simple and parsimonious conceptual model, stemming from the Superflex model framework. In this study we test the interdependencies between the classification and the calibrated model parameters by parameter transfer within and between the classes established by SOM. The model simulates total discharge, given observed precipitation and pre-estimated potential evaporation. Simulations with a few catchments show encouraging results: all simulations with the calibrated model show a good fit, which is indicated by Nash Sutcliff coefficients of about 0.8. Most of the simulations of runoff time series for catchments with parameter sets belonging to their own class display good performances too, while simulated runoff with model parameter sets from other classes display significant lower performance. This indicates that there is a

  1. Annual average equivalent dose of workers form health area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.; Campos, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The data of personnel monitoring during 1985 and 1991 of personnel that work in health area were studied, obtaining a general overview of the value change of annual average equivalent dose. Two different aspects were presented: the analysis of annual average equivalent dose in the different sectors of a hospital and the comparison of these doses in the same sectors in different hospitals. (C.G.C.)

  2. Diapering, diaper technology, and diaper area skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, Mauricio; Thaman, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    Disposable diapers are the most common diaper care practice in Western societies today, and their use continues to increase globally. Improvements in disposable diaper technology have helped to reduce the prevalence and severity of diaper dermatitis (DD) over the course of the last few decades. This article reviews how changes in disposable diaper technology interact with the various etiological factors in DD, thus helping to improve overall diaper area skin health for children around the world. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of health in health centers area in Depok using correspondence analysis and scan statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, C.; Widyaningsih, Y.; Lestari, D.

    2017-07-01

    Hotspots indicate area that has a higher case intensity than others. For example, in health problems of an area, the number of sickness of a region can be used as parameter and condition of area that determined severity of an area. If this condition is known soon, it can be overcome preventively. Many factors affect the severity level of area. Some health factors to be considered in this study are the number of infant with low birth weight, malnourished children under five years old, under five years old mortality, maternal deaths, births without the help of health personnel, infants without handling the baby's health, and infant without basic immunization. The number of cases is based on every public health center area in Depok. Correspondence analysis provides graphical information about two nominal variables relationship. It create plot based on row and column scores and show categories that have strong relation in a close distance. Scan Statistic method is used to examine hotspot based on some selected variables that occurred in the study area; and Correspondence Analysis is used to picturing association between the regions and variables. Apparently, using SaTScan software, Sukatani health center is obtained as a point hotspot; and Correspondence Analysis method shows health centers and the seven variables have a very significant relationship and the majority of health centers close to all variables, except Cipayung which is distantly related to the number of pregnant mother death. These results can be used as input for the government agencies to upgrade the health level in the area.

  4. Simulation studies of a wide area health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, J G

    1994-01-01

    There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Epidemiological aspects related to population aging in a health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidel González Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the increase of the number of the elderly in our country augments necessities, social and health system demands during the last years.Objective: to describe the epidemiological aspects related to the population aging of the health area corresponding to a family doctor’s office in Pinar del Río province.Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational research was carried out in the family doctor’s office no. 15 belonging to "Raúl Sánchez" Teaching Polyclinic during the last three-month period of 2014. The universe was made up of 113 elderly belonging to that health area and the sample comprised 73 of them, according to intentional sampling. The variables analyzed were: age groups, most frequent diseases and medication intake.Results: elderly aged between 80 and 89 years old represented 56,1 %. The medication groups most frequently taken were the vitamins, in 82,1 %, the sedative-hypnotic ones, in 56,1 % and the antihypertensive drugs in 43,8 %. The most frequent diseases were hypertension, with 64,3 % cerebrovascular diseases, with 35,6 % and psychiatric diseases, with 24,6 %.Conclusions: issues related to the population aging were described in the study sample. A conception and integral medical care to ensure the quality of life and health of that population is required.

  6. [Dietary habits during lactation in the Llerena (Badajoz) health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Paiva, F; García Rodríguez, A M

    1994-10-15

    To analyse the feeding habits used for nursing children in the Llerena Health Area (Badajoz). A descriptive and inferential study, using questionnaires given to the mothers. Schools chosen at random from the eight health districts which make up the above-stated Health Area. Mothers (N = 369) of school-children in the first to eighth years of EGB (basic) for the 1991-2 school year. We studied the type of feeding used, finding 29.15% exclusive breast-feeding, 46.5% mixed and 24.2% bottle. We investigated the average time of breast-feeding (4.7 months) and how supplementary feeding (Beikost) was started: usually with cereals (at 4.7 months), fruit (5.16 months) and vegetables, meat and fish (7.27 months). We found that advice on the lacteal preparation used for mixed and bottle lactation was provided by health professionals in 84.2% of cases and in lay persons, 15.8%. The most common reasons for stopping breast-feeding were Hypogalactia in 64.6% of cases and work in 23.1%. There was more exclusive breast-feeding in the lowest socio-economic classes (p supplementary feeding. We noted a tendency in favour of breast-feeding. The social and work-related changes in womens' lives are having a decisive influence on the feeding practices of nursing children.

  7. Understanding hydrologic variability across Europe through catchment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuentz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to better understanding the physical controls on spatial patterns of pan-European flow signatures – taking advantage of large open datasets for catchment classification and comparative hydrology. Similarities in 16 flow signatures and 35 catchment descriptors were explored for 35 215 catchments and 1366 river gauges across Europe. Correlation analyses and stepwise regressions were used to identify the best explanatory variables for each signature. Catchments were clustered and analyzed for similarities in flow signature values, physiography and the combination of the two. We found the following. (i A 15 to 33 % (depending on the classification used improvement in regression model skills when combined with catchment classification versus simply using all catchments at once. (ii Twelve out of 16 flow signatures were mainly controlled by climatic characteristics, especially those related to average and high flows. For the baseflow index, geology was more important and topography was the main control for the flashiness of flow. For most of the flow signatures, the second most important descriptor is generally land cover (mean flow, high flows, runoff coefficient, ET, variability of reversals. (iii Using a classification and regression tree (CART, we further show that Europe can be divided into 10 classes with both similar flow signatures and physiography. The most dominant separation found was between energy-limited and moisture-limited catchments. The CART analyses also separated different explanatory variables for the same class of catchments. For example, the damped peak response for one class was explained by the presence of large water bodies for some catchments, while large flatland areas explained it for other catchments in the same class. In conclusion, we find that this type of comparative hydrology is a helpful tool for understanding hydrological variability, but is constrained by unknown human impacts on

  8. Understanding hydrologic variability across Europe through catchment classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentz, Anna; Arheimer, Berit; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    This study contributes to better understanding the physical controls on spatial patterns of pan-European flow signatures - taking advantage of large open datasets for catchment classification and comparative hydrology. Similarities in 16 flow signatures and 35 catchment descriptors were explored for 35 215 catchments and 1366 river gauges across Europe. Correlation analyses and stepwise regressions were used to identify the best explanatory variables for each signature. Catchments were clustered and analyzed for similarities in flow signature values, physiography and the combination of the two. We found the following. (i) A 15 to 33 % (depending on the classification used) improvement in regression model skills when combined with catchment classification versus simply using all catchments at once. (ii) Twelve out of 16 flow signatures were mainly controlled by climatic characteristics, especially those related to average and high flows. For the baseflow index, geology was more important and topography was the main control for the flashiness of flow. For most of the flow signatures, the second most important descriptor is generally land cover (mean flow, high flows, runoff coefficient, ET, variability of reversals). (iii) Using a classification and regression tree (CART), we further show that Europe can be divided into 10 classes with both similar flow signatures and physiography. The most dominant separation found was between energy-limited and moisture-limited catchments. The CART analyses also separated different explanatory variables for the same class of catchments. For example, the damped peak response for one class was explained by the presence of large water bodies for some catchments, while large flatland areas explained it for other catchments in the same class. In conclusion, we find that this type of comparative hydrology is a helpful tool for understanding hydrological variability, but is constrained by unknown human impacts on the water cycle and by

  9. State of elements of the environment in the broader area of former uranium mines in the catchment of the Trgoviski Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral field ”Janja” extends over the Southwest slope of Stara Planina Mt., eastward from the village of Kalna in the belt of beech-fir forests. Exploitation of uranium used to be performed in three mines within this area, i.e. ”Mezdreja”, ”Gabrovnica”, and ”Srneći Do”, which are now closed down. One of the consequences of mining around these mines is partial degradation of natural balance. The greatest part of the terrain consists of granite, whereas metamorphic rocks are at the periphery. A geological survey with respect to the concentration of natural radioactive elements in the soil within the area of aforementioned mines has been conducted once so far. Alluvial sediment, ground and surface waters, as well as disposal were also examined. During the field study, radioactivity was measured and the methods of emanation and hydro-geochemical assessment were used, which was followed by collecting of samples for laboratory examination. The state of elements of the environment within the surveyed area is presented hereinafter on the basis of the existing data, having in mind that exploitation of uranium may disrupt natural balance in the long run. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  10. Catchment management and the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, J; Christie, C; Devlin, M; Haynes, D; Morris, S; Ramsay, M; Waterhouse, J; Yorkston, H

    2001-01-01

    Pollution of coastal regions of the Great Barrier Reef is dominated by runoff from the adjacent catchment. Catchment land-use is dominated by beef grazing and cropping, largely sugarcane cultivation, with relatively minor urban development. Runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides is increasing and for nitrogen is now four times the natural amount discharged 150 years ago. Significant effects and potential threats are now evident on inshore reefs, seagrasses and marine animals. There is no effective legislation or processes in place to manage agricultural pollution. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act does not provide effective jurisdiction on the catchment. Queensland legislation relies on voluntary codes and there is no assessment of the effectiveness of the codes. Integrated catchment management strategies, also voluntary, provide some positive outcomes but are of limited success. Pollutant loads are predicted to continue to increase and it is unlikely that current management regimes will prevent this. New mechanisms to prevent continued degradation of inshore ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are urgently needed.

  11. Five-factor model personality traits as predictors of incident coronary heart disease in the community: a 10.5-year cohort study based on the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Offidani, Emanuela; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Bienvenu, Oscar Joseph; Samuels, Jack; Eaton, William W; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Certain personality and behavioral traits (e.g., type A and type D) have been reported to be associated with development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), but few have examined the relationship using a comprehensive assessment of personality along with a structured assessment of psychiatric disorders. Based on participants (age: 47.3 ± 12.8; female: 62.6%) of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study, we examined the relationship between the 5 major domains of personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and incident CHD between Wave III (1993-1996) and Wave IV (2004-2005). Incident CHD developed in 65 participants during the follow-up. Those with incident CHD had lower on openness (44.06 ± 9.29 vs. 47.18 ± 8.80; p = 0.007) and extraversion (45.98 ± 9.25 vs. 49.12 ± 8.92; p = 0.007) scores than those without. Logistic regression models revealed an inverse association (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.54-0.98) between openness factor z-scores and incident CHD after adjusting for putative confounding factors, including DSM III-R Major Depressive Disorder. High openness appears to be an independent protective factor for incident CHD in the community. Future studies should examine behavioral and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  13. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  14. [Headache, does it cause a health care overload in primary health care? Urban area vs rural area medical visit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Martínez, V; Esquembre, R; Genovés, A

    2008-06-01

    Headache causes an overload and a problem to out-patient neurology. There are few studies that quantify the overload that the headache causes in a primary health care out-patient clinic visit. The aim of the present study is to identify and quantify the real load that this disease supposes in two primary health care consultations, one located in a rural area and another in an urban area. A 6 month long observational and descritive study. The total number of patients seen, the number of patients seen for headache and their diagnostic classification were recorded. A total of 6,014 visits were counted. Only 46 patients consulted due to headache (0,76%). Tensional headache was the most frequently diagnosed headache (43.48%) followed by migraine (23.91%). Our study verifies that published by other authors and determines that, on the contrary to that which occurs in the neurology out-patient clinic, headache does not cause a daily work overload for the general practitioner. The scarce number of consultations for headache, with the diagnosis and management involved in this disease, makes it necessary to consider a multidisciplinary health care problem such as headache differently according to the health care level involved.

  15. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for

  16. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  17. [Demographic variables, inevitable passage. Irrigated areas and health of populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, D

    1992-06-01

    The Kou Valley rice production area is the largest irrigated expanse in use by peasants in Burkina Faso. 1260 hectares of rice paddy provide two harvests each year for one thousand families, who are mostly in-migrants. The Kou Valley rice paddy was brought into production between 1970 and 1974 to reduce crowding in the overpopulated Mossi plateau, control emigration, increase national rice production, and improve living conditions. A research project in the area is intended to clarify relations between development policies and demographic trends, health conditions, and economic and social welfare of the population. A study compared the rice growing families with 1255 non-rice growing natives of the area and 4763 non-rice growing spontaneous in-migrants. The rice growers enjoyed an impressive increase in incomes, but their infant mortality rates did not decline as greatly as expected and were slightly higher than those of the spontaneous in-migrants. Contaminated water, malaria, schistosomiasis, and the lack of health infrastructure and education were probably factors in the high infant mortality. The incidence of child malnutrition was also greater among the rice growers than among the spontaneous migrants. Women in rice growing families work in the paddies all year. They no longer have access to their own lands and they have less time for child care. The improved economic conditions of the rice growers have not been accompanied by improved living conditions for their families. Women of rice growing families have an average of 6.8 children at age 50, compared to 6.1 among spontaneous in-migrants and 3.1 in the native population. Average household size fluctuated among the rice growers as families sought to add workers to maximize production and later to shed members in response to population pressure and reduced per capita income. The project experience suggests that greater thought should be given to the predictable demographic evolution of households and to the

  18. Nutrient fluxes from coastal California catchments with suburban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Leydecker, A.; Beighley, E.; Robinson, T.; Coombs, S.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous streams originate in the mountains fringing California's coast and transport nutrients into coastal waters. In central California, these streams traverse catchments with land covers including chaparral, grazed grasslands, orchards, industrial agriculture and suburban and urban development. Fluvial nutrient concentrations and fluxes vary as a function of these land covers and as a function of considerable fluctuations in rainfall. As part of a long-term investigation of mobilization and fluvial transport of nutrients in catchments bordering the Santa Barbara Channel we have intensively sampled nutrient concentrations and measured discharge during storm and base flows in multiple catchments and subcatchments. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate generally ranged from 5 to 25 micromolar in undeveloped areas, increased to about 100 micromolar for suburban and most agricultural catchments, and were in excess of 1000 micromolar in catchments with greenhouse-based agriculture. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 2 to 20 micromolar among the catchments. These data are used to examine the premise that the suburbanized portion of the catchments is the primary source of nutrients to the streams.

  19. GEODIVERSITY AUDIT AND ACTION PLAN FOR UPPER CATCHMENT AREA OF GERSA RIVER (RODNEI MOUNTAINS, BISTRIȚA-NĂSĂUD COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geodiversity Audit is an inventory and assessment process, wich represents the basis for elaborating the Geoconservation Action Plan. The geodiversity includes the abiotic factors (rocks, minerals, soils, landforms that sustain the life on the Earth, and owns economic, social, environmental, tourist and educational functions. This study proposes an audit of geodiversity from Gersa catcment area and an Action Plan for future planning and tourist valorization projects by local and county authorities. Gersa Valley is a geomorphological subunit located in the southern part of Rodnei Mountains (Bistrița-Năsăud County and contains in the superior sector some landforms with high degree of attractiveness, such as Izvorul Tăușoarelor Cave, Izvorul Calului Gorge and Bârlea Massif. By their configuration these landforms has a great potential for engaging in scientific and recreational activities (caving, hiking, gorge walking, canyoning, mountain biking. Keywords: geodiversity, geologic heritage, geoconservation, geosite, action plan, Rodnei Mountains, Gersa River, Izvorul Tăușoarelor Cave, speotourism, activ leisure

  20. Environmental legacies in the catchment area for water source. Dam and bridges of Kawachi reservoir; Suigenchi no kankyo isan. Kawachi chosuichi no dam to kyoryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Y. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-15

    Kawachi Resvoir was completed in 1927 as a water source exclusively for Yawata Iron Works. A group of bridges called the five Kawachi bridges on the road making a round along the lake shore is one of the scenic points. The five bridges have all different structural shapes, such as a three-hinge steel frame concrete rib arch bridge, combination of natural rough stone arch bridges of single span and three spans, an ashlar made bridge, and a lens-type steel truss structured bridge. The dam is a gravity type concrete dam, covered with stones working also as a framework. The main body of the embankment is built with as-cut stones. The surface of the embankment is covered with blackish ashlars, which give dull and heavy impression, but the softness of the shape relieves the feeling. Water led from the intake tower in the center of the embankment via the valve room forms a big fountain to a height of 30 meters for deaeration purpose to diffuse odor. Thus, the water source area is inherited as environmental resources transcending the generations. A bicycle road rounding the lake was built in a recent year. Developing reservoirs and national land making the best use of environment requires thought with depth

  1. Modelling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, Caspian Sea Surface Temperature (SST, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The sea ice extent over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced, however, a significant negative bias in sea-ice fraction exists due to the relatively poor representation of the bathymetry. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem, which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM4-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  2. Rapid detection of selected steroid hormones from sewage effluents using an ELISA in the Kuils River water catchment area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Nelius; Pool, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones are naturally synthesized by both humans and animals and are released into the environment. Significant levels of steroid hormones have been detected in sewage effluent around the world. The potential problem is that these hormones may interfere with the normal function of the endocrine systems, thus affecting reproduction and development in wildlife. Due to the major shortage of water in Western Cape, South Africa there is a great need to recycle water by either direct or indirect methods. The treated sewage effluent-natural surface water mixture found in the Kuils and Eerste Rivers is used directly for irrigation of agricultural areas. Sewage effluents were collected from four sites (Jonkershoek, Belville, Zandvliet, and Macassar) and subjected to C(18) solid phase extraction. Commercially available rapid ELISA kits were validated for the quantification of estrogens in these sewage effluent samples. Analysis of estrone, estradiol, and estriol levels showed a significant difference between the control site (Jonkershoek) and sewage effluent from the three sewage treatment works. Steroid hormone concentrations detected in these sewage effluents were similar to reports from Britain, Italy, Germany, Canada, and Netherlands.

  3. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  4. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-03-18

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  5. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  6. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-05-03

    To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Primary healthcare-17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; pdisadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; pdata analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore

  8. Hydroclimatic change disparity of Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pedro; Bourrel, Luc; Labat, David; Frappart, Frédéric; Ruelland, Denis; Lavado, Waldo; Dewitte, Boris; Felipe, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments only benefit from 2% of the total national available freshwater while they concentrate almost 50% of the population of the country. This situation is likely to lead a severe water scarcity and also constitutes an obstacle to economic development. Catchment runoff fluctuations in response to climate variability and/or human activities can be reflected in extreme events, representing a serious concern (like floods, erosion, droughts) in the study area. To document this crucial issue for Peru, we present here an insightful analysis of the water quantity resource variability of this region, exploring the links between this variability and climate and/or anthropogenic pressure. We first present a detailed analysis of the hydroclimatologic variability at annual timescale and at basin scale over the 1970-2008 period. In addition to corroborating the influence of extreme El Niño events over precipitation and runoff in northern catchments, a mean warming of 0.2 °C per decade over all catchments was found. Also, higher values of temperature and potential and actual evapotranspiration were found over northern latitudes. We chose to apply the Budyko-Zhang framework that characterizes the water cycle as a function of climate only, allowing the identification of catchments with significant climatic and anthropogenic influence on water balance. The Budyko-Zhang methodology revealed that 11 out of 26 initial catchments are characterized by low water balance disparity related to minor climatic and anthropogenic influence. These 11 catchments were suitable for identifying catchments with contrasting change in their hydroclimatic behavior using the Budyko trajectories. Our analysis further reveals that six hydrological catchment responses can be characterized by high sensitivity to climate variability and land use changes.

  9. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babek, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the 137 Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  10. Development of a process-oriented vulnerability concept for water travel time in karst aquifers-case study of Tanour and Rasoun springs catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas; Wiegand, Bettina; Margane, Armin; Toll, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    Key words: Karst aquifer, water travel time, vulnerability assessment, Jordan. The understanding of the groundwater pathways and movement through karst aquifers, and the karst aquifer response to precipitation events especially in the arid to semi-arid areas is fundamental to evaluate pollution risks from point and non-point sources. In spite of the great importance of the karst aquifer for drinking purposes, karst aquifers are highly sensitive to contamination events due to the fast connections between the land-surface and the groundwater (through the karst features) which is makes groundwater quality issues within karst systems very complicated. Within this study, different methods and approaches were developed and applied in order to characterise the karst aquifer system of the Tanour and Rasoun springs (NW-Jordan) and the flow dynamics within the aquifer, and to develop a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on the monitoring of different multi-spatially variable parameters of water travel time in karst aquifer. In general, this study aims to achieve two main objectives: 1. Characterization of the karst aquifer system and flow dynamics. 2. Development of a process-oriented method for vulnerability assessment based on spatially variable parameters of travel time. In order to achieve these aims, different approaches and methods were applied starting from the understanding of the geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst aquifer and its vulnerability against pollutants, to using different methods, procedures and monitored parameters in order to determine the water travel time within the aquifer and investigate its response to precipitation event and, finally, with the study of the aquifer response to pollution events. The integrated breakthrough signal obtained from the applied methods and procedures including the using of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, the monitoring of multi qualitative and quantitative parameters

  11. Environmental impacts of incineration of livestock manure with the purpose of energy utilization. Scenario analysis for a specific catchment area; Miljoekonsekvenser ved afbraending af husdyrgoedning med sigte pae energiudnyttelse. Scenarieanalyse for et udvalgt opland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schou, J.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Levin, G. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Grant, R. [DMU, Afdeling for Ferskvandsoekologi (Denmark); Elmegaard, N. [DMU, Afdeling for Terrestrisk Oekologi (Denmark); Palmgren, F. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    The analyses demonstrate the environmental consequences of incineration of livestock manure in a specific catchment area where an unchanged animal production is presumed. The scenarios are carried out for the Vesthimmerland area, located in the north of the peninsula of Jutland (Denmark) where the agricultural production is characterised by a relatively intensive production of broilers and furred animals. It is assumed that half of the total production of manure from farms with broilers and mink is incinerated on incineration plants on farm level and decentralised CHP plants. This corresponds to an incineration of manure from 1.951 DE (one animal unit corresponds to a production of 100 kg N per year) at which 219 tonnes N, 54 tonnes P and 118 tonnes K are removed, corresponding to 5 % N, 5.5 % P and 3 % K, respectively. The estimated environmental consequences are summarized in Table 19 and the results are commented below. Assuming the effective N content of the incinerated manure is replaced with artificial fertiliser while not compensating for the removed P, it is estimated that the N leaching in the catchment area is reduced by 46.5 tonnes (approx. 2 %) while the P surplus is reduced from 200 tonnes to 146 tonnes (approx. 27 % reduction). Furthermore the incineration of manure will impact the emission of ammonia as the loss from storage and spreading is reduced. Thus there will be a reduction of ammonia emissions from storage facilities by 25.3 tonnes N while the reduction of emission from spreading is estimated to 17.2 tonnes N. All together a reduction of the ammonia emissions of 42.5 tonnes N is thus achieved. Furthermore, analyses of additional deposition of gaseous N compounds, especially N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from the air in the area close to an incineration plant have been carried out. The analyses presume that the amount of N emitted from incineration corresponds to the amount of N in manure. The analyses show that if the NO{sub X

  12. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  13. Accessibility of sexual health services in teenage sexual health service users: local area geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Cook, Penny A; Forster, Sue; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2012-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are the highest in Western Europe. Causes of teenage pregnancies are multifaceted with complex interplay of social, lifestyle and wider determinants influencing risk. Improving access to sexual health services through community services is an important factor in attempting to tackle this issue, but few studies have examined factors that influence this. Geospatial analysis was conducted on community sexual health service users and teenage conceptions from local sexual health services were recorded. Univariate and multinomial regression was performed to test associations between service type and socio-economic status. No significant differences in accessibility of services between teenage girls who have conceived and those seeking sexual health services were found. Females aged 17 and under were more likely to use a young people's sexual health service than mainstream services (P health services. The study supports policy for locating young person services within the most deprived areas of a community.

  14. Episodic runoff generation at Central European headwater catchments studied using water isotope concentration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votrubova Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological monitoring in small headwater catchments provides the basis for examining complex interrelating hydraulic processes that govern the runoff generation. Contributions of different subsurface runoff mechanisms to the catchment discharge formation at two small forested headwater catchments are studied with the help of their natural isotopic signatures. The Uhlirska catchment (Jizera Mts., Czech Republic is situated in headwater area of the Lusatian Neisse River. The catchment includes wetlands at the valley bottom developed over deluviofluvial granitic sediments surrounded by gentle hillslopes with shallow soils underlain by weathered granite. The Liz catchment (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic is situated in headwater area of the Otava River. It belongs to hillslope-type catchments with narrow riparian zones. The soil at Liz is developed on biotite paragneiss bedrock. The basic comparison of hydrological time series reveals that the event-related stream discharge variations at the Uhlirska catchment are bigger and significantly more frequent than at Liz. The analysis of isotope concentration data revealed different behavior of the two catchments during the major rainfall-runoff events. At Uhlirska, the percentage of the direct runoff formed by the event water reaches its maximum on the falling limb of the hydrograph. At Liz, the event water related fraction of the direct outflow is maximal on the rising limb of the hydrograph and then lowers. The hydraulic functioning of the Uhlirska catchment is determined by communication between hillslope and riparian zone compartments.

  15. Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani Sangani, Mohammad; Jabbarian Amiri, Bahman; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Sakieh, Yousef; Ashrafi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers. To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , pH, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The areas (%) of marl, tuff, or diorite, as well as those of good-quality rangeland and bare land had negative effects on all water quality variables, while those of basalt, forest land cover were found to contribute to improved river water quality. Moreover, lithological variables showed the greatest most potential for predicting the mean concentration values of water quality variables, and noting that measure of EC and TDS have inversely associated with area (%) of urban land use.

  16. Catchment Concentraton-Discharge Archetypes Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, H. E.; Jawitz, J. W.; Rao, P. C.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes interact within catchments, producing hydrographs (Q(t)) and chemographs (C(t)), with the inter-dependence represented by an empirical function: C = aQ^b, where a and b are constants. Three archetypes of C-Q relationships have been observed in stream networks: (1) dilution; b0; and (3) constant C; b~0. Each relationship can exhibit either a relatively constant variance (homoscedastic) or decreasing variance with increasing Q (heteroscedastic). For the third type, the homoscedastic case has been referred to in the literature as chemostatic, while we describe the heteroscedastic case as chemo-convergence. We offer conceptual models for specific linkages between hydrologic and biogeochemical coupling to generate these observed relationships. We seek to understand how the spatial structure of solute sources coupled with hydrologic responses affect C-Q patterns, and investigate the following broad questions: (1) How does the coupling of flow-generating areas and biogeochemical source areas vary across a catchment under stochastic hydro-climatic forcing?, (2) What are the feasible hydrologic and biogeochemical responses that lead to the observed C-Q relationships?, and (3) What implications do these coupled dynamics have for implementation of best management practices for reducing exported solute loads? Our overarching hypothesis is that each of these C-Q patterns can be produced by explicitly linking landscape-scale hydrologic responses and spatial distributions of solute source properties within a landscape. To test this hypothesis, we developed a conceptual catchment model coupled to a dual-domain source-zone model to simulate solute export from each landscape unit. Outputs from the source-zone are then routed through the catchment to generate hydrographs and chemographs. This approach allows explicit links to be identified between specific hydrologic responses and spatial patterns of solute sources that generate these

  17. Response of floodplain sedimentation to catchment disturbances in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, B.; Houbrechts, G.; Verstraeten, G.; Petit, F.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene floodplain sediments are an important environmental archive, that can be accesed for reconstructing the past landscape dynamics either qualitatively (e.g. palynology) and quantitatively (e.g. sediment budgeting). In this study Holocene alluvial sediment deposition in two contrasting Belgian catchments was quantified and dated: the Lienne (148 km2) in the Ardennes massif and the Dijle (750 km2) in the loess region. These catchments experienced a comparable Holocene climatic variation, but differ in topography and geology with highest relief energy in the Lienne catchment. Land use history also differs with high land use intensities in the Dijle catchment since Roman times, but at least since the Middle Ages there were also large deforestations in the Lienne catchment. Detailed cumulative Holocene sediment deposition was assessed for each catchment using more then 1000 hand augerings. Detailed radiocarbon dating of fluvial deposits was performed in the Dijle catchment, while iron slag was used as a tracer for sediments deposited after 1350 AD in the Lienne catchment. Results show that sediment deposition is much larger in the Dijle catchment (~4.5 Mg ha-1 catchment area) then in the Lienne catchment (~0.2 Mg ha-1 catchment area). Dating results from the Dijle catchment show an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the main valleys. Variations in sedimentation rates can clearly be related to anthropogenous land use pressure, and the majority of the sediments found in colluvial and alluvial valleys were deposited in the last 4000 years, and in many cases even in the last 1000 years. Variations in sediment deposition within the catchment can partially be explained by differences in river valley physical settings (mainly valley slope), while in other cases hill slope sediment delivery (upstream erosion, connectivity between hill slopes and the river system) is the explaining

  18. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  19. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    combusted fossil fuels, whatever the season, revealing a very distinct pattern from the Marseilles area. These results show the importance of the dissolved compartment dynamics, especially spatio-temporal variability at catchment scale, when assessing the budget of organic pollutants in coastal environments.

  20. Use of geographical information systems for delimiting health service areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechen Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of choosing a practical and valid method to delimit health service areas of regional health service centres to build a regional basic health service network, we first drew lessons from traditional geographic methods of delimiting trade areas and then applied two methods to delimit health service areas, i.e. the proximal method and the gravity method. We verified the effectiveness of these methods by an index of similarity with the aid of real in-patient data. Calculation of the similarity indices shows that health service areas delimited by the proximal method has an 87.3% similarity to the real health service area, while the gravity method gives 88.6%. Our conclusion is that both methods are suitable for delimiting health service areas at regional health service centres, but find that the proximal method is more practicable in operational terms for delimiting health service areas in region health planning.

  1. The uniform as a representative object in health care area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliecília de Fátima Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It inserts in the scope of the studies of thematerial culture, setting the uniform in Health Carearea as an object of study. It is aimed to analyze thesignifi cance of this clothing as an element which ispresent in the formation of the image of the companiesin human relations professionals and corporateidentity. It is based in bibliographical research,costume analysis and interview. It is discussed howthese artefacts are noticed and interpreted in theinternal and external relations to the professionalsand the use of the uniform as a contradictoryform of homogenization and of a distinction of socialclasses. It concludes that for the company, thiscostume represents a group of concepts, statementsand explanations; it is interpreted as derived of theidentity of the area. For the professionals of the area,it attributes characteristics and traits of individualityof this group and at the same time becomes asymbol of status and social diff erentiation and segregationinside of the own group according to thefunction or position that the individual occupies.

  2. Watershed Boundaries, Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds were developed from catchment delineations (2008) by dissolving catchments within larger drainage areas that were previously defined by Fre, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Frederick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2008. Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds...

  3. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  5. Hydro-economic modelling in mining catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa Moreno, J. S.; McIntyre, N.; Rivera, D.; Smart, J. C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-economic models are gaining momentum because of their capacity to model both the physical processes related to water supply, and socio-economic factors determining water demand. This is particularly valuable in the midst of the large uncertainty upon future climate conditions and social trends. Agriculture, urban uses and environmental flows have received a lot of attention from researchers, as these tend to be the main consumers of water in most catchments. Mine water demand, although very important in several small and medium-sized catchments worldwide, has received less attention and only few models have attempted to reproduce its dynamics with other users. This paper describes an on-going project that addresses this gap, by developing a hydro-economic model in the upper Aconcagua River in Chile. This is a mountain catchment with large scale mining and hydro-power users at high altitudes, and irrigation areas in a downstream valley. Relevant obstacles to the model included the lack of input climate data, which is a common feature in several mining areas, the complex hydrological processes in the area and the difficulty of quantifying the value of water used by mines. A semi-distributed model developed within the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), was calibrated to reproduce water supply, and this was complemented with an analysis of the value of water for mining based on two methods; water markets and an analysis of its production processes. Agriculture and other users were included through methods commonly used in similar models. The outputs help understanding the value of water in the catchment, and its sensitivity to changes in climate variables, market prices, environmental regulations and changes in the production of minerals, crops and energy. The results of the project highlight the importance of merging hydrology and socio-economic calculations in mining regions, in order to better understand trade-offs and cost of opportunity of using

  6. Heavy metals in potable groundwater of mining-affected river catchments, northwestern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham; Macklin, Mark G; Brewer, Paul A; Zaharia, Sorin; Balteanu, Dan; Driga, Basarab; Serban, Mihaela

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater, accessed using wells and municipal springs, represents the major source of potable water for the human population outside of major urban areas in northwestern Romania, a region with a long history of metal mining and metallurgy. The magnitude and spatial distribution of metal contamination in private-supply groundwater was investigated in four mining-affected river catchments in Maramureş and Satu Mare Counties through the collection of 144 groundwater samples. Bedrock geology, pH and Eh were found to be important controls on the solubility of metals in groundwater. Peak metal concentrations were found to occur in the Lapuş catchment, where metal levels exceed Dutch target and intervention values in up to 49% and 14% of samples, respectively. A 700 m wide corridor in the Lapuş catchment on either side of the main river channel was identified in which peak Cd (31 μg l(-1)), Cu (50 μg l(-1)), Pb (50 μg l(-1)) and Zn (3,000 μg l(-1)) concentrations were found to occur. Given the generally similar bedrock geologies, lower metal levels in other catchments are believed to reflect differences in the magnitude of metal loading to the local environment from both metal mining and other industrial and municipal sources. Sampling of groundwater in northwestern Romania has indicated areas of potential concern for human health, where heavy metal concentrations exceed accepted environmental quality guidelines. The presence of elevated metal levels in groundwater also has implications for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and achieving 'good' status for groundwater in this part of the Danube River Basin District (RBD).

  7. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Barquín, J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2), in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we coupled general principles of hydro-geomorphic processes with computer tools to characterize the fluvial landscape. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to topography, valley morphology, river network structure, and fan and terrace landforms. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  8. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Peng, Limei; Lu, Huimin; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif

    2017-07-10

    Body area networks (BANs) are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device's battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  9. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Hao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body area networks (BANs are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device’s battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  10. A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurn, P.; Vujicic, M.; Lemiere, C.; Juquois, M.; Stormont, L.; Campbell, J.; Rutten, M.M.; Braichet, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite

  11. 42 CFR 136.22 - Establishment of contract health service delivery areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment of contract health service delivery... Services § 136.22 Establishment of contract health service delivery areas. (a) In accordance with the..., contract health service delivery areas are established as follows: (1) The State of Alaska; (2) The State...

  12. Health Promotion: A developing focus area over the years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, Ina

    2015-08-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as 'Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion', 'Salutogenesis--from theory to practice' and 'Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 with bi-annual meetings at NHV. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Sediment transport in steep forested catchments - An assessment of scale and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Hugo, J.; Webb, A. A.; Turner, L.

    2017-04-01

    Stream sediment loads (both bedload and suspended sediment) are problematic to measure due to the time and equipment needed. There is a dearth of such data sets globally let alone for Australia. However, such data are needed to quantify sediment transport type and rates, landscape evolution, effect of human disturbance as well as patterns and temporal response. Here we present the findings from 8 steepslope forested catchments dominated by headwater streams (size range 15-100 ha) in south-eastern Australia where both bedload and suspended load have been measured over multiple years. The results demonstrate that suspended load is the dominant component and there is no consistent suspended to bedload ratio for the catchments. The suspended sediment to bedload ratio appears to be catchment specific. There was no relationship between total load (or bedload/suspended load) and average catchment slope, stream length, shape or any geomorphic descriptor. However catchment total load was found to be significantly related to catchment area. Of the 8 catchments examined here, 6 had been harvested for timber in previous decades (with large areas of forest removed) while 2 catchments had minimal disturbance (Control catchments). There was no difference in sediment loads from the harvested and Control catchments. The results demonstrate that although land disturbance had previously occurred the management practices employed in each catchment were effective in the long term. This provides confidence that the forest harvesting and subsequent management do not produce detrimental effects in the medium to long term. An assessment of erosion rates and likely soil production rates suggests that the catchments are eroding soil at the rate it is being produced.

  14. Children's environmental health: an under-recognised area in paediatric health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia, Tania G; Pronczuk de Garbino, Jenny; Sly, Peter D

    2009-02-06

    The knowledge that the environment in which we live, grow and play, can have negative or positive impacts on our health and development is not new. However the recognition that adverse environments can significantly and specifically affect the growth and development of a child from early intrauterine life through to adolescence, as well as impact their health later in adulthood, is relatively recent and has not fully reached health care providers involved in paediatric care.Over the past 15 years, world declarations and statements on children's rights, sustainable development, chemical safety and most recently climate change, have succeeded in cultivating a global focus on children's health and their right to a healthy environment. Many international calls for research in the area, have also been able to identify patterns of environmental diseases in children, assess children's exposures to many environmental toxicants, identify developmental periods of vulnerability, and quantify the cost benefits to public health systems and beyond, of addressing environmentally related diseases in children. Transferring this information to front-line health care providers and increasing their awareness about the global burden of disease attributed to the environment and children's special vulnerability to environmental threats is the salient aim of this commentary.

  15. Situational analysis of the microbial water quality in a peri-urban catchment in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available for the catchment and suggestions were made for the improvement of microbial quality. Certain areas of the catchment are densely populated and both developed and informal settlements exist. Water is mainly used for domestic and recreational purposes. The river...

  16. Regional-scale lateral carbon transport and CO2 evasion in temperate stream catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Katrin; Somlai-Haase, Celia; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Lorke, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Inland waters play an important role in regional to global-scale carbon cycling by transporting, processing and emitting substantial amounts of carbon, which originate mainly from their catchments. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and the rate at which carbon is exported from the catchments in a temperate stream network. The analysis included more than 200 catchment areas in southwest Germany, ranging in size from 0.8 to 889 km2 for which CO2 evasion from stream surfaces and downstream transport with stream discharge were estimated from water quality monitoring data, while NPP in the catchments was obtained from a global data set based on remote sensing. We found that on average 13.9 g C m-2 yr-1 (corresponding to 2.7 % of terrestrial NPP) are exported from the catchments by streams and rivers, in which both CO2 evasion and downstream transport contributed about equally to this flux. The average carbon fluxes in the catchments of the study area resembled global and large-scale zonal mean values in many respects, including NPP, stream evasion and the carbon export per catchment area in the fluvial network. A review of existing studies on aquatic-terrestrial coupling in the carbon cycle suggests that the carbon export per catchment area varies in a relatively narrow range, despite a broad range of different spatial scales and hydrological characteristics of the study regions.

  17. Regional-scale lateral carbon transport and CO2 evasion in temperate stream catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Magin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inland waters play an important role in regional to global-scale carbon cycling by transporting, processing and emitting substantial amounts of carbon, which originate mainly from their catchments. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between terrestrial net primary production (NPP and the rate at which carbon is exported from the catchments in a temperate stream network. The analysis included more than 200 catchment areas in southwest Germany, ranging in size from 0.8 to 889 km2 for which CO2 evasion from stream surfaces and downstream transport with stream discharge were estimated from water quality monitoring data, while NPP in the catchments was obtained from a global data set based on remote sensing. We found that on average 13.9 g C m−2 yr−1 (corresponding to 2.7 % of terrestrial NPP are exported from the catchments by streams and rivers, in which both CO2 evasion and downstream transport contributed about equally to this flux. The average carbon fluxes in the catchments of the study area resembled global and large-scale zonal mean values in many respects, including NPP, stream evasion and the carbon export per catchment area in the fluvial network. A review of existing studies on aquatic–terrestrial coupling in the carbon cycle suggests that the carbon export per catchment area varies in a relatively narrow range, despite a broad range of different spatial scales and hydrological characteristics of the study regions.

  18. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a...

  19. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community.

  20. Rural women veterans demographic report: defining VA users' health and health care access in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Dailey, Nancy; Bair, Byron; Shore, Jay

    2014-01-01

    While many women choose to live in rural areas after retiring from active military duty, a paucity of studies examine rural women veterans' health care needs. This report is the first of its kind to describe the population demographics and health care utilization of rural female veteran patients enrolled in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Using the National Patient Care Datasets (n = 327,785), we ran adjusted regression analyses to examine service utilization between (1) urban and rural and (2) urban and highly rural women veterans. Rural and highly rural women veterans were older and more likely to be married than their urban counterparts. Diagnostic rates were generally similar between groups for several mental health disorders, hypertension, and diabetes, with the exception of nonposttraumatic stress anxiety that was significantly lower for highly rural women veterans. Rural and highly rural women veterans were less likely to present to the VA for women's specific care than urban women veterans; highly rural women veterans were less likely to present for mental health care compared to urban women veterans. Among the users of primary care, mental health, women's specific, and all outpatient services, patients' annual utilization rates were similar. Improved service options for women's specific care and mental health visits may help rural women veterans access care. Telehealth technologies and increased outreach, perhaps peer-based, should be considered. Other recommendations for VA policy and planning include increasing caregiver support options, providing consistency for mental health services, and revising medical encounter coding procedures. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  1. [Perception and attitudes of health professionals from a health area regarding influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Hamer, V; Porras-Povedano, M; Oliva-Reina, I

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is an infectious, acute and highly contagious disease, and vaccination remains the most effective prevention measure. Health professionals are considered at risk because of their daily exposure with patients. Vaccine coverage among health professionals in Spain is relatively low. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the perception and attitudes about influenza vaccination among health professionals from a health care area. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a web application method (EUSurvey). Data were analysed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis using R-project statistical software. A total of 161 professionals (17.9%) responded to the online survey, 54.0% women (n=87) and 45.9% men (n=74). Influenza vaccination rate coverage among health professionals was 34.7%. The main reason reported by health professionals for getting vaccinated was to protect themselves (98.1%), to protect their family (72.6%), and to protect their patients (65.4%). On the other hand, the reasons for health professionals that reported not getting vaccinated was because of the lack of information about it (37.4%), fear of adverse reactions (22.2%), not having had time (14.1%), and considering that the vaccine does not work (14.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that the main factors for not getting vaccinated was to be female, type of service (administrative, medical-surgical and surgical), lack of information, and not been vaccinated before. In order to increase vaccine uptake among health care personnel, information on the benefits of influenza vaccinations must be increased. Vaccination strategies should be targeted at those groups with lower coverage and are at high risk. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 3. The large catchment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viney, Neil R.; Jeevaraj, Charles G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents an application of a long-term, large catchment-scale, water balance model developed to predict the effects of forest clearing in the south-west of Western Australia. The conceptual model simulates the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments before and after clearing. The large catchment is divided into a number of sub-catchments (1-5 km2 in area), which are taken as the fundamental building blocks of the large catchment model. The responses of the individual subcatchments to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three inter-dependent subsurface stores A, B and F, which are considered to represent the moisture states of the subcatchments. Details of the subcatchment-scale water balance model have been presented earlier in Part 1 of this series of papers. The response of any subcatchment is a function of its local moisture state, as measured by the local values of the stores. The variations of the initial values of the stores among the subcatchments are described in the large catchment model through simple, linear equations involving a number of similarity indices representing topography, mean annual rainfall and level of forest clearing.The model is applied to the Conjurunup catchment, a medium-sized (39·6 km2) catchment in the south-west of Western Australia. The catchment has been heterogeneously (in space and time) cleared for bauxite mining and subsequently rehabilitated. For this application, the catchment is divided into 11 subcatchments. The model parameters are estimated by calibration, by comparing observed and predicted runoff values, over a 18 year period, for the large catchment and two of the subcatchments. Excellent fits are obtained.

  3. Lessons learned for applying a paired-catchment approach in drought analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne; Rangecroft, Sally; Coxon, Gemma; Agustín Breña Naranjo, José; Van Ogtrop, Floris; Croghan, Danny; Van Lanen, Henny

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing research is looking to quantify the human impact on hydrological drought using observed data. One potentially suitable method is the paired-catchment approach. Paired catchments have been successfully used for quantifying the impact of human actions (e.g. forest treatment and wildfires) on various components of a catchment's water balance. However, it is unclear whether this method could successfully be applied to drought. In this study, we used a paired-catchment approach to quantify the effects of reservoirs, groundwater abstraction and urbanisation on hydrological drought in the UK, Mexico, and Australia. Following recommendations in literature, we undertook a thorough catchment selection and identified catchments of similar size, climate, geology, and topography. One catchment of the pair was affected by either reservoirs, groundwater abstraction or urbanisation. For the selected catchment pairs, we standardised streamflow time series to catchment area, calculated a drought threshold from the natural catchment and applied it to the human-influenced catchment. The underlying assumption being that the differences in drought severity between catchments can then be attributed to the anthropogenic activity. In some catchments we had local knowledge about human influences, and therefore we could compare our paired-catchment results with hydrological model scenarios. However, we experienced that detailed data on human influences usually are not well recorded. The results showed us that it is important to account for variation in average annual precipitation between the paired catchments to be able to transfer the drought threshold of the natural catchment to the human-influenced catchment. This can be achieved by scaling the discharge by the difference in annual average precipitation. We also found that the temporal distribution of precipitation is important, because if meteorological droughts differ between the paired catchments, this may mask changes caused

  4. Investigation of groundwater in the Upper Motueka River catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Hong, T.Y.-S.; Cameron, S.C.; Daughney, C.J.; Tait, T.; Thomas, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater investigation in the Upper Motueka catchment is a key end user-driven component of the Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) project, a six year programme which commenced in July 2000. The goal of the ICM project is to conduct multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder research to provide information and knowledge that will improve the management of land, freshwater, and near-coastal environments in catchments with multiple, interacting, and potentially conflicting land uses. The principal aims of the investigations are to understand the hydrogeology of the Upper Motueka valley (including parts of the Motupiko and Tadmor valleys), the aquifer hydraulic properties, the occurrence of groundwater (recharge, storage and discharge), and the connectivity to the rivers. Understanding these will give a conceptual model of the river/groundwater system to constrain computational models. The study area lies within the Moutere Depression at lower altitude and has moderate rainfall (900-1300 mm). Higher land to the east with rainfall up to 2000 mm feeds the upper reaches of the Motueka River. Comparison of the Motueka River flow at the gorge and upstream of the Wangapeka River confluence shows that much of the flow, and particularly much of the low flow, are generated within the comparatively small gorge headwater area, comprising ultramafics and Maitai Group sediments. Below the gorge, the catchment contains Moutere Gravel. The Motupiko and Tadmor catchments are predominantly Moutere Gravel. (author). 13 refs., figs., tabs

  5. Exposure To Violence And Occupational Satisfaction Of Health Personnal In A Health Group Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcin Balci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it evaluted that exposure to violence and effect of this exposure to occupational satisfaction of health personel in Melikgazi Health Group Area. Materials And Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive study was performed in April-May 2006. Sampling not planned, it assumed to reach all of health personel. Data were analysed using computer and chi square test were used for statistical analyses. Lesser than 0,05 values were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the research group 66,7 % were female and 33,3 % were male. Mean age was 34,48 ± 5,73 years. Of the study participants were working in health center, 80,4 % day time and 19,6 % in night time and mean duration of working was 11,99 ± 5,3 years. Of the study group 57,1 % were chosen profession willingly and 65,5 % of them didn’t want to their children chose same profession. Of the study group 68,2 % were thought their fare were not enough. Of the study group, 50,3 % were experinced verbal and/or physical violence with different degrees. Of the violence victims 63,6 % were working in night shift of health centers and most of them doctors. Conclusion: Exposure to violence during work effects the satisfaction negativeley. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 13-18

  6. Modelling the Impact of Land Use Change on Water Quality in Agricultural Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P. J.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    1997-03-01

    Export coefficient modelling was used to model the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus loading on the surface waters of two contrasting agricultural catchments. The model was originally developed for the Windrush catchment where the highly reactive Jurassic limestone aquifer underlying the catchment is well connected to the surface drainage network, allowing the system to be modelled using uniform export coefficients for each nutrient source in the catchment, regardless of proximity to the surface drainage network. In the Slapton catchment, the hydrological pathways are dominated by surface and lateral shallow subsurface flow, requiring modification of the export coefficient model to incorporate a distance-decay component in the export coefficients. The modified model was calibrated against observed total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads delivered to Slapton Ley from inflowing streams in its catchment. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to isolate the key controls on nutrient export in the modified model. The model was validated against long-term records of water quality, and was found to be accurate in its predictions and sensitive to both temporal and spatial changes in agricultural practice in the catchment. The model was then used to forecast the potential reduction in nutrient loading on Slapton Ley associated with a range of catchment management strategies. The best practicable environmental option (BPEO) was found to be spatial redistribution of high nutrient export risk sources to areas of the catchment with the greatest intrinsic nutrient retention capacity.

  7. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Maina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  8. Health concepts, issues, and experience in the Abakaliki area, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuma, C

    1994-01-01

    Environmental health problems are increasingly receiving global attention. The health of entire nations may not only be affected by adverse environmental conditions, but by nutritional deficiencies that lead to morbidity and mortality. The type and extent of adverse health effects in a population depend on the potential for exposure to some environmental factors and pathogens as well as other environmental variables like industrialization, sanitation conditions, and urbanization. National and...

  9. An overview of the CSIR Health Research Impact Area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardiner, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available microscopy at the point of care. Partner: NHLS; clinical validation African traditional medicine: Standardised traditional medicine products; quality ? CSIR 2012 Emerging health technologies Nano medicine: Drug delivery ? Focus on delivery system... and personalised medicine Summary The CSIR has deployed multi-disciplinary capabilities to provide solutions for key health challenges. A balance is being maintained between delivering solutions for immediate health needs and building and deploying...

  10. Studies on Animal Health Delivery Systems in Pastoral Areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to identify animal health delivery systems to show how marginalized pastoral communities are accessing animal health services was conducted in Babati, Hanang and Mbulu Districts of Manyara Region. It was shown that livestock was the principal economic activity for pastoralists in Mbulu, Babati and Hanang and ...

  11. Improving Maternal and Child Health in Underserved Rural Areas of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural communities. Maternal and child health concerns According to the World Health Organization, Nigeria's maternal mortality ratio in 2013 was 560, down from 610 in ...

  12. Linking measures of health gain to explicit priority setting by an area health service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, D A; Viney, R; Halsall, J; Hindle, D

    1998-12-01

    A demonstration project was undertaken to develop an integer programming model that could help a regional health authority to take into account data on service effectiveness when allocating resources to acute inpatient services. The model was designed to find the mix of services that would maximise health gain from the available resources, and so provide information that could be used to encourage hospitals to change their patient mix. It was developed in collaboration with an Area Health Service in New South Wales, Australia, with the aim of assessing its potential as a decision support tool. Acute inpatient services were categorised in the model using classes derived from the Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups (AN-DRG) classification and the classes developed by the Oregon Health Services Commission. Estimates for the effectiveness of each service was derived from the Oregon benefit data. Estimates of resource use were derived from AN-DRG data. The expected demand for each service was derived from local activity data. Various scenarios were developed to assess the potential of the model to support decision makers. These mimicked plausible policy options and tested the sensitivity of the results to changes in the data. The scenarios demonstrated the model could reveal the consequences of different policy options, but also suggested that the difference in the cost-effectiveness of services close to the margin would be small and so a rigid approach to priority setting is undesirable. Difficulties in developing the model also demonstrate that incorporating health gain data into resource allocation decisions will not be straight-forward for health planners.

  13. Representing macropore flow at the catchment scale: a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Li, H. Y.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is an important hydrological process that generally enhances the soil infiltration capacity and velocity of subsurface water. Up till now, macropore flow is mostly simulated with high-resolution models. One possible drawback of this modeling approach is the difficulty to effectively represent the overall typology and connectivity of the macropore networks. We hypothesize that modeling macropore flow directly at the catchment scale may be complementary to the existing modeling strategy and offer some new insights. Tsinghua Representative Elementary Watershed model (THREW model) is a semi-distributed hydrology model, where the fundamental building blocks are representative elementary watersheds (REW) linked by the river channel network. In THREW, all the hydrological processes are described with constitutive relationships established directly at the REW level, i.e., catchment scale. In this study, the constitutive relationship of macropore flow drainage is established as part of THREW. The enhanced THREW model is then applied at two catchments with deep soils but distinct climates, the humid Asu catchment in the Amazon River basin, and the arid Wei catchment in the Yellow River basin. The Asu catchment has an area of 12.43km2 with mean annual precipitation of 2442mm. The larger Wei catchment has an area of 24800km2 but with mean annual precipitation of only 512mm. The rainfall-runoff processes are simulated at a hourly time step from 2002 to 2005 in the Asu catchment and from 2001 to 2012 in the Wei catchment. The role of macropore flow on the catchment hydrology will be analyzed comparatively over the Asu and Wei catchments against the observed streamflow, evapotranspiration and other auxiliary data.

  14. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  15. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Ban, Natalie C.; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  16. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition of every element in a complex System...

  17. Mapping the Effects of Anthropogenic Activities in the Catchment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to map the catchment and determine the impact of anthropogenic activities using Remote Sensing techniques. Observations and measurements were made on the field as well as classification of land cover using Landsat images of years 1991, 2003 and 2017. Results showed an increase in built-up areas ...

  18. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... 3.2 Pre-processing. Prior to the actual image processing, Landsat8 OLI and SPOT6/7 scenes were subset to the study area (catchment) in order to restrict analysis; thereby reducing time required for image processing. (Campbell and Wynne, 2011). Both SPOT6/7 and Landsat8 OLI multispectral images ...

  19. Computer system for catchment management: background, concepts and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Managers of natural areas require a wide variety of up-to-date and accurate information and maps to manage their lands effectively. This paper reviews the objectives of conservation management, and the problems faced by mountain catchment managers...

  20. Frequency and severity of rheumatic heart disease in the catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency and severity of rheumatic heart disease in the catchment area of Gauteng hospitals, 1993-1995. Sally-Ann Clur. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Medical Journal Vol. 96(3) 2006: 233-237. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  1. Numerical model of rainwater runoff over the catchment surface and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... runoff along the surface catchment and transport of impurity which permeates into the water flow from soil at the certain areas of this surface. This system consists of two types of equations: the first of them describes the changes of water layer thickness over the slope surface given the precipitation and evaporation, and the ...

  2. Hydrological Impacts of Urbanization of Two Catchments in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Gumindoga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By increased rural-urban migration in many African countries, the assessment of changes in catchment hydrologic responses due to urbanization is critical for water resource planning and management. This paper assesses hydrological impacts of urbanization on two medium-sized Zimbabwean catchments (Mukuvisi and Marimba for which changes in land cover by urbanization were determined through Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images for the years 1986, 1994 and 2008. Impact assessments were done through hydrological modeling by a topographically driven rainfall-runoff model (TOPMODEL. A satellite remote sensing based ASTER 30 metre Digital Elevation Model (DEM was used to compute the Topographic Index distribution, which is a key input to the model. Results of land cover classification indicated that urban areas increased by more than 600 % in the Mukuvisi catchment and by more than 200 % in the Marimba catchment between 1986 and 2008. Woodlands decreased by more than 40% with a greater decrease in Marimba than Mukuvisi catchment. Simulations using TOPMODEL in Marimba and Mukuvisi catchments indicated streamflow increases of 84.8 % and 73.6 %, respectively, from 1980 to 2010. These increases coincided with decreases in woodlands and increases in urban areas for the same period. The use of satellite remote sensing data to observe urbanization trends in semi-arid catchments and to represent catchment land surface characteristics proved to be effective for rainfall-runoff modeling. Findings of this study are of relevance for many African cities, which are experiencing rapid urbanization but often lack planning and design.

  3. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  4. Changes in catchment hydrology in relation to vegetation recovery: a comparative modelling experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; Karssenberg, Derek; Latron, Jérôme; Serrano, Mā Pilar; Regüés, David; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains have been largely affected by land abandonment and subsequent vegetation recovery, with a general expansion of shrubs and forests. Such a large scale land-cover change has modified the hydrological behavior of these areas, with significant impact on runoff production. Forecasting the trend of water resources under future re-vegetation scenarios is of paramount importance in Mediterranean basins, where water management relies on runoff generated in these areas. With this purpose, a modelling experiment was designed based on the information collected in two neighbouring research catchments with a different history of land use in the central Spanish Pyrenees. One (2.84 km2) is an abandoned agricultural catchment subjected to plant colonization and at present mainly covered by shrubs. The other (0.92 km2) is a catchment covered by dense natural forest, representative of undisturbed environments. Here we present the results of the analysis of the hydrological differences between the two catchments, and a description of the approach and results of the modelling experiment. In a statistical analysis of the field data, significant differences were observed in the streamflow response of the two catchments. The forested catchment recorded fewer floods per year compared to the old agricultural catchment, and its hydrological response was characterised by a marked seasonality, with autumn and spring as the only high flow periods. Stormflow was generally higher in the old agricultural catchment, especially for low to intermediate size events; only for large events the stormflow in the forested catchment was sometimes greater. Under drier conditions, the relative differences in the stormflow between the two catchments tended to increase whereas under wet conditions they tended to be similar. The forested catchment always reacted more slowly to rainfall, with lower peakflows (generally one order of magnitude lower) and longer recession limbs. The modelling

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 851 - Worker Safety and Health Functional Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), World Health Organization (WHO), and other international, Federal, State, and... and environment, safety, and health protection organizations. (1) Contractors must provide the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Worker Safety and Health Functional Areas A Appendix A to...

  6. Health problems and expenditure in an area with food crisis: Mekit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the health problems, health-coping strategies and health care demand of non-displaced communities in food-crisis areas. ... The source of income to cover the health expenditure for 72 (48.6%) of the households was from sale of animals and animal products, 32 (21.6%) from sale of grains and the rest ...

  7. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITRATE EXPOSURE IN WELL WATER OF RESIDENTS IN INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Noraziah Jamaludin; Shaharuddin Mohd Sham; Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate in well water has become a public health concern especially in agriculture areas. Nitrate contamination in drinking water poses health risks to humans. This cross-sectional study was conducted with an aim to determine the health risk of residents in intensive agriculture area of Bachok Kelantan from nitrate exposure in drinking well water. Nitrate in well water was determined with Spectrophotometer while the health risk was determined through calculation of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) ...

  8. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  9. Improving Maternal and Child Health in Underserved Rural Areas of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and child health is a priority for Nigeria, but there are significant challenges and opportunities at state levels that influence efforts to reduce deaths. This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural ...

  10. Identifying fine sediment sources to alleviate flood risk caused by fine sediments through catchment connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2017-04-01

    Fine sediment poses a significant threat to UK river systems in terms of vegetation, aquatic habitats and morphology. Deposition of fine sediment onto the river bed reduces channel capacity resulting in decreased volume to contain high flow events. Once the in channel problem has been identified managers are under pressure to sustainably mitigate flood risk. With climate change and land use adaptations increasing future pressures on river catchments it is important to consider the connectivity of fine sediment throughout the river catchment and its influence on channel capacity, particularly in systems experiencing long term aggradation. Fine sediment erosion is a continuing concern in the River Eye, Leicestershire. The predominately rural catchment has a history of flooding within the town of Melton Mowbray. Fine sediment from agricultural fields has been identified as a major contributor of sediment delivery into the channel. Current mitigation measures are not sustainable or successful in preventing the continuum of sediment throughout the catchment. Identifying the potential sources and connections of fine sediment would provide insight into targeted catchment management. 'Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling Analysis Platforms' (SCIMAP) is a tool often used by UK catchment managers to identify potential sources and routes of sediment within a catchment. SCIMAP is a risk based model that combines hydrological (rainfall) and geomorphic controls (slope, land cover) to identify the risk of fine sediment being transported from source into the channel. A desktop version of SCIMAP was run for the River Eye at a catchment scale using 5m terrain, rainfall and land cover data. A series of SCIMAP model runs were conducted changing individual parameters to determine the sensitivity of the model. Climate Change prediction data for the catchment was used to identify potential areas of future connectivity and erosion risk for catchment managers. The results have been

  11. Integration for sustainable catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher J A; Scholefield, David; Haygarth, Philip M

    2007-02-15

    Sustainable catchment management requires increased levels of integration between groups of natural and social scientists, land and water users, land and water managers, planners and policy makers across spatial scales. Multiple policy drivers, covering urban and rural communities and their relationships with land and water use, have resulted in the need for an integrated decision making framework that operates from the strategic national scale to the local catchment scale. Large gaps in integration between policies are resulting in uncertain outcomes of conflicting and competing policy measures. The need for further integration is illustrated by little or no reductions in nitrate and phosphate levels in surface and ground waters in England and Wales. There is a requirement for natural scientists to consider the socio-economic setting and implications of their research. Moreover, catchment system level science requires natural and social scientists to work more closely, to provide robust analysis of the state of the environment that fully considers the bio-physical, social, political and economic settings. The combined use of spatial technologies, scenarios, indicators and multicriteria analysis are increasingly being used to enable improved integration for sustainable catchment management.

  12. Catchment systems science and management: from evidence to resilient landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2014-05-01

    There is an urgent need to reassess both the scientific understanding and the policy making approaches taken to manage flooding, water scarcity and pollution in intensively utilised catchments. Many European catchments have been heavily modified and natural systems have largely disappeared. However, working with natural processes must still be at the core of any future management strategy. Many catchments have greatly reduced infiltration rates and buffering capacity and this process needs to be reversed. An interventionist and holistic approach to managing water quantity and quality at the catchment scale is urgently required through the active manipulation of natural flow processes. Both quantitative (field experiments and modelling) and qualitative evidence (local knowledge) is required to demonstrate that catchment have become 'unhealthy'. For example, dense networks of low cost instrumentation could provide this multiscale evidence and, coupled with stakeholder knowledge, build a comprehensive understanding of whole system function. Proactive Catchment System Management is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of landscape scale hydrological flow pathways. Many of the changes to hydrological processes cannot be detected at the catchment scale as the primary causes of flooding and pollution. Evidence shows it is the land cover and the soil that are paramount to any change. Local evidence shows us that intense agricultural practices reduce the infiltration capacity through soil degradation. The intrinsic buffering capacity has also been lost across the landscape. The emerging hydrological process is one in which the whole system responds too quickly (driven by near surface and overland flow processes). The bulk of the soil matrix is bypassed during storm events and there is little or no buffering capacity in the riparian areas or in headwater catchments. The prospect of lower intensity farming rates is

  13. Runoff and Solute Mobilisation in a Semi-arid Headwater Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Khan, S.; Crosbie, R.; Helliwell, S.; Michalk, D.

    2006-12-01

    Runoff and solute transport processes contributing to stream flow were determined in a small headwater catchment in the eastern Murray-Darling Basin of Australia using hydrometric and tracer methods. Stream flow and electrical conductivity were monitored from two gauges draining a portion of upper catchment area (UCA), and a saline scalded area respectively. Results show that the bulk of catchment solute export, occurs via a small saline scald (production of all run off in conditions experienced throughout the experimental period. The process of saturation and runoff bears some similarities to the VSA concept (Hewlett and Hibbert 1967).

  14. Forest fire impact on the hydrological response in small catchment of NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Canceio-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological studies were carried out in two catchments (burnt and unburned, to determine the processes related to the streamflow changes and the possible effects on the runoff coefficients produced by a forest fire in the summer of 2007, which affected 50% of the area of one of the catchments. Comparative analysis of the changes in the monthly streamflow values revealed that during the wettest months, the runoff was higher in the burnt catchment during the first two years, and was very similar in both catchments during the third year. Calculation of the annual runoff coefficient confirmed these findings and showed that the differences between the coefficients in the catchments were negligible in the final year. In both cases, this can be explained by regeneration of the vegetation after fire.

  15. [Inequity and health in the workplace: exploring an emergent area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-García, Luis; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc A; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Sara D; Flores-Carbajal, Guillermo; Gea-Izquierdo, Enrique; Sánchez-Román, Francisco R

    2013-01-01

    Work, under fair employment and decent work, reduces inequities in health. Nowadays it seems, however, that obtaining and carrying out a job and worker performance take precedence over the aforementioned attributes. Workers are not only exposed to accidents, diseases caused by various agents, ergonomic and psychosocial risks but also affected by work modes imposed by the "wildmarket", such as the lack of social security benefits. Member countries of the International Labour Organization (ILO) should institute occupational health and safety policies in order to reduce the above mentioned inequities. Nonetheless, governments, which would guarantee such policies, seem to have become intermediaries in favor of large corporations. It is essential to define and strengthen actions that create jobs in decent and appropriate conditions with a view to generating equity, equality, and social well-being.

  16. GREEN SPACES AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu CICEA; Corina PIRLOGEA

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life in cities depends largely on the availability of attractive and accessible green spaces. It is generally agreed that urban green spaces are essential for the health and well-being of citizens. This paper aims to broach the issue of urban green spaces, emphasizing their importance (embodied in at least three categories of benefits: environmental, economic and social) and focusing on the idea that the existence of green spaces may contribute to obtaining savings or income in a c...

  17. Inequitiy and health in the workplace: exploring and emerging area

    OpenAIRE

    Haro-García, Luis; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México D.F, México. Doctor en ciencias.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México D.F, México. doctora en ciencias.; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc A.; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México D.F, México. maestro en ciencias ambientales; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Sara D.; Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México. México D.F, México. médico cirujano.; Flores-Carbajal, Guillermo; Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México. México D.F, México. médico especialista en psicoanálisis y formación de recursos para la salud.; Gea-Izquierdo, Enrique; Dirección de Investigación e Innovación, Facultad de Salud y Seguridad Ocupacional, Universidad Internacional-SEK. Quito, Ecuador. Cátedra de Seguriad y Salud en el Trabajo, Universidad de Málaga. Málaga, España. biólogo doctor en ciencias biológicas, máster en Medicina preventiva y salud pública, máster en seguridad y salud en el trabajo.; Sánchez-Román, Francisco R.; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México D.F, México. Doctor en ciencias.

    2014-01-01

    Work, under fair employment and decent work, reduces inequities in health. Nowadays it seems, however, that obtaining and carrying out a job and worker performance take precedence over the aforementioned attributes. Workers are not only exposed to accidents, diseases caused by various agents, ergonomic and psychosocial risks but also affected by work modes imposed by the “wildmarket”, such as the lack of social security benefits. Member countries of the International Labour Organization (ILO)...

  18. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  19. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  20. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... grantee, to coordinate the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) Nursing Program Capacity Strengthening... Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program Grantee; Exception to... Competition--Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

  1. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  2. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  3. Hydrograph separation in headwater catchments of the Andes using water isotope composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Garcia, C.; Weiler, M.

    2009-04-01

    Water isotopes have been used in hydrology for two purposes: 1) identify the age of water when it leaves a catchment, both for baseflow and for individual storms; and 2) identify the source of water that leaves the catchment during and after a precipitation event, (e.g. whether it comes from rain or from particular water reservoirs within the catchment). This knowledge has been used to understand the interactions between precipitation and catchments and as a proxy for the capacity of a catchment to store water and regulate its flow, which is particularly relevant for water managers. This study has taken three small neighboring catchments and one sub-catchment in each of them containing a wetland, to analyze their baseflow and discharge response to rain events using TRANSEP. The objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the hydrological response of the six units to test the hypothesis that connected units of the landscape e.g. wetlands have a large influence on catchment yield; 2) to analyze the effect of land use on water yield during rain events; and 3) to analyze the effects of land use on baseflow. Results indicate that for B1, the catchment with 68% of area in forest, discharge is predominantly quickflow (70%), whereas for the other two catchments, it comes from around 50% of both the quickflow reservoir and the persistent reservoir. The big influence from wetlands is seen in two results: 1) the higher proportion of baseflow discharge for BB, the catchment with a 6% of total area in wetlands, since wetlands could be contributing to groundwater recharge; 2) the mean transit time of water in BB, 172 days compared with 97 days for B1 (the forested catchment) and 28 days for B2 (the catchment with 69% in grasslands) influenced by the longer transit time for BBW and B2W. The larger proportion of discharge coming from the slow quickflow in wetlands B2 and BB, and their mean transit times, indicate that the water stored in wetlands, despite constituting surface

  4. Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Marttila, H. (Hannu)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and distu...

  5. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, amphibians, crayfish and turtles alongside key features within and between catchments, such as topography and connectivity. Several methodologies were used to combine these dimensions across a variety of future climate change models and scenarios. The resulting indices were overlaid to assess the vulnerability of European freshwater ecosystems at the catchment scale (18 783 catchments). The Balkan Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and Mediterranean islands emerge as most vulnerable to climate change. For the 2030s, we showed a consensus among the applied methods whereby up to 573 lake and river catchments are highly vulnerable to climate change. The anthropogenic disruption of hydrological habitat connectivity by dams is the major factor reducing climate change resilience. A gap analysis demonstrated that the current European protected area network covers climate change. Priority should be placed on enhancing stakeholder cooperation at the major basin scale towards preventing further degradation of freshwater ecosystems and maintaining connectivity among catchments. The catchments identified as most vulnerable to climate change provide preliminary targets for development of climate change conservation management and mitigation strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Ecosystem Health in a Karst Area of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzi Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a GIS-based mechanism for diagnosing karst rocky desertification (KRD ecosystem health. Using the Huajiang Demonstration Area in Guizhou Province as a case study, this research offers a multi-factor indicator system for diagnosing KRD ecosystem health. A set of geologic, environmental, and socio-economic health indicators were developed based on remote sensing images from field-investigation, hydrological, and meteorological monitoring data. With the use of grid GIS technology, this study gives an indicator for diagnosing the spatial expression of desertification at a 5 m × 5 m grid scale. Using spatial overlaying technology based on grid data, the temporal and spatial dynamics of ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area were tracked over a 10 year time span. The results of the analysis indicate that ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area varies regionally, and has overall improved over time. The proportion of healthy area increased from 3.7% in 2000 to 8.2% in 2010. However, unhealthy and middle-health areas still accounted for 78.7% of the total area by 2010. The most obvious improvement of ecosystem health was in an area where comprehensive control measures for curbing KRD were implemented. These results suggest that comprehensive control of KRD can effectively mitigate ecosystem deterioration and improve ecosystem health in karst regions of South China.

  8. The choice of healthcare providers for febrile children after introducing non-professional health workers in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eTsukahara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively affected the utilization of health services; however, price effect on healthcare demand decisions has not been explored. Empirical studies on household’s affordability as well as accessibility of healthcare services contribute to policy implications such as efficient introduction of out-of-pocket costs and effective allocation of health facilities. Therefore, we investigate price responsiveness and other determinants of healthcare provider choice for febrile children in a malaria endemic rural area wherein VHVs were introduced.Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a structured questionnaire distributed in a health center’s catchment area of East Sepik Province in the 2011/2012 rainy seasons. Caretakers were interviewed and data on fever episodes of their children in the preceding two weeks were collected. Mixed logit model was employed to estimate the determinants of healthcare provider choice.Results: Among 257 fever episodes reported, the main choices of healthcare providers were limited to self-care, VHV, and a health center. Direct cost and walking distance negatively affected the choice of a VHV and the health center. An increase of VHV’s direct cost or walking distance did not much affect predicted probability of the health center, but rather that of self-care. While, drug availability and illness severity increased the choice probability of a VHV and the health center. Conclusion: The results suggest that the net healthcare demand

  9. The Choice of Healthcare Providers for Febrile Children after Introducing Non-professional Health Workers in a Malaria Endemic Area in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Takahiro; Ogura, Seiritsu; Sugahara, Takuma; Sekihara, Makoto; Furusawa, Takuro; Kondo, Naoki; Mita, Toshihiro; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Hombhanje, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs)] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively affected the utilization of health services; however, price effect on healthcare demand decisions has not been explored. Empirical studies on household's affordability as well as accessibility of healthcare services contribute to policy implications, such as efficient introduction of out-of-pocket costs and effective allocation of health facilities. Therefore, we investigate price responsiveness and other determinants of healthcare provider choice for febrile children in a malaria endemic rural area wherein VHVs were introduced. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a structured questionnaire distributed in a health center's catchment area of East Sepik Province in the 2011/2012 rainy seasons. Caretakers were interviewed and data on fever episodes of their children in the preceding 2 weeks were collected. Mixed logit model was employed to estimate the determinants of healthcare provider choice. Among 257 fever episodes reported, the main choices of healthcare providers were limited to self-care, VHV, and a health center. Direct cost and walking distance negatively affected the choice of a VHV and the health center. An increase of VHV's direct cost or walking distance did not much affect predicted probability of the health center, but rather that of self-care, while drug availability and illness severity increased the choice probability of a VHV and the health center. The results suggest that the net healthcare demand increases with the introduction of a VHV. Allocations from the

  10. Monitoring Child Health: School Doctors at Work in a Dutch Rural Area (1930-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2016-01-01

    From 1948 the World Health Organization expected child hygiene to include mental health. This article discusses the way school doctors adapted their activities and concerns accordingly in the mid-twentieth century in an agrarian-industrial area of the Netherlands. In spite of an improvement in pupils' physical health they shifted their attention…

  11. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  12. International differences in self-reported health measures in 33 major metropolitan areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Linsay; Merlo, Juan; Mindell, Jennifer; Hallqvist, Johan; Tafforeau, Jean; O'Reilly, Dermot; Regidor, Enrique; Næss, Øyvind; Kelleher, Cecily; Helakorpi, Satu; Lange, Cornelia; Leyland, Alastair H

    2012-02-01

    The increasing concentration of populations into large conurbations in recent decades has not been matched by international health assessments, which remain largely focused at the country level. We aimed to demonstrate the use of routine survey data to compare the health of large metropolitan centres across Europe and determine the extent to which differences are due to socio-economic factors. Multilevel modelling of health survey data on 126,853 individuals from 33 metropolitan areas in the UK, Republic of Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Spain, Belgium and Germany compared general health, longstanding illness, acute sickness, psychological distress and obesity with the average for all areas, accounting for education and social class. We found some areas (Greater Glasgow; Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Merseyside; Northumberland, Tyne and Wear and South Yorkshire) had significantly higher levels of poor health. Other areas (West Flanders and Antwerp) had better than average health. Differences in individual socio-economic circumstances did not explain findings. With a few exceptions, acute sickness levels did not vary. Health tended to be worse in metropolitan areas in the north and west of the UK and the central belt and south east of Germany, and more favourable in Sweden and north west Belgium, even accounting for socio-economic composition of local populations. This study demonstrated that combining national health survey data covering different areas is viable but not without technical difficulties. Future comparisons between European regions should be made using standardized sampling, recruitment and data collection protocols, allowing proper monitoring of health inequalities.

  13. [Morbidity observed in a health area: Impact on professionals and funding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Pablo; Caballero, Isabel; Rivas, Francisco Javier; Manera, Jaime; de Vicente, María Auxiliadora; Gómez, Ángel

    2015-05-01

    To analyze morbidity, in the context of a health area, and broken down by health centre, of patients who made contact with healthcare services, in order to propose an adjustment to finance the payment per capita. A descriptive study of morbidity observed in citizens assigned a health area during year 2010. SITE: Health Area 9. Autonomous Community of Madrid. Formed by the municipalities of Fuenlabrada, Humanes, and Moraleja de Enmedio. All levels of health care included. All citizens with health card assigned to a health center in the area who has maintained contact with the public health service's own area. Coded contact of patients are grouped using the Population Grouping Clinical Risk 3M TM Software (CRG). Each patient is included in a homogeneous and exclusive group with a numerical morbidity and clinical sense. Through the health card is known primary care centre, physician, age and sex. The distribution of morbidity is obtained by primary care centre, primary care physician, age and sex analyzing differences and combinations. It was found that the average values of the population morbidity are different in each primary care centre. In order to maintain the principle of equity in health care, it is suggested that an adjustment is made to the per capita payment based on the morbidity rate of the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Health behavior of schoolchildren in a metropolitan area of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andradas Aragonés, V; Fernández San Martín, I M

    1994-01-01

    To describe health behavior of students about diet, alcohol and tobacco, dental-oral hygiene, leisure time activities and interpersonal relations. 942 Students have been carried out. Children come from six schools of the town of Parla (in the south of Madrid). They are from 9 to 14 years old. The instruments have been made for this study, helping by teachers of EGB. 50% of the students doesn't eat any food at 12 o'clock, after drinking a glass of milk only at breakfast (8 o'clock). 10% never eats greens. 37% of the children in the upper level drinks alcohol sometimes and, in the same level, 12% smokes sometimes. Around 25% of children brush their teeth three times in the day. The students watch television three hours and half, means, in the day. The communication with the teacher is evaluated from "not too bad" to "bad" by 70% of the students of upper level. 42% and 39.4% of the children talks about abortion and contraceptives, respectively, with nobody. In general, girls have better habits than boys. Only exercise is more prevalent in the boys than in the girls.

  15. Racial and ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Wallace, Steven P; Wang, May C; Takahashi, Lois M

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multi-level logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes. In rural areas, segregation contributed to worse access to a usual source of health care but higher reports of health care needs being met among African Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.42, CI: 0.96-2.10) and Hispanics (AOR: 1.25, CI: 1.05-1.49). By broadening the spatial scale of segregation beyond urban areas, findings showed the complex interaction between social and spatial factors in rural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2017-08-29

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare?17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36?674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118?794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had hei...

  18. Missing and accounted for: gaps and areas of wealth in the public health review literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirilis Daiva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-quality review evidence is useful for informing and influencing public health policy and practice decisions. However, certain topic areas lack representation in terms of the quantity and quality of review literature available. The objectives of this paper are to identify the quantity, as well as quality, of review-level evidence available on the effectiveness of public health interventions for public health decision makers. Methods Searches conducted on http://www.health-evidence.ca produced an inventory of public health review literature in 21 topic areas. Gaps and areas of wealth in the review literature, as well as the proportion of reviews rated methodologically strong, moderate, or weak were identified. The top 10 topic areas of interest for registered users and visitors of http://www.health-evidence.ca were extracted from user profile data and Google Analytics. Results Registered users' top three interests included: 1 healthy communities, 2 chronic diseases, and 3 nutrition. The top three preferences for visitors included: 1 chronic diseases, 2 physical activity, and 3 addiction/substance use. All of the topic areas with many (301+ available reviews were of interest to registered users and/or visitors (mental health, physical activity, addiction/substance use, adolescent health, child health, nutrition, adult health, and chronic diseases. Conversely, the majority of registered users and/or visitors did not have preference for topic areas with few (≤ 150 available reviews (food safety and inspection, dental health, environmental health with the exception of social determinants of health and healthy communities. Across registered users' and visitors' topic areas of preference, 80.2% of the reviews were of well-done methodological quality, with 43.5% of reviews having a strong quality rating and 36.7% a moderate review quality rating. Conclusions In topic areas in which many reviews are available, higher level

  19. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore these interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Direct agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, N2 fixation, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs, representing 82% in the grassland and 62% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment, contributing 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 exchange and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 13% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 61% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: Catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90%, with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  20. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S.; Singh, R.; Rivas, A.; Palmer, A.; Horne, D.; Manderson, A.; Roygard, J.; Matthews, A.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832 km2), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores ( 5 m bgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO3-N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04 mg N L- 1 h-1 to 1.57 mg N L- 1 h-1. This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or fate, of nutrients leached from farms, to mitigate the likely impacts of land use on water quality and ecosystem health in agricultural catchments.

  1. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujičić, Maja; Jovičić-Bata, Jelena; Rađen, Slavica; Novaković, Budimka; Šipetić-Grujičić, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  2. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  3. Understanding the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in underserved areas: a realist synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...

  4. Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Birch, Heidi; Eriksson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    on urban surface runoff originating from a well defined catchment of Copenhagen (Denmark) with an inventory of potential pollution sources for the same catchment. The selected catchment covers an area with roads, a shopping centre, a parking lot, office buildings, a gymnasium and some restaurants....... The literature approach is limited to the range of included PSs and to how and which information is compiled, whereas the analytical chemical approach is limited to the selection of analyzed substances, sensitivity and precision. Comparing the two approaches of chemical analysis with literature study to identify...

  5. Hillslope hydrologic connectivity controls riparian groundwater turnover: Implications of catchment structure for riparian buffering and stream water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey G. Jencso; Brian L. McGlynn; Michael N. Gooseff; Kenneth E. Bencala; Steven M. Wondzell

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity between catchment upland and near stream areas is essential for the transmission of water, solutes, and nutrients to streams. However, our current understanding of the role of riparian zones in mediating landscape hydrologic connectivity and the catchment scale export of water and solutes is limited. We tested the relationship between the...

  6. Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention: global policy recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolea, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    .... Its impact, however, is most severe in low income countries. There are two reasons for this. One is that many of these countries already suffer from acute shortages of health workers - in all areas...

  7. Base line study on demographic and health pattern around uranium mining area at Tummalapalle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondare, Devidas; Bala Krishna, C.; Ganesh, B.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to document baseline data on the socio-economic, demographic and health status of the study area with specific objective to generate household information on infrastructure, housing, agriculture, drinking water and sanitation facilities

  8. A Study to Determine Demand for Health Care Services in the Catchment Area of the Joint Military Medical Command, San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Neurology 24340 26867 23863 BAL Nutrition 23513 19809 24565 BAQ Infectious Desease 15786 17286 18642 BAZ Medicine Clinic 575 1661 1151 HB Medical...Clinic Source CHAMPUS Hospital Source 0 0 C Allergy 0____ ____ ____ ____ _ _ _ e Cardiology (heart) _ Dermatology ( skin ) C) Diet 0 Emergency Room

  9. [The utilization of nurses and community public health workers in the rural areas of developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A M

    1989-04-01

    Current status of the public health in various developing countries is briefly reviewed with special emphasis on the role of nurses and community health personnel. Majority of developing countries have an acute shortage of allied health personnel, and while 80% of the population live in rural areas, 80% of health manpower practice in urban areas. According to WHO data, developing countries have 1 nurse compared with 1/220 in developed countries. The countries with the most acute shortage of nurses are Benin (1.5/10,000), Ethiopia (0.54/10,000), and Philippines (2.1/10,000). Several developing countries have adopted the resolution of Alma-Ata Conference on primary health care (1978) and started a program of training of so-called community health personnel. The function of community health personnel depends upon the educational level, local traditions and cultural characteristics. In rural areas of Guatemala, a nurse's assistant was selected for every 100 families; this assistant had to undergo a required 3-month training. In Thailand, the function of community health workers was assigned to Buddhist monks. In Sierra-Leone, primary health care is carried out by local faith healers and midwives. Experience showed that local health care workers who had several months or even several weeks of training can carry out vaccinations, test visual acuity, and give herbal treatment.

  10. Runoff generation in a Mediterranean semi-arid landscape: Thresholds, scale, rainfall and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Fabian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Sauter, Martin; Lange, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Surface runoff acts as an integrated response of catchment characteristics and hydrological processes. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, a lack of runoff data has hindered a better understanding of runoff generation processes on the catchment scale, despite the importance of surface runoff as a water resource or flood hazard. Our main aim was to identify and explain differences in catchment runoff reactions across a variety of scales. Over a period of five years, we observed runoff in ephemeral streams of seven watersheds with sizes between 3 and 129 km2. Landuse and surface cover types (share of vegetation, bare soil and rock outcrops) were derived from aerial images by objective classification techniques. Using data from a dense rainfall network we analysed the effects of scale, catchment properties and aridity on runoff generation. Thereby we extracted rainfall and corresponding runoff events from our time-series to calculate event based rainfall characteristics and catchment runoff coefficients. Soil moisture observations provided additional information on antecedent moisture conditions, infiltration characteristics and the evolution of saturated areas. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that the proportion of Hortonian overland flow increases with aridity, we found that in our area the largest share (> 95 %) of runoff is generated by saturation excess overland flow in response to long lasting, rainfall events of high amount. This was supported by a strong correlation between event runoff and precipitation totals. Similar rainfall thresholds (50 mm) for runoff generation were observed in all investigated catchments. No scale effects on runoff coefficients were found; instead we identified up to three-fold runoff coefficients in catchments with larger extension of arid areas, higher percentage of rock outcrops and urbanization. Comparing two headwater catchments with noticeable differences in extent of olive orchards, no difference in runoff generation was

  11. The nitrate export in subtropical mountainous catchment: implication for land use change impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Lin, H.-J.; Peng, T.-R.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural activity is the dominant factor affecting water quality and nitrate export, which causes eutrophication and episodic acidification in downstream water bodies (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, and coastal zones). However, in subtropical mountainous areas such environmental impact due to the land use change was rarely documented. In this study, we investigated 16 sub-catchments during 2007 and 2008 in the Chi-Chia-Wan catchment where is the sole habitat for the endemic species, Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). The results revealed that the NO3-N concentration in pristine catchments varied from 0.144 to 0.151 mg/L without significant seasonal variation. This concentration was comparable with other forestry catchments around the world. However, the annual nitrate export was around 375.3-677.1 kg/km2/yr, much higher than other catchments due to the greater amount of rainfall. This is an important baseline for comparisons with other climate areas. As for the impact of agricultural activities, the catchments with some human disturbance, ~5.2% of the catchment area, might yield 5947.2 kg N/km2/yr - over 10-times higher than that of pristine catchment. Such high export caused by such a low level of disturbance might indicate that subtropical mountainous area is highly sensitive to agricultural activities. As for the land-use effect on nitrate yield, the forestry land might yield 488.5 ± 325.1 kg/km2/yr and the vegetable farm could yield 298 465.4 ± 3347.2 kg/km2/yr - 1000-times greater than the forestry. The estimated nitrate yields for land use classes were a crucial basis and useful for the land manager to assess the possible impacts (e.g., non-point source pollution evaluation and the recovery of land expropriation).

  12. Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve W; Folkeson, Lennart; French, Helen K; Stolte, Jannes; Jansson, Per-Erik; Sassner, Mona

    2014-01-01

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events. © 2013.

  13. A bottom up approach for engineering catchments through sustainable runoff management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.; Burke, S.

    2010-12-01

    There is no doubt that our catchments are under great stress. There have been many accounts around the world of severe flood events and water quality issues within channels. As a result of these, ecological habitats in rivers are also under pressure. Within the United Kingdom, all these issues have been identified as key target areas for policy. Traditionally this has been managed by a policy driven top down approach which is usually ineffective. A one ‘size fits all’ attitude often does not work. This paper presents a case study in northern England whereby a bottom up approach is applied to multipurpose managing of catchments at the source (in the order of 1-10km2). This includes simultaneous tackling of water quality, flooding and ecological issues by creating sustainable runoff management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features. In order to identify the prevailing issues in a specific catchment, full and transparent stakeholder engagement is essential, with everybody who has a vested interest in the catchment being involved from the beginning. These problems can then be dealt with through the use of a novel catchment management toolkit, which is transferable to similar scale catchments. However, evidence collected on the ground also allows for upscaling of the toolkit. The process gathers the scientific evidence about the effectiveness of existing or new measures, which can really change the catchment functions. Still, we need to get better at communicating the science to policy makers and policy therefore must facilitate a bottom up approach to land and water management. We show a test site for this approach in the Belford burn catchment (6km2), northern England. This catchment has problems with flooding and water quality. Increased sediment loads are affecting the nearby estuary which is an important ecological zone and numerous floods have affected the local village. A catchment engineering toolkit has been

  14. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (physical and social records coupled with high-resolution, sub-annual simulations of catchment-to-lake soil erosion and sedimentation. This choice of modelling period represents a compromise between the length of record and data availability for model parameterisation. We combine historic datasets for climate and land cover from four lake catchments in Britain with a fully revised catchment-scale modelling approach based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  15. The impact of hydrologic segmentation on the Critical Zone water fluxes of headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Dominguez, M.; Guan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Headwater catchments are usually located on areas with complex terrain, where variability in aspect and microclimate give rise to contrasting vegetation cover and soil properties. This fine-scale variability in land surface conditions within a catchment is usually overlooked in hydrologic models, and the resulting differences in hydrologic dynamics across the slopes neglected. In this work we evaluate the impact of the differential hydrologic response, or as we define it here, "hydrologic segmentation" on the partition of water fluxes of contrasting slopes within a series of headwater catchments across a latitudinal gradient. Our aim is to investigate the effect of hydrologically segmenting the slopes of headwater catchments as a function of their unique aspect-vegetation-soils associations, on the water fluxes of the catchments and their potential consequences on the water balance at a regional scale. Using a distributed hydrologic model and data from a series of catchments with varying land cover and climatic conditions, we run a set of simulations with and without hydrologic segmentation to assess the effect of changing the architecture of the top part of the critical zone on the evaporation, transpiration, infiltration and runoff fluxes of each catchment slope. We calibrate and compare the simulation results with observations from a network of hydrologic sensors and independent field estimates of the various water fluxes. Our results suggest that hydrologic segmentation will significantly affect both the timing and partition of evapotranspiration fluxes with direct impacts on soil moisture residence times and the potential for deep infiltration and aquifer recharge.

  16. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lijuan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  17. Evaluation of the extent of contamination caused by historical mining in catchments of central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, T.L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of stream water and sediment quality in central Colorado, an area of about 54,000 km2. The study area is focused on small tributary catchments in the Rocky Mountains. The Colorado Mineral belt, a northeast-trending mineralized zone that experienced base- and precious-metal mining at the beginning of the late 1800s and early 1900s, cuts diagonally across the geologic trend in the study area. The goal of this study was to compare water and sediment quality in background catchments with those which have been mined. Water and sediment data from 200 catchments, and data from macroinvertebrates from more than 100 catchments, provided ample data for evaluation of the effects of mining on water and sediment quality. Focused sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions in the summers of 2004-2007. Samples were collected from catchments that (1) were underlain largely by a single lithologic unit, (2) contained hydrothermally altered rock and had been prospected, and (3) contained historical mines. Geochemical data determined from catchments that did not contain hydrothermal alteration or historical mines met water-quality criteria and recommended sediment-quality guidelines and showed small variations in base-metal concentrations. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralization typically are associated with igneous rocks that have intruded older bedrock. Base-metal concentrations were elevated in sediment from catchments underlain by hydrothermally altered rock. Catchments affected by historical mining contained highly elevated base-metal concentrations. Classification of catchments on the basis of mineral deposit types proved to be an efficient and accurate method for discriminating catchments that had degraded water and sediment quality. Only about 4.5 percent of the study area has been affected by historical mining, whereas a larger portion of the study area is underlain by hydrothermally altered rock. Weathering of QSP

  18. Using the NCHEC Areas of Responsibility to Assess Service Learning Outcomes in Undergraduate Health Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study used the areas of responsibility developed by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) as a framework for the assessment of Service Learning experiences of undergraduate health education students. In the present study, six Service Learning projects involving 12 students were evaluated using multiple strategies,…

  19. Utilization of health care services in rural and urban areas: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... United States of America, hospitals and related health facilities require formal ... Department of Business Administration, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Abstract ... Keywords/Phrases: Utilization, healthcare Delivery System, Planning, Model, Factor Analysis, Rural and Urban Areas. African Health ...

  20. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background. In general, poor health and lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in deprived areas. An explanation for the latter may simply be the on average lower SES of residents of these areas. It is possible, however, that living in a deprived

  1. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical approaches to handle this trade-off. METHODS: We modeled NO2 and PM10 concentrations at the home addresses of 1082 pregnant mothers from EDEN cohort living in and around urban areas, using ADMS dispersion model. Simulations......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure......BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may...

  2. Seasonal exports of phosphorus from intensively fertilised nested grassland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ciaran; Rafique, Rashad; Foley, Nelius; Leahy, Paul; Morgan, Gerard; Albertson, John; Kumar, Sandeep; Kiely, Gerard

    2013-09-01

    We carried out a one year (2002) study of phosphorus (P) loss from soil to water in three nested grassland catchments with known P input in chemical fertilizer and animal liquid slurry applications. Chemical fertilizer was applied to the grasslands between March and September and animal slurry was applied over the twelve months. The annual chemical P fertilizer applications for the 17 and 211 ha catchments were 16.4 and 23.7 kg P/ha respectively and the annual slurry applications were 10.7 and 14.0 kg P/ha, respectively. The annual total phosphorus (TP) export in stream-flow was 2.61, 2.48 and 1.61 kg P/ha for the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchments, respectively, compared with a maximum permissible (by regulation) annual export of ca. 0.35 kg P/ha. The export rate (ratio of P export to P in land applications) was 9.6% and 6.6% from the 17 and 211 ha catchments, respectively. On average, 70% of stream flow and 85% of the P export occurred during the five wet months (October to February) indicating that when precipitation is much greater than evaporation, the hydrological conditions are most favourable for P export. However the soil quality and land use history may vary the results. Particulate P made up 22%, 43% and 37% of the TP export at the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchment areas, respectively. As the chemical fertilizer was spread during the grass growth months (March to September), it has less immediate impact on stream water quality than the slurry applications. We also show that as the catchment scale increases, the P concentrations and P export decrease, confirming dilution due to increasing rural catchment size. In the longer term, the excess P from fertilizer maintains high soil P levels, an antecedent condition favourable to P loss from soil to water. This study confirms the significant negative water quality impact of excess P applications, particularly liquid animal slurry applications in wet winter months. The findings suggest that restricted P application in

  3. Hydrologic comparison between a lowland catchment (Kielstau, Germany and a mountainous catchment (XitaoXi, China using KIDS model in PCRaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fohrer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The KIDS model (Kielstau Discharge Simulation model is a simple rainfall-runoff model developed originally for the Kielstau catchment. To extend its range of application we applied it to a completely different catchment, the XitaoXi catchment in China. Kielstau is a small (51 km2 lowland basin in Northern Germany, with large proportion of wetland area. And XitaoXi is a mesoscale (2271 km2 mountainous basin in the south of China. Both catchments differ greatly in size, topography, landuse, soil properties, and weather conditions. We compared two catchments in these features and stress on the analysis how the specific catchment characteristics could guide the adaptation of KIDS model and the parameter estimation for streamflow simulation. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.73 for Kielstau and 0.65 for XitaoXi. The results suggest that the application of KIDS model may require adjustments according to the specific physical background of the study basin.

  4. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermotolerant coliform loadings to coastal areas of Santa Catarina (Brazil) evidence the effect of growing urbanisation and insufficient provision of sewerage infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Luis H P; Souza, Robson V; Campos, Carlos J A; Vanz, Argeu; Vianna, Luiz F N; Rupp, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Thermotolerant coliform (TC) loadings were quantified for 49 catchments draining into the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina (SC, southeastern Brazil), an area known for its tourism and aquaculture. TC loadings were calculated based on flow measurements taken in 26 rivers. TC concentrations ere quantified based on surface water samples collected at 49 catchment outlets in 2012 and 2013. Median TC loads ranged from 3.7 × 10 3 to 6.8 × 10 8 MPN s -1 . TC loadings in the catchments increased in proportion to increases in resident human population, population density and percentage of urbanised area. Catchments with more than 60% of area covered by wastewater collection and treatment systems had higher TC loads per person than catchments with less than 25%. Based on the study catchments, these results indicate that current sewerage infrastructure is ineffective in reducing contamination of faecal origin to surface waters. These findings have important implications for the management of microbiological health hazards in bathing, recreational and shellfish aquaculture waters in the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina Island.

  6. Hydrological impacts of urbanization at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Ludovic; Salavati, Bahar; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Ribstein, Pierre; Saadi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of urbanization on floods, droughts and the overall river regime have been largely investigated in the past few decades, but the quantification and the prediction of such impacts still remain a challenge in hydrology. We gathered a sample of 142 catchments that have a documented increase in urban areas over the hydrometeorological record period in the United States. The changes in river flow regimes due to urban spread were differentiated from climate variability using the GR4J conceptual hydrological model. High, low and mean flows were impacted at a threshold of a 10% total impervious area. Moreover, the historical evolution of urban landscape spatial patterns was used to further detail the urbanization process in terms of extent and fragmentation of urban areas throughout the catchment and to help interpret the divergent impacts observed in streamflow behaviors. Regression analysis pointed out the importance of major wastewater treatment facilities that might overpass the effects of imperviousness, and therefore further research should either take them explicitly into account or select a wastewater facility-free catchment sample to clearly evaluate the impacts of urban landscape on low flows.

  7. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  8. Exploring calibration strategies of the SEDD model in two olive orchard catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To optimize soil conservation strategies in catchments, it is required an accurate diagnosis of the areas contributing to soil erosion by using models such as SEDD (Sediment Delivery Distributed model). In this study, different calibration strategies of the SEDD model were explored to adapt its use in two olive catchments with different environmental features and managements. A data series of rainfall-runoff-sediment load, collected in the catchments for 6 years was used: i) to evaluate calibration strategies for different management and flow conditions through the analysis of the C and R factors, and ii) to describe the temporal patterns of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) at the event and annual scales. Different results and calibration approaches were derived from contrasting soil features and sediment dynamics in the catchments. A good model performance with simple calibration procedure was obtained for the catchment with clayey soil and a very active gully, whereas the model parameterisation was adapted to event features in the catchment with sandy soil where the importance of concentrated flow was minor. Mean annual values of SDR at the watershed scale (SDRw) were 110.1% for the catchment with clayey soil and 64.1% for that with sandy soils. SDRw values greater than 100% occurred in very humid years with precipitations 30% above the mean annual values. At the event scale, similar behaviours of SDR were observed. SDR > 100% were associated with the gully exporting sediments out from the clayey catchment, whereas this was done by rills and an ephemeral gully in the sandy catchment.

  9. Assessing metaldehyde concentrations in surface water catchments and implications for drinking water abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; Cherry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Metaldehyde is an active ingredient in agricultural pesticides such as slug pellets, which are heavily applied to UK farmland during the autumn application season. There is current concern that existing drinking water treatment processes may be inadequate in reducing potentially high levels of metaldehyde in surface waters to below the UK drinking water quality regulation limit of 0.1 µg/l. In addition, current water quality monitoring methods can miss short term fluctuations in metaldehyde concentration caused by rainfall driven runoff, hampering prediction of the potential risk of exposure. Datasets describing levels, fate and transport of metaldehyde in river catchments are currently very scarce. This work presents results from an ongoing study to quantify the presence of metaldehyde in surface waters within a UK catchment used for drinking water abstraction. High resolution water quality data from auto-samplers installed in rivers are coupled with radar rainfall, catchment characteristics and land use data to i) understand which hydro-meteorological characteristics of the catchment trigger the peak migration of metaldehyde to surface waters; ii) assess the relationship between measured metaldehyde levels and catchment characteristics such as land use, topographic index, proximity to water bodies and runoff generation area; iii) describe the current risks to drinking water supply and discuss mitigation options based on modelling and real-time control of water abstraction. Identifying the correlation between catchment attributes and metaldehyde generation will help in the development of effective catchment management strategies, which can help to significantly reduce the amount of metaldehyde finding its way into river water. Furthermore, the effectiveness of current water quality monitoring strategy in accurately quantifying the generation of metaldehyde from the catchment and its ability to benefit the development of effective catchment management practices

  10. Defining the sources of low-flow phosphorus transfers in complex catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnscheidt, J; Jordan, P; Li, S; McCormick, S; McFaul, R; McGrogan, H J; Neal, M; Sims, J T

    2007-08-15

    Nutrient transfers from the land to rivers have the potential to cause persistent eutrophic impacts at low flows even though the transfers may constitute a minor percentage of total annual fluxes. In rural catchments, the contribution from agricultural soils during storm events can be particularly large and untangling the relative contributions from multiple sources that vary in time and space is especially problematic. In this study, the potential for domestic septic tank system pollution during low flows was investigated in 3 small catchments (3 to 5 km(2)) using an integrated series of methods. These included septic system surveys, continuous (10 min) total phosphorus (TP) monitoring at the outlet of each catchment, repeated low-flow water quality surveys in sub-catchments upstream of the catchment outlets and single day river-walk water quality surveys. A series of faecal matter and grey-water fingerprinting techniques were also employed. These included determining sterol ratios in stream sediments, monitoring the presence of proteins, E. coli and enterococci bacterial signatures and boron. The total density and density of poorly maintained septic systems mirrored the magnitude of frequent TP concentrations in the catchments although this relationship was less apparent in the nested sub-catchments. The exception was possibly related to the simple hydraulics in one particular catchment and indicated temporary effluent attenuation in the other catchments. Repeated low-flow and river-walk water quality surveys highlighted discrete areas and reaches where stepped changes in nutrient concentration occurred. Bio-chemical fingerprinting showed that between 7% and 27% of sediments were contaminated with human faecal material and correlation matrices indicated that, at least during low flows, P fractions were positively correlated with some markers of faecal and grey-water contamination.

  11. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  12. Expanding health insurance to increase health care utilization: will it have different effects in rural vs. urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Damrongplasit, Kannika Kampanya; Melnick, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the importance of medical fee and distance to health care provider on individual's decision to seek care in developing countries. The estimation method used a mixed logit model applied to data from the third wave of the Indonesian family life survey (2000). The key variables of interest include medical fee and distance to different types of health care provider and individual characteristic variables. Urban dweller's decision to choose health care providers are sensitive to the monetary cost of medical care as measured by medical fee but they are not sensitive to distance. For those who reside in rural area, they are sensitive to the non-medical component cost of care as measured by travel distance but they are not sensitive to medical fee. As a result of those findings, policy makers should consider different sets of policy instruments when attempting to expand health service's usage in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. To increase access in urban areas, we recommend expansion of health insurance coverage in order to lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures. As for rural areas, expansion of medical infrastructures to reduce commuting distance and costs will be needed to increase utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rethinking policies for the retention of allied health professionals in rural areas: a social relations approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Kevin; Schoo, Adrian; Stagnitti, Karen; Cuss, Kate

    2008-09-01

    Retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem. Generally the literature has concentrated on three elements: practitioner needs, community needs and organisational needs. There has been little attempt to focus other types of social relations in which health practitioner retention and recruitment takes place. The aim of this paper is to question the present dominant hierarchical approach taken in relation to the retention of allied health professionals in rural localities. The data derives from a survey in Southwest Victoria, Australia. The sample was purposive rather than representative as it was intended to be exploratory in nature rather than definitive. The data indicates that there is a greater tendency for allied health professionals in private practice to be retained in rural areas than those in the public sector. The paper concludes by raising some questions about the pertinence of present models for regional health initiatives since they are locked into a bureaucratic model where relationships are hierarchical and asymmetrically controlled.

  14. The influence of synthetic hyetograph parameters on simulation results of runoff from urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Karolina; Skotnicki, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents the results of analysis of the influence of the maximum intensity (peak) location in the synthetic hyetograph and rainfall duration on the maximum outflow from urban catchment. For the calculation Chicago hyetographs with a duration from 15 minutes to 180 minutes and peak location between 20% and 50% of the total rainfall duration were design. Runoff simulation was performed using the SWMM5 program for three models of urban catchment with area from 0.9 km2 to 6.7 km2. It was found that the increase in the rainfall peak location causes the increase in the maximum outflow up to 17%. For a given catchment the greatest maximum outflow is generated by the rainfall, which time to peak corresponds to the flow time through the catchment. Presented results may be useful for choosing the rainfall parameters for storm sewer systems modeling.

  15. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  16. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  17. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  18. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  19. Health trajectories in regeneration areas in England: the impact of the New Deal for Communities intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthery, Pierre; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Dibben, Christopher; Halliday, Emma; Povall, Sue; Popay, Jennie

    2015-08-01

    A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such initiative in England, the New Deal for Communities (NDC), which ran from 1999 to 2011, on socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories. Latent Growth Curve modelling of within-person changes in self-rated health, mental health and life satisfaction between 2002 and 2008 of an analytical cohort of residents of 39 disadvantaged areas of England in which the NDC was implemented, compared with residents of comparator, non-intervention areas, focusing on: (1) whether differences over time in outcomes can be detected between NDC and comparator areas and (2) whether interventions may have altered socioeconomic differences in outcomes. No evidence was found for an overall improvement in the three outcomes, or for significant differences in changes in health between respondents in NDC versus comparator areas. However, we found a weakly significant gap in life satisfaction and mental health between high and low socioeconomic status individuals in comparator areas which widened over time to a greater extent than in NDC areas. Change over time in the three outcomes was non-linear: individual improvements among NDC residents were largest before 2006. There is limited evidence that the NDC moderated the impact of socioeconomic factors on mental health and life satisfaction trajectories. Furthermore, any NDC impact was strongest in the first 6 years of the programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Health trajectories in regeneration areas in England: the impact of the New Deal for Communities intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthery, Pierre; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Dibben, Christopher; Halliday, Emma; Povall, Sue; Popay, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such initiative in England, the New Deal for Communities (NDC), which ran from 1999 to 2011, on socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories. Methods Latent Growth Curve modelling of within-person changes in self-rated health, mental health and life satisfaction between 2002 and 2008 of an analytical cohort of residents of 39 disadvantaged areas of England in which the NDC was implemented, compared with residents of comparator, non-intervention areas, focusing on: (1) whether differences over time in outcomes can be detected between NDC and comparator areas and (2) whether interventions may have altered socioeconomic differences in outcomes. Results No evidence was found for an overall improvement in the three outcomes, or for significant differences in changes in health between respondents in NDC versus comparator areas. However, we found a weakly significant gap in life satisfaction and mental health between high and low socioeconomic status individuals in comparator areas which widened over time to a greater extent than in NDC areas. Change over time in the three outcomes was non-linear: individual improvements among NDC residents were largest before 2006. Conclusions There is limited evidence that the NDC moderated the impact of socioeconomic factors on mental health and life satisfaction trajectories. Furthermore, any NDC impact was strongest in the first 6 years of the programmes. PMID:26085649

  1. Storing health data in JPEG: looking at exif area capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Nohara, Yasunobu; Nakashima, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Formats for data storage in personal computers vary according to manufacturer and models for personal health-monitoring devices such as blood-pressure and body-composition meters. In contrast, the data format of images from digital cameras is unified into a JPEG format with an Exif area and is already familiar to many users. We have devised a method that can contain health data as a JPEG file. Health data is stored in the Exif area in JPEG in a HL7 format. There is, however, a capacity limit of 64 KB for the Exif area. The aim of this study is to examine how much health data can actually be stored in the Exif area. We found that even with combined data from multiple devices, it was possible to store over a month of health data in a JPEG file, and using multiple JPEG files simply overcomes this limit. We believe that this method will help people to more easily handle health data regardless of the various device modelsthey use.

  2. Explaining differences in education-related inequalities in health between urban and rural areas in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjsuren, Bayarsaikhan; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2015-12-22

    After the socioeconomic transition in 1990, Mongolia has been experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transitions; however, there is lack of evidence on socioeconomic-related inequality in health across the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the education-related inequalities in adult population health in urban and rural areas of Mongolia in 2007/2008. This paper used a nationwide cross-sectional data, the Household Socio-Economic Survey 2007/2008, collected by the National Statistical Office. We employed the Erreygers' concentration index to assess the degree of education-related inequality in adult health in urban and rural areas. Our results suggest that a lower education level was associated with poor self-reported health. The concentration indices of physical limitation and chronic disease were significantly less than zero in both areas. On the other hand, ill-health was concentrated among the less educated groups. The decomposition results show education, economic activity status and income were the main contributors to education-related inequalities in physical limitation and chronic disease removing age-sex related contributions. Improving accessibility and quality of education, especially for the lower socioeconomic groups may reduce socioeconomic-related inequality in health in both rural and urban areas of Mongolia.

  3. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  4. Relationships between landscape pattern, wetland characteristics, and water quality in agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Mander, Ulo; Comín, Francisco A; Pedrocchi, César; Uuemaa, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Water quality in streams is dependent on landscape metrics at catchment and wetland scales. A study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between landscape metrics, namely patch density and area, shape, heterogeneity, aggregation, connectivity, land-use ratio, and water quality variables (salinity, nutrients, sediments, alkalinity, other potential pollutants and pH) in the agricultural areas of a semiarid Mediterranean region dominated by irrigated farmlands (NE Spain). The study also aims to develop wetland construction criteria in agricultural catchments. The percentage of arable land and landscape homogeneity (low value of Simpson index) are significantly correlated with salinity (r(2) = 0.72) and NO(3)-N variables (r(2) = 0.49) at catchment scale. The number of stock farms was correlated (Spearman's corr. = 0.60; p landscape complexity of catchments, measured as patch density (r(2) = 0.69), patch size (r(2) = 0.53), and landscape heterogeneity (r(2) = 0.62). These results suggest that more effective results in water quality improvement would be achieved if we acted at both catchment and wetland scales, especially reducing landscape homogeneity and creating numerous wetlands scattered throughout the catchment. A set of guidelines for planners and decision makers is provided for future agricultural developments or to improve existing ones.

  5. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E; Goodwin, Eric O; Harding, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  6. The Experience of Young Women Living in a Prostitution Area in Maintaining Their Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Vonyca; Setyowati; Kurniawati, Wiwit

    Young women face a difficult situation when they live in a prostitution area or red light district. A phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences in maintaining reproductive health of 10 young women living in the prostitution area in Lampung, one of the provinces in Sumatra. Thematic content analysis found 7 themes including: (1) The participants' perception of prostitution as a place of naughty women and free sexual activity that can transmit STDs and influence adolescent psychology; (2) The ways the participants kept their reproductive organs healthy were through maintaining friendships, maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding free sexual activity, eating healthy food, and having routine medical checkups; (3) Information support was gained from family, health workers, media, and teachers; (4) Emotional support from family and friends; (5) Barriers to maintaining good health were inaccessible health facilities and an underfunded health service; (6) The needs of the participants were reproductive health services and clean environment; (7) The participants hoped for health education and intensive health services with friendly nurses. The results of this research illustrate that there is a need for socializing intensive ways to maintain reproductive health, especially in a risky environment.

  7. Applications of high resolution rainfall radar data to quantify water temperature dynamics in urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Danny; Van Loon, Anne; Bradley, Chris; Sadler, Jon; Hannnah, David

    2017-04-01

    intensity at which these storm deviations occur for each logger, from which the relative effects of land use and other catchment characteristics in each sub-catchment can be assessed. Our use of the rainfall radar data calls into question the validity of using station based data for small scale studies, particularly in urban areas, with high variation apparent in rainfall intensity both spatially and temporally. Variation was particularly high within the heavily urbanised catchment. For water quality studies, high resolution rainfall radar can be implemented to increase the reliability of interpretations of the response of water quality variables to storm water inputs in urban catchments.

  8. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, William; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    to be vulnerable to decadal changes in land use or climate. Additionally, there may be considerable delay in contaminants reaching the stream. An increase in nitrate and sulfate concentrations in several catchments at high streamflows may represent the input of contaminants through the shallow groundwater that contributes to streamflow during the wetter months. Poor correlations between 3H activities and catchment area, drainage density, land use, and average slope imply that the MTTs are not controlled by a single parameter but a variety of factors, including catchment geomorphology and the hydraulic properties of the soils and aquifers.

  9. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated

  10. Population density controls on microbial pollution across the Ganga catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milledge, D G; Gurjar, S K; Bunce, J T; Tare, V; Sinha, R; Carbonneau, P E

    2018-01-01

    For millions of people worldwide, sewage-polluted surface waters threaten water security, food security and human health. Yet the extent of the problem and its causes are poorly understood. Given rapid widespread global urbanisation, the impact of urban versus rural populations is particularly important but unknown. Exploiting previously unpublished archival data for the Ganga (Ganges) catchment, we find a strong non-linear relationship between upstream population density and microbial pollution, and predict that these river systems would fail faecal coliform standards for irrigation waters available to 79% of the catchment's 500 million inhabitants. Overall, this work shows that microbial pollution is conditioned by the continental-scale network structure of rivers, compounded by the location of cities whose growing populations contribute c. 100 times more microbial pollutants per capita than their rural counterparts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of climatic and terrain attributes in estimating baseflow recession in tropical catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Peña-Arancibia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of low flows in rivers is paramount more than ever as demand for water increases on a global scale. At the same time, limited streamflow data to investigate this phenomenon, particularly in the tropics, makes the provision of accurate estimations in ungauged areas an ongoing research need. This paper analysed the potential of climatic and terrain attributes of 167 tropical and sub-tropical unregulated catchments to predict baseflow recession rates. Daily streamflow data (m3 s–1 from the Global River Discharge Center (GRDC and a linear reservoir model were used to obtain baseflow recession coefficients (kbf for these catchments. Climatic attributes included annual and seasonal indicators of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Terrain attributes included indicators of catchment shape, morphology, land cover, soils and geology. Stepwise regression was used to identify the best predictors for baseflow recession coefficients. Mean annual rainfall (MAR and aridity index (AI were found to explain 49% of the spatial variation of kbf. The rest of climatic indices and the terrain indices average catchment slope (SLO and tree cover were also good predictors, but co-correlated with MAR. Catchment elongation (CE, a measure of catchment shape, was also found to be statistically significant, although weakly correlated. An analysis of clusters of catchments of smaller size, showed that in these areas, presumably with some similarity of soils and geology due to proximity, residuals of the regression could be explained by SLO and CE. The approach used provides a potential alternative for kbf parameterisation in ungauged catchments.

  12. Influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Guan, Yuntao; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-02-01

    The accuracy and reliability of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes are important for stormwater management decision making. The commonly adopted approach where only a limited number of factors are used to predict urban stormwater quality may not adequately represent the complexity of the quality response to a rainfall event or site-to-site differences to support efficient treatment design. This paper discusses an investigation into the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality in order to investigate the potential areas for errors in current stormwater quality modelling practices. It was found that the influence of rainfall characteristics on pollutant wash-off is step-wise based on specific thresholds. This means that a modelling approach where the wash-off process is predicted as a continuous function of rainfall intensity and duration is not appropriate. Additionally, other than conventional catchment characteristics, namely, land use and impervious surface fraction, other catchment characteristics such as impervious area layout, urban form and site specific characteristics have an important influence on both, pollutant build-up and wash-off processes. Finally, the use of solids as a surrogate to estimate other pollutant species was found to be inappropriate. Individually considering build-up and wash-off processes for each pollutant species should be the preferred option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Health needs in rural areas and the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Ioannis M; Mpatistakis, Antonios G; Gkouskou, Kalliopi K

    2005-12-01

    Because of a lack of GPs in rural areas of Greece it is mandatory for junior doctors to offer medical service in those areas for a year. The aim of this study is to determine the possibility of replacement of internships with nurses and to suggest the most cost-effective way of covering health needs in remote areas. Regional survey. Patients of primary care offices in two remote areas of Crete, Greece within a year. Comparative analysis of the level of preventive medicine (estimated by questionnaires) and health needs in the two areas. The reasons for visiting medical offices, references rates, percentages of glucose and blood pressure regulation are also studied. Prescription of drugs for chronic diseases and blood pressure counting were the main reasons for office visits (2868/4594). Respiratory track infections (364/4594) follow. Apart from the high percentages of uncontrolled patients with blood pressure (34%) and diabetes mellitus (14%) there is a high percentage of ignorance or wrong opinions concerning preventive medicine, for example only 63% knew the value of a pap test. More than two-thirds of "medical" visits in rural areas were for acts that nurses could easily do. The easy access to a junior doctor did not promote preventive medicine. Replacement of junior doctors with properly trained nurses cooperating with GPs responsible for greater regions would be more cost-effective than junior doctors improving health in rural areas. Legislation should change, mainly with regard to repeat prescriptions, in order to reduce house visits.

  14. Public reporting and market area exit decisions by home health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungrae; Feldman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether home health agencies selectively discontinue services to areas with socio-economically disadvantaged people after the introduction of Home Health Compare (HHC), a public reporting program initiated by Medicare in 2003. We focused on agencies' initial responses to HHC and examined selective market-area exits by agencies between 2002 and 2004. We measured HHC effects by the percentage of quality indicators reported in public HHC data in 2003. Socio-economic status was measured by per capita income and percent college-educated at the market-area level. 2002 and 2004 Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS); 2000 US Census file; 2004 Area Resource File; and 2002 Provider of Service File. WE FOUND A SMALL AND WEAK EFFECT OF PUBLIC REPORTING ON SELECTIVE EXITS: a 10-percent increase in reporting (reporting one more indicator) increased the probability of leaving an area with less-educated people by 0.3 percentage points, compared with leaving an area with high education. The small level of market-area exits under public reporting is unlikely to be practically meaningful, suggesting that HHC did not lead to a disruption in access to home health care through selective exits during the initial year of the program.

  15. Utilization of Mental Health Services by Veterans Living in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Judith; Ali, Mir M; Lynch, Sean; Mutter, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    There is concern that veterans living in rural areas may not be receiving the mental health (MH) treatment they need. This study uses recent national survey data to examine the utilization of MH treatment among military veterans with a MH condition living in rural areas, providing comparisons with estimates of veterans living in urban areas. Multivariable logistic regression is utilized to examine differences in MH service use by urban/rural residence, controlling for other factors. Rates of utilization of inpatient and outpatient treatment, psychotropic medication, any MH treatment, and perceived unmet need for MH care are examined. There were significant differences in MH treatment utilization among veterans by rural/urban residence. Multivariate estimates indicate that compared to veterans with a MH condition living in urban areas, veterans in rural areas had 70% lower odds of receiving any MH treatment. Veterans with a MH condition in rural areas have approximately 52% and 64% lower odds of receiving outpatient treatment and prescription medications, respectively, compared to those living in urban areas. Differences in perceived unmet need for mental health treatment were not statistically significant. While research indicates that recent efforts to improve MH service delivery have resulted in improved access to services, this study found that veterans' rates of MH treatment are lower in rural areas, compared to urban areas. Continued efforts to support the provision of behavioral health services to rural veterans are needed. Telemedicine, using rural providers to their maximum potential, and engagement with community stakeholder groups are promising approaches. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  16. eHealth education of professionals in the Baltic Sea Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations. We argue that providing possibilities for applying and experimenting with e-Health system in a concrete and tangible manner is central in order to raise the acceptance and capabilities of health care professionals to use e-Health systems.

  17. Community health worker in hard-to-reach rural areas of Myanmar: filling primary health care service gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Putthasri, Weerasak; Nwe, Mya Lay; Aung, Saw Thetlya; Theint, Mya Min; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Wynn, San Shway

    2016-10-21

    Myanmar is classified as critical shortage of health workforce. In responses to limited number of trained health workforce in the hard-to-reach and remote areas, the MOH trained the Community Health Worker (CHW) as health volunteers serving these communities on a pro bono basis. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic profiles, contributions of CHW to primary health care services and their needs for supports to maintain their quality contributions in rural hard to reach areas in Myanmar. In 2013, cross-sectional census survey was conducted on all three groups of CHW classified by their training dates: (1) prior to 2000, (2) between 2000 and 2011, and (3) more recently trained in 2012, who are still working in 21 townships of 17 states and regions in Myanmar, using a self-administered questionnaire survey in the Burmese language. The total 715 CHWs from 21 townships had completely responded to the questionnaire. CHWs were trained to support the work of midwives in the sub-centres and health assistant and midwives in rural health centres (RHCs) such as community mobilization for immunization, advocates of safe water and sanitation, and general health education and health awareness for the citizens. CHWs were able to provide some of the services by themselves, such as treatment of simple illnesses, and they provided services to 62 patients in the last 6 months. Their contributions to primary health care services were well accepted by the communities as they are geographically and culturally accessible. However, supports from the RHC were inadequate in particular technical supervision, as well as replenishment of CHW kits and financial support for their work and transportation. In practice, 6 % of service provided by CHWs was funded by the community and 22 % by the patients. The CHW's confidence in providing health services was positively associated with their age, education, and more recent training. A majority of them intended to serve as a CHW for more than

  18. Pro-health behaviours – a sense of coherence as the key to a healthy lifestyle in rural areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Binkowska-Bury

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong association between sense of coherence and pro-health behaviours. Farmers have bad habits and pro-health attitudes to health and poorer self-assessment of their health. There is a great need to monitor health-related behaviour, increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education in shaping a pro-health lifestyle among residents of rural areas, particularly among farmers.

  19. Environmental and Health Impacts Associated with Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and Health Impacts Associated with Usage of Agrochemicals in Mindu Dam Catchment Area, Morogoro, Tanzania. ... Fertilizers, insecticides and fungicides were the most commonly used agrochemicals in tomato production, which was the main crop cultivated. Endosulfan was the only organochlorine ...

  20. Awareness and using of medical students about mobile health technology in clinical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar; Hachesu, Peyman Rezaei; Esfahani, Mahtab Kasayi; Rezazadeh, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Necessity of data transmission and getting contact with specialists is so evident in impassable regions. In order to solve such problems, there are different solutions one of which is mobile health technology. Being small and user-friendly, easy to enter data and having low expense are some of its advantages. This study aims to define the association between awareness of medical students in clinical stage about mobile health technology application and the rate of their using this technology in educational hospital of Isfahan in 2011. The study is a cross-sectional analytical application research. Sixty medical students were selected as samples from a society of 240 medical students. A researcher-made questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included 21 multiple choice and 15 yes no questions, which were corrected to reach a score. A researcher-made checklist with 5-fold Likert scale was used to define the rate of applying such technology. The reliability of questionnaire was confirmed through a test-retest. The collected data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software in descriptive and deductive statistics level. The highest percentage of awareness about mobile health technology among medical students in the clinical stage of Azzahra educational hospital is 45.6 in nature areas, and their lowest percentage of awareness is 17.8 in the infrastructure area. In addition, their mean awareness of all areas is 54.4. The highest percentage of using mobile health technology by medical students is 14.6 in the education area, and their lowest percentage of usage is 6.8 in the treatment area. Their mean usage of all areas is 9.4 as well. The rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology is not favorable. Except for treatment, there is no significant association between the rate of awareness and application of mobile health technology.

  1. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    %), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention......OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE......). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year...

  2. Local-area age structure and population composition: implications for elderly health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Eric M; Raymo, James M

    2014-03-01

    This study examines relationships between local-area age structure and health at older ages. We estimate random intercept models for two disability measures using four waves of data from a national panel study of 3,580 Japanese older adults. Elderly living in relatively older areas reported more difficulties with activities of daily living compared with those living in an "average" age structure. Controlling for individual characteristics and time did little to change this relationship; while a similar relationship between older age structure and functional limitations emerged. Residents of relatively older areas tended to have lower socioeconomic status, but this "disadvantage" was offset by their higher rates of employment and marriage. These compositional differences highlight the role of local-area age structure in identifying and understanding elderly health variation between places.

  3. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  4. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Saulle, Rosella; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization pos...

  5. Children's Mental Health in the Area Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Mina; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Lim, Myungho; Kwon, Hojang; Choi, Yeyong; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Noh, Su Ryun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Children are one of the most vulnerable populations to the impact of disasters. We aimed to examine children's mental health in the area affected by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident on December 7, 2007. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using the Korean versions of the Children's Depression Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory for Children on 1,362 children attending elementary schools in the affected area. The information on distances between the nea...

  6. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Spadaro, Joseph V.; Chapizanis, Dimitris

    2018-01-01

    Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce....... we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated...

  7. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.

  9. Comparison of Water Flows in Four European Lagoon Catchments under a Set of Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is supposed to remarkably affect the water resources of coastal lagoons as they are highly vulnerable to changes occurring at their catchment and/or ocean or sea boundaries. Probable impacts of projected climate changes on catchment hydrology and freshwater input were assessed using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal, Mar Menor (Spain, Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia under a set of 15 climate scenarios covering the time period until the year 2100. Climate change signals for all regions show continuously increasing trends in temperature, but various trends in precipitation. Precipitation is projected to decrease in two catchments on the Iberian Peninsula and increase in the Baltic region catchment, and does not show a clear trend in the catchment located near the Black Sea. The average projected changes in freshwater inputs reflect these changes in climate conditions, but often show variability between the scenarios, in future periods, and within the catchments. According to the individual degrees of water management influences in the four drainage basins, the climate sensitivity of river inflows is differently pronounced in each.

  10. How does soil organic carbon vary across large catchments? An assessment of geomorphic and hydrologic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Greg; Kunkel, Veikko; Welss, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is presumed to vary at the hillslope and catchment scale however there are few studies that have examined SOC at the large catchment scale as well as over a number of years. Here we quantify SOC across two large catchments which have similar soils, topography, orientation and landuse in south-eastern Australia. These catchments of area 575 km2 and 675 km2 display similar patterns of SOC which significantly increases with elevation in line with the rainfall gradient. One catchment, the 575km2 Krui catchment has been sampled in 2006 and 2014 with no significant difference in SOC concentration found despite 10 years of drought and extreme rainfall events followed by above average rainfall. SOC was also found to be correlated with vegetation as quantified by both Landsat and MODIS satellite data with vegetation patterns found to relatively stable over the study period. Further work will investigate this relationship as it is likely that the increased rainfall with elevation is a major driver in the variation in vegetation pattern. SOC concentration was also found to be related to soil erosion and deposition as quantified by the environmental tracer 137Cs. Overall the results suggest that SOC is robust at decadal time scales and is strongly spatially related to topography. Model results based on topographic relationships of the spatial distribution of SOC will be demonstrated.

  11. A comparative study of data-driven approaches for flood early warning in small catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Schütze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Flood early warning for small catchments is a challenging task: As the basin response is fast, proper warning lead times strongly depend on precipitation forecasts which are subject to quantitative and spatial uncertainties. In addition, gauge data in small catchments is often sparse and therefore, the hydrological regime is hardly known. In presence of these uncertainties, the benefit of different model approaches in terms of their predictive quality and their transferability to ungauged catchments is in question. For investigating this issue, two data-driven model approaches of different complexity were developed and comparatively tested. The first model is an artificial neural network for flood forecasting, in particular a two-layer perceptron feedforward network. Precipitation and discharge here serve as forcing data. The second approach is a flood potential assessment procedure. Precipitation history and precipitation forecasts are classified based on threshold values from a precipitation analysis. From this, a score of flood potential is derived. For the model evaluation a quantile-based mapping procedure is used to assign the resulting scores to catchment-specific discharge values. The two model approaches have been tested on 50 catchments in Saxony, Germany, with areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km2. Two datasets of quantitative precipitation estimates - one from rain gauge measurements, one from radar measurements RADOLAN - and two datasets of quantitative precipitation forecasts - a probabilistic forecast based on expert knowledge Quantile Forecast and a numerical weather forecast COSMO-DE - are used as input data. Update cycles as well as lead times are varied within the tests. The model performance is evaluated using different statistical quality criteria. Based on a Leave-one-out cross-validation, the potential of model parameter transfer to ungauged catchments is examined. The large number and the wide range of considered catchments provide a

  12. Hydrological monitoring of experimental karst catchment Sutina - Karakašica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, O.; Andrić, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Sutina - Karakašica is an ungauged karst catchment in southern part of Croatia with relative small area but with existing records of several events of flash flood that compromised the structures as bridge and roads along the stream. This poster gives an overview of the creation of the experimental catchment and establishment of the hydrological monitoring system which has for a goal a better understanding of runoff processes within the experimental karst area as well as flash flood occurrence analysis. The studied catchment is located in Dalmatia, southern part of Croatia, a region of Dinaric karst. Although it is very difficult to determine catchment borders in the karstic terrain, for the porpoises of the study the area of the catchment is estimated to 8 km2. The length of the stream flow up to the control cross section is 4.4 km. The highest point of the studied catchment area is on the 941 m a.s.l. and the lowest at the 300 m a.s.l. The geological settings of the catchment are characterized by the sedimentary rocks, mostly limestone and dolomites with discontinuities (cracks, and fractures) filled up with terra rossa and breccias. The presence of mudstone patches in the surface ensures the continuous surface flow of the studied stream. Some caves are also to be found in the catchment area. In the karst watersheds the occurrence of flash floods can be registered due to the exceptional meteorologic events during the year. The intensive rainfall in the short time period can trigger a flash flood that can induce overbank flow, immense changes in channel morphology and in sediment distribution. In order to produce a hydrological model that could predict the events of flash flood in the studied area, a continuous monitoring of meteorological and hydrological parameters in the catchment is established. The predictions of exceptional flooding events derived from a useful hydrological model based on the study site can be used further on to quantify the possible

  13. Wabamun and area community exposure and health effects assessment program (WACEHEAP) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    This pamphlet presented information of the Wabamun and area community exposure and health effects assessment program (WACEHEAP). It was formed in response to concerns expressed by community members in Wabamun, Alberta and its surrounding area regarding how coal-fired power stations and oil and gas operations affect air quality and impact on human health. Community members were especially concerned about the perceived high number of multiple sclerosis cases in their communities. A health record analysis was completed in order to determine if there was in fact an increased rate of multiple sclerosis in Wabamun. The objectives of WACEHEAP were to measure exposure of residents from Wabamun and surrounding area to airborne chemicals and particulates; examine the role that indoor and outdoor air has on personal exposure to air contaminants; and look at relationships between exposure to airborne chemicals and illness in people within Wabamun and surrounding area. The pamphlet provided a background on the study, outlined the participants in the study, and presented the results for adults and children. The health analysis examined the rates of asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Rates of sulphur dioxide exposure, biomarkers of effect and exposure, ozone exposure, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds were also presented. The study concluded that there is no increased risk of death from all causes, including respiratory disorders and heart disease. 4 tabs., figs.

  14. Health services - needs of the elderly in two black urban areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability and utilisation of essential social and health services were studied in two urban areas, Langa, an established township well within the city boundaries, and Khayelitsha, a newly established and fast-growing township on the margin of the city. They are approximately 10 km and 30 km respectively from the ...

  15. A causal model for the effectiveness of internal quality assurance for the health science area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeorn, Kittiya

    2005-10-01

    The purposes of this research were 1) to study the effectiveness of Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) of the Health science area, and 2) to study the factors affecting the effectiveness of the IQA of the Health science area. A causal model has been developed by the researcher comprised of the 6 exogenous latent variables: Attitude towards quality assurance, Teamwork, Staff training, Resource sufficiency, Organizational culture, and Leadership, and the 4 endogenous latent variables, which are the effectiveness of the IQA, Student-centered approach, Decentralized administration, PDCA cycle of work (Plan-Do-Check-Act), and Staff job satisfaction. The research sample consisted of 108 health science faculties derived by stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by 10 questionnaires having reliability ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. Data analyses were descriptive statistics, and Linear Structure Relationship (LISREL) analysis. The major findings were as follows: 1. The 4 dimensions of effectiveness for the IQA of the Health science areas were significantly higher at the .05 level, after the Health science faculty applied the IQA programme according to the National Education Act of 1999. 2. The causal model of the effectiveness of the IQA was valid and fitted the empirical data. The 6 predictors accounted for 83% of the variance in the effectiveness of IQA. Culture and Leadership were the predictors that significantly accounted for the effectiveness of the IQA.

  16. General health status of residents of the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekosse, Georges

    2005-10-01

    Residents of the Selebi Phikwe area, Botswana where nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) is being exploited often exhibit symptoms of varied degrees of ailments, sicknesses and diseases. A need to investigate their general health status was therefore eminent. Primary data was obtained by means of a questionnaire and structured interviews conducted with individuals, health service providers, business enterprises and educational Institutions. The generated data revealed common ailments, sicknesses and diseases in the area with the four most frequent health complaints being frequent coughing headaches, influenza/common colds and rampant chest pains. Research findings indicated that residents had respiratory tract-related problems, suspected to be linked to the effects of air pollution caused by the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from mining and smelting activities. Residents were frequently in contact with SO2 and related gases and fumes, mineral and silica dust generated from the mining processes. No clearly demarcating differences were noticed in the health status of residents living in the control site from those in the main study area. However, sites most affected were those close to where Ni-Cu is exploited. Environmental factors resulting from mining and smelting activities, among others, could be contributory to the negative health effects occurring at Selebi Phikwe.

  17. River recharge sources and the partitioning of catchment evapotranspiration fluxes as revealed by stable isotope signals in a typical high-elevation arid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Tian, Lide; Wang, Lei; Yu, Wusheng; Qu, Dongmei

    2017-06-01

    Catchment-scale hydrological cycles are expected to suffer more extremes under a background of climate change. Quantifying hydrological changes in high and remote areas is practically challenging. However, stable isotopes in river water can be seen to vary, dependent upon the combined influence exerted by recharge sources and local climatic conditions; the study of river water stable isotopes can therefore provide a meaningful method for delineating catchment-scale hydrological studies. In this study, we present high-resolution time series of river δ18O and d-excess values; additionally, we identify the seasonal dynamics of river recharge sources and major components of the catchment-scale water balance, together with precipitation and groundwater isotopes, and concurrent meteorological data recorded in Magazangbu catchment on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau (TP). Using isotopic analysis, and within a proportional framework, we partitioned the isotopic fractionation (E1) or non-fractionation (E2) from soil evaporation fluxes (Esoil) apparent in different processes, using NDVI (Normal Differential Vegetation Index) data collected by MODIS satellites to calculate the vegetation fractional coverage (VFC), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) records to determine evapotranspiration data (ET). Finally, the contributions made by each ET component (Esoil and plant transpiration) to total catchment ET were computed for the high and remote northwestern TP. Our results show that: (1) river δ18O values were high in summer and low in winter, while d-excess values displayed a contrary seasonal cycle; (2) for the monsoon period, precipitation contributed 60.6% to Magazangbu catchment runoff. Deeper groundwater was the main water source for the winter low base flow, and shallow groundwater or high elevation snowmelt was the principal component of the spring thaw and autumn freezing periods; and (3) a substantial proportion of Esoil (96.4% annually; 92.2% during

  18. Modelling catchment-scale erosion patterns in the East African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigiak, O.; Okoba, B.O.; Sterk, G.; Groenenberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt location of areas exposed to high erosion is of the utmost importance for soil and water conservation planning. Erosion models can be useful tools to locate sources of sediment and areas of deposition within a catchment, but the reliability of model predictions of spatial patterns of erosion

  19. Perceived health discomfort among adolescent girls and related factors in an urban area, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Shabnam; Bakhtiari, Afsaneh; Firouzbakht, Mojgan; Amiri, Fatemeh Nasiri; Begum, Khyrunnisa

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life that is a bridge between childhood and adulthood. India has the world's largest adolescent girl's population, and adolescent girls are an important vulnerable group of population. Perceived health is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in adults and has been an important marker of the health status in population health studies for decades. The aim of the study was to describe adolescent's perception of health and association between some factors such as nutrition status, socioeconomic status (SES), and health status. As their perception of health discomfort affects their health behavior and self-care, therefore, their health status is an important matter to discuss. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. Six hundred and fifty adolescent female students aged 10-19 years formed the study population. Standardized self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data regarding demographic features, SES, and health status. BMI calculated for each individual. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. About 83.3% of participants ranked their health status as good to excellent. A majority of the girls had one or more problems related to their menstrual cycles. The most common occurring problem was headache (45.3%). 47.8% of participants exhibited symptoms of mild insomnia. Strong significant association between nutritional status and SES was found. Higher percentage of undernourished adolescents belonged to low SES. Adolescents are expected to enjoy good health, but this does not seem to be the case in the developing countries like India, where poverty, malnutrition, and repeated infection are rampant. Majority of the problems such as healthy nutrition and self-care can be solved by community-based programs, health education, and food fortification.

  20. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Barquín, J.

    2011-09-01

    One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2), in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  1. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  2. Integration of spatial datasets to support the review of hydrometric networks and the identification of representative catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. R. Laize

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing demand for river flow data has increased pressure on hydrometric monitoring programmes to match a wide range of application-focused information needs, in particular, the identification of representative catchments. This paper investigates a novel methodology based on a Geographical Information System to support cost-effective hydrometric network management and information delivery. Raster datasets are integrated as matrices describing the relationship between variables within any given area. Matrices are then compared to index how representative catchments are of a specified reference area. Using south-east Scotland as the reference area, four applications illustrate the methodology’s potential to address a variety of issues (e.g. network rationalisation, selection of impact catchments, identification of new gauging sites. The method is implemented using elevation and land-use datasets. Keywords: spatial information, Geographical Information System, hydrometry, network management, network rationalisation, representative catchment, regionalisation

  3. [RIU project: perceived changes by health agents and professionals after a health intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviñó, Dory; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; La Parra Casado, Daniel; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    To describe how health agents and professionals working in a community project perceive the changes related to the population health status and their use of health-care services after the RIU intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage. A qualitative descriptive study based on individual and group interviews and participant observation conducted between October 2008-July 2009. Raval (Algemesí-Valencia) We selected by purposive sample 7 women health agents, all persons who completed the intervention, and 10 professionals for their involvement in the intervention. We conducted a group interview with the women at 6 months and a group and 7 individuals interviews both at 9 months of intervention. We realized a thematic descriptive analysis from health promotion framework. We used participant observation in a meeting with professionals at 9 months and analyzed field notes as: appraisal project, detected changes, challenges and recommendations. Women acquired information about health, contraception, pregnancy and heath services; they noted changes in self-care and social skills and leadership; they internalized the role of health worker disseminating what they learned and showed improvement in self-esteem and social recognition. They caused changes in the people related on health care and access to services. Professionals didn't incorporate at their work the community perspective; they valued positively the project; professionals and women agreed on improving access and use of services and closeness population-professionals. RIU increases the capabilities of the participants, their social recognition and improves access and use of health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Surona; Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-02-18

    The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors' hours.

  5. [Virtual polyclinic--consultant health service for rural areas and islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan; Loncarić, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The development of medical sciences and digital revolution in health care have made possible the creation of new models for hospital care and primary health care. Health care management usually does not follow all possible solutions of new computer technology. Croatian health system is based on large hospital centers in the mainland and small, poorly equipped remote medical units. The possibility of sharing medical information using telematic technologies brings all knowledge of the large, powerful hospital centers close to remote medical units. Working in a small, remote consultation office on the island Cres, the author A. M. became part of medical periphery far from the security of hospital on the mainland. After five years of the work on telemedicine projects for the islands, we have introduced a new medical practice concept of communication between remote medical units and clinical hospital centers in the mainland. The pilot project Virtual Polyclinic-Medical Consultation System for the Islands and Remote Areas is a good example of the possible new models in health care structure. Our experience indicates that organization of health care in remote areas depends not only on advanced technical solutions but also on team work and medical professionals.

  6. Determining the Oral Health Status of Disabled Patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: disability is a social concern; however, there are few studies on the oral health status of disabled patients. Objective: to determine the oral health status of disabled patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos province. Methods: a case series study was conducted in the Area VII of the municipality of Cienfuegos from January through December 2013. A total of 192 disabled patients who attended the dental clinic or received home visits were included. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, educational level, type of disability, epidemiological classification by oral health status, systemic diseases, risk factors for oral diseases, oral health, periodontal disease (gingivitis, periodontitis, malocclusions, premalignant lesions, need for total or partial denture and need for treatment in primary or secondary care. The information was collected from the medical records and the disability rating sheets. Results are expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: women and patients aged 35-59 years were the most affected. Chronic degenerative diseases predominated, as well as patients in the epidemiological classification by oral health status and hypertension among systemic diseases. Having a history of cavities was the most significant risk factor; chronic edematous gingivitis was the most common, with a higher percentage. Conclusions: the oral health in the study group was poor and it is difficult for the Comprehensive General Dentist to treat these patients despite the existence of care programs for the disabled.

  7. Development of a wearable wireless body area network for health monitoring of the elderly and disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushambwa, Munyaradzi C.; Gezimati, Mavis; Jeeva, J. B.

    2017-11-01

    Novel advancements in systems miniaturization, electronics in health care and communication technologies are enabling the integration of both patients and doctors involvement in health care system. A Wearable Wireless Body Area Network (WWBAN) provides continuous, unobtrusive ambulatory, ubiquitous health monitoring, and provide real time patient’s status to the physician without any constraint on their normal daily life activities. In this project we developed a wearable wireless body area network system that continuously monitor the health of the elderly and the disabled and provide them with independent, safe and secure living. The WWBAN system monitors the following parameters; blood oxygen saturation using a pulse oximeter sensor (SpO2), heart rate (HR) pulse sensor, Temperature, hydration, glucose level and fall detection. When the wearable system is put on, the sensor values are processed and analysed. If any of the monitored parameter values falls below or exceeds the normal range, there is trigger of remote alert by which an SMS is send to a doctor or physician via GSM module and network. The developed system offers flexibility and mobility to the user; it is a real time system and has significance in revolutionizing health care system by enabling non-invasive, inexpensive, continuous health monitoring.

  8. Health risk assessment of rare earth elements in cereals from mining area in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Wang, Liansen; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Kebo; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Taibin; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhang, Junli; Zhou, Jingyang; Zhao, Jinshan; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-08-29

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in cereals and assess human health risk through cereal consumption, a total of 327 cereal samples were collected from rare earth mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The medians of total rare earth elements in cereals from mining and control areas were 74.22 μg/kg and 47.83 μg/kg, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P rare earth elements concentrations (109.39 μg/kg and 77.96 μg/kg for mining and control areas, respectively) and maize had the lowest rare earth elements concentrations (42.88 μg/kg and 30.25 μg/kg for mining and control areas, respectively). The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes of rare earth elements through cereal consumption were considerably lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg/kg bw). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to rare earth elements on children.

  9. Changes in Area-level Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.

  10. Vaal River catchment: problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available can be divided into four zones on the basis of water quality problems ie the Vaal Dam, the Barrage, the Bloemhof and the Douglas weir subcatchments. In general, the best quality water is found in the catchment of Vaal Dam and quality deteriorates... pollution, diffuse agricultural sources and further industrial development. Eutrophication is already a problem in the Vaal River, particularly in the Barrage and Bloemhof Dam catchments where it is becoming an increasingly serious issue. The problem...

  11. Nitrogen budgets on Appalachian forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle

    1997-01-01

    Variations in nitrogen losses in streamflow on catchments in the Appalachians suggests that the level of nitrogen retention in hardwood forests varies widely. Stream losses of dissolved nitrate-N on several small experimental forested catchments range from about 0.2 to 8.5 kg ha-1 y-1. This wide range of losses is equivalent to less than 10% to nearly 100% of measured...

  12. Morphology, Geology and Water Quality Assessment of Former Tin Mining Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river. PMID:22761549

  13. Morphology, geology and water quality assessment of former tin mining catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river.

  14. eHealth Education of Professionals in the Baltic Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration......In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study...... of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations...

  15. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  16. Everyday life innovation potential: when technology has to make sense. Citizens living in high-risk areas for health, using health-promoting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    Societal and political focus on both a European and worldwide level calls for a scope on what research have been done within the area of "inequality in health" in order to form both a theoretical and operational foundation for health professionals (in this case occupational therapists) to contrib......Societal and political focus on both a European and worldwide level calls for a scope on what research have been done within the area of "inequality in health" in order to form both a theoretical and operational foundation for health professionals (in this case occupational therapists......) to contribute, along with other health professionals, in dealing with the problem of inequality in health. In this study health promoting technologies for adult citizens living in high risk areas of health, is chosen as one particular area of interest for occupational therapists within the field of health...

  17. An analysis of actions to promote health in underprivileged urban areas: a case in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Moreira, Érika Cardoso; O'Dwyer, Gisele

    2013-06-13

    Two policies stood out in the 2000s geared towards changing the care model adopted in Brazil: The National Policy on Primary Health Care, based on a family health care model, and the National Policy on Health Promotion.The aim of this study was to analyze health promotion actions developed by family health care teams in the municipality of Belford Roxo. This town was chosen by virtue of its "below average" level of primary health care services offered in relation to other municipalities in Rio de Janeiro state. The following methodological strategies were employed: analysis of health systems, document analysis (2010 Annual Health Schedule and 2010 Annual Management Report), participant observation and interviews with nine health care professionals in the region of study, namely: the manager of the Regional Health Polyclinic (responsible for health care actions in the region), and nurses belonging to the eight family health teams. Giddens' Theory of Structuration was used for analysis of the results. Varying levels of health care activity were found, indicating that the managers have been either unable or lacked the commitment to perform the proposed actions. From a structural point of view, 87.5% of the teams were incomplete. Also of particular note was the lack of any physicians in the teams, which, despite its detrimental effect, was regarded by the interviewees as "natural".Strong political party influence in the area hindered relations between the team and the local population. Health education, especially through lectures was the main health promotion activity picked up in this study.No cross-sectorial or public participation actions were identified. Connections between the teams for sharing responsibilities were found to be very weak. In addition to political factors, there are also structural limitations such as a lack of human resources that overburdens the teams' daily activities. From this point of view, the political context and lack of professionals

  18. Noise monitoring and adverse health effects in residents in different functional areas of Luzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Xia; Lei, Zhang-Heng; Zhang, Chun-Lian; Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong-Lin; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Qing-Bi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the noise pollution situation and the resulting adverse effect on residents' health in Luzhou, China, to provide data for noise pollution prevention policies and interventions. Four different functional areas (commercial, construction, residential, and transportation hub areas) were chosen to monitor noise level for 3 months. The survey was performed by questionnaire on the spot on randomly selected individuals; it collected data on the impact of noise on residents' health (quality of sleep, high blood pressure, subjective feeling of nervous system damage, and attention) as well as the knowledge of noise-induced health damage, the degree of adaptation to noise, and their solutions. The noise levels of residential, commercial, transportation, and construction areas exceeded the national standards (P noise; 64.57% of residents have adapted to the current noise environment. Most of them have to close the doors and windows to reduce noise. The noise pollution situation in Luzhou, China, is serious, especially the traffic noise pollution. Residents pay less attention to it and adopt single measures to reduce the noise. We should work toward the prevention and control of traffic noise and improve the residents' awareness to reduce the adverse health effects of noise. © 2014 APJPH.

  19. Are public health physicians still needed in medically underserved rural areas in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Baeg Ju; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2017-05-01

    Public health physicians (PHPs) are certified physicians who are serving in a public health center or subcenter in a rural village, instead of serving in the military. However, the PHP program has recently become the subject of a profound debate, over 30 years after its adoption. In this study, we attempted to ascertain physicians' perspectives on the PHP program, including: whether the PHP policy should continue; if they agree on changing the role of PHPs in healthcare; what would be the desired role of PHPs; and what resources would be required and what possible barriers would be anticipated under the changes. We selected 88 PHPs as our study sample using quota sampling. Over 60% of respondents were in support of continuing the PHP program. They believed some remote islands and mountainous areas are still in need of public healthcare doctors. However, some of them believed that the role of PHPs should be changed to take on community health promotion, because the problem of medically underserved rural areas has almost been resolved. However, people living in rural areas are ageing and suffering from a lack of education and health information. In particular, in order to successfully transition into new roles, PHPs must be provided with continuing education and professional development programs covering their new responsibilities. It is imperative to refurbish the PHP program to meet current needs and continue its central role in public healthcare.

  20. Green areas and health outcomes: a systematic review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Nardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Growing medical evidence shows that access to the natural environment improves health and wellbeing, prevents disease and helps people recover from illness. Experiencing nature in the outdoors can help tackle obesity and coronary heart disease. Green areas exert their benefits on both physical and mental health, promoting physical activity and strengthening the sense of community thus positively influencing social interaction. Urbanization poses problems through effects such as environmental pollution, accidents, heat island effects, climate change and a consequent demand for urban green areas.

    Material and methods: We performed literature searches of electronic journal databases for studies and reviews that focused on the relationship between green spaces and health. We looked at the effects on physical health, mental health, social health, physical activity and well-being in its broadest sense and then we categorically organized our findings.

    Results: We found many contradictory and unexpected results. However, the reported findings were generally consistent and supported the current view that urban design and the availability of urban green spaces are key elements of prosperity and individual/collective comfort, so as to influence both the perceived health and the objective physical conditions in a measurable way. A weak relationship between physical activity levels and green space availability is observed.

    Conclusions: The occasionally contradictory results that emerged in this study suggest that a opulation’s esponse to urban design interventions is often unpredictable. Further research is needed to quantify the trength of relation between green spaces and urban health, but also to investigate the social and behavioural spects which are more difficult to measure and understand.

  1. A methodology to determine pesticides pollution sources in water catchments: study case (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbourg, Q; Noel, S; Huyghebaert, B; Capette, L; Hallet, V

    2009-01-01

    In the Walloon Region (Belgium), a Committee of Investigation was created in 2007 to investigate and determine the potential pesticides pollution sources in drinkable water catchments. This Committee, constituted by a multidisciplinary team of experts i.e agronomists, soil scientists, phyto-chemists, hydrogeologists, is coordinated by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and funded by the Société Publique de Gestion des Eaux (SPGE). The diagnosis method is inspired of the AQUAPLAINE method (Arvalis, France), and is composed of four steps: 1/preparing the diagnosis using existing data, 2/diagnosis using data bank completed by field observations, 3/meeting and discussion with the pesticide users, 4/final diagnosis and remediation proposal. In a rural district of Walloon Region, a water producer who possesses two catchments ("Les marroniers" (P1) and "Puits N2" (P2)) has problems with pesticides. The pollution started in 1998 with atrazine and bromacile detected in the two catchments. In 2004, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, metabolite of dichlobenil, was also detected in the catchments. At present, all these pesticides are still found in the catchment P1 and only the 2,6 dichlorobenzamide is found in the other catchment. These active ingredients are not used in agriculture expect atrazine. Indeed, the main user of these products is the public sector. An investigation was realised to locate the main sites which are treated with these pesticides in this commune. The conclusion of this study is that the local authority used dichlobenil, bromacile and atrazine to weed the public areas. In more, the filling and the cleaning areas of sprayer, used for the treatment, are located near the catchments.

  2. The runoff declining process and water quality in songhuajiang river catchment, China under global climatic change

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    Mu, Xingmin; Gao, Peng; Wang, Fei [Northwest A and F University, Yangling (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yangling (China); Li, Ying [Northwest A and F University, Yangling (China); Shao, Hongbo [The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China)

    2012-04-15

    The runoff in Songhuajiang River catchment has experienced a decreasing trend during the second half of the 20th century. Serially complete daily rainfall data of 42 rainfall stations from 1959 to 2002 and daily runoff data of five meteorological stations from 1953 to 2005 were obtained. The Mann-Kendall trend test and the sequential version of Mann-Kendall test were employed in this study to test the monthly and annual trends for both rainfall and runoff, to determine the start point of abrupt runoff declining, and to identify the main driving factors of runoff decline. The results showed an insignificant increasing trend in rainfall but a significant decreasing trend in runoff in the catchment. For the five meteorological stations, abrupt runoff decline occurred during 1957-1963 and the middle 1990s. Through Mann-Kendall comparisons for the area-rainfall and runoff for the two decreasing periods, human activity, rather than climatic change, is identified as the main driving factor of runoff decline. Analysis of land use/cover shows that farmland is most related with runoff decline among all the land use/cover change in Nenjiang catchment. From 1986 to 1995, the area of farmland increased rapidly from 6.99 to 7.61 million hm{sup 2}. Hydraulic engineering has a significant influence on the runoff decline in the second Songhuajiang catchment. Many large-scale reservoirs and hydropower stations have been built in the upstream of the Second Songhuajiang and lead to the runoff decline. Nenjiang and the Second Songhuajiang are the two sources of mainstream of Songhuajiang. Decreased runoff in these two sub-catchments then results in runoff decrease in mainstream of Songhuajiang catchment. It is, therefore, concluded that high percent agricultural land and hydraulic engineering are the most probable driving factors of runoff decline in Songhuajiang River catchment, China. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Effects of intersite dependence of nested catchment structures on probabilistic regional envelope curves

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    B. Guse

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the intersite dependence of nested catchment structures by modelling cross-correlations for pairs of nested and unnested catchments separately. Probabilistic regional envelope curves are utilised to derive regional flood quantiles for 89 catchments located in Saxony, in the Southeast of Germany. The study area has a nested structure and the intersite correlation is much stronger for nested pairs of catchments than for unnested ones. Pooling groups of sites (regions are constructed based on several candidate sets of catchment descriptors using the Region of Influence method. Probabilistic regional envelope curves are derived on the basis of flood flows observed within the pooling groups. Their estimated recurrence intervals are based on the number of effective sample years of data (i.e. equivalent number of uncorrelated data. The evaluation of the effective sample years of data requires the modelling of intersite dependence. We perform this globally, using a cross-correlation function for the whole study area as well as by using two different cross-correlation functions, one for nested pairs and another for unnested pairs. In the majority of the cases, these two modelling approaches yield significantly different estimates for the effective sample years of data, and therefore also for the recurrence intervals. The reduction of the recurrence interval when using two different cross-correlation functions is larger for larger pooling groups and for pooling groups with a higher fraction of nested catchments. A separation into nested and unnested pairs of catchments gives a more realistic representation of the characteristic river network structure and improves the estimation of regional information content. Hence, applying two different cross-correlation functions is recommended.

  4. Monitoring of a mixed land use catchment for pollutant source characterisation.

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    Liu, An; Carroll, Steven; Dawes, Les; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-07-01

    Protection of surface water quality is a key driver in catchment management, particularly for areas undergoing land use change. Changing land use can result in the input of a range of pollutants to surface waters, resulting in water quality impairment, leading to eutrophication and the appearance of algae blooms. This study investigated a mixed land use coastal catchment by undertaking extensive field sampling and data analysis for pollutant source characterisation. The objective was to contribute to a greater understanding of pollutant inputs to surface water resources and for effective catchment management. Based on data analysis results, a diversity of pollutant sources was noted, including both natural areas and areas subject to anthropogenic activities such as agriculture and urban developments, with agricultural areas being comparatively more significant in exporting nutrients. Additionally, pollutant inputs into estuarine and freshwater areas were found to have specific characteristics influenced by land use. The pollutant inputs from these sources were found to be significantly affected by seasonal factors, with the dominant pollutant sources differing between the wet and dry seasons. This underlines the importance of taking seasonal factors into account in the development of effective catchment management strategies. Based on the study outcomes, a critical point monitoring program was developed with a focus on preventing algae blooms. This will allow the development of a decentralised catchment management strategy where resource-efficient monitoring of critical pollutant parameters at key locations can be undertaken for minimising the risk from algae blooms, rather than implementing a whole of catchment and resource-demanding large-scale monitoring program.

  5. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Singh, R; Rivas, A; Palmer, A; Horne, D; Manderson, A; Roygard, J; Matthews, A

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832km 2 ), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores (5mbgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO 3 -N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04mgNL -1 h - 1 to 1.57mgNL -1 h - 1 . This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or fate, of nutrients leached from farms, to mitigate the likely impacts of land use on water quality and ecosystem health in agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Small area contextual effects on self-reported health: Evidence from Riverside, Calgary

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    Haines Valerie A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study geographic variation within one community in the City of Calgary using a more fine-grained geographic unit than the Census tract, the Census Dissemination Area (DA. While most Riverside residents consider their neighbourhood to be a fairly cohesive community, we explore the effect of socio-economic variation between these small geographic areas on individuals' self-reported health, net of individual level determinants. Methods We merge data from the 2001 Census for Riverside, Calgary with a 2004 random telephone survey of Riverside residents. Our data are unique in that we have information on individuals from every DA wholly contained in the Riverside community. These data enable us to conduct multinomial logistic regression analyses of self-reported health using both individual-level and DA-level variables as predictors. Results We find significant variation in measures of DA socio-economic status within the Riverside community. We find that individual self-reported health is affected by variation in an index of DA-level socio-economic disadvantage, controlling for individual variation in gender, age, and socio-economic status. We investigate each aspect of the DA index of disadvantage separately, and find that average education and the percent of households that are headed by a lone parent are most important. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that, even within a cohesive community, contextual effects on health can be located at a smaller geographic level than the Census tract. Research on the effects of local area socio-economic disadvantage on health that combines administrative and survey data enables researchers to develop more comprehensive measures of social and material deprivation. Our findings suggest that both social and material deprivation affect health at the local level.

  7. [Health-care research from the German Medical Association's perspective on small-area analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, U

    2014-02-01

    As early as 2003, the German medical profession realized the necessity of not only forwarding medical research, but also analyzing the process of health care itself. Approved by a decision of the 108th German Medical Assembly in 2005, an initiative on health-care research paid by contributions of the medical profession was launched. Since then several projects have been supported with the results being published continuously. From the perspective of the German Medical Association, the success of the initiative also proves the effective approach of the scientific and medical communities' self-administration. Although the current results from health-care research can be used to support health-care politics and decision making at a macro level, a focus on small-area analysis tends to be an intrinsic attribute of health-care research, keeping a local approach toward changes so as to obtain real effects. Without local settings and without data reflecting the local situation, the"last mile" of a health-care system, which is the core subject of health-care research, will not be comprehensible.

  8. Unraveling Health Risk and Speciation of Arsenic from Groundwater in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan

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    Muhammad Bilal Shakoor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62 were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab in Pakistan. The mean and median As concentrations in groundwater were 37.9 and 12.7 µg·L−1 (range = 1.5–201 µg·L−1. Fifty three percent groundwater samples showed higher As value than WHO safe limit of 10 µg·L−1. Speciation of As in groundwater samples (n = 13 showed the presence of inorganic As only; arsenite (As(III constituted 13%–67% of total As and arsenate (As(V ranged from 33% to 100%. For As health risk assessment, the hazard quotient and cancer risk values were 11–18 and 46–600 times higher than the recommended values of US-EPA (i.e., 1.00 and 10−6, respectively. In addition to As, various water quality parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity, Na, Ca, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Fe, Mn, Pb also enhanced the health risk. The results show that consumption of As-contaminated groundwater poses an emerging health threat to the communities in the study area, and hence needs urgent remedial and management measures.

  9. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

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    Surona Visagie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa’s health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, healthworker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion: The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcareservices and increasing the doctors’ hours.

  10. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

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    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  11. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  12. [Health and informal work conditions among recyclers in the rural area of Medellin, Colombia, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis Ballesteros, Viviana; López Arango, Yolanda Lucía; Cuadros Urrego, Yicenia Milena

    2012-10-01

    To characterize the work, health and occupational risk conditions of recyclers from the rural area. Cross-sectional study, with the participation of one hundred informal recyclers in five corregimientos (small administrative units) of Medellin in 2008. The source of information was primary: a structured survey on work, health and occupational risk conditions and also on perceived morbidity, which enabled to characterize the population's risks through descriptive statistics and approach the relationships and associations of the risks with the morbidity in the population. One hundred and four people were engaged in recycling, and 100 of them were included in the study: 34 people belonged to community-based organizations and 66 people worked independently. Social security affiliation, fulfillment of basic needs, work satisfaction, access to training activities and periodic provision of work supplies presented differences according to group (p integral waste management in rural areas of Medellin, although the informal nature of their work exposes them to working conditions that directly affect their health and the health of their families. The social recognition of recycling goes hand in hand with the improvement in the working conditions of the people engaged in this activity. The environmental recycling workers, even if belonging to a union, have precarious work and health conditions. The transformation of these conditions should be one of the State's priorities.

  13. Utilization of Primary Health Care Services in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria.

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    Otovwe, Agofure; Elizabeth, Sarki

    2017-07-01

    Primary health care was designed to provide accessible health care for all. However, most primary health care facilities are in various states of disrepair, catering for less than 20% of potential patients in the population. This study was designed to investigate the utilisation of primary health care services in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria. The study employed a cross-sectional study design conducted among 383 respondents utilising simple random sampling techniques. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from respondents, while descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that almost all of the respondents, 333(97.90%), were aware of the existence of primary health care services in their community. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents, 304(89.40%), utilized primary health care services while 293(86.20%) and 212(62.40%) were satisfied with the amount of charges for services and the supply of drugs respectively. According to the respondent, weak services in primary health care includes; personal hygiene and nutritional education, management of chronic diseases and cancer screening. Factors that influence the utilization of primary health care services according to the respondents were availability of trained personnel (AOR=1.828 95% CI=0.410-1.672), attitude of staffs (AOR=1.114 95% CI=0.527-2.355), waiting times (AOR=1.110 95% CI=0.584-2.224) and availability of diagnostic services (AOR=0.951 95% CI=0.472-1.918). The study highlighted the weaknesses in some of the services offered at the various primary health centres and the factors which can hinder the residents from patronizing primary health care services.

  14. A Web-based graphical user interface for evidence-based decision making for health care allocations in rural areas

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    Leight Margo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation of successful health policy and location of resources increasingly relies on evidence-based decision-making. The development of intuitive, accessible tools to analyse, display and disseminate spatial data potentially provides the basis for sound policy and resource allocation decisions. As health services are rationalized, the development of tools such graphical user interfaces (GUIs is especially valuable at they assist decision makers in allocating resources such that the maximum number of people are served. GIS can used to develop GUIs that enable spatial decision making. Results We have created a Web-based GUI (wGUI to assist health policy makers and administrators in the Canadian province of British Columbia make well-informed decisions about the location and allocation of time-sensitive service capacities in rural regions of the province. This tool integrates datasets for existing hospitals and services, regional populations and road networks to allow users to ascertain the percentage of population in any given service catchment who are served by a specific health service, or baskets of linked services. The wGUI allows policy makers to map trauma and obstetric services against rural populations within pre-specified travel distances, illustrating service capacity by region. Conclusion The wGUI can be used by health policy makers and administrators with little or no formal GIS training to visualize multiple health resource allocation scenarios. The GUI is poised to become a critical decision-making tool especially as evidence is increasingly required for distribution of health services.

  15. Distribution of heavy metals in a wood culture water catchment area under the influence of acid deposition as shown by the example of the Soese trough (Western Harz region); Verteilung von Schwermetallen in einem forstlich genutzten Wassereinzugsgebiet unter dem Einfluss saurer Deposition am Beispiel der Soesemulde (Westharz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreae, H. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This thesis deals with the distribution and turnover of heavy metals in partial terrestrial ecosystems of the water catchment area of the Soese storage dam in the Western Harz region, a forested area affected by acid deposition. The metals investigated are cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. The work distinguishes three spatial areas: Regional heavy metal pollution is characterized via the establishment of nine deposition measuring sites (recent pollutant stress) in the field or under spruce stands and via cadastre-oriented surveying of element contents and accumulations in humus ground covers and mineral soils (historical pollutant stress). In-soil heavy metal turnovers are documented in five representative sites via investigation of the soil solution (years of measurement 1989-1991). In three sites, heavy metal turnovers are quantified via flow balances for the terrestrial ecosystem and the soil zone free of roots. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Verteilung und dem Umsatz von Schwermetallen in terrestrischen Teiloekosystemen des bewaldeten, durch saure Deposition beeinflussten Wassereinzugsgebiets der Soese-Talsperre im Westharz. Untersucht werden die Metalle Cadmium, Chrom, Kobalt, Kupfer, Nickel, Blei und Zink. In der Arbeit werden drei raeumliche Ebenen unterschieden: Die regionale Belastung wird ueber die Einrichtung von neun Depositionsmessstellen [rezente Belastung] im Freiland bzw. unter Fichtenbestaenden sowie ueber eine katasterorientierte Erfassung von Element-Gehalten und -Vorraeten in Humusauflagen und Mineralboeden [historische Belastung] charakterisiert. Die bodeninternen Umsaetze der Schwermetalle werden an fuenf repraesentativen Standorten anhand der Untersuchung der Bodenloesung dokumentiert (Messjahre 1989-1991). An drei Standorten werden die Schwermetall-Umsaetze ueber Flussbilanzen fuer das terrestrische Oekosystem und die undurchwurzelte Bodenzone quantifiziert. (orig.)

  16. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

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    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion. © 2015 APJPH.

  17. Epidemiology of asthma in Poland in urban and rural areas, based on provided health care services.

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    Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Brzozows