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  1. Nutritional catch-up growth.

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    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth

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    Galia Gat-Yablonski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.

  3. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

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    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  4. Tyrosine requirement during the rapid catch-up growth phase of recovery from severe childhood undernutrition

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    The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...

  5. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

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    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  6. QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF POSTNATAL GROWTH IN PRETERM CHILDREN PART 2. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN PRETERM INFANTS

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    A. F. Kiosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the

  7. Catch-Up Growth Occurs after Diarrhea in Early Childhood123

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    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of

  8. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

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    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  9. Catch up growth and social capability in developing countries: A conceptual and measurement proposal

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    Martin Andersson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the income per capita in the developing world since the turn of the Millennium has grown faster than that of the developed world, the question whether there is an ongoing process of catching up between countries remains. The notion of income convergence has provided many insights into the sources for long-run growth but has largely neglected the role of social capabilities in economic development. By social capabilities we mean the qualification of the ‘theory of convergence’ which asserts that productivity growth rates  between countries tend to vary inversely with regard to productivity levels. The social capabilities approach holds that a country’s potential for rapid growth is strong when “it is technologically backward but socially advanced” (see Abramovitz, 1986:388. This means that the potential to catch up under globalization is strongest for countries in which social capabilities are developed to allow successful use of technologies and where institutional arrangements are conducive to economic progress. Yet there is no clear agreement in the literature on the main components of social capabilities or how to measure them. Our framework argues that the role of capabilities in catching up needs to understand them in terms of structural transformation, economic and social inclusion, state´s autonomy and accountability. Without progress in these dimensions within-country inequality may increase and might in turn lead to stagnating growth and slim prospects for global income convergence.

  10. Regulation of Long Bone Growth in Vertebrates; It Is Time to Catch Up.

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    Roselló-Díez, Alberto; Joyner, Alexandra L

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of organ size is essential to human health and has fascinated biologists for centuries. Key to the growth process is the ability of most organs to integrate organ-extrinsic cues (eg, nutritional status, inflammatory processes) with organ-intrinsic information (eg, genetic programs, local signals) into a growth response that adapts to changing environmental conditions and ensures that the size of an organ is coordinated with the rest of the body. Paired organs such as the vertebrate limbs and the long bones within them are excellent models for studying this type of regulation because it is possible to manipulate one member of the pair and leave the other as an internal control. During development, growth plates at the end of each long bone produce a transient cartilage model that is progressively replaced by bone. Here, we review how proliferation and differentiation of cells within each growth plate are tightly controlled mainly by growth plate-intrinsic mechanisms that are additionally modulated by extrinsic signals. We also discuss the involvement of several signaling hubs in the integration and modulation of growth-related signals and how they could confer remarkable plasticity to the growth plate. Indeed, long bones have a significant ability for "catch-up growth" to attain normal size after a transient growth delay. We propose that the characterization of catch-up growth, in light of recent advances in physiology and cell biology, will provide long sought clues into the molecular mechanisms that underlie organ growth regulation. Importantly, catch-up growth early in life is commonly associated with metabolic disorders in adulthood, and this association is not completely understood. Further elucidation of the molecules and cellular interactions that influence organ size coordination should allow development of novel therapies for human growth disorders that are noninvasive and have minimal side effects.

  11. Influence of catch-up growth on abdominal fat distribution in very low birth weight children - cohort study.

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    Alves, João Guilherme; Vasconcelos, Sarita Amorim; de Almeida, Tais Sá; Lages, Raquel; Just, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid catch-up growth in very low birth weight has been associated both with a higher height growth and a higher risk to metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance and its consequences. Abdominal fat distribution in early postnatal life may play a role in these outcomes and can help in addressing this neonatal dilemma. This study aimed to compare abdominal fat distribution among very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without rapid catch-up growth. A cohort study followed 86 VLBW (children born in Brazil, during the first 3 years of life. Rapid catch-up growth was considered as an increased in length >2 Z score during the first year of life. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness was determined by ultrasound. χ²-Test and Student's t-test were used to compare the groups. A total of 79 VLBW children completed the study, of whom 22 (27.8%) showed rapid catch-up growth. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness showed no differences among children with or without rapid catch-up growth at 3.3 mm vs. 3.8 mm, respectively (p=0.79) and 4.0 mm vs. 4.0 mm (p=0.55), respectively. VLBW children with rapid catch-up growth were also taller. Rapid catch-up growth during the first year of life in VLBW children does not seem to change abdominal fat distribution until the third year of life.

  12. Leptin stimulates aromatase in the growth plate: limiting catch-up growth efficiency.

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    Masarwi, Majdi; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2018-06-01

    Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding. In vitro studies were performed on ATDC5 cells. Analyses of mRNA and protein levels were done using qPCR and Western blot, respectively. CUG was complete in body weight and humerus length in animals that were food-restricted for 10 days but not for those food-restricted for 36 days. In vitro studies showed that leptin significantly increased aromatase gene expression and protein level as well as the expression of estrogen and leptin receptors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of leptin on aromatase was direct and was mediated through the MAPK/Erk, STAT3 and PI3K pathways. The crosstalk between leptin and aromatase in the growth plate suggests that re-feeding during puberty may lead to increased estrogen level and activity, and consequently, irreversible premature epiphyseal growth plate closure. These results may have important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies for short stature in children. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

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    Boersma, B; Rikken, B; Wit, J M

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  14. The effect of early catch-up growth on health and well-being in young adults

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    Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, S.M. van der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Walther, F.J.; Wit, J.M.; Pal, K.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of catch-up growth in the 1st year on cognition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), problem behavior and growth in young adults. Methods: We included individuals without severe complications and born small for gestational age (SGA; n = 228 for weight, n = 203 for

  15. Donor catch-up growth after laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

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    Chmait, Ramen H; Chon, Andrew H; Schrager, Sheree M; Kontopoulos, Eftichia V; Quintero, Rubén A; Vanderbilt, Douglas L

    2015-12-01

    To assess fetal growth after laser surgery for TTTS at the time of prenatal diagnosis, birth, and at 2years of age. Growth data were collected from surviving children treated between 2007 and 2010 as part of a study to assess neurodevelopment at 24months (±6weeks) corrected age. Fetal weights were obtained via ultrasound using Hadlock's formula at the time of preoperative assessment for laser surgery. Birth weights were recorded by the staff at the delivering institutions. Weights at 2years corrected age were recorded at the time of neurodevelopmental testing. Weights were converted into percentiles according to standard growth curves. Growth restriction was defined as demise, intrauterine growth restriction, Quintero stage, and gestational age of surgery or delivery. 48.5% were donors. The median fetal, birth, and 2-year weights for all twins were 288g, 1.9kg, and 11.8kg, respectively, and the overall prevalence of growth restriction was 28%, 22%, and 3%, respectively. Growth restriction rates at prenatal diagnosis were 56% in donors vs. 2% in recipients (OR=64.3, p<0.001); at birth, 35% vs. 10% (OR=5.0, p<0.01); and at 2years, 6% vs. 0%. Donors showed significant gains in weight percentile (B=13.1, p<0.001) and a significant decrease in growth restriction rates over time (B=-1.6, p<0.001). Weight discordance between donor and recipient pairs also significantly decreased over time (linear F(1,42)=54.34, p<0.001). After laser surgery for TTTS, donor twins exhibit significant catch-up growth by two years of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

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    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  17. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

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    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  18. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

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    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  19. No Weight Catch-Up Growth of SGA Infants Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Sensitivity during the Early Postnatal Period

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    Tong-yan Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between weight catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods. Forty-four singleton SGA subjects met the inclusion criteria and finished-3-month followup. Body weight, length, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (FI levels were measured at 3 days and 3 months. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by FI and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. According to the change of weight Z-score, forty-four subjects were divided into two groups: noncatch-up growth (NCUG and catch-up growth (CUG. By 3 months of age, the body weight, body length and BMI of NCUG group were significantly lower than those of CUG group. The FI and HOMA were significantly higher in NCUG group. The change of weight Z-score during 3 months was inversely related to the HOMA at 3 months. Conclusion. Our data exemplified that no weight catch-up growth during the first 3 months was associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in SGA infants.

  20. Influence of catch up growth on spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition.IUGR was induced by 50% maternal caloric undernutrition throughout late gestation. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum or food restricted. The pups were divided into: Normal prenatal diet-Normal postnatal diet (NN, Restricted prenatal diet- Normal postnatal diet + catch up growth (RN+, Normal prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (NR and Restricted prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (RR. At 4 weeks of age, memory was assessed via a water maze test. To evaluate synaptic function, 2 specific synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density-95 [PSD95], synaptophysin as well as insulin receptors (IR were tested by Western Blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serum insulin levels were also studied.The RN+ group presented a learning curve similar to the NN animals. The RR animals without CUG showed learning disabilities. PSD95 was lower in the RR group than in the NN and RN+ mice. In contrast, synaptophysin was similar in all groups. IR showed an inverse expression pattern to that of the PSD95. In conclusion, perinatal nutrition plays an important role in learning. CUG after a period of prenatal malnutrition seems to improve learning skills. The functional alterations observed might be related to lower PSD95 activity and a possible dysfunction in the hormone regulation of synaptic plasticity.

  1. Catch-up growth in children born growth restricted to mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Cranendonk, Anneke; de Vries, Johanna I. P.; Wolf, Hans; Lafeber, Harry N.; Vriesendorp, Hester C.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2013-01-01

    In preterm hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs frequently. The timing and severity of FGR impacts childhood growth and is associated with metabolic changes later in life. To examine growth and the impact of FGR in early childhood. Prospective cohort study.

  2. The validity of testicular catch-up growth and serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescents

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    Aniruddh Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.

  3. New model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery (W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile) from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is ((98 x FFM) + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)), kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  4. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

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    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  5. Catch-Up Growth and Neurobehavioral Development among Full-Term, Small-for-Gestational-Age Children: A Nationwide Japanese Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Yorifuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazue; Tamai, Kei; Mori, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao; Kubo, Toshihide; Ogino, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    To examine the relationship between catch-up growth of full-term, small for gestational age (SGA) children and their neurobehavioral development. Data were obtained from a population-based nationwide Japanese longitudinal survey that started in 2001. Study participants were full-term children with information on height at 2 years of age (n = 32 533). Catch-up growth for SGA infants was defined as achieving a height at 2 years of age of more than -2.0 standard deviations for chronological age. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for the associations of SGA and catch-up growth status with neurobehavioral development at 2.5 and 8 years of age, adjusting for potential infant- and parent-related confounding factors. Fifteen percent of term SGA infants failed to catch up in height. At 2.5 years of age, SGA children without catch-up growth were more likely to be unable to climb stairs (OR, 10.42; 95% CI, 5.55-19.56) and unable to compose a 2-word sentence (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.81-7.08) compared with children with normal growth at birth. Furthermore, SGA children without catch-up growth were at increased risk for aggressive behaviors (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.19-12.47) at 8 years of age. Continuous follow-up for full-term SGA infants with failure of catch-up growth or poor postnatal growth may be beneficial for early detection and intervention for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Catch-up Growth Followed by Stagnation: Mexico 1950–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Kehoe; Felipe Meza

    2011-01-01

    In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...

  7. Catch-up Growth Followed by Stagnation: Mexico, 1950-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Kehoe; Felipe Meza

    2011-01-01

    In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...

  8. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN 60 CHILDREN WITH CELIAC-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAMEN, GM; WIT, JM; HEYMANS, HSA

    The growth pattern of 28 girls and 32 boys with celiac disease was analyzed up to the ages of 10 and 12 years, respectively. Fifty-four patients (90%) were diagnosed before 4 years of age and six patients (10%) between 5 and 9 years of age. At diagnosis, 18 of 60 patients (30%) had a height SD score

  9. Effects of zinc supplementation on catch-up growth in children with failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seul-Gi; Choi, Ha-Neul; Yang, Hye-Ran; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2017-12-01

    Although globally the numbers of children diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) have decreased, FTT is still a serious pediatric problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation for 6 months on growth parameters of infants and children with FTT. In this retrospective study, of the 114 participants aged between 4 months and 6 years, 89 were included in the zinc supplementation group and were provided with nutrition counseling plus an oral zinc supplement for 6 months. The caregivers of the 25 participants in the control group received nutrition counseling alone. Medical data of these children, including sex, age, height, weight, serum zinc level, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) level were analyzed. Zinc supplementation for 6 months increased weight-for-age Z-score and serum zinc levels (5.5%) in the zinc supplementation group of underweight category children. As for stunting category, height-for-age Z-score of the participants in the zinc supplementation group increased when compared with the baseline, and serum zinc levels increased in the normal or mild stunting group. Serum IGF1 levels did not change significantly in any group. Thus, zinc supplementation was more effective in children in the underweight category than those in the stunted category; this effect differed according to the degree of the FTT. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects for growth of infants and children with FTT, and zinc supplementation would be required according to degree of FTT.

  10. Comparison of two models of intrauterine growth restriction for early catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Yasaman; Moulin, Julie; Zbinden, Irene; Aprikian, Olivier; Macé, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Two models of intrauterine growth restriction, maternal food restriction (FR), and dexamethasone (DEX) exposure were compared for early postnatal catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mated dams were randomly divided into three groups at 10 days gestational age. Group FR was food restricted (50% of nongestating rats) during the last 11 days of gestation; Group DEX received DEX injections during the last week of gestation, and Group CON, the control group, had no intervention. Birth weight, catch-up growth, body weight, and food intake were measured in male offspring for 22 wk. Body composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin in response to a glucose load were assessed at 8, 16, and 22 wk. Pups from both FR and DEX dams had similarly lower birth weights than CON (22% and 25%, P growth, which occurred during the suckling period, was much more rapid in FR than DEX offspring (6 vs. 25 days, 95% CI). Postweaning, there were no significant differences between groups in food intake, body weight, body fat, and plasma insulin, but baseline plasma glucose at 22 wk and 2-h glucose area-under-the-curve at 8 and 22 wk were greater only in FR vs. CON offspring (P restriction is a more sensitive model than DEX exposure for studies aimed at investigating the link between low birth weight, early postnatal catch-up growth, and later development of glucose intolerance.

  11. Early treatment with GH alone in Turner syndrome: prepubertal catch-up growth and waning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; De Luca, Filippo; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Guarneri, Maria Pia; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Petri, Antonella; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina; Lombardo, Fortunato

    2004-11-01

    In order to ascertain the advantages of early GH treatment in Turner syndrome (TS), we started a prospective study aimed at evaluating prepubertal height gain in a cohort of 29 girls who were treated with the same pro-kilo GH dose (1.0 IU/kg per week) since they were less than 6 years old and for at least 5 years before entering puberty. Following a minimum of 6 months of baseline observations, 29 girls with TS were enrolled for this prospective study provided that they (a) were less than 6 years old, (b) were below -1.0 standard deviation score (SDS) for height, (c) had a projected adult height (PAH) lower than the respective target height (TH) and (d) had a height velocity (HV) lower than -1.0 SDS. All the selected girls underwent a 5-year treatment with biosynthetic GH at a stable dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week and were periodically measured during the treatment period in order to evaluate height, HV and PAH. After a dramatic acceleration during the 1st year, HV was attenuated during the subsequent years, reaching its nadir at the 5th year. Height deficiency under therapy progressively decreased from entry onwards, shifting from -2.4+/-0.7 to -1.0+/-1.2 SDS. In the same period, mean PAH progressively increased, although after 5 years it remained lower than the average TH. (a) An effective growth-promoting strategy in TS should be based on early GH treatment, as suggested by our results. (b) This strategy could result in a prepubertal normalization of height, thus allowing the appropriate timing for the induction of puberty. (c) An initial GH dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week may be suitable during the first years of therapy, as shown by our data documenting an important waning effect of GH therapy only after the 4th year of treatment. (d) No acceleration of bone maturation was observed under this treatment regimen.

  12. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.

  13. Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch-up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; López de Pablo, Ángel L; López-Giménez, María Rosario; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Greenwald, Stephen E; González, Maria Del Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M

    2017-12-26

    (MUN males  = (1.51 ± 0.08) × 10 5  μm 2 , Control males  = (2.8 ± 0.04) × 10 5  μm 2 ); during lactation MUN males and females exhibited catch-up growth and aortic hypertrophy (MUN males  = (14.5 ± 0.5) × 10 5  μm 2 , Control males  = (10.4 ± 0.9) × 10 5  μm 2 ), maintained until adulthood. MUN aortas were more compliant until weaning (functional stiffness: MUN males  = 1.0 ± 0.04; Control males  = 1.3 ± 0.03), containing less collagen with larger IEL fenestrae, returning to normal in adulthood. Purified elastin from young MUN offspring was more compliant in both sexes; only MUN adult females maintained larger elastin compliance (slope: MUN females  = 24.1 ± 1.9; Control females  = 33.3 ± 2.8). Fetal undernutrition induces deficient aortic development followed by hypertrophic remodelling and larger aortic compliance in the perinatal period, with similar alterations in collagen and elastin in both sexes. The observed alterations argue against an initial mechanical cause for sex differences in hypertension development. However, the maintenance of high elastin compliance in adult females might protect them against blood pressure rise. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  14. Catch-up growth following fetal growth restriction promotes rapid restoration of fat mass but without metabolic consequences at one year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beltrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.

  15. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-Up Growth within the First 24 Months among HIV-Infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-01-01

    Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835

  16. Catching up with the Keynesians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungqvist, L.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the role for tax policies in productivity-shock driven economies with \\catching-up-with-the-Joneses" utility functions.The optimal tax policy is shown to a ect the economy countercyclically via procyclical taxes, i.e., \\cooling down" the economy with higher taxes when it is

  17. Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth, correlates with insulin resistance and resistin level in SGA infants at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giapros, Vasileios; Vavva, Efthymia; Siomou, Ekaterini; Kolios, Georgios; Tsabouri, Sofia; Cholevas, Vasileios; Bairaktari, Eleni; Tzoufi, Meropi; Challa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the insulin resistance status in SGA infants at 12 months and its relationship with auxological and metabolic parameters. One group of 45 SGA and one of 50 appropriate for gestational age infants were followed from birth to the end of the first year of life. At 12 months, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4, IGFs, lipids profile were determined, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated. The SGAs had increased insulin (5.2 ± 2.7 versus 2.9 ± 2.4 μIU/ml, p = 0.012) and HOMA-IR (1.09 ± 0.9 versus 0.59 ± 0.55, p = 0.016). In multiple regression, insulin resistance indices were independently correlated with low-birth-weight (β = -2.92, p = 0.015 for insulin, β = -2.98, p = 0.011 for HOMA-IR) but not with catch-up growth in either height or weight or any other metabolic parameter. Resistin was higher in the SGAs (5.1 ± 2.1 versus 3.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and independently correlated with low-birth-weight but not insulin resistance. Resistin was negatively correlated with total cholesterol (R = -0.33, p = 0.007) and positively with lipoprotein(a) (R = 0.49, p = 0.001). Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth or adiposity tissue hormones, was correlated with insulin resistance at 12 months in non-obese SGA infants. The higher resistin in SGA infants and its correlation with total cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) need further clarification.

  18. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition...

  19. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  20. Economic and clinical evaluation of a catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children already immunized with three doses of the 7-valent vaccine in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccalini, Sara; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo; Valleriani, Claudia; Cortimiglia, Martina; Tiscione, Emilia; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2011-11-28

    A new 13-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in the regional immunization programmes for newborns and children who started but not completed the 3 doses schedule of PCV7, is available in Italy since 2010. The opportunity of administering a further dose of PCV13 to children under 5 years of age who had already completed their vaccination with PCV7, with the aim of extending the serotype coverage, triggered an animated scientific debate. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical/economic evaluation of the administration of a dose of PCV13, in a catch-up programme, for children under 5 years of age, who had already received 3 doses of PCV7. A mathematical model of the clinical/economic impact of the adoption of 4 catch-up strategies with PCV13 (children up to 24, 36, 48 and 60 months old) was set up, with a vaccination coverage of 80%, versus immunization with 3 doses of PCV7 without the catch-up programme. The time span covered by the simulation was 5.5 years. The following clinical outcomes of infection were evaluated: hospitalised meningitis/sepsis, hospitalised bacteraemic pneumonias (complicated and uncomplicated), hospitalised non-bacteraemic pneumonias, and non-hospitalised pneumonias. The administration of one dose of PCV13 to children up to 60 months of age significantly reduces the number of cases of pneumococcal diseases (especially, non-hospitalised pneumonias, 80% of all events prevented, and hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonias, 15% of all events prevented) and, subsequently, the relative cost for medical treatment. This results in savings for medical costs amounting to more than 1,000,000 Euros when vaccinating children under 24 months of age (up to almost 3 million Euros for children up to 60 months). More than half of those savings are attributable to avoided hospitalised cases of non-bacteraemic pneumococcal

  1. Industrial Catching Up in the Poor Periphery 1870-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents industrial output and labor productivity growth around the poor periphery 1870-1975 (Latin America, the European periphery, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia). Intensive and extensive industrial growth accelerated there over this critical century. The precocious poor periphery leaders underwent a surge and more poor countries joined their club. Furthermore, by the interwar the majority were catching up on Germany, the US and the UK, a process that ...

  2. Catching up with the Future of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    With most of the high-energy physics world on tenterhooks waiting for the startup of the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland later this year, it's a good time to catch up (if you haven't already) on what all the excitement is about.

  3. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Sylvie; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Lebard, Thomas; Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine; LE Maho, Yvon; Criscuolo, Francois

    2012-03-01

    One of the reasons for animals not to grow as fast as they potentially could is that fast growth has been shown to be associated with reduced lifespan. However, we are still lacking a clear description of the reality of growth-dependent modulation of ageing mechanisms in wild animals. Using the particular growth trajectory of small king penguin chicks naturally exhibiting higher-than-normal growth rate to compensate for the winter break, we tested whether oxidative stress and telomere shortening are related to growth trajectories. Plasma antioxidant defences, oxidative damage levels and telomere length were measured at the beginning and at the end of the post-winter growth period in three groups of chicks (small chicks, which either passed away or survived the growth period, and large chicks). Small chicks that died early during the growth period had the highest level of oxidative damage and the shortest telomere lengths prior to death. Here, we show that small chicks that grew faster did it at the detriment of body maintenance mechanisms as shown by (i) higher oxidative damage and (ii) accelerated telomere loss. Our study provides the first evidence for a mechanistic link between growth and ageing rates under natural conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of

  5. Catch-up growth in Malawian babies, a longitudinal study of normal and low birthweight babies born in a malarious endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Infant growth has not been studied in developing countries in relation to maternal factors related to malaria in pregnancy and maternal illiteracy. Objective: To describe growth patterns in infants with low and normal birthweight and determine maternal risk factors for infant

  6. Globalization, nation-state and catching up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and nation-states are not in contradiction, since globalization is the present stage of capitalist development, and the nation-state is the territorial political unit that organizes the space and population in the capitalist system. Since the 1980s, Global Capitalism constitutes the economic system characterized by the opening of all national markets and a fierce competition between nation-states. Developing countries tend to catch up, while rich countries try to neutralize such competitive effort, using globalism as an ideology, and conventional orthodoxy as a strategy. Middle-income countries that are catching up in the realm of globalization are the ones that count with a national development strategy. This is broadly the case of the dynamic Asian countries. In contrast, Latin American countries have no longer their own strategy, and grow less. To add data to the argument, the author conducts an econometric test comparing these two groups of countries, and three variables: the rate of investment, the current account deficit or surplus that would indicate or not a competitive exchange rate, and public deficit.

  7. Unemployment and catching up : Europe vis-à-vis the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Henri L.F.; Van Schaik, Anton B.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a two-region two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by research done in the (high-tech) tradeables sector. The follower region tends to catch up in terms of labour productivity with the leader region. Differences

  8. EMNE Catch-up Strategies in the Wind Turbine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2012-01-01

    EMNEs' focus on output capabilities need not facilitate innovation catch-up. We compare the knowledge bases of an industry-leading AMNE and a fast-follower EMNE using patent data, buttressed by qualitative information. The AMNE's knowledge base is deeper and composed of more distinct technology groups......Emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) are catching up with advanced economy MNEs (AMNEs) even in emerging, high technology industries, where their knowledge-based disadvantages are most severe. We explain this phenomenon by distinguishing between output and innovation capabilities. Successful...

  9. Catch Up® Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…

  10. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The

  11. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; van de Plassche EJ; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The present

  12. Can an observer really catch up with light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Guihua; Zheng, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Given a null geodesic γ 0 (λ) with a point r in (p, q) conjugate to p along γ 0 (λ), up to the second variation, there will be a variation of γ 0 (λ) which will give a timelike curve from p to q. This is the well-known theory proved in the famous book (Hawking S W and Ellis G F R 1973 The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper, we prove that the timelike curves coming from the above-mentioned second variation have a proper acceleration approaching infinity as the timelike curves approach the null geodesic. This means no observer infinitesimally near the light can begin at the same point with it and finally catch up with it. Only when separated from the light path finitely, can the observer begin at the same point with it and really catch up with it

  13. Assessing environmental performance in the European Union: Eco-innovation versus catching-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses environmental performance in the European Union (EU) using Luenberger productivity indicators, directional distance functions and Data Envelopment Analysis techniques. It considers four indicators of the pressures exerted by economic activity on the environment: global warming, tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and particulate formation. The change in environmental performance from the early 2000s onwards is decomposed at the levels of country and environmental pressure, and as the result of eco-innovations and catching-up with the best available environmental technologies; furthermore, we distinguish between the periods of economic growth (2001–07) and severe crisis (2007–13). Our main finding is that environmental performance improved in both periods, mainly fuelled by advances in environmental technology. Accordingly, environmental policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended, particularly in the newer member states that joined the EU from 2004 onwards, which perform further away from their respective environmental technological frontiers. In addition, re-establishing the pre-crisis eco-innovation investment levels would also be highly advisable in order to return to the rates of environmental technical progress registered in the expansion period. - Highlights: • Environmental performance has noticeably improved in the EU since the 2000's. • Eco-innovations have bolstered progress in environmental performance. • Policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended in the EU.

  14. Digital Health in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Catching Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, P; Tchounga, B; Ekouevi, D-K

    2017-11-01

    Digital health has the potential to strengthen health systems and empower patients to prevent ill health and manage their own care. To confirm this potential, however, it is urgent to shift from pilot studies to the implementation of programs at a sufficient scale, with interoperable solutions and integrated into the national health system, while respecting human rights. It is also important to plan for studies to demonstrate the impact and produce the necessary evidence. Francophone sub-Saharan Africa can catch up in this area.

  15. Body Composition and Catch-up in Height after Treatment of Malnourished Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaloo, Asha; Morris, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Reid, Marvin; Wootton, Steve; Jackson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: The use of enriched diets to promote rapid catch-up-growth and the delay in catch-up in length/height relative to catch-up in weight may be associated with excess adiposity and poor lean tissue deposition. We aimed to assess lean mass (LM) during treatment of Jamaican malnourished children and to investigate if stunted malnourished children remained stunted as adults. Methods: All participants were managed in hospital and in accordance with WHO guidelines. Diagnosis (marasmus, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor) was based on the Welcome Classification. LM was estimated from total body water(TBW)in 44 children (group 1), aged 3 to 32 months, during the stabilization period, mid catch-up growth and on achieving at least 90% of reference weight-for-length using deuterium dilution technique. Length-for-age (LAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were determined in another group of 168 malnourished children (group 2) on admission, aged 3 to 33 months, and when they attained adulthood. LAZ was calculated using recent WHO child growth standards. Results: Data are mean ± SD. The participants included moderately and severely malnourished children based on weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ). In group 1, after initial stabilization intake increased to 685 ± 101 kJ/kg/d and 3.7 ± 0.6 g protein/kg/d resulting in rapid weight gain (16.5 ± 5.1 g/kg/d) and catch-up in weight over 20 ± 10 d. Consequently, WLZ at admission (non-oedematous: -3.0 ± 0.2; oedematous: -2.1 ± 0.2) improved to -0.48 ± 0.2. At recovery in weight, LM was consistent with reported values in normal children (71% to 92 % of body weight and 11 to 15 kg/m2) but the children remained stunted (LAZ: -3.3 ± 3.2). Insecurity of TBW measurement and estimating LM in the acute malnourished state and during rapid growth limits the ability to capture changes in lean and fat during rehabilitation. Similar to group 1, WLZ in group 2 was -3.2 ± 1.3 on admission; -0.6 ± 1 at recovery

  16. Growth Patterns of HIV Infected Indian Children in Response to ART: A Clinic Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchure, Ritu S; Kulkarni, Vinay V; Darak, Trupti S; Mhaskar, Rahul; Miladinovic, Branko; Emmanuel, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    To describe catch-up growth after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (CLHIV), attending a private clinic in India. This is a retrospective analysis of data of CLHIV attending Prayas clinic, Pune, India. Height and weight z scores (HAZ, WAZ) were calculated using WHO growth charts. Catch-up growth post-ART was assessed using a mixed method model in cases where baseline and at least one subsequent follow-up HAZ/WAZ were available. STATA 12 was used for statistical analysis. During 1998 to 2011, 466 children were enrolled (201 girls and 265 boys; median age = 7 y). A total of 302 children were ever started on ART; of which 73 and 76 children were included for analysis for catch up growth in WAZ and HAZ respectively. Median WAZ and HAZ increased from -2.14 to -1.34 (p = 0.007) and -2.42 to -1.94 (p = 0.34), respectively, 3 y post ART. Multivariable analysis using mixed model (adjusted for gender, guardianship, baseline age, baseline WAZ/HAZ, baseline and time varying WHO clinical stage) showed gains in WAZ (coef = 0.2, 95 % CI: -0.06 to 0.46) and HAZ (coef = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.21 to 0.77) with time on ART. Lower baseline WAZ/HAZ and older age were associated with impaired catch-up growth. Children staying in institutions and with baseline advanced clinical stage showed higher gain in WAZ. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was high at ART initiation. Sustained catch-up growth was seen with ART. The study highlights the benefit of early ART in achieving normal growth in CLHIV.

  17. What triggers catch-up saccades during visual tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Sophie; Yuksel, Demet; Blohm, Gunnar; Missal, Marcus; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2002-03-01

    When tracking moving visual stimuli, primates orient their visual axis by combining two kinds of eye movements, smooth pursuit and saccades, that have very different dynamics. Yet, the mechanisms that govern the decision to switch from one type of eye movement to the other are still poorly understood, even though they could bring a significant contribution to the understanding of how the CNS combines different kinds of control strategies to achieve a common motor and sensory goal. In this study, we investigated the oculomotor responses to a large range of different combinations of position error and velocity error during visual tracking of moving stimuli in humans. We found that the oculomotor system uses a prediction of the time at which the eye trajectory will cross the target, defined as the "eye crossing time" (T(XE)). The eye crossing time, which depends on both position error and velocity error, is the criterion used to switch between smooth and saccadic pursuit, i.e., to trigger catch-up saccades. On average, for T(XE) between 40 and 180 ms, no saccade is triggered and target tracking remains purely smooth. Conversely, when T(XE) becomes smaller than 40 ms or larger than 180 ms, a saccade is triggered after a short latency (around 125 ms).

  18. A replication of "Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution" (American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that in...

  19. A replication of "Education and catch-up in the industrial revolution" (American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and Catch-Up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable BHW use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that inf...

  20. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...

  1. Innovation, catch-up, and leadership in science-based industries

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Almudi; Francisco Fatas-Villafranca; Luis R. Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we seek to shed new light on the sources of industrial leadership and catch-up in science-based industries. We propose an evolutionary model that incorporates scientists' training and migration, endogenous R&D decisions, and the possibility of funding capital accumulation through debt. The analysis of the model allows us to characterize a robust pattern of industrial catch-up. Likewise, the sensitivity analysis shows which parameters act as pro-catch-up factors or slow down t...

  2. Technology transfer and catch-up; Lessons from the commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technology development and technology transfer strategies in the aircraft manufacturing industry for four industrially developing countries. It is concluded from four case studies that technology catch-up is extremely difficult due to aircraft technology characteristics.

  3. THE ILLUSION OF CATCHING UP THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC REGIONAL GAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen\tGHIORGHITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a sort of scientific bias in the way economics literature approaches the issues of general or regional economic growth and socio-economic backwardness. The term 'catching up of socio-economic gaps' appears to be rather a contradictio in adjecto, a sort of oxymoron, than a possible evolution of the world’s countries. The very idea of ‘catching-up’ or ‘recovery’ as a consequence of ‘lagging behind’ seems to be more specific to sports competitions or post-surgery periods. Transfering the idea of ‘backwardness’ to human communities (be it tribes, villages or political-administrative entities of higher dimensions is at least questionable. The contradiction is generated by the very establishment of the benchmarks for identifying ‘backwardness’. During the last 50 years, and after 1990 especially, the appeal to such indicators as GDP/capita, HDI, Gini coefficient, convergence criteria etc. became a common place. Nowadays it appears to anyone a matter-of-course, that any geopolitical entity can be "weighed" or "measured" by reference to a set of uniform criteria. Unfortunately, the global and regional efforts made after WW II towards an accelerated socio-economic growth of both developing and less developed countries succeded only for few countries to reduce the historically shaped gaps as against developed countries. On the contrary, for the bulk of the ‘lagged behind’ regions gaps seem to have risen. This is why many questions arose about the inefficiency of the steps made towards 'catching up of socio- economic gaps', such as: “Why after about 70 years of international welfare levelling efforts, gaps between development and living standards of the world regions are still so large?” “Why do economies have to grow at any price?” “Is the forced (artificial, accelerated development beneficial? And it if so, to whom?” “Are specific historical socio-economic structures negligible under the pressure of

  4. Institutions of Catching-up Development (On the Project of a New Model for Economic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Meerovich Polterovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that institutional trajectories of catching-up development in successful countries including similar interim institutions; this similarity is explained by common technological, institutional and cultural limitations which need to be taken into account and overcome. Corporatism, indicative planning, the availability of the “general” development agency with broad mandate, undervalued exchange rate – these and some other mechanisms provide the countries of the “economic miracle” with an opportunity to initiate and maintain rapid economic growth despite the low level of human capital, underdeveloped civic culture and market failures. Institutions of catching-up development contributed to the formation of collaborative relations between the government, business and society. They eased the limitations and were gradually modified, providing a transition to modern democracies with efficient market economy. The conducted analysis helps outline a plan for an institutional reform taking into account Russia’s institutional features. The principles of administrative reform are considered. The author also sets the objective of forming a “hybrid” system of national planning which includes indicative planning and program budgeting. A combination of public-private partnership and program financing is proposed for the financing of the planned projects. The author proposes to use Japanese experience of promoting temporary association of companies for the development of modernization projects. The principles of reforming the systems of state property and science management are discussed

  5. Men are catching up with women in the life expectancy game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    One reason men are catching up is because of falling smoking rates. To give an idea of the powerful effect of smoking rates on mortality, 800,000 American deaths from lung cancer have been avoided because of the decline in smoking rates between 1975 and 2000.

  6. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: Catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  7. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  8. Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.

  9. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products is...

  10. Brasil (1955-2005: 25 anos de catching up, 25 anos de falling behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arend

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil (1955-2005: 25 years of catching-up, 25 years of falling behind. The present paper discusses the Brazilian industrial development under a neo-schumpeterian perspective in the period after 1955. The hypothesis is that, in the last 50 years, Brazil spent the first 25 years catching up and, next, the following 25 years falling behind. The 1955-1980 period, by means of international funding, allowed catching up with the paradigm in maturation within the fourth technological revolution. However, in this period, it was determined the main debilitating elements for the country's entrance in the new techno-economical paradigm of the fifth technological revolution which emerged in the middle of the 70s. It is in the strategy to internationalize the economy, granting the mutinational companies the key-sectors of the national economy dynamics during the catching up period, the main element of dependence in the journey that conditions the current performance, responsible for technology subordination and keeps the Brazilian economy with low dynamism.

  11. Gradual catch up and enduring leadership in the global wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta

    The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European

  12. Downstream collecting in ciliary suspension feeders: the catch-up principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2000-01-01

    -size retention spectrum, the lower limit depends on spacing between cilia in phase, while the upper end depends on cilia length which may or may not allow particles to enter the ciliary region. On the basis of fluid mechanical considerations and literature descriptions of structure and function of the ciliary......Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. According...... to this principle, the compound cilia constitute the pump which generates a flow with suspended particles that enters the ciliary region. In this region the same cilia, during their power stroke, catch up with suspended particles and transfer the particles to a food groove, or a mouth cavity. In the particle...

  13. Is co-invention expediting technological catch up? A study of collaboration between emerging country firms

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Elisa; Martinelli, Arianna; Rabellotti, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Firms from emerging countries such as Brazil, India, and China (BIC) are going global, and Europe is attracting around one-third of their direct outward investments. Growing internationalization constitutes an opportunity for technological catch up. In this paper we analyze BIC firms' cross-border inventions with European Union (EU-27) actors, during the period 1990-2012. Our results suggest that cross-border inventions represent an opportunity for BIC firms to accumulate technological capabi...

  14. THE CATCHING-UP DEVELOPMENT: THE ASEAN EXPERIENCE AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т Ю Шалденкова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of catching-up development of ASEAN countries becomes valuable in the conditions of the Russian of import substitution policy and “turn to the East” in geopolitics. The objective of the paper is revealing the prospects of native catching-up development based on the analysis of theoretical aspects of the model of “flying geese” and their practical application in the ASEAN countries and Russia. The paper presents the theoretical foundations of catching-up development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm in the works of K. Akamatsu, R. Vernon, K. Kojima and indicates its main stages. The author reviews the measures of industrial, trade and investment policy of the ASEAN countries on the initial stages of the model and the modern aspects of their economic development. The materials of statistical reports of IMF, UNCTAD, ASEAN, the statistical data of Federal state statistics department of Russia, Federal customs department of Russia, the programs of the Russian Government in the field of import substitution are studied. The achievements and problems of implementing the programs of import substitution in agriculture, industry, IT-technologies in Russia were analyzed. The study showed the factors, hindering the domestic development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm. The recommendations for solving existing problems include the stimulation of aggregate demand and the development of high-tech exports. Special attention was drawn to the possibilities of applying selected elements of the model in terms of territorial heterogeneity of Russia.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of catch-up hepatitis A vaccination among unvaccinated/partially-vaccinated children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Rein, David B.; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso; Kennedy, Mallory J.; Bulkow, Lisa; Rosenberg, Eli; Trigg, Monica; Nelson, Noele P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12–23 months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. Methods We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95 years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17 years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention. Results Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2 million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10 years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12 years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population. PMID:27317459

  16. Implementing Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up with birth parents: Rationale and case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary

    2018-05-25

    Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) is an intervention designed for vulnerable children and their parents. This intervention enhances parental sensitivity and nurturance with the goal of promoting secure, organized attachments and strong self-regulatory capabilities among children. Here, we provide a brief rationale for the need for such interventions to be delivered to parent-child dyads in the child welfare system. Next, we review specific intervention targets of ABC. We include a case example of two birth parents and their daughter who became involved in Child Protective Services due to domestic violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  18. Catch-Up: A Rule That Makes Service Sports More Competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Brams, Steven J.; Ismail, Mehmet S.; Kilgour, D. Marc; Stromquist, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Service sports include two-player contests such as volleyball, badminton, and squash. We analyze four rules, including the Standard Rule (SR), in which a player continues to serve until he or she loses. The Catch-Up Rule (CR) gives the serve to the player who has lost the previous point—as opposed to the player who won the previous point, as under SR. We also consider two Trailing Rules that make the server the player who trails in total score. Surprisingly, compared with SR, only CR gives th...

  19. Catch-Up:A Rule that Makes Service Sports More Competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Brams, Steven; Ismail, Mehmet; Kilgour, Marc; Stromquist, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Service sports include two-player contests such as volleyball, badminton, and squash. We analyze four rules, including the Standard Rule (SR), in which a player continues to serve until he or she loses. The Catch-Up Rule (CR) gives the serve to the player who has lost the previous point—as opposed to the player who won the previous point, as under SR. We also consider two Trailing Rules that make the server the player who trails in total score. Surprisingly, compared with SR, only CR gives th...

  20. Innovation systems in small catching-up economies new perspectives on practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...

  1. The Catch-up Education Programme in Turkey: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börkan, Bengü; Ünlühisarcıklı, Özlem; Caner, H. Ayşe; Sart, Z. Hande

    2015-02-01

    Turkish children between the ages of 10-14 who either never enrolled in primary education, dropped out of school, or were at least three years behind their peers had the opportunity of joining an accelerated learning programme. It was developed by the Turkish Ministry of National Education General Directorate of Primary Education as a response to the urgent need to secure these children's right to education. The programme, called "Catch-up Education Programme" (CEP), was implemented between September 2008 and 2013 in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to enable those children to complete several grades in a short time and then to continue their education with their peers. This paper presents the findings of a study, conducted in 2010, reviewing the challenges and opportunities experienced during the implementation process from the points of view of beneficiaries (pupils and parents) and implementers. The results are discussed in relation to educational policy and its implementation in general.

  2. Strategic Entrepreneurship Based Model of Catch-up University in Global Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will help answer the question, why only few universities managed to succeed significantly in their global ranking advancement, while most of their competitors fail. For this purpose it will introduce a new strategically entrepreneurial catch-up university framework, based on the combination of the resource based view, dynamic capabilities, strategic entrepreneurship and latecomer organization concepts. The new framework logics explains the advantages of being ambidextrous for ranking oriented universities and pursuing new potentially more favorable opportunities for research development. It will propose that substantial increase in the level of dynamic capabilities of the universities and their resource base accumulation is based on the use of the new combination of financial, human and social capital combined with strategic management of these resources in the process of identification and exploitation of greater opportunities.

  3. Management practices utilization in organizations – A comparison between catching-up and well-developed economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine the utilization of management practices in catching-up and well-developed economies. Within that framework, the paper examines the utilization of management practices in Slovenian and Croatian organizations, as both are considered the representatives of catching-up economies from Central and East Europe (CEE, while also comparing the utilization of management practices in the two selected economies to the global use of management practices. Evidences about management practices utilization reveal that in well-developed economies in the forefront are management practices aiming to support customer relationship management, strength customer relations and customer satisfaction, while in Slovenia and Croatia prevail practices that are oriented toward optimization of the business and its processes. Based on the research results and the situation in organizations, a possible future pattern of management practice utilization in organizations operating in catching up economies is outlined, with the aim to reduce the developmental lag and increase competitiveness of those organizations. The paper also provides several practical implications for future utilization of management practices in catching-up economies. The sample of catching up-countries includes 155 responses from employees in Slovenian organizations and 185 from Croatian ones. Data for samples from well-developed economies are obtained from a global survey of management practices.

  4. Analysis of the Auckland 2014 measles outbreak indicates that adolescents and young adults could benefit from catch-up vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gary; Dias, Cassandra; Thornley, Simon; King, Ronald; Morrison, Anne; Matson, Angela; Hoskins, Richard

    2015-09-25

    To analyse the epidemiology, serology and vaccine effectiveness in a recent New Zealand measles outbreak that started in Auckland, from December, 2013 to June, 2014, to guide further preventive measures. Cases had a clinically compatible illness, which was either confirmed by PCR or serology, or were linked to a laboratory confirmed case. A total of 113 cases with 3,113 contacts were traced and managed in the Auckland region. Thirteen overseas acquired cases, produced a total of 98 locally acquired secondary cases, (plus two cases with unknown travel history). The majority of cases occurred in adolescents and young adults; 68/113 cases (60.1%) were aged 10 to 19 years. Among cases, 38.9% (44/113) were unimmunised, and 31.8% (36/113) had unknown immunisation status. A further 15.0% (17/113) of cases had received one or two doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Of the contacts who underwent serological testing for immunity (n=735), the lowest levels of serological immunity were observed in people aged 10 to 24 years. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated for the 15-24 year age cohort at 92% (95%CI; 82-97). Results suggest that an adolescent catch-up immunisation programme would prevent further outbreaks of imported measles.

  5. Time for Men to Catch up on Women? A Study of the Swedish Gender Wage Gap 1973-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Löfström, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 ...

  6. 'Catching up': The significance of occupational communities for the delivery of high quality home care by community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary; Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2013-07-01

    This article examines the importance of some informal work practices among community nurses during a period of significant organizational change. Ethnographic fieldwork in two purposively selected adult community nursing services in England comprised 79 hours of observation of routine practice, 21 interviews with staff and 23 interviews with patients. We identified the informal work practice of 'catching up', informal work conversations between immediate colleagues, as an important but often invisible aspect of satisfying work relationships and of the relational care of patients. Drawing on anthropological literatures on 'communities of practice' the article examines two central issues concerning the practices of 'catching up': (1) how informal learning processes shape community nursing work; (2) how this informal learning is shaped both in relation to the ideals of community nursing work and the wider political and organizational contexts of community nursing practice. Our findings highlight the distinctive value of informal workplace 'catch ups' for nurses to manage the inherent challenges of good home care for patients and to develop a shared ethic of care and professional identity. Our findings also indicate the decline of 'catching up' between nurses along with diminishing time and opportunity for staff to care holistically for patients in present service climates.

  7. Catch up patterns in newly industrializing countries : an international comparison of manufacturing productivity in Taiwan, 1961-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan has undergone a process of swift industrialization after 1948. Rapid accumulation of physical and human capital enabled Taiwan to exploit new technologies and products, resulting in rapid catch up in labour productivity relative to more advanced economies. Using the industry-of-origin

  8. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  9. When access to drugs meets catch-up: Insights from the use of CL threats to improve access to ARV drugs in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, Shyama V.; Urias, E.

    2018-01-01

    Access to affordable lifesaving medicines is considered a human right. This leads to a question largely understudied in the catch-up literature on accumulation of industrial capabilities. Can the need to improve access to an essential commodity impact the sectoral catch-up trajectory of the

  10. Association Between Weekend Catch-up Sleep and Lower Body Mass: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hee-Jin; Baek, Shin-Hye; Chu, Min Kyung; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Seong-Ho; Thomas, Robert J; Yun, Chang-Ho

    2017-07-01

    To determine if weekend catch-up sleep (CUS) impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. A stratified random sample (2156 subjects; age 19-82 years old, 43.0 ± 14.5; 1183 male) from the general population was evaluated, in 2010, using face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, habitual sleep duration, and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid-medical conditions. Weekend CUS was identified when nocturnal sleep extension occurred over the weekend, and this was quantified. Average sleep duration, BMI, and chronotype were determined. The association of BMI with the presence and the amount of weekend CUS was analyzed, independent of average sleep duration, chronotype, and sociodemographic factors. BMI and average sleep duration was 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 7.3 ± 1.2 hours, respectively. The weekend CUS group consisted of 932 subjects (43.1%) who slept longer on weekend than weekdays by 1.8 ± 1.1 hours. Weekend CUS subjects had a significantly lower BMI (22.8 ± 0.19 kg/m2) than the non-CUS (23.1 ± 0.19 kg/m2) group, after adjustment for age, sex, average sleep duration, chronotype, other sociodemographic factors, and anxiety/mood status (p = .01) The relationship between weekend CUS and BMI was dose-dependent (p = 0.02): Every additional hour of weekend CUS was associated with a decrease of 0.12 kg/m2 in BMI (95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.02). Weekend sleep extension may have biological protective effects in preventing sleep-restriction induced or related obesity. The results suggest a simple population-level strategy to minimize effects of sleep loss. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Utility Function and Optimum Consumption in the models with Habit Formation and Catching up with the Joneses

    OpenAIRE

    Naryshkin, Roman; Davison, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes popular time-nonseparable utility functions that describe "habit formation" consumer preferences comparing current consumption with the time averaged past consumption of the same individual and "catching up with the Joneses" (CuJ) models comparing individual consumption with a cross-sectional average consumption level. Few of these models give reasonable optimum consumption time series. We introduce theoretically justified utility specifications leading to a plausible cons...

  12. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  13. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  14. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  15. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  16. Catch-up HPV vaccination status of adolescents in relation to socioeconomic factors, individual beliefs and sexual behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and

  17. Research Output of Australian Universities: Are the Newer Institutions Catching up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Two decades on from the abolition of the binary divide in higher education in Australia, what has happened to the relative research performance of institutions that started from quite diverse positions? We use two databases, Thomson Reuters ISI and Scopus, to measure growth rates in research output. We find that there has been some convergence in…

  18. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals : a case study of China's Haier group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Jacob, J.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.; Yu, Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and

  19. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals: a comparative case study of China's Haier group

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Duysters; Jojo Jacob; Charmianne Lemmens; Yu Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and internationalization with those of India's Tata Group. We examine several aspects of their internationalization, such as the mode of internationalization and the choice of overseas destinations. The study furth...

  20. Self-Access Language Learning Programme: The Case of the English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.

  1. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  2. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    , but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....

  3. Comparatively low attendance during Human Papillomavirus catch-up vaccination among teenage girls in the Netherlands : Insights from a behavioral survey among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Smit, Marieke; Nijman, Hans W; Tami, Adriana; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Pascal, Astrid; Postma, Maarten J; Wolters, Bert A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Wilschut, Jan C; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. METHODS: Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an

  4. Too Late to Vaccinate? The Incremental Benefits and Cost-effectiveness of a Delayed Catch-up Program Using the 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. Methods We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. Results The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50–$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. Conclusions HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. PMID:25057044

  5. Urinary osteocalcin and serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide predict linear catch-up growth in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Leena; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    of this longitudinal study was to determine the extent to which postnatal levels of circulating cartilage (serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide [S-proCNP]) and urinary bone metabolic markers (urinary osteocalcin [MidOC] and two forms of C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [U-α-CTX-I and U...

  6. An effective approach using blended learning to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijie Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the average students are the prevailing part of the student population, it is important but difficult for the educators to help average students by improving their learning efficiency and learning outcome in school tests. We conducted a quasi-experiment with two English classes taught by one teacher in the second term of the first year of a junior high school. The experimental class was composed of average students (N=37, while the control class comprised talented students (N=34. Therefore the two classes performed differently in English subject with mean difference of 13.48 that is statistically significant based on the independent sample T-Test analysis. We tailored the web-based intelligent English instruction system, called Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC and featured with instant feedback, to the learning content in the experiment term, and the experimental class used it one school hour per week throughout the term. This blended learning setting with the focus on vocabulary and dialogue acquisition helped the students in the experimental class improve their learning performance gradually. The mean difference of the final test between the two classes was decreased to 3.78, while the mean difference of the test designed for the specially drilled vocabulary knowledge was decreased to 2.38 and was statistically not significant. The student interview and survey also demonstrated the students’ favor to the blended learning system. We conclude that the long-term integration of this content oriented blended learning system featured with instant feedback into ordinary class is an effective approach to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones.

  7. Efecto de la hormona de crecimiento (GH en el catch-up de ratas con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero, Fabián

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza los cambios morfométricos en el crecimiento postnatal de ratas RPC tratadas con GH. Ratas Wistar se dividieron en: Control (C, Sham-operado (Sh, RPC y RPC+GH. El RPC fue inducido por ligamiento de las arterias uterinas a los 14 días de gestación. La GH fue administrada desde los 21 hasta los 60 días de edad (Genotropin® 3.0 mg/kg/día. A los animales Sh se les inyectó sólo el diluyente. Los animales se radiografiaron a los 84 días de edad y se relevaron longitudes, anchos y alturas neurocraneana y esplacnocraneana y longitudes y anchos femoral, humeral y tibial, longitud de la columna y anchos pélvico inferior, medio y superior. Los datos fueron procesados mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP y discriminante (AD. El primer componente del ACP mostró efecto tamaño y el segundo forma, separando los sexos y los tratamientos. Los valores de F del AD fueron altamente significativos. La primera función quedó definida por los anchos pélvico medio y superior y la longitud tibial, explicando el 66% de la varianza. La segunda por el ancho pélvico superior y longitud tibial, explicando un 18% más de la variación total. La longitud tibial discriminó entre sexos y el ancho pélvico superior entre tratamientos. El análisis separó a los RPC de los RPC+GH y agrupó a éstos últimos con los Sh. Se concluye que el tratamiento con GH en animales RPC permite el catch up en tamaño y forma corporal, siendo más efectivo en las hembras.

  8. Too late to vaccinate? The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed catch-up program using the 4-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2015-01-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  10. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Paula B M; Neff, Laurence A; Strosova, Miriam K; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dulloo, Abdul G; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.

  11. How Structural Deficiencies Hamper Estonia’s Catching-up Process. Strukturschwächen als Hemmnis für Estlands Aufholprozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schrader

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estonia is widely regarded as a paramount example for a successful transformation of a socialist economic system to a functioning market economy. Against the backdrop of this positive image which contrasts strongly with the crisis scenarios in Southern Europe the remaining problems of Estonia are often ignored. Estonia has hardly succeeded in catching-up economically with the richer countries of the EU. In this paper the authors raise the question why the catching-up process of Estonia is not as successful as it could have been expected from the policy performance during the last decades. It turns out that Estonia faces a serious productivity problem, particularly in the manufacturing sector producing tradable goods which is normally the driving engine behind economic and technological catching-up. The Estonian economy has failed to undergo the necessary structural change towards technologically more advanced employment structures and export patterns. Accordingly, Estonian economic policy needs to create a suitable business environment to support this kind of structural change.

  12. Long-term follow-up of ventilator treated low birthweight infants. I. Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, M; Mortensson, W

    1986-09-01

    Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth were studied in 48 low birthweight infants surviving after ventilator treatment in the neonatal period. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was present in 14 infants shortly after weaning off ventilator. At 4 to 6 years of age most patients had normal chest radiographs but 13 still showed signs of pulmonary fibrosis and hyperinflation. Most patients had low dynamic compliance and high pulmonary resistance shortly after ventilator treatment. All but 8, however, had normal findings at 1 to 1 1/2 years of age. Pneumonias and bronchitis were common during the first two years but thereafter declined in frequency. Weight and length development were retarded for BPD patients during the first two years and for non-BPD patients for the first year. Both groups had a complete catch-up.

  13. Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-09-01

    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population-based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100 000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  15. A note on the catch-up time method for estimating lead or sojourn time in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Draisma (Gerrit); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractModels of cancer screening assume that cancers are detectable by screening before being diagnosed clinically through symptoms. The duration of this preclinical phase is called sojourn time, and it determines how much diagnosis might be advanced in time by the screening test (lead time).

  16. Growth at adolescence. Clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, W A

    1985-03-01

    Several highly significant changes occur within a relatively short period of time during adolescence. Great alteration in physique, developmental progress in thinking, and psychologic gains toward attaining ego identity take place but not always synchronously. Attention is paid to physical changes because they are visible and are of intense concern to adolescents, but physicians and other professionals should remember cognitive and psychosocial growth are affected by physical growth, and vice versa. Often there is a temporary disequilibrium in the relationship of these three areas of growth, and this can affect one or another part of the developmental pattern. It is therefore necessary to remind ourselves of the diversity of adolescent growth, and of adolescents, when caring for a young patient and be cognizant of growth in areas other than physical. More and more children with congenital or acquired handicaps are living to become adolescents and perhaps adults. Handicaps can be limited to one of the three major areas of growth or involve them all in varying degrees. For example, sickle cell disease, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis may postpone physical growth for a significant period; this lack of pubertal change can affect psychosocial development but usually does not impair cognitive growth. Mental retardation may have no apparent effect on physical growth but can handicap the adolescent's psychosocial development. Growth still occurs in a sequential pattern but often it seems that handicapped youngsters reach a developmental milestone by a series of "detours." Physicians must recognize these lags or differences and try to facilitate progress, promote self-esteem, and provide understanding. Much can be done with anticipatory guidance. Adolescence often provides the opportunity to overcome past damage or, in some instances, to start anew on a more optimal program for physical and psychosocial growth. Young adolescent boys and girls usually look to the

  17. Constitutional growth delay pattern of growth in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap; Ozdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS -3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch-up and ended up with a final height of -2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

  18. Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.

  19. [Positive impact of a video and TV documentary on attendance of women to catch-up collective vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S

    2011-02-01

    The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (χ² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa

    2016-04-27

    Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response

  1. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Catch-up stereotactic reirradiation and cetuximab for the inoperable recurrences of head and neck cancers; Reirradiation stereotaxique de rattrapage et cetuximab pour les recidives inoperables de cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, B.; Faivre-Pierret, M.; Dewas, S.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Degardin, M.; Lefebvre, J.L.; Lacornerie, T.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille, (France)

    2009-10-15

    The preliminary results show the efficiency of the stereotactic hypo fractionated reirradiation with or without cetuximab in catch-up situation. This curative intent treatment is possible with acceptable rate of acute toxicity and a response rate very promising. A longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the delayed toxicity and the survival without recurrence. (N.C.)

  4. Partial correction of the dwarf phenotype by non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene in mice: Treatment age is critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Cláudia R; Oliveira, Nélio A J; Lima, Eliana R; Vieira, Daniel P; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2016-02-01

    Non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene to different muscles of immunodeficient dwarf (lit/scid) mice is under study with the objective of improving phenotypic correction via this particular gene therapy approach. Plasmid DNA was administered into the exposed quadriceps or non-exposed tibialis cranialis muscle of lit/scid mice followed by electroporation, monitoring several growth parameters. In a 6-month bioassay, 50μg DNA were injected three times into the quadriceps muscle of 80-day old mice. A 50% weight increase, with a catch-up growth of 21%, together with a 16% increase for nose-to-tail and tail lengths (catch-up=19-21%) and a 24-28% increase for femur length (catch-up=53-60%), were obtained. mIGF1 serum levels were ~7-fold higher than the basal levels for untreated mice, but still ~2-fold lower than in non-dwarf scid mice. Since treatment age was found to be particularly important in a second bioassay utilizing 40-day old mice, these pubertal mice were compared in a third bioassay with adult (80-day old) mice, all treated twice with 50μg DNA injected into each tibialis cranialis muscle, via a less invasive approach. mIGF1 concentrations at the same level as co-aged scid mice were obtained 15days after administration in pubertal mice. Catch-up growth, based on femur length (77%), nose-to-tail (36%) and tail length (39%) increases was 40 to 95% higher than those obtained upon treating adult mice. These data pave the way for the development of more effective pre-clinical assays in pubertal dwarf mice for the treatment of GH deficiency via plasmid-DNA muscular administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Missed opportunities for catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination among university undergraduates: Identifying health decision-making behaviors and uptake barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Kathleen R; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Butler, Scott M; Omer, Saad B

    2018-01-04

    Suboptimal adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates in the US highlight the need for catch-up vaccination. When teenagers enter college, there may be a shift in healthcare decision-making from parents and guardians to the students themselves. Little is known about factors influencing college students' healthcare decision-making processes. We evaluated HPV vaccine decision-making among 18-to-26-year-old college students through a self-administered, anonymous, cross-sectional survey. This survey was distributed to a sample of men and women in classroom settings at two universities. Categorical data comparisons were conducted using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to model initiation of HPV vaccine and compute prevalence ratios while controlling for key influential covariates at the 0.05 alpha level. A total of 527 students participated (response proportion=93.1%). Overall, 55.8% of participants received the HPV vaccine. Encouraging conversations with doctors and/or parents/guardians were identified as one of the most influential factors to increase vaccine uptake. Among students who received encouragement from both a doctor and parent, 95.8% received the vaccine. Campaigns about cancer prevention were viewed as more influential than those that focus on preventing genital warts. Approximately one-third of students indicated they didn't know where to get the HPV vaccine. Women were more likely to report that their parents would not let them get the HPV vaccine compared to men (26.7% vs. 2.3%). The majority of students (77.3%) indicated their parents were sometimes, equally, or mostly involved in making decisions about receiving vaccines (other than flu). Students' decision-making is greatly influenced by their parents; therefore, interventions for this population should work to increase students' control over decision-making while also addressing parental concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Comparatively low attendance during Human Papillomavirus catch-up vaccination among teenage girls in the Netherlands: Insights from a behavioral survey among parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefenaite Giedre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. Methods Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an invitation letter to participate in a questionnaire study. Two study groups were defined: the first group consisted of parents of girls who had accepted the vaccine and already received the first dose of HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of parents whose daughters were not vaccinated. The questionnaire consisted of a broad spectrum of possible determinants that were revealed after literature search and discussions with the stakeholders. Results Four hundred sixty nine questionnaires (24% were returned, 307 (31% from those who accepted and 162 (16% from those who declined the vaccine. The decision not to accept the vaccine was largely determined by: (i perception that the information provided by the government about the vaccine was limited or biased (OR 13.27; (ii limited trust, that the government would stop the vaccination program if there were serious side effects (OR 9.95; (iii lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR 7.67; (iv concerns about the side effects of the vaccine (OR 4.94; (v lack of conviction that HPV can be extremely harmful (OR 3.78; (vi perception that the government is strongly influenced by vaccine producers (OR 3.54; and (vii religious convictions (OR 2.18. Conclusions This study revealed several determinants for HPV vaccination uptake after implementation of the HPV vaccine for adolescent girls. These determinants should be taken into consideration in order to successfully implement HPV vaccination into National Immunization Programs.

  7. Comparatively low attendance during Human Papillomavirus catch-up vaccination among teenage girls in the Netherlands: Insights from a behavioral survey among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Smit, Marieke; Nijman, Hans W; Tami, Adriana; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Pascal, Astrid; Postma, Maarten J; Wolters, Bert A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Wilschut, Jan C; Hak, Eelko

    2012-07-02

    The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an invitation letter to participate in a questionnaire study. Two study groups were defined: the first group consisted of parents of girls who had accepted the vaccine and already received the first dose of HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of parents whose daughters were not vaccinated. The questionnaire consisted of a broad spectrum of possible determinants that were revealed after literature search and discussions with the stakeholders. Four hundred sixty nine questionnaires (24%) were returned, 307 (31%) from those who accepted and 162 (16%) from those who declined the vaccine. The decision not to accept the vaccine was largely determined by: (i) perception that the information provided by the government about the vaccine was limited or biased (OR 13.27); (ii) limited trust, that the government would stop the vaccination program if there were serious side effects (OR 9.95); (iii) lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR 7.67); (iv) concerns about the side effects of the vaccine (OR 4.94); (v) lack of conviction that HPV can be extremely harmful (OR 3.78); (vi) perception that the government is strongly influenced by vaccine producers (OR 3.54); and (vii) religious convictions (OR 2.18). This study revealed several determinants for HPV vaccination uptake after implementation of the HPV vaccine for adolescent girls. These determinants should be taken into consideration in order to successfully implement HPV vaccination into National Immunization Programs.

  8. Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...

  9. Iatrogenic Cushing's Disease in a Boy after Misdiagnosis of Salt-Losing Virilizing Adrenal Hyperplasia: Impaired Metyrapone Response with Failure of Catch-Up Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendilaharzu, Hernan; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A boy misdiagnosed as having the sodium-losing form of virilizing adrenal hyperplasia was treated with large doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the newborn period until he was more than 4 years of age. (Author)

  10. CLINICAL AND HORMONAL MILIEU OF 9 PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY GROWTH HORMONE INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME AND THEIR RESPONSE TO IGF-I GENERATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Razzaghy-Azar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS is a rare entity which can be due to defects in growth hormone (GH receptor that is called type 1 Laron syndrome (T1LS or post receptor defects (type 2 Laron syndrome . The aim of study was determining the clinical and hormonal milieu of the patients with primary GHIS and their response to IGF-I (insulin like growth factor-I generation test (IGT. GH, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein 1 and 3 (BP-1 and BP-3, GH binding protein (GHBP and anti-GH antibody were detected by ELISA and RIA methods. IGF-I and BP-3 were measured before and after IGT. Nine patients (8 males, 1 female (mean age ± SD, 6.4 ± 5 years with severe short stature and high GH level were studied. Height SDS was - 8.5 ± 2.6. In 7 patients GHBP was zero, IGF-I and BP-3 were low and did not increase after IGT, so they had T1LS. Two brothers did not show the hormonal milieu of GH receptor defect, and were called non Laron syndrome (NLS. Birth weight in patients with T1LS and NLS was 3.65 ± 0.2 Kg and 1.65 ± 0.2 Kg, respectively (P = 0.001. All of the patients had typical clinical feature of GH-deficiency, but nasal bridge depression and microphallus were not seen in NLS. GH treatment of NLS, normalized their growth velocity, but without catch up growth. In conclusion IGT can differentiate Laron syndrome from other types of short stature. GH and IGF-I of fetus have no role in intrauterine growth.

  11. Growth factors: biological and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruifrok, A.C.C.; McBride, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this meeting summary is to provide an overview of cytokine research and its role in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: The sixth annual Radiation Workshop was held at the International Festival Institute at Round Top, TX. Results: Presentations of seventeen speakers provided the framework for discussions on the biological and clinical aspects of cytokine research. Conclusion: Orchestration of coordinated cellular responses over the time course of radiation effects requires the interaction of many growth factors with their receptors as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Cytokine networks and integrated systems are important in tumor development, cancer treatment, and normal and tumor response to cancer treatment

  12. Reduced schedules of 4CMenB vaccine in infants and catch-up series in children: Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomised open-label phase 3b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Martinez, Alfonso Carmona; Marquez, Pilar Infante; Torres, Juan Carlos Tejedor; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela

    2017-06-16

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered alone according to reduced schedules in infants or catch-up series in children. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 3b study (NCT01339923), infants randomised 1:1:1 received 4CMenB: 2+1 doses at 3½-5-11months or 6-8-11months of age, 3+1 doses at ages 2½-3½-5-11months. Children aged 2-10years received 2 catch-up doses administered 2months apart. Immune responses were measured by hSBA assays against 4 strains specific for vaccine components fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses was defined in groups with 2+1 doses schedules as a lower limit ≥70% for the 97.5% confidence interval of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥4, 1month post-dose 2 for fHbp, NadA, PorA. Adverse events were collected for 7days post-vaccination; serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study. 754 infants and 404 children were enrolled. Post-primary vaccination, 98-100% of infants across all groups developed hSBA titres ≥4 for fHbp, NadA, PorA, and 48-77% for NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses in infants receiving 2+1 schedules was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA, PorA after 2 doses of 4CMenB, as pre-specified criteria were met. Following receipt of 2 catch-up doses, 95-99% of children developed hSBA titres ≥4 for 4CMenB components. Similar safety profiles were observed across groups. A total of 45 SAEs were reported, 3 of which were related to vaccination. Reduced infant schedules and catch-up series in children were immunogenic and safe, having the potential to widen 4CMenB vaccine coverage. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Clinical chemistry since 1800: growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    The 19th and 20th centuries witnessed the growth and development of clinical chemistry. Many of the individuals and the significance of their contributions are not very well known, especially to new members of the profession. This survey should help familiarize them with the names and significance of the contributions of physicians and chemists such as Fourcroy, Berzelius, Liebig, Prout, Bright, and Rees. Folin and Van Slyke are better known, and it was their work near the end of the second decade of the 20th century that brought the clinical chemist out of the annex of the mortuary and into close relationship with the patient at the bedside. However, the impact on clinical chemistry and the practice of medicine by the 1910 exposé written by Abraham Flexner is not as well known as it deserves to be, nor is the impetus that World War I gave to the spread of laboratory medicine generally known. In the closing decades of the 20th century, automated devices produced an overabundance, and an overuse and misuse, of testing to the detriment of careful history taking and bedside examination of the patient. This is attributable in part to a fascination with machine-produced data. There was also an increased awareness of the value of chemical methods of diagnosis and the need to bring clinician and clinical chemist into a closer partnership. Clinical chemists were urged to develop services into dynamic descriptions of the diagnostic values of laboratory results and to identify medical relevance in interpreting significance for the clinician.

  14. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  15. Boys Might Catch Up, Family Influences Continue: Influences on Behavioral Self-Regulation in Children from an Affluent Region in Germany before School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral self-regulation is crucial for school success. Although behavioral self-regulation typically grows rapidly during the preschool period, children in this age group vary widely in their behavioral self-regulation capacities. The present study investigated 3 potential determinants of growth rates in behavioral…

  16. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic

  17. Clusters, Connectivity and Catch-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Mudambi, Ram

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we make two important contributions to the literature on clusters. First, we provide a broader theory of cluster connectivity that has hitherto focused on organization-based pipelines and MNE subsidiaries, by including linkages in the form of personal relationships. Second, we us...... by contrasting two emerging economy case studies: Bollywood, the Indian filmed entertainment cluster in Mumbai and the Indian software cluster in Bangalore....

  18. Treatment of male varicoceles by transcatheter polidocanol foam sclerotherapy: evaluation of clinical success, complications, and patients' satisfaction with regard to alternative techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Alma; Wirth, Stefan; Treitl, Karla Maria; Treitl, Marcus [Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We report our experience with polidocanol foam sclerotherapy with no additional coils, evaluating clinical success, patients' satisfaction, and complications. We conducted a retrospective study of 141 patients with 146 varicoceles (mean age: 29.3 years; range: 13 - 60 years) who underwent foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol 2 % (range: 2 - 12 ml) in an outpatient setting between January 2007 and December 2013. For the follow-up, telephone interviews with the patients were conducted (mean follow-up time: 46.4 months, standard deviation: 20.17 months). The technical success rate was 91.8 %. There was a 55.8 % response rate to the telephone interviews. Follow-up revealed a clinical success rate of 83.9 % and a persistence or relapse rate of 16.1 %. Of the patients, 81.9 % were absolutely satisfied with the outcome. In 94.9 % of cases, pain or discomfort resolution was reported, and in 97 % of cases, aesthetic issues were no longer a problem. Of partners, 63.2 % achieved pregnancy, and in 50 % of patients with preprocedural testicular atrophy, catch-up growth was observed. One patient with pampiniform plexus phlebitis received inpatient treatment with no long-term damage recorded. Polidocanol foam varicocele sclerotherapy is a safe and effective procedure, with a high rate of patients' satisfaction, clinical and technical success, and considerable catch-up growth and pregnancy achievement. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of male varicoceles by transcatheter polidocanol foam sclerotherapy: evaluation of clinical success, complications, and patients' satisfaction with regard to alternative techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Alma; Wirth, Stefan; Treitl, Karla Maria; Treitl, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We report our experience with polidocanol foam sclerotherapy with no additional coils, evaluating clinical success, patients' satisfaction, and complications. We conducted a retrospective study of 141 patients with 146 varicoceles (mean age: 29.3 years; range: 13 - 60 years) who underwent foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol 2 % (range: 2 - 12 ml) in an outpatient setting between January 2007 and December 2013. For the follow-up, telephone interviews with the patients were conducted (mean follow-up time: 46.4 months, standard deviation: 20.17 months). The technical success rate was 91.8 %. There was a 55.8 % response rate to the telephone interviews. Follow-up revealed a clinical success rate of 83.9 % and a persistence or relapse rate of 16.1 %. Of the patients, 81.9 % were absolutely satisfied with the outcome. In 94.9 % of cases, pain or discomfort resolution was reported, and in 97 % of cases, aesthetic issues were no longer a problem. Of partners, 63.2 % achieved pregnancy, and in 50 % of patients with preprocedural testicular atrophy, catch-up growth was observed. One patient with pampiniform plexus phlebitis received inpatient treatment with no long-term damage recorded. Polidocanol foam varicocele sclerotherapy is a safe and effective procedure, with a high rate of patients' satisfaction, clinical and technical success, and considerable catch-up growth and pregnancy achievement. (orig.)

  20. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies and future research possibilities. In this review we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  1. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth trajectories in young Ethiopian children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineyam Taye

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting that H. pylori infection is inversely associated with childhood growth trajectory, after controlling for a range of factors associated with reduced growth and H. pylori status. Further follow-up will be important to confirm possible catch-up in height trajectory among H. pylori-infected children as they grow older.

  3. Temporary and lasting effects of childhood deprivation on male stature. Late adolescent stature and catch-up growth in Woerden (The Netherlands) in the first half of the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekink, E.; Kok, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the statures of men during late adolescence, measured at age 19, with the stature in adulthood, measured at age 25, specially focusing on the influences of household situation and family stress. On average, the men studied became five centimeters taller in the interval, but there

  4. Essays on industrial structure and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    The book is a thesis submitted for the degree of dr. polit. at the University of Bergen. It has chapters on economic development and industrial structure, trade and growth with static and dynamic economies of scale, terms of trade and economic growth in a world of constrained capital mobility, how liberalization of trade in services may conserve natural reserves, some reasons why capital does not flow from rich to poor counties and finally on South African manufacturing industries - catching up or falling behind

  5. The role and future challenges for recombinant growth hormone therapy to promote growth in children after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Halima S; Mahan, John D

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease can severely impair linear growth in children. For many children, growth improves after renal transplantation, but for some, growth velocity remains low and for others, catch-up growth is insufficient to compensate for the deficit imparted by renal disease in the preceding years. Inadequate final adult height after renal transplant is multifactorial and can adversely affect the quality of life (QOL), psychosocial development and long term prospects for these children as they grow into adulthood. Growth failure after renal transplant requires thorough evaluation and its management in renal transplant recipients can involve improved nutritional intake, correction of metabolic acidosis, treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism, steroid-sparing immunosuppression and/or use of recombinant human growth hormone (rGH). Treatment with rGH after renal transplant has been evaluated by a limited number of clinical trials suggesting efficacy and safety for this treatment strategy. Several important clinical questions regarding rGH use in children post-renal transplant remain unanswered. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. [Growth in children with diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla Báez, E; Dorantes Alvarez, L M; Chavarría Bonequi, C

    1980-01-01

    Commercial preparations of vasopressin for the treatment of diabetes insipidus are not available in Mexico. Besides, the hormone is useless in the nephrogenic variety. In the department of Endocrinology at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico, a preparation containing hydrochlorothiazide, aminopyrine and potassium chloride, which reduces urinary volumes in about two thirds, is employed in all varieties of the disease. Growth in stature was investigated in 44 patients under treatment, attending the Endocrine Outpatient Clinic since 1967 for a period of 2 to 12 years. Clinical material included 29 males and 15 females. There were 23 idiopathic, 7 histiocytosis, 5 nephrogenic, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 2 psychogenic polydipsia, 2 traumatic and 1, as a sequel of tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Six idiopathic, 2 nephrogenic, 2 traumatic, 1 histiocytosis, and 1 psychogenic proceeded between percentiles 3 and 97, parallel to the nearest line of reference along the whole period of study. Two nephrogenic, 2 histiocytosis, 1 psychogenic, 1 post-meningoencephalitis and 14 idiopathic, grew below the third percentile, but parallel to it. One nephrogenic, 4 histiocytosis, 4 craniopharyngioma and 3 idiopathic progressively departed from the initial centile. Two of the latter had growth hormone deficiency, and 1 had been very irregularly treated. It is concluded that the therapy employed limits stature impairment but does not produce catch-up growth. Accordingly, it is proposed that the treatment of diabetes insipidus should be started as early as possible, and that if progress in stature is appreciably deteriorated, the presence of additional pathology should be suspected.

  7. Growth retardation and reduced growth hormone secretion in cystic fibrosis. Clinical observations from three CF centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, D'Orazio; Padoan, Rita; Blau, Hannah; Marostica, Anna; Fuoti, Maurizio; Volpi, Sonia; Pilotta, Alba; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh M

    2013-03-01

    Growth delay in cystic fibrosis is frequent and is usually the result of several interacting causes. It most often derives from severe respiratory impairment and severe malabsorption. There are however patients whose clinical condition is not severe enough to be held accountable for this phenomenon. We aimed at describing patients who showed growth delay, who were not affected by severe pulmonary disease or malabsorption and who, when tested, showed a reduced GH secretion after stimulation with conventional agents. We noticed a disproportionately large prevalence of growth hormone (GH) release deficit (GHRD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We examined all patients under our care in the period 2006-11, who were older than 5 and younger than 16 years old. We focussed on those who fell below the 3rd height percentile, or whose growth during the previous 18 months faltered by >2SD, and who did not present clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive. These patients were subjected to standard GH provocative tests. Out of 285 who matched the age criterion, 33 patients also matched the height percentile criterion. While 15/33 suffered clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive, 18/33 underwent GH release provocative tests and 12/18 showed a release deficit. We conclude that impaired GH secretion is more frequent among CF patients compared to the prevalence of GH deficiency in the general population and that GH release impairment may be an independent cause of growth delay in CF. Our findings are in agreement with recent studies that have described low GH levels in CF piglets and in neonates with CF [1]. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postnatal Growth in a Cohort of Sardinian Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR undergo catch-up growth during infancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the postnatal growth in a cohort of IUGR infants born in a tertiary-level Obstetric University Hospital of Northern Sardinia. An observational retrospective study was conducted on 12 IUGR (group A and 12 control infants (group B by measuring the anthropometric parameters of weight (W, length (L and head circumference (HC from birth to the 3rd postnatal year. At birth, significant differences were found between group A and group B with regard to all the auxological parameters (W, mean 1846.6 versus 3170.8 g, p < 0.0001; HC, 30.1 versus 34.4 cm, p < 0.0001; L, mean 43.4 versus 49.4 cm, p < 0.0001. During the 1st year, 8 of 12 (70% IUGR infants exhibited a significant catch-up growth in the 3 anthropometric parameters and a regular growth until the 3rd year of follow-up. The majority but not all infants born with IUGR in our series showed significant postnatal catch-up growth essentially during the first 12 months of life. An improved knowledge of the causes of IUGR will help to develop measures for its prevention and individualized treatment.

  9. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  10. Metacarpal index in short stature before and during growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, M.; Graf, K.; Nelle, M.; Heinrich, U.; Troger, J.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the usefulness of the metacarpal index (MCI) as a radiographic measure of the proportions of the metacarpals in the differential diagnosis of short stature. To investigate the significance of the MCI in following the longitudinal growth and proportions of individual long bones during growth hormone stimulated catch up growth in children with short stature with and without growth hormone deficiency.
SUBJECTS—124 children, including 65 children with short sta...

  11. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  12. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  13. SGA and Turner Syndrome: the impact of growth hormone treatment on physical and mental well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.N. Bannink (Ellen)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBy definition, 2.3% of the children is born Small for Gestational Age (SGA), which is a length and/or height < -2 standard deviation (SD). Most children born SGA show catch-up growth during the first years of life. Approximately 10% of them remain short with a height below the normal

  14. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  15. Child nutritional status and child growth in Kenya: socioeconomic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, A B

    1996-01-01

    The determinants of weight and height are explored using nationally representative data for Kenya. The author also uses recall data on child birth weights to estimate conditional reduced-form demand relations for weight gain among 7907 children aged 0-5 years. Maternal education was found to be a significant determinant of weight, height, and weight gain, with secondary schooling having larger, but not significantly different effects than primary schooling. Per capita household expenditure is highly significant but with only small numerical effects. Birth weight has a large, negative effect upon subsequent weight gain, indicating almost complete catch-up growth by age one. The effect becomes more negative when birth weight is treated as an endogenous variable. There is no evidence of any catch-up growth beyond age three. The study results indicate that small deficits in birth weight are not likely to be permanent, with infants making up for birth weight deficits completely within the first year of life through biological catch-up growth.

  16. For Debate: Growth Hormone Treatment of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age should be Started at or before the First Year of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Laron-Kenet, Tamar; Klinger, Gil

    2016-12-01

    Children born small for gestational age without early catch-up of somatic growth and head circumference subsequently remain short and suffer from various degrees of neurocognitive and psychological impairment. Based upon the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I on early brain growth and maturation, we propose that GH treatment of these infants be instituted prior to their 2nd birthday. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  17. Respiratory Proteomics Today: Are Technological Advances for the Identification of Biomarker Signatures Catching up with Their Promise? A Critical Review of the Literature in the Decade 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglio, Simona; Stolk, Jan; Iadarola, Paolo; Giuliano, Serena; Luisetti, Maurizio; Salvini, Roberta; Fumagalli, Marco; Bardoni, Anna

    2014-01-22

    To improve the knowledge on a variety of severe disorders, research has moved from the analysis of individual proteins to the investigation of all proteins expressed by a tissue/organism. This global proteomic approach could prove very useful: (i) for investigating the biochemical pathways involved in disease; (ii) for generating hypotheses; or (iii) as a tool for the identification of proteins differentially expressed in response to the disease state. Proteomics has not been used yet in the field of respiratory research as extensively as in other fields, only a few reproducible and clinically applicable molecular markers, which can assist in diagnosis, having been currently identified. The continuous advances in both instrumentation and methodology, which enable sensitive and quantitative proteomic analyses in much smaller amounts of biological material than before, will hopefully promote the identification of new candidate biomarkers in this area. The aim of this report is to critically review the application over the decade 2004-2013 of very sophisticated technologies to the study of respiratory disorders. The observed changes in protein expression profiles from tissues/fluids of patients affected by pulmonary disorders opens the route for the identification of novel pathological mediators of these disorders.

  18. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  19. CATCHING-UP AND INTEGRATION IN NEW AND FUTURE EU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This goes along with an important flow of foreign capital pouring in the region where .... among sectors in market economies, to the low rate of innovation, to ..... property rights, protection of intellectual property rights) does host ... Public Sector.

  20. Impact of the Reading Catch-Up Programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wits-Admin

    Research Directorate, Department of Basic Education, Pretoria, South Africa ..... one high-performing school with an inspiring principal in the sample .... bers) and coaches' salaries. We also ...... Executive Summary & Report Summary) for the.

  1. Patient Handoff Education: Are Medical Schools Catching Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robyn; Davis, Joshua; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J; Russo, Stefani; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    Communication errors during shift-to-shift handoffs are a leading cause of preventable adverse events. Nevertheless, handoff skills are variably taught at medical schools. The authors administered questionnaires on handoffs to interns during orientation. Questions focused on medical school handoff education, experiences, and perceptions. The majority (546/718) reported having some form of education on handoffs during medical school, with 48% indicating this was 1 hour or less. Most respondents (98%) reported that they believe patients experience adverse events because of inadequate handoffs, and more than one third had witnessed a patient safety issue. Results show that medical school graduates are not receiving adequate handoff training. Yet graduates are expected to conduct safe patient handoffs at the start of residency. Given that ineffective handoffs pose a significant patient safety risk, medical school graduates should have a baseline competency in handoff skills. This will require medical schools to develop, implement, and study handoff education.

  2. Impact of the Reading Catch-Up Programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wits-Admin

    With limited resources available to us, it is crucial that we understand what research tells us about ... teachers how to use a comprehension instructional ... two English Home Language Grade Five classes .... advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Industry standards catch up with in-service welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, W.A.

    1999-11-01

    Welding onto a pipeline after it has been put into service, a practice commonly referred to as hot tap welding, is frequently required for several reasons. Repair sleeves are installed to reinforce areas of corrosion or mechanical damage, and branch connections are made for system modifications. There are often significant economic incentives to perform this welding without removing the system from service. Operations are maintained during welding and the pipe's contents are not vented into the atmosphere. Due to technological advances in in-service welding, industry needed an update to standards and recommended practices. This year, the American Petroleum Institute (API) hopes to meet that need. The 19th edition of API Standard 1104--Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, includes a new appendix that pertains to in-service welding. Appendix B, In-Service Welding, is intended to eventually replace API Recommended Practice 1107--Pipeline Maintenance Welding Practices. API 1107, which was introduced in 1966 and updated in 1987 and 1991, is intended to provide recommended practices for pipeline maintenance welding. The current third edition approached its mandatory five-year review in 1996 by the API-AGA Joint Committee on Oil and Gas Pipeline Field Welding Practices, which also maintains API 1104. The committee saw 11078 needed to reflect the updates that had been made to 1104 as well as the technological advances for in-service welding. To alleviate redundancy between the two documents, and to alleviate lag time between updates, the committee approved a proposal to update and incorporate requirements of API 1107 into an appendix of API 1104. In the meantime, the third edition of API 1107 was reapproved for another five-year review cycle.

  4. Generation Y Interactions : Making the Office Catch Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology in the past decade has enabled the introduction of a number of new communication tools and platforms in everyday life, such as instant messaging, podcasting, blogging and social networking. These tools offer people new ways of interacting, enabling

  5. Polarization-color mapping strategies: catching up with color theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew W.; Alenin, Andrey S.; Vaughn, Israel J.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2017-09-01

    Current visualization techniques for mapping polarization data to a color coordinates defined by the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color representation are analyzed in the context of perceptual uniformity. Since HSV is not designed to be perceptually uniform, the extent of non-uniformity should be evaluated by using robust color difference formulae and by comparison to the state-of-the-art uniform color space CAM02-UCS. For mapping just angle of polarization with HSV hue, the results show clear non-uniformity and implications for how this can misrepresent the data. UCS can be used to create alternative mapping techniques that are perceptually uniform. Implementing variation in lightness may increase shape discrimination within the scene. Future work will be dedicated to measuring performance of both current and proposed methods using psychophysical analysis.

  6. Impact of the Reading Catch-Up Programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wits-Admin

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 37, Number 1, February 2017 ... policy maker to know the average impact on the population as a whole, and perhaps also the ... based on a sufficiently large and representative sample from the targeted ... the article begins with an analysis of two published studies of intermediate ...

  7. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub a}) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub b}). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA{sub b} in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  8. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani; Astrakas, Loukas G.

    2014-01-01

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA a ) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA b ). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA b in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  9. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome): clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Vaccarello, M A; Fielder, P J; de la Vega, A; Diamond, F B; Rosenfeld, R G

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 60 cases of GHRD (Laron syndrome) were reported before 1990 and half of these were from Israel. We have described 47 additional patients from an inbred population of South Ecuador and have emphasized certain clinical features including: markedly advanced osseous maturation for height age; normal body proportions in childhood but child-like proportions in adults; much greater deviation of stature than head size, giving an appearance of large cranium and small facies; underweight in childhood despite the appearance of obesity and true obesity in adulthood; blue scleras; and limited elbow extension. The Ecuadorean patients differed markedly and most importantly from the other large concentration, in Israel, by being of normal or superior intelligence, suggesting a unique linkage in the Ecuadorean population. The Ecuadorean population also differed in that those patients coming from Loja province had a markedly skewed sex ratio (19 females: 2 males), while those from El Oro province had a normal sex distribution (14 females: 12 males). The phenotypic similarity between the El Oro and Loja patients indicates that this abnormal sex distribution is not a direct result of the GHRD.

  10. Growth status of children in well-baby outpatient clinics and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan Bulut; Şahin, Figen; Beyazova, Ufuk; Can, Hüseyin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the state of growth during follow-up of healthy children and the factors affecting growth. The patient cards of the infants who were born in 2002 and followed up in the well-baby outpatient clinic in Gazi University, Medical Faculty regularly for at least 18 months were examined retrospectively. Their sociodemographic properties including age, education level, occupation of the parents, if the mother was working, caretakers and gender, gestational week, birth weight, birth height and mode of nutrition (breastmilk, formula, cow's milk, period of feeding, etc.) and growth of the babies (month, percentile) were recorded. Number of siblings and ages of the siblings were also recorded and the children with and without growth problems were compared in terms of these properties. It was found that 290 (39.3%) of 739 children who were followed up continued to grow up in the percentile in which they started (normal growth), 188 (25.4%) lost 2 or more percentiles in any month (growth retardation) and 261 (35.3%) lost less than 2 percentiles (decelerated growth). Deceleration/retardation in growth was observed most commonly in the 9(th) month. Deceleration in growth was found in the 6(th) month in 23.6% of the group with deceleration in growth, in the 9(th) month in 50.2%, in the 12(th) month in 15.8% and in the 18(th) month in 3.9%. Growth retardation was found in the 6(th) month in 35.8% of the group with growth retardation, in the 9(th) month in 38.0% and in the 18(th) month in 4.3%. It was found that receiving formula and presence of infection were the main risk factors in terms of deceleration of growth and unemployed mother, the lenght of the total time of breastfeeding and presence of infection were the main risk factors in terms of growth retardation. This study shows the importance of follow-up of growth of children in outpatient clinics for healthy children. It was found that detailed examination and recording of non

  11. The Role of KCNQ1 Mutations and Maternal Beta Blocker Use During Pregnancy in the Growth of Children With Long QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heta Huttunen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTwo missense mutations in KCNQ1, an imprinted gene that encodes the alpha subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1, cause autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We evaluated endocrine features, birth size, and subsequent somatic growth of patients with long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1 due to loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1.DesignMedical records of 104 patients with LQT1 in a single tertiary care center between 1995 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.MethodsClinical and endocrine data of the LQT1 patients were included in the analyses.ResultsAt birth, patients with a maternally inherited mutation (n = 52 were shorter than those with paternal inheritance of the mutation (n = 29 (birth length, −0.70 ± 1.1 SDS vs. −0.2 ± 1.0 SDS, P < 0.05. Further analyses showed, however, that only newborns (n = 19 of mothers who had received beta blockers during pregnancy were shorter and lighter at birth than those with paternal inheritance of the mutation (n = 29 (−0.89 ± 1.0 SDS vs. −0.20 ± 1.0 SDS, P < 0.05; and 3,173 ± 469 vs. 3,515 ± 466 g, P < 0.05. Maternal beta blocker treatment during the pregnancy was also associated with lower cord blood TSH levels (P = 0.011 and significant catch-up growth during the first year of life (Δ0.08 SDS/month, P = 0.004. Later, childhood growth of the patients was unremarkable.ConclusionLoss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 are not associated with abnormalities in growth, whereas maternal beta blocker use during pregnancy seems to modify prenatal growth of LQT1 patients—a phenomenon followed by catch-up growth after birth.

  12. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, S.H.; van Nooijen, F.C.; Piek, J.J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and mortality world wide. Although experimental studies on the stimulation of arteriogenesis have been promising, not a single drug has been proved to be applicable in clinical practice, either because of...

  14. Growth/differentiation factor-5: pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation--review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaebum; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2014-08-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) plays critical roles in mesenchymal cell differentiation and stimulates human periodontal ligament cell proliferation. Potentially, GDF-5 may also play roles in wound healing including periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation. The objective of this review was to provide up-to-date information from pre-clinical/clinical studies evaluating GDF-5 for these indications. A comprehensive search using PubMed and Google search engines was conducted to identify reports on GDF-5 applied to periodontal and alveolar indications. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts from a total of 479 reports. Full-length articles of 17 pre-clinical and four clinical studies were selected and reviewed. Canine-, porcine- and non-human primate-based models as well as human clinical trials were used in the evaluation of GDF-5 in support of periodontal regeneration and alveolar augmentation. An absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were evaluated as candidate carriers for GDF-5 using various dose and healing intervals demonstrating significantly enhanced periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation including cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with limited, if any, adverse effects. Growth/differentiation factor-5 supports periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation without aberrant healing events documented in qualified pre-clinical models and clinical pilot studies. In perspective, GDF-5 appears a promising technology for periodontal regeneration/alveolar augmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Generalized Growth of Estuarine, Household and Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Diaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected.

  16. Generalized Growth of Estuarine, Household and Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Kelly E; Remold, Susanna K; Onyiri, Ogochukwu; Bozeman, Maura; Raymond, Peter A; Turner, Paul E

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic) in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment) differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected.

  17. Generalized Growth of Estuarine, Household and Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Kelly E.; Remold, Susanna K.; Onyiri, Ogochukwu; Bozeman, Maura; Raymond, Peter A.; Turner, Paul E.

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic) in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment) differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected. PMID:29599754

  18. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

  19. A placenta clinic approach to the diagnosis and management of fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, John C; Audette, Melanie C; Hobson, Sebastian R; Windrim, Rory C; Morgen, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Effective detection and management of fetal growth restriction is relevant to all obstetric care providers. Models of best practice to care for these patients and their families continue to evolve. Since much of the disease burden in fetal growth restriction originates in the placenta, the concept of a multidisciplinary placenta clinic program, managed primarily within a maternal-fetal medicine division, has gained popularity. In this context, fetal growth restriction is merely one of many placenta-related disorders that can benefit from an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating expertise from specialist perinatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, reproductive genetics, neonatal pediatrics, internal medicine subspecialties, perinatal pathology, and nursing. The accurate diagnosis and prognosis for women with fetal growth restriction is established by comprehensive clinical review and detailed sonographic evaluation of the fetus, combined with uterine artery Doppler and morphologic assessment of the placenta. Diagnostic accuracy for placenta-mediated fetal growth restriction may be enhanced by quantification of maternal serum biomarkers including placenta growth factor alone or combined with soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. Uterine artery Doppler is typically abnormal in most instances of early-onset fetal growth restriction and is associated with coexistent preeclampsia and underlying maternal vascular malperfusion pathology of the placenta. By contrast, rare but potentially more serious underlying placental diagnoses, such as massive perivillous fibrinoid deposition, chronic histiocytic intervillositis, or fetal thrombotic vasculopathy, may be associated with normal uterine artery Doppler waveforms. Despite minor variations in placental size, shape, and cord insertion, placental function remains, largely normal in the general population. Consequently, morphologic assessment of the placenta is not currently incorporated into current screening

  20. Low Nephron Number and Its Clinical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Luyckx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available decades ago, that developmental programming of the kidney impacts an individual’s risk for hypertension and renal disease in later life. Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. Other clinical correlates of low nephron number include female gender, short adult stature, small kidney size, and prematurity. Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Glomerular volume is universally found to vary inversely with nephron number, suggesting a degree of compensatory hypertrophy and hyperfunction in the setting of a low nephron number. This adaptation may become overwhelmed in the setting of superimposed renal insults, e.g. diabetes mellitus or rapid catch-up growth, leading to the vicious cycle of on-going hyperfiltration, proteinuria, nephron loss and progressive renal functional decline. Many millions of babies are born with low birth weight every year, and hypertension and renal disease prevalences are increasing around the globe. At present, little can be done clinically to augment nephron number; therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual’s nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide.

  1. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1996-01-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  2. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  3. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Hebbar, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This article and others that focused on the clinical features, mechanisms, and epidemiology of skeletal muscle loss and wasting in chronic diseases, which include chronic kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS, were presented at a symposium entitled "Cachexia and Wasting: Recent Breakthroughs in Understanding and Opportunities for Intervention," held at Experimental Biology 2009. The clinical and anabolic efficacy of specific growth factors and anabolic steroids (eg, growth hormone, testosterone, megestrol acetate) in malnutrition and other catabolic states has been the subject of considerable research during the past several decades. Research on the effects of these agents in cachexia or wasting conditions, characterized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, focused on patients with AIDS in the early 1990s, when the devastating effects of the loss of body weight, lean body mass, and adipose tissue were recognized as contributors to these patients' mortality. These same agents have also been studied as methods to attenuate the catabolic responses observed in cancer-induced cachexia and in wasting induced by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and other conditions. This article provides an updated review of recent clinical trials that specifically examined the potential therapeutic roles of growth hormone, testosterone, oxandrolone, and megestrol acetate and emerging data on the orexigenic peptide ghrelin, in human cachexia and wasting. PMID:20164318

  4. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  5. Clinical manifestations and growth of patients with urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Shirou; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

    2016-07-01

    We have previously examined the clinical manifestations, treatments and prognosis of 177 patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinical manifestations in different peak blood ammonia level at onset in UCD patients, and examined the growth of OTCD (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency) patients. The UCD patients who had a high peak blood ammonia level at onset showed significantly high incidence of convulsion and abnormal head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The patients also showed significantly high incidence of hemodialysis and liver transplantation. Choice of therapeutic agents for long-term treatment is not different between peak blood ammonia levels at the onset, except for the use of special amino-acid formulas. Growth retardation is not affected by high peak blood ammonia level at onset; however, 32% of male and 52% of female OTCD patients over 1 year old were plotted under the 10th percentile, and showed growth failure. The final height of the male and female OTCD patients were 166.2±5.5 and 150.3±7.2 cm, respectively. Although the prognosis of UCDs was improved significantly, it is considered that there are still many difficulties in the UCD patient's life.

  6. Differential correlations between maternal hair levels of tobacco and alcohol with fetal growth restriction clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba; Almeida, Laura; Gratacos, Eduard; Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-08-01

    Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty-four FGR subjects, who were further subclassified into IUGR (n = 36) and SGA (n = 28), and 89 subjects matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), were included. The levels of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol exposure, respectively, were assessed in the maternal hair in the third trimester. Our analysis showed 65% of the pregnant women consumed alcohol, 25% smoked, and 19% did both. The odds ratios (ORs) of IUGR were 21 times versus 14 times for being SGA with maternal heavy smoking, while with alcohol consumption the ORs for IUGR were 22 times versus 37 times for the SGA group. The differential correlations between these toxins with the two subtypes of FGR suggest different mechanisms influencing fetal weight. Our alarming data of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be considered for further confirmation among Spanish women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishment and clinical application of immunoradiometric assay for human growth hormone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinfeng; Wu Congyuan; Niu Zhanpo; Zhang Kui; Song Ailing; Deng Jieying; Shi Mifan

    1992-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human growth hormone (hGH) in serum is developed based on two high specific monoclonal antibodies against hGh. It can specifically detect the levels of serum bioactive hGh and had no cross-reaction with human prolactin (hPRL) and hGh oligmeric forms. The sensitivity was 0.2 ng/ml and the recovery for different concentrations of hGh was 92.0% ∼ 103.2%. The coefficients of variation for intra and inter-assay were<9.1% and <14.2%, respectively. Integral analysis of the results of RIA and IRMA with the patients' clinical manifestations revealed that hGh IRMA is better than hGh RIA in reflecting the clinical states of different acromegalic patients

  8. Financing Constraints and Firm Growth in Emerging Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Sandra M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to shed light on the effects of different types of financing constraints on firm sales and employment growth in Emerging Europe before and after the onset of the financial crisis. It analyzes the group of emerging NMS-10 economies (plus Turkey and the group of economically and financially lagging Western Balkan countries. The paper demonstrates that financing constraints significantly obstruct firm growth, particularly in the Western Balkan countries, which calls for policy intervention to ensure swifter job-rich growth and catching-up with the rest of Europe. It also emphasizes that particular firm characteristics are essential for growth in Emerging Europe and demonstrates that exporting only and innovating are recipes for faster firm growth, while importing only and a high foreign ownership share seriously retard firm growth. Finally, it stresses the importance of the particular institutional environment for firms to thrive.

  9. Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hassl F, Pamela; Stecks N-Blicks, Christina

    2011-01-01

    -free and caries-susceptible individuals. Conclusions. The selected lactobacilli displayed co-aggregation activity and inhibited growth of clinical mutans streptococci. The growth inhibition was strain-specific and dependent on pH and cell concentration. The findings indicate that the outcome of lactobacilli...

  10. Nodal colloid goiter: clinical and morphological criteria of thyroid autonomy and progressive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Antonova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To work up clinical and morphological criteria of thyroid authonomy and progressive growth in nodal colloid goiter (NCG. Methods. A group of patients with nodal euthyroid goiter (NEG (40 patients and a group of patients with nodular toxic goiter (NTG (40 patients were formed to compare clinical and morphological criteria of NCG growth to/with development of functional autonomy (FA. All patients were conducted research including physical examination, thyroid palpation, ultrasound, blood level of TSH and T4, scintigraphy, aspiration (needle biopsy, immunocytological and immunohistological reactions and statistics. In the study the method of indirect immunoperoxidase reaction with monoclonal rat/mouse antigens to Ki-67, TSH, galectin-3, Apo-test (“Dako Corporation”, “Novocastra Laboratories Ltd.” was used. Results. 1. In NEG expression of cell proliferation marker Ki-67 for certain rises pro rata to increase of proliferation degree, and in NTG grows according to FA development. 2. Apoptosis expression in NEG decreases according to degree of thyrocytes in a nodule, but in NTG falls pro rata to accumulation of thyroid FA. 3. Positive reaction for TSH in NEG tissue was found in 100%, whereas negative reaction for this receptor in NTG tissue was observed in 81% of all cases. 4. Galectin-3 was expressed in focuses of severe dysplasia of thyroid nodes tissue comparable to galectin-3 expression in the tissue of high-grade differentiated adenocarcinomas. Summary/conclusion. 1. Severe and moderate expression of Ki-67 and mild or negative immunomorphological reaction for Apo-test allows to refer such kinds of nodules to fast-growing/rapid-growing ones. 2. Reliable negative expression TSH receptor in the tissue of NCG is evidence of FA development and is an indication for a treatment of radioactive iodine or for an operation. 3. Galectin-3 probably is an early marker of malignant transformation in thyroid tissue. 4. Having conducted complex

  11. Bone growth during rapamycin therapy in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    significantly decreased endochondral bone growth. No catch-up growth was demonstrated at the end of 4 weeks, although markers of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation improved. Clinical studies need to be done to evaluate these changes in growing children.

  12. Developing world perspective: the importance of growth for short-term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of rapid child growth. Rapid early childhood weight gain is associated with increased likelihood of being overweight or obese later in childhood and of having risk factors for the development of chronic disease such insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure. This has led to concerns about the wisdom of promoting catch-up growth in infants born small for gestational age or in children with poor growth after birth. In considering the costs and benefits of promoting catch-up growth, we must not lose sight of the immediate health threats to children in resource-poor environments in developing countries where child morbidity and mortality remain high. The literature on short-term consequences of growth is limited by its focus on attained size as an indicator of prior nutritional status, but generally shows that children with evidence of poor prior growth are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from common infectious diseases, including lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have devastating short-term consequences. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in radiotherapy: radiobiological mechanisms, preclinical and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a fastly developing field in preclinical and clinical cancer research. This review presents the current status of knowledge and discusses radiobiological mechanisms which may underly the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors combined with irradiation. Materials and methods: Preclinical and clinical results on combined targeting of the EGFR and irradiation from the literature and from this laboratory are reviewed. Focus is given to the radiobiological rationale of this approach and to endpoints of experimental radiotherapy. Results: Overexpression of the EGFR is associated with decreased local tumour control after radiotherapy, especially when the overall treatment time is long. Inhibition of the EGFR either alone or in combination with irradiation decreases the growth rate of tumours expressing this receptor. Preclinical data provide proof-of-principle that local tumour control may be improved by combining irradiation with C225 mAb. In a randomised phase III clinical trial, simultaneous irradiation and treatment with the EGFR antibody Cetuximab (Erbitux[reg]; C225) in head and neck cancer patients resulted in significantly improved locoregional tumour control and survival compared to curative irradiation alone. Acute skin reactions increased in the experimental arm. The underlying mechanisms of enhanced radiation effects of combined EGFR inhibition with irradiation and of the partly conflicting results in different studies are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence, that important intertumoral heterogeneity in the response to EGFR inhibition alone and combined with irradiation exists, which appears to be at least partly dependent on specific mutations of the receptor as well as of molecules that are involved in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Conclusions and outlook: Further investigations at all levels of the translational research chain exploring the mechanisms of

  14. Opioid growth factor improves clinical benefit and survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill P Smith1, Sandra I Bingaman1, David T Mauger2, Harold H Harvey1, Laurence M Demers3, Ian S Zagon41Departments of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, 3Pathology, and 4Neurosciences and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USABackground: Advanced pancreatic cancer carries the poorest prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Once the tumor has spread beyond the margins of the pancreas, chemotherapy is the major treatment modality offered to patients; however, chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival.Objective: Opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin is a natural peptide that has been shown to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer in cell culture and in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OGF biotherapy on subjects with advanced pancreatic cancer who failed chemotherapy.Methods: In a prospective phase II open-labeled clinical trial, 24 subjects who failed standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer were treated weekly with OGF 250 μg/kg intravenously. Outcomes measured included clinical benefit, tumor response by radiographic imaging, quality of life, and survival.Results: Clinical benefit response was experienced by 53% of OGF-treated patients compared to historical controls of 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively. Of the subjects surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for OGF-treated patients was three times that of untreated patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001. No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with OGF. Limitations: Measurements other than survival were not allowed in control patients, and clinical benefit comparisons were made to historical controls.Conclusion: OGF biotherapy improves the

  15. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ji-wen Wang,1,2 Ying Li,3 Zhi-gang Mao,1,2 Bin Hu,1,2 Xiao-bing Jiang,1,2 Bing-bing Song,4 Xin Wang,4 Yong-hong Zhu,4 Hai-jun Wang1,21Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Key Laboratory of Pituitary Adenoma in Guangdong Province, 3State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Excessive growth hormone (GH is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG and octreotide long-acting release (LAR, and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated

  16. B. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of disturbed growth in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, P.F.; Borden, S. IV.

    1987-01-01

    The second part of the course concentrates on the growing metaphysis in children as an indicator of bone growth and physiology. The authors concentrate on growth disturbances that cause abnormalities of metaphyseal contour, growth velocity, and width of the metaphysis. Densities within the metaphysis, including growth arrest lines, healing metaphyseal fractures, catch-up bone growth, and metabolic poisons, are addressed in detail. Radiographs with accompanying histopathologic sections are presented to illustrate the dynamic changes in the metaphyseal region in children. Lucencies in the metaphysis, including leukemic lines, metastatic disease, and acute disuse osteoporosis, receive special attention. Prognostic factors affecting the metasphysis such as intrinsic chondrodysplasia, previous fracture, or closure of the epiphyseal plate are described in detail

  17. Comparison of low-normal and high-normal IGF-1 target levels during growth hormone replacement therapy : A randomized clinical trial in adult growth hormone deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bunderen, Christa C; Lips, Paul; Kramer, Mark H H; Drent, Madeleine L

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines state that the goals of growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults should be an appropriate clinical response, avoidance of side effects, and an IGF-1 value within the age-adjusted reference range. There are no published studies on the target level for IGF-1 that offer

  18. Clinical correlation to differences in ranibizumab and aflibercept vascular endothelial growth factor suppression times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Sascha; Muether, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    To determine clinical correlations to intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) suppression times (VSTs) on the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or aflibercept (Eylea). Seven of 89 treatment-naïve nAMD eyes showed persistent choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) activity throughout a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-driven pro re nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 28±4 months. The treatment was switched to PRN aflibercept injections and patients were followed for another 15±2 months. A total of 160 aqueous humour specimens were collected before the intravitreal injections, and their VEGF-A concentrations were assayed by Luminex multiplex bead analysis (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA). Intraocular VEGF-A concentrations were correlated to CNV activity shown by SD-OCT. The mean duration of suppression of VEGF-A concentrations in aqueous humour below the lower limit of quantification of our assay was 34±5 (26-69) days for ranibizumab and 67±14 (49-89) days for aflibercept (p<0.001). The percentual reduction of central retinal volume (CRV) 6 weeks after injection was higher for aflibercept compared with ranibizumab (p=0.009). The time point of clinical re-activity occurred about 50% earlier than the respective VST for each ranibizumab and aflibercept. The VST under aflibercept treatment exceeded that under ranibizumab treatment by a factor of 2. This difference correlated with differential clinical CRV reduction 6 weeks after the respective injection. For both medications, clinical activity was found at a time point as early as 50% of the individual VST. NCT01213667, post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  20. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Odontogenic Cysts: Is There Any Impression on Clinical Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Donia; Farhadi, Sareh; Shahabi, Zahra; Sarshar, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    The recent scientific reports have shown that angiogenesis can affect biological behavior of pathologic lesions. Regarding unique clinical outcome of Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), the present study was aimed to compare angiogenesis in Odontogenic keratocyst and Dentigerous cyst (DC). In this experimental study, tissue sections of 46 samples of OKC and DC were stained through immunohistochemical method using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) antibody. VEGF expression was evaluated in epithelial cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The average percentage of stained cells in any samples was categorized to 3 groups as follows: SCORE 0: 10% of cells or less are positive. SCORE 1: 10 to 50% of cells are positive. SCORE 2: more than 50% of cells are positive. Mann-U-Whitney, T-test and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. The average of VEGF expression in 24 samples of DC was 20.2% and in 22 samples of OKC was 52.6%, respectively. The average of VEGF expression in these two cysts had statistical significant differences. (PV= 0.045). There was significant statistical differences between two cysts in the terms of VEGF SCORE (PV= 0.000). OKC samples had significantly higher SCORE for the purpose of VEGF incidence than DC. Also, there were no differences between VEGF expression in epithelial cells of two cysts (PV= 0.268) there were significant statistical differences between two cysts in terms of endothelial cell staining. The endothelial cell staining was significantly higher in OKC than DC (PV= 0.037%). Regarding higher expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth factor in OKC than DC, it seems that angiogenesis may have great impression on clinical outcome of OKC.

  1. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-wen; Li, Ying; Mao, Zhi-gang; Hu, Bin; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Song, Bing-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Yong-hong; Wang, Hai-jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs) and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) and octreotide long-acting release (LAR), and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated with presurgical SA may be achieved, although controversy of such adjuvant therapy exists. Combination of SA and pegvisomant or cabergoline shows advantages in some specific cases. Thus, an individual treatment program should be established for each patient under a full evaluation of the risks and benefits. PMID:24421637

  2. Molecular genetics of Turner syndrome: correlation with clinical phenotype and response to growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsezou, A; Hadjiathanasiou, C; Gourgiotis, D; Galla, A; Kavazarakis, E; Pasparaki, A; Kapsetaki, M; Sismani, C; Theodoridis, C; Patsalis, P C; Moschonas, N; Kitsiou, S

    1999-12-01

    To correlate the origin of the retained X in Turner syndrome with phenotype, pre-treatment height and response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy, systematic clinical assessment and molecular studies were carried out in 33 Greek children with Turner syndrome and their parents including 18 children with 45,X and 15 with X-mosaicism. Microsatellite markers on X chromosomes (DXS101 and DXS337) revealed that the intact X was paternal (Xp) in 15/30 and maternal (Xm) in 15/30 children, while 3/33 families were non-informative. No significant relationship was found between parental origin of the retained X and birth weight/length/gestational age, blepharoptosis, pterygium colli, webbed neck, low hairline, abnormal ears, lymphoedema, short 4th metacarpal, shield chest, widely spaced nipples, cubitus valgus, pigmented naevi, streak gonads, and cardiovascular/renal anomalies. With regard to the children's pre-treatment height, there was a significant correlation with maternal height and target height in both Xm and Xp groups. No differences were found between Xm and Xp groups and the improvement of growth velocity (GV) during the first and second year of rhGH administration, while for both groups GV significantly improved with rhGH by the end of the first and the second year. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to correlate the parental origin of Turner syndrome with the response to rhGH therapy.

  3. Evaluation of Neonatal Lung Volume Growth by Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Melissa A; Walkup, Laura L; Tkach, Jean A; Higano, Nara S; Lim, Foong Yen; Haberman, Beth; Woods, Jason C; Kingma, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate postnatal lung volume in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and determine if a compensatory increase in lung volume occurs during the postnatal period. Using a novel pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging method for imaging neonatal lungs, the postnatal lung volumes in infants with CDH were determined and compared with prenatal lung volumes obtained via late gestation magnetic resonance imaging. Infants with left-sided CDH (2 mild, 9 moderate, and 1 severe) were evaluated. The total lung volume increased in all infants, with the contralateral lung increasing faster than the ipsilateral lung (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 3.0 mL/week vs 3.4 ± 2.1 mL/week, P = .005). In contrast to prenatal studies, the volume of lungs of infants with more severe CDH grew faster than the lungs of infants with more mild CDH (Spearman's ρ=-0.086, P = .01). Although the contralateral lung volume grew faster in both mild and moderate groups, the majority of total lung volume growth in moderate CDH came from increased volume of the ipsilateral lung (42% of total lung volume increase in the moderate group vs 32% of total lung volume increase in the mild group, P = .09). Analysis of multiple clinical variables suggests that increased weight gain was associated with increased compensatory ipsilateral lung volume growth (ρ = 0.57, P = .05). These results suggest a potential for postnatal catch-up growth in infants with pulmonary hypoplasia and suggest that weight gain may increase the volume growth of the more severely affected lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical profile and outcome of renal tubular disorders in children: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijay Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular disorders form a significant proportion of pediatric kidney diseases and are an important differential diagnosis of failure to thrive (FTT in children. Data regarding their outcome is scarce from India. We evaluated the clinical profile of these children and studied the outcome in terms of their growth and renal failure. This is a retrospective longitudinal study of all children with renal tubular disorders attending a tertiary care pediatric nephrology center from 2005 to 2010. Growth and renal outcomes were assessed by Z scores and estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis and. The common disorders encountered were distal renal tubular acidosis (d-RTA (44%, Bartter-like (Bartter′s and Gitelman syndromes (22% followed by hereditary Fanconi syndrome (cystinosis and idiopathic Fanconi syndrome (13% and few cases of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypophosphatemic rickets and idiopathic hypercalciuria. Male: female ratio was 1.22. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 (range 0.13-11 years. Growth failure was the presenting feature in 86% of children followed by polyuria (60% and bone deformities (47%. In 60% of children with hereditary Fanconi syndrome, nephropathic cystinosis was diagnosed, all of whom progressed to stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD within 3.41 ± 1.42 years. With appropriate therapy, catch-up growth was noted in d-RTA and Bartter syndrome. Renal tubular disorders usually present with FTT. d-RTA is the most common etiology followed by Bartter-like syndrome. Renal function is preserved in all these disorders except for nephropathic cystinosis, who ultimately progressed to CKD. With appropriate and inexpensive therapy, these children do grow well.

  5. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, S.E.D.C.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Costa, D.B. [Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, S.E.D.C.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Costa, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC

  8. [Clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor in treatment of occupational hand-arm vibration disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunyue; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ying; Lang, Li; Deng, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Ying

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) in treating occupational hand-arm vibration disease (HAVD). Sixty-four patients with HAVD were equally and randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The control group was given Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and deproteinized extract of calf blood to improve circulation, and also given methylcobalamin tablets and vitamin B6 for neurotrophic treatment. In addition to the above treatments for the control group, the treatment group was also given 30 µg/d mNGF by intramuscular injection for two courses (4 weeks for each course) with a 15-day interval. Both the treatment group and the control group showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms and signs (hand numbness and pain, and reduced senses of touch, pain, and vibration), cold water loading test (CWLT), and electroneuromyography (ENMG) after treatments (P hand numbness and pain, reduced senses of touch, pain, and vibration, CWLT, and ENMG, so it has better clinical effect and safety in treating HAVD. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the outcome of patients with HAVD.

  9. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.

  10. Benefits of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in skin photodamage: clinical response and histological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ley, B; Cuevast, J; Alonso-Castro, L; Calvo, M I; Ríos-Buceta, L; Orive, G; Anitua, E; Jaén, P

    2015-01-01

    Skin ageing is characterized by small and fine wrinkles, roughness, laxity, and pigmentation as a result of epidermal thinning, collagen degradation, dermal atrophy, and fewer fibroblasts. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is an autologous plasma preparation enriched in proteins obtained from patient's own blood aimed at accelerating tissue repair and regeneration. To evaluate the benefits of PRGF in skin photodamage, 10 healthy volunteers were treated with three consecutive intradermal injections of PRGF in the facial area. Clinical outcomes and histological analysis were performed. A statistically significant increase in the epidermis and papillary dermis thickness was seen after PRGF treatment (p PRGF treatment, a reduction of the average area fraction of solar elastosis was observed in patients with clinical and histological signs of skin photodamage (p PRGF use was 0.75 (9/12) for the group of patients with signs of skin photodamage. Intradermal PRGF infiltration appears to be an effective treatment for the photodamaged skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurent-Olivier; Poirier, Marie-Belle; Fortin, David

    2018-04-08

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β₁ and -β₂ expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS). In GBM, TGF-β₁ and -β₂ levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β₁ significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β₁ is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β₂. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β₁ expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β₁ could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  12. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Olivier Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β1 and -β2 expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS. In GBM, TGF-β1 and -β2 levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β1 significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β2. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β1 expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  13. A clinical evaluation of placental growth factor in routine practice in high-risk women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia and/or fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, L; Johnstone, E D; Shawkat, E; Dempsey, A; Chmiel, C; Ingram, E; Higgins, L E; Myers, J E

    2018-03-13

    To evaluate the use of plasma Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), recommended by the recent NICE guidance, in women with suspected pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR). Non-randomised prospective clinical evaluation study in high-risk antenatal clinics in a tertiary maternity unit. PlGF testing was performed in addition to routine clinical assessment in 260 women >20 weeks' gestation with chronic disease (hypertension, renal disease ± diabetes) with a change in maternal condition or in women with suspected FGR to determine the impact on clinical management. Results were revealed and standardised care pathways followed. Outcome of pregnancies with a low PlGF (women had an adverse outcome (PE/birthweight women with PlGF 14 days. The PlGF result altered clinical management (surveillance or timing of birth) in 196/260 (75.4%) cases. Alternative PlGF thresholds did not significantly improve diagnostic performance. Our evaluation confirms the value of PlGF as a diagnostic tool for placental dysfunction. However, low PlGF in isolation should not trigger iatrogenic delivery. Further research linking placental pathology, maternal disease and maternal PlGF levels is urgently needed before this test can be implemented in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Clinical outcomes of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-02-28

    Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, but no established standard therapy. We experienced a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) associated with FGFR1 rearrangement who underwent cord blood transplantation, but died of pulmonary complication. We collected the clinical data of patients with FGFR1 rearrangement from the medical literature and analyzed 45 patients, including our patient. The primary diagnoses were myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in 14 and acute leukemia or LBL in 31. In MPN and MDS patients, the cumulative incidence of transformation to blast phase (BP) at 12 months was 46.2%. The 1-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis in all cases was 43.1%. With regard to the impact of treatment response on survival, the achievement of complete response with a landmark at 2 months after diagnosis of BP was associated with a superior OS (40.0% vs. 26.0% P = 0.011 for 1-year OS from BP). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in 13 patients, and the 1-year OS from allogeneic HSCT was 61.5%. The hazard ratio for mortality was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.08-1.51, P = 0.15) for allogeneic HSCT treated as a time-dependent covariate, which suggests that allogeneic HSCT may confer a clinical benefit. The further accumulation of clinical data is needed to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.

  15. Nerve growth factor, clinical applications and production of the recombinant protei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian neurotrophin family proteins, nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5 are known as neuronal survival factors. NGF, one of the most important cytokines, is composed of 118 amino acids. NGF is involved in the growth and differentiation of neural cells of the vertebrate peripheral sympathetic nerve as well as basal forebrain cholinergic neurons which degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, it is implicated in the regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. NGF is produced by a variety of immune cells, including B cells, T cells, monocytes and mast cells as well as nervous system and binds through two distinct receptors, TrkA and p75NTR which signaling through them leads to the neuronal differentiation and cell death respectively. Considering the importance of this protein as a drug, NGF has been proposed for the treatment of neuron degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis. To produce enough protein for research and clinical applications, genetic engineering techniques are used to produce recombinant forms. To date, there are no reports about the systems for production of the recombinant human NGF in an effective, low cost, with industrial production. Plants as a safe host generally offer major advantages such as free of animal pathogens, low costs, the ability to produce a protein similar to natural protein, and industrial production in large scale. Then they are suitable for the production of recombinant human NGF.

  16. Orally active growth hormone secretagogues: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Camanni, F

    1998-04-01

    Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) are synthetic, non-natural peptidyl and nonpeptidyl molecules with potent stimulatory effect on somatotrope secretion. They have no structural homology with growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and act via a specific receptor, which has now been cloned and is present at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a still unknown natural GHS-like ligand. Several data favour the hypothesis that GHS could counteract somatostatinergic activity at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that they act via an unknown hypothalamic factor remains open. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is the first hexapeptide studied extensively in humans. More recently, peptidyl superanalogues GHRP-1, GHRP-2 and hexarelin, and nonpeptidyl mimetics, such as the spiroindoline derivative MK-677, have been synthesized and their effects have been studied in humans. The GH-releasing activity of GHS is marked, dose related and reproducible after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHS is partially desensitized but prolonged, intermittent oral administration increases insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. The GH-releasing effect of GHS undergoes age-related variations; it increases from birth to puberty, remains similar in adulthood and decreases with ageing. The effect of GHS on GH release is synergistic with that of GHRH, while it is only partially refractory to inhibitory influences, which nearly abolish the effect of GHRH. GHS maintain their GH-releasing activity in some somatotrope hypersecretory states such as acromegaly, anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism and critical illness. The GH response to GHS has been reported clear although reduced in GH deficiency, obesity and hypothyroidism, while it is strongly reduced in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing

  17. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    2000-09-28

    Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (Pgrowth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.

  18. Pretreatment of clinical specimens with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate is not suitable for the mycobacteria growth indicator tube cultivation method.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfyffer, G E; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P

    1997-01-01

    When using the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), pretreatment of clinical specimens with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH is recommended by the manufacturer. Processing of clinical specimens (n = 1,000) with sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfate-NaOH resulted in both poor recovery and delayed mean time to detection of acid-fast bacilli. Values were comparable to those obtained on solid media.

  19. Mathematical modeling of human glioma growth based on brain topological structures: study of two clinical cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Suarez

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and yet almost incurable due mainly to their great invasion capability. This represents a challenge to present clinical oncology. Here, we introduce a mathematical model aiming to improve tumor spreading capability definition. The model consists in a time dependent reaction-diffusion equation in a three-dimensional spatial domain that distinguishes between different brain topological structures. The model uses a series of digitized images from brain slices covering the whole human brain. The Talairach atlas included in the model describes brain structures at different levels. Also, the inclusion of the Brodmann areas allows prediction of the brain functions affected during tumor evolution and the estimation of correlated symptoms. The model is solved numerically using patient-specific parametrization and finite differences. Simulations consider an initial state with cellular proliferation alone (benign tumor, and an advanced state when infiltration starts (malign tumor. Survival time is estimated on the basis of tumor size and location. The model is used to predict tumor evolution in two clinical cases. In the first case, predictions show that real infiltrative areas are underestimated by current diagnostic imaging. In the second case, tumor spreading predictions were shown to be more accurate than those derived from previous models in the literature. Our results suggest that the inclusion of differential migration in glioma growth models constitutes another step towards a better prediction of tumor infiltration at the moment of surgical or radiosurgical target definition. Also, the addition of physiological/psychological considerations to classical anatomical models will provide a better and integral understanding of the patient disease at the moment of deciding therapeutic options, taking into account not only survival but also life quality.

  20. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwani, Wasia; Allen, Amanda E.; Trevino, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer

  1. Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) action in mice: discovery of GH receptor antagonists and clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S; Berryman, Darlene E

    2014-04-05

    The discovery of a growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) was initially established via expression of mutated GH genes in transgenic mice. Following this discovery, development of the compound resulted in a drug termed pegvisomant, which has been approved for use in patients with acromegaly. Pegvisomant treatment in a dose dependent manner results in normalization of IGF-1 levels in most patients. Thus, it is a very efficacious and safe drug. Since the GH/IGF-1 axis has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancers, many have suggested the use of pegvisomant as an anti-cancer therapeutic. In this manuscript, we will review the use of mouse strains that possess elevated or depressed levels of GH action for unraveling many of GH actions. Additionally, we will describe experiments in which the GHA was discovered, review results of pegvisomant's preclinical and clinical trials, and provide data suggesting pegvisomant's therapeutic value in selected types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwani, Wasia [Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500007 (India); Allen, Amanda E.; Trevino, Jose G., E-mail: Jose.Trevino@surgery.ufl.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Rm 6175, P.O. Box 100109, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2015-09-03

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  3. Hepatocyte Growth Factor from a Clinical Perspective: A Pancreatic Cancer Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasia Rizwani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and incidence rates are rising. Both detection and treatment options for pancreatic cancer are limited, providing a less than 5% five-year survival advantage. The need for new biomarkers for early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer demands the efficient translation of bench knowledge to provide clinical benefit. One source of therapeutic resistance is the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, which is characterized by desmoplasia and hypoxia making it less conducive to current therapies. A major factor regulating desmoplasia and subsequently promoting chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, the sole ligand for c-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition, an epithelial tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of HGF to c-MET leads to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation resulting in the activation of multiple cellular processes that support cancer progression. Inhibiting activation of c-MET in cancer cells, in combination with other approaches for reducing desmoplasia in the tumor microenvironment, might significantly improve the success of chemotherapy. Therefore, HGF makes a potent novel target for developing therapeutic strategies in combination with existing drugs for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of HGF and its promising potential as a chemotherapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  4. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  5. Growth of self-perceived clinical competence in postgraduate training for general practice and its relation to potentially influencing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J.J.; Tan, L.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. DESIGN: Cohort, 1995-1998. SETTING: Three-year

  6. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age: Associations with fetal growth velocity, head circumference and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-12-01

    Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. A follow-up study of a former cohort included 123 participants (52 males); 47 born SGA and 76 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fetal growth velocity (FGV) was determined by serial ultrasound measurements during the third trimester. A control group matched for age and birthplace was included. The original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered, and verbal, performance and full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores were calculated. There was no difference in IQ between adolescents born SGA and AGA. FGV or IUGR during the third trimester did not influence cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated with a significantly increased height, larger HC, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and increased full-scale IQ compared to those born SGA without catch-up growth. SGA and IUGR may not be harmful for adult cognitive ability, at least not in individuals born at near-term. However, known risk factors of impaired fetal growth may explain the link between early growth and cognitive ability in adulthood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  8. Growth and adult height in GH-treated children with nonacquired GH deficiency and idiopathic short stature: the influence of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, R; Rouleau, S; Despert, F; Magontier, N; Loisel, D; Limal, J M

    2001-10-01

    We analyzed the final height of 146 short children with either nonacquired GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. Our purpose was 1) to assess growth according to the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in the 63 GH-treated children with GH deficiency and 2) to compare the growth of the GH-deficient patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (n = 48) to that of 32 treated and 51 untreated children with idiopathic short stature (GH peak to provocative tests >10 microg/liter). The mean GH dose was 0.44 IU/kg.wk (0.15 mg/kg.wk), given for a mean duration of 4.6 yr. Among the GH-deficient children, 15 had hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities (stalk agenesis), all with total GH deficiency (GH peak imaging, had better catch-up growth (+2.7 +/- 0.9 vs. +1.3 +/- 0.8 SD score; P imaging, there was no difference in catch-up growth and final height between partial and total GH deficiencies. GH-deficient subjects with normal magnetic resonance imaging and treated and untreated patients with idiopathic short stature had comparable auxological characteristics, age at evaluation, and target height. Although they had different catch-up growth (+1.3 +/- 0.8, +0.9 +/- 0.6, and +0.7 +/- 0.9 SD score, respectively; P imaging findings show the heterogeneity within the group of nonacquired GH deficiency and help to predict the response to GH treatment in these patients. The similarities in growth between the GH-deficient children with normal magnetic resonance imaging and those with idiopathic short stature suggest that the short stature in the former subjects is at least partly due to factors other than GH deficiency.

  9. Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Elsa; Andrini, Olga; Keck, Mathilde; Mansour-Hendili, Lamisse; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Simian, Christophe; Deschenes, Georges; Kwon, Theresa; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Bobrie, Guillaume; Borde, Jean Sébastien; Bourdat-Michel, Guylhène; Decramer, Stéphane; Cailliez, Mathilde; Krug, Pauline; Cozette, Paul; Delbet, Jean Daniel; Dubourg, Laurence; Chaveau, Dominique; Fila, Marc; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Lavocat, Marie-Pierre; Lemoine, Sandrine; Djeddi, Djamal; Llanas, Brigitte; Louillet, Ferielle; Merieau, Elodie; Mileva, Maria; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Mousson, Christiane; Nobili, François; Novo, Robert; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaëlle; Vrillon, Isabelle; Walsh, Stephen B; Teulon, Jacques; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Bartter syndrome type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations of the chloride voltage-gated channel Kb gene ( CLCNKB ), which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. To study phenotype/genotype correlations, we performed genetic analyses by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and retrospectively analyzed medical charts for 115 patients with CLCNKB mutations. Functional analyses were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for eight missense and two nonsense mutations. We detected 60 mutations, including 27 previously unreported mutations. Among patients, 29.5% had a phenotype of ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (polyhydramnios or diagnosis in the first month of life), 44.5% had classic Bartter syndrome (diagnosis during childhood, hypercalciuria, and/or polyuria), and 26.0% had Gitelman-like syndrome (fortuitous discovery of hypokalemia with hypomagnesemia and/or hypocalciuria in childhood or adulthood). Nine of the ten mutations expressed in vitro decreased or abolished chloride conductance. Severe (large deletions, frameshift, nonsense, and essential splicing) and missense mutations resulting in poor residual conductance were associated with younger age at diagnosis. Electrolyte supplements and indomethacin were used frequently to induce catch-up growth, with few adverse effects. After a median follow-up of 8 (range, 1-41) years in 77 patients, chronic renal failure was detected in 19 patients (25%): one required hemodialysis and four underwent renal transplant. In summary, we report a genotype/phenotype correlation for Bartter syndrome type 3: complete loss-of-function mutations associated with younger age at diagnosis, and CKD was observed in all phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Clinical efficacy of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for diabetic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    UCHI, Hiroshi; IGARASHI, Atsuyuki; URABE, Kazunori; KOGA, Tetsuya; NAKAYAMA, Juichiro; KAWAMORI, Ryuzo; TAMAKI, Kunihiko; HIRAKATA, Hideki; OHURA, Takehiko; FURUE, Masutaka

    2009-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been shown to promote wound healing. The present trial evaluated the clinical efficacy of bFGF for diabetic ulcer, a type of refractory skin ulcer, and the dose-response relationship. This was designed as a randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 150 patients with non-ischaemic diabetic ulcers measuring 900 mm2 or less were randomized into a placebo group (n = 51), a 0.001% bFGF group (n = 49) and a 0.01% bFGF group (n = 50), and 148 of these patients received treatment for 8 weeks or less. The efficacy evaluation was carried out on 139 patients who met the protocol in this trial. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients showing 75% or greater reductions in the area of ulcer. The area of ulcer decreased by 75% or more in 57.5% (27/47), 72.3% (34/47), and 82.2% (37/45) in the placebo, 0.001% bFGF and 0.01% bFGF groups, respectively, and differences were significant between the 0.01% bFGF and placebo groups (p = 0.025). The cure rate was 46.8% (22/47), 57.4% (27/47), and 66.7% (30/45) in the placebo, 0.001% bFGF and 0.01% bFGF groups, respectively. The findings obtained in this trial showed wound healing accelerating effects of bFGF on diabetic ulcers.

  11. Rational design of a fibroblast growth factor 21-based clinical candidate, LY2405319.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kharitonenkov

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a novel hormonal regulator with the potential to treat a broad variety of metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Human recombinant wild type FGF21 (FGF21 has been shown to ameliorate metabolic disorders in rodents and non-human primates. However, development of FGF21 as a drug is challenging and requires re-engineering of its amino acid sequence to improve protein expression and formulation stability. Here we report the design and characterization of a novel FGF21 variant, LY2405319. To enable the development of a potential drug product with a once-daily dosing profile, in a preserved, multi-use formulation, an additional disulfide bond was introduced in FGF21 through Leu118Cys and Ala134Cys mutations. FGF21 was further optimized by deleting the four N-terminal amino acids, His-Pro-Ile-Pro (HPIP, which was subject to proteolytic cleavage. In addition, to eliminate an O-linked glycosylation site in yeast a Ser167Ala mutation was introduced, thus allowing large-scale, homogenous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Altogether re-engineering of FGF21 led to significant improvements in its biopharmaceutical properties. The impact of these changes was assessed in a panel of in vitro and in vivo assays, which confirmed that biological properties of LY2405319 were essentially identical to FGF21. Specifically, subcutaneous administration of LY2405319 in ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO mice over 7-14 days resulted in a 25-50% lowering of plasma glucose coupled with a 10-30% reduction in body weight. Thus, LY2405319 exhibited all the biopharmaceutical and biological properties required for initiation of a clinical program designed to test the hypothesis that administration of exogenous FGF21 would result in effects on disease-related metabolic parameters in humans.

  12. Clinical implications for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the lung: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while it has been shown that changes in its expression play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some of the most common respiratory disorders, such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pleural disease, and lung cancer. However, the exact role of VEGF in the lung is not clear yet, as there is contradictory evidence that suggests either a protective or a harmful role. VEGF seems to interfere in a different manner, depending on its amount, the location, and the underlying pathologic process in lung tissue. The lack of VEGF in some disease entities may provide implications for its substitution, whereas its overexpression in other lung disorders has led to interventions for the attenuation of its action. Many efforts have been made in order to regulate the expression of VEGF and anti-VEGF antibodies are already in use for the management of lung cancer. Further research is still needed for the complete understanding of the exact role of VEGF in health and disease, in order to take advantage of its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. The scope of the present review is to summarize from a clinical point of view the changes in VEGF expression in several disorders of the respiratory system and focus on its diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  13. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Luciana A.; Daly, Adrian Francis; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Junior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florencio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm,...

  14. Clinical features and growth hormone receptor gene mutations of patients with Laron syndrome from a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yan-Qin; Wei, Hong; Cao, Li-Zhi; Lu, Juan-Juan; Luo, Xiao-Ping

    2007-08-01

    Laron syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. It is characterized by severe postnatal growth retardation and characteristic facial features as well as high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). This report described the clinical features and GHR gene mutations in 2 siblings with Laron syndrome in a Chinese family. Their heights and weights were in the normal range at birth, but the growth was retarded after birth. When they presented to the clinic, the heights of the boy (8 years old) and his sister (11 years old) were 80.0 cm (-8.2 SDS) and 96.6 cm (-6.8 SDS) respectively. They had typical appearance features of Laron syndrome such as short stature and obesity, with protruding forehead, saddle nose, large eyes, sparse and thin silky hair and high-pitched voice. They had higher basal serum GH levels and lower serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) than normal controls. The peak serum GH level after colonidine and insulin stimulations in the boy was over 350 ng/mL. After one-year rhGH treatment, the boy's height increased from 80.0 cm to 83.3 cm. The gene mutation analysis revealed that two patients had same homozygous mutation of S65H (TCA -->CCA) in exon 4, which is a novel gene mutation. It was concluded that a definite diagnosis of Laron syndrome can be made based on characteristic appearance features and serum levels of GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. The S65H mutation might be the cause of Laron syndrome in the two patients.

  15. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate, markers of disease activity in acromegaly in relation to perceived disease activity. Thirty-seven consecutively treated, acromegalic patients, classified by clinical symptoms as inactive (n=16), slightly active (n=10) and active (n=11), entered the study. When evaluating......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR mutations, function and possible role in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, B R; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a growth factor receptor that induces cell differentiation and proliferation upon activation through the binding of one of its ligands. The receptor is located at the cell surface, where the binding of a ligand activates a tyrosine kinase in the intr...... aspects of therapeutic targeting of EGFR....

  17. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, S. H.; van Nooijen, F. C.; Piek, J. J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and

  18. Three Cases of Organized Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus: Clinical Features and Immunohistological Studies for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Imayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Organized hematoma (OH is a rare, nonneoplastic, hemorrhagic lesion causing mucosal swelling and bone thinning, mainly in the maxillary sinus. We aimed to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of OH. Methods. Three cases of maxillary sinus OH and a literature review are presented. Results. Three men aged 16–40 years complained of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and/or headache. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a maxillary sinus OH. They were cured in a piecemeal fashion via endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were expressed in the lesion. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of OH is unclear and it presents various histological and imaging findings; however, it is not difficult to rule out malignant tumors. Minimally invasive surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery can cure it completely. Thus, it is important to determine the diagnosis using CT and MRI and to quickly provide surgical treatment.

  19. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  20. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  1. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  2. Acromegaly with Normal Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels and Congestive Heart Failure as the First Clinical Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyae Min Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acromegaly is cardiovascular complications. Myocardial exposure to excessive growth hormone can cause ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, arrhythmia, and diastolic dysfunction. However, congestive heart failure as a result of systolic dysfunction is observed only rarely in patients with acromegaly. Most cases of acromegaly exhibit high levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Acromegaly with normal IGF-1 levels is rare and difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a rare case of an acromegalic patient whose first clinical manifestation was severe congestive heart failure, despite normal IGF-1 levels. We diagnosed acromegaly using a glucose-loading growth hormone suppression test. Cardiac function and myocardial hypertrophy improved 6 months after transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma.

  3. A randomized controlled clinical trial of growth hormone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical, neuroimaging, and hormonal results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Francesco; Quarantelli, Mario; Rinaldi, Carlo; Tucci, Tecla; Piro, Raffaele; Perrotta, Gaetano; Carotenuto, Barbara; Marsili, Angela; Palma, Vincenzo; De Michele, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Arturo; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Filla, Alessandro; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease with motor neuron degeneration. Riluzole is the only available treatment. Two-thirds of ALS patients present with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The aim of this study is to determine if add-on of GH to riluzole, with an individually regulated dose based on Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) production, was able to reduce neuronal loss in the motor cortex, reduce mortality, and improve motor function of ALS patients. Patients with definite/probable ALS, in treatment with riluzole, aged 40-85 years, and with disease duration ≤3 years were enrolled. The study was randomized, placebo controlled, and double blind. Before treatment, patients were tested with a GH releasing hormone (GHRH) + arginine test. The initial dose of GH was 2 IU s.c. every other day, and was progressively increased to a maximum of 8 IU. Primary endpoint was N-acetylaspartate/(creatine + choline) (NAA/Cre + Cho) ratio in motor cortex assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy performed at months 0, 6, and 12. Secondary endpoints were mortality and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R). The NAA/(Cre + Cho) ratio decreased in all patients who completed the trial. No significant difference was noted between treated and placebo group. At baseline, although IGF-I levels were within the normal range, 73% of patients had GH deficiency, being severe in half of them. Compared with bulbar onset, spinal-onset patients showed more depressed GH response to the GHRH + arginine stimulation test (10.4 ± 7.0 versus 15.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL; p growth factor (IGF) binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) decreased from 8,435 ± 4,477 ng/mL at baseline to 3,250 ± 1,780 ng/mL at 12 months (p deficit, with higher levels in the bulbar-onset group. During follow-up, patients showed progressive increase in HOMA-IR and decrease in IGFBP-3 levels.

  4. Stressful dieting: nutritional conditions but not compensatory growth elevate corticosterone levels in zebra finch nestlings and fledglings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Honarmand

    Full Text Available Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model species. As nestlings (day 0-17 or fledglings (day 17-35, subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

  5. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  6. Invasive growth patterns of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: radiological imaging and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Anna; Szymański, Marcin; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign lesion with locally aggressive nature. Knowledge of its typical growth patterns is crucial for precise preoperative staging and adequate preoperative patient counseling. This pictorial essay focuses on characteristic radiological features and paths of invasive growth of this rare tumor. Also, the impact of accurate preoperative evaluation of tumor extensions on surgical planning and results of treatment are discussed. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Developments in our understanding of the effects of growth hormone on white adipose tissue from mice: implications to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Henry, Brooke; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a well-established target of growth hormone (GH) and is altered in clinical conditions associated with excess, deficiency and absence of GH action. Due to the difficulty in collecting AT from clinical populations, genetically modified mice have been useful in better understanding how GH affects this tissue. Recent findings in mice would suggest that the impact of GH on AT is beyond alterations of lipolysis, lipogenesis or proliferation/ differentiation. AT depot-specific alterations in immune cells, extracellular matrix, adipokines, and senescence indicate an expanded role for GH in AT physiology. This mouse data will guide additional studies necessary to evaluate the therapeutic potential and safety of GH for conditions associated with altering AT, such as obesity. In this review, we introduce several relatively new intricacies of GH's effect on AT, focusing on recent studies in mice. Finally, we summarize the clinical implications of these findings.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL HOMEOSTASIS AND BODY GROWTH ARE RELIABLE END POINTS IN CLINICAL NUTRITION TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of biochemical homeostasis and/or body growth have been included as outcome variables in most nutrition trials in paediatric patients. Moreover, these outcome variables have provided important insights into the nutrient requirements of infants and children, and continue to do so. Examples ...

  9. OPPORTUNITY: a randomized clinical trial of growth hormone on outcome in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, J.D.; Cheung, A.K.; Christiansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    human GH injections, compared with placebo, improve survival in hypoalbuminemic MHD patients. Secondary hypotheses are that GH improves morbidity and health, including number of hospitalized days, time to cardiovascular events, LBM, serum protein and inflammatory marker levels, exercise capacity......, uncontrolled hypertension, chronic use of high-dose glucocorticoids, or immunosuppressive agents and pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The OPPORTUNITY Trial is the first large-scale randomized clinical trial in adult MHD patients evaluating the response to GH of such clinical endpoints as mortality, morbidity, markers...

  10. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  11. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  12. OPPORTUNITY™: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality in hypo...... in hypoalbuminemic MHD patients. Secondary end points were effects on number of hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, lean body mass (LBM), serum proteins, exercise capacity, QoL and adverse events....

  13. OPPORTUNITYTM: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality in hypo...... in hypoalbuminemic MHD patients. Secondary end points were effects on number of hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, lean body mass (LBM), serum proteins, exercise capacity, QoL and adverse events....

  14. Generalized Growth of Estuarine, Household and Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly E. Diaz; Susanna K. Remold; Ogochukwu Onyiri; Maura Bozeman; Peter A. Raymond; Paul E. Turner; Paul E. Turner

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recentl...

  15. Recommendations on disease management for patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Temin, Sarah; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Crews, Jennie R; Davidson, Nancy E; Esteva, Francisco J; Giordano, Sharon H; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Krop, Ian; Levinson, Jennifer; Modi, Shanu; Patt, Debra A; Perez, Edith A; Perlmutter, Jane; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

    2014-07-01

    To provide formal expert consensus-based recommendations to practicing oncologists and others on the management of brain metastases for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive advanced breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a panel of medical oncology, radiation oncology, guideline implementation, and advocacy experts and conducted a systematic review of the literature. When that failed to yield sufficiently strong quality evidence, the Expert Panel undertook a formal expert consensus-based process to produce these recommendations. ASCO used a modified Delphi process. The panel members drafted recommendations, and a group of other experts joined them for two rounds of formal ratings of the recommendations. No studies or existing guidelines met the systematic review criteria; therefore, ASCO conducted a formal expert consensus-based process. Patients with brain metastases should receive appropriate local therapy and systemic therapy, if indicated. Local therapies include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Treatments depend on factors such as patient prognosis, presence of symptoms, resectability, number and size of metastases, prior therapy, and whether metastases are diffuse. Other options include systemic therapy, best supportive care, enrollment onto a clinical trial, and/or palliative care. Clinicians should not perform routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to screen for brain metastases, but rather should have a low threshold for MRI of the brain because of the high incidence of brain metastases among patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Clinical assessment of bone quality of human extraction sockets after conversion with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Geurs, Nico; Vassilopoulos, Philip; Reddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement. Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs. 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles. (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may

  17. Clinical and molecuar characterization of Brazilian patients with growth hormone gene deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J.P. Arnhold

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA from 23 patients with isolated growth hormone (GH deficiency (12 males and 11 females: heights -4.9 ± 1.4 SDS was screened for GH gene deletions by restriction endonuclease analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplification products. Three unrelated patients had typical features of severe GH deficiency and deletions (6.7 kb in two and 7.6 kb in one of the GH gene. The two patients with 6.7-kb deletions developed growth-attenuating anti-GH antibodies whereas the patient with the 7.6-kb deletion continued to grow with GH replacement therapy. Our finding that 3/23 (~13% Brazilian subjects had GH gene deletions agrees with previous studies of severe isolated GH deficiency subjects in other populations. Two of three subjects (67% with deletions developed blocking antibodies despite administration of exogenous GH at low doses. Interestingly, only 1/10 of cases with affected relatives or parental consanguinity had GH-1 gene deletions

  18. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Clinical review: Distinguishing constitutional delay of growth and puberty from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: critical appraisal of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jennifer; Palmert, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    Determining the etiology of delayed puberty during initial evaluation can be challenging. Specifically, clinicians often cannot distinguish constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), with definitive diagnosis of IHH awaiting lack of spontaneous puberty by age 18 yr. However, the ability to make a timely, correct diagnosis has important clinical implications. The aim was to describe and evaluate the literature regarding the ability of diagnostic tests to distinguish CDGP from IHH. A PubMed search was performed using key words "puberty, delayed" and "hypogonadotropic hypogonadism," and citations within retrieved articles were reviewed to identify studies that assessed the utility of basal and stimulation tests in the diagnosis of delayed puberty. Emphasis was given to a test's ability to distinguish prepubertal adolescents with CDGP from those with IHH. Basal gonadotropin and GnRH stimulation tests have limited diagnostic specificity, with overlap in gonadotropin levels between adolescents with CDGP and IHH. Stimulation tests using more potent GnRH agonists and/or human chorionic gonadotropin may have better discriminatory value, but small study size, lack of replication of diagnostic thresholds, and prolonged protocols limit clinical application. A single inhibin B level in two recent studies demonstrated good differentiation between groups. Distinguishing IHH from CDGP is an important clinical issue. Basal inhibin B may offer a simple, discriminatory test if results from recent studies are replicated. However, current literature does not allow for recommendation of any diagnostic test for routine clinical use, making this an important area for future investigation.

  20. [The changes of ghrelin, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone and their clinical significances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-song; Bao, Zi-yu; Wang, Zhi-ying; Yang, Guo-jun; Zhu, Dong-fang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Rong-mei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and gastric ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore their clinical significances. Plasma ghrelin, GH, GHRH, TNFα, IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 40 COPD patients and 20 controls with chronic bronchitis. Correlated factors of plasma ghrelin, TNFα, IL-6, CRP were analyzed. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. The expression of gastric ghrelin in patients with COPD was detected. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(1.78 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.39 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.36 ± 0.39) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma GH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(4.12 ± 0.83) µg/L, (5.17 ± 0.72)µg/L, (6.49 ± 1.13) µg/L, respectively]. Plasma GHRH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(20.43 ± 4.41) ng/L, (23.47 ± 3.97) ng/L, (27.48 ± 10.06) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the controls (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was positively correlated with TNFα and IL-6 in the underweight patients. The gastric expression of ghrelin showed no evident difference between the patients with COPD and the controls. The plasma GH in COPD patients may not be correlated with ghrelin. The plasma ghrelin level may be a useful indicator for malnutrition in COPD patients. Plasma ghrelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CODP by affecting the body energy metabolism.

  1. In vitro activity of azole derivatives and griseofulvin against planktonic and biofilm growth of clinical isolates of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Correia, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pinheiro, Adriana de Queiroz; Chaves, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2018-03-08

    As shown by recent research, most of the clinically relevant fungi, including dermatophytes, form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, which may exhibit antimicrobial tolerance that favour recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VCZ) and griseofulvin (GRI) against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in planktonic and biofilm growth. For the planktonic form, susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), document M38-A2, while biofilm susceptibility was evaluated using the XTT colorimetric essay. The planktonic growth of all strains was inhibited, with MIC values ranging from 0.00195 to 0.1225 μg/mL for VRC, 0.00195 to 0.25 μg/mL for ITC and GRI, while a 50-fold increase in the MIC was required to significantly reduce the metabolic activity (P < .05) of dermatophyte biofilms. In brief, the ability of dermatophytes to form biofilms may be a contributing factor for the recalcitrance of dermatophytoses or the dissemination of the disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Radiotherapy of malignant growths in the eosophagus with clinical and radiological course control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on clinical and radiological symptoms observed before during and after radiotherapy of 172 patients treated under high-voltage conditions at the radiological clinic in Muenster in the time from 1962 to 1977. The 1, 2, and 5 year survival rates are 26.5%, 13%, and 5.9%. The examination carried out retrospectively showed in 52% of the patients (46/90) after radiotherapy an expansion of the tumour stenosis. In 67% of the patients (67/101), the disphagia which had been stated before decreased. Thus the palliative effect of the treatment is the most important issue of the therapy. In the case of polypous and diffusely infiltrating tumours, the average survival rate was 11.2 months and 12.3 months which is significantly better than the results obtained with circular-stenosing tumours (6.4 months). (orig./APR) [de

  3. Postnatal growth velocity modulates alterations of proteins involved in metabolism and neuronal plasticity in neonatal hypothalamus in rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile F; Bailly, Emilie; Moyon, Thomas L; Grit, Isabelle C; Coupé, Bérengère; Le Drean, Gwenola; Rogniaux, Hélène J; Parnet, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to maternal protein restriction is associated in rats with an alteration in hypothalamic centers involved in feeding behaviour. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of perinatal maternal undernutrition in the brain, we used proteomics approach to identify hypothalamic proteins that are altered in their expression following protein restriction in utero. We used an animal model in which restriction of the protein intake of pregnant rats (8% vs. 20%) produces IUGR pups which were randomized to a nursing regimen leading to either rapid or slow catch-up growth. We identified several proteins which allowed, by multivariate analysis, a very good discrimination of the three groups according to their perinatal nutrition. These proteins were related to energy-sensing pathways (Eno 1, E(2)PDH, Acot 1 and Fabp5), redox status (Bcs 1L, PrdX3 and 14-3-3 protein) or amino acid pathway (Acy1) as well as neurodevelopment (DRPs, MAP2, Snca). In addition, the differential expressions of several key proteins suggested possible shunts towards ketone-body metabolism and lipid oxidation, providing the energy and carbon skeletons necessary to lipogenesis. Our results show that maternal protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth) or pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth) modulates numerous metabolic pathways resulting in alterations of hypothalamic energy supply. As several of these pathways are involved in signalling, it remains to be determined whether hypothalamic proteome adaptation of IUGR rats in response to different postnatal growth rates could also interfere with cerebral plasticity or neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)

  5. Clinical research of serum transforming growth factor-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yixiu; Wang Wei; Liu Weimin; Li Hongmin; Yao Hao; Zhang Tao; Ouyang Xiaohui; Jiang Ping; Chen Dongjin; Feng Bai

    2002-01-01

    To study the change of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) in old patients with silicotuberculosis, the serum TGF-α in 69 patients with silicotuberculosis were measured by RIA, and compared with that in the group of old patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and the old normal control. The level of serum TGF-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis was significantly higher than that in the others (P 0.05). The level of TGF-α does not correlate with numbers of bacterium in sputum. The level of serum TGF-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis was higher than that of pulmonary tuberculosis and old normal control. The change regularity of TGF-α should been studied further

  6. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  7. Growth/differentiation factor-5: a candidate therapeutic agent for periodontal regeneration? A review of pre-clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Yolanda R; Dickinson, Douglas P; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2010-03-01

    Therapeutic concepts involving the application of matrix, growth and differentiation factors have been advocated in support of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family, represents one such factor. The purpose of this review is to provide a background of the therapeutic effects of GDF-5 expressed in various musculoskeletal settings using small and large animal platforms. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all reports in the English language evaluating GDF-5 using the PubMed and Google search engines, and a manual search of the reference lists from the electronically retrieved reports. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts from a total of 69 reports, 22 of which were identified as pre-clinical (in vivo) evaluations of GDF-5. The full-length article of the 22 pre-clinical reports was then reviewed. Various applications including cranial and craniofacial bone formation, spine fusion, long bone fracture healing, cartilage, and tendon/ligament repair using a variety of small and large animal platforms evaluating GDF-5 as a therapeutic agent were identified. A majority of studies, using biomechanical, radiographic, and histological analysis, demonstrated significant dose-dependent effects of GDF-5. These include increased/enhanced local bone formation, fracture healing/repair, and cartilage and tendon/ligament formation. GDF-5 frequently was shown to accelerate wound maturation. Several studies demonstrated GDF-5 to be a realistic alternative to autograft bone. Studies using pre-clinical models and human histology suggest GDF-5 may also increase/enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration. GDF-5 appears a promising therapeutic agent for periodontal wound healing/regeneration as GDF-5 supports/accelerates bone and tendon/ligament formation in several musculoskeletal settings including periodontal tissues.

  8. Growth hormone receptor exon 3 isoforms may have no importance in the clinical setting of multiethnic Brazilian acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Machado, Evelyn; Lima, Carlos Henrique Azeredo; Ogino, Liana Lumi; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2016-08-01

    Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality, but has a variable severity phenotype. The presence of the exon 3-deleted isoform of the growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) may influence the disease phenotype and treatment outcomes, including the frequency of biochemical discordance after medical treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the d3-GHR isoform on clinical and biochemical characteristics and in the treatment outcomes of Brazilian multiethnic acromegaly patients. We retrospectively analyzed our acromegaly outpatient clinic databank and collected demographic, clinical, biochemical and treatment outcome data from those patients who agreed to participate in the study. A blood sample was collected from all patients, the DNA was extracted and the GHR isoforms were evaluated by PCR, with the full length (fl)-GHR represented by a 935-bp fragment and the d3-GHR represented by a 532-bp fragment. A total of 121 patients were included. Fifty-six patients (46.3 %) were full-length homozygous (fl/fl), 48 (39.7 %) were heterozygous (fl/d3) and 17 (14.0 %) were d3-GHR homozygous (d3/d3). There was no difference between patients homozygous for the fl isoform and those harboring at least one d3-GHR allele in the demographic, clinical and biochemical data or in the treatment outcomes, including somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) monotherapy, combination therapy with SRL and cabergoline and pegvisomant treatment. There was also no difference between the groups for the frequency of GH and IGF-I discordance after medical treatment. GHR exon 3 genotyping appears to have no clinical significance, at least in Brazilian acromegaly patients.

  9. Role of growth hormone in stunted head growth after cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, P E; Shalet, S M; Price, D A; Surtees, R A; Pearson, D

    1987-10-01

    The head sizes of 38 patients, growth hormone (GH) deficient following craniospinal (n = 26) or cranial irradiation (n = 12), have been assessed before (n = 38) and on completion of GH therapy (n = 15) or at the end of a similar period of observation without GH (n = 7). These results were compared to the change in head size seen in idiopathic GH deficiency following GH therapy (n = 14). Before GH therapy, the latter had small heads (mean occipitofrontal circumference SD score (SDS) -1), which were relatively large compared to the height deficit (height SDS (CA) -4.7), and they exhibited catch-up growth with GH (delta occipitofrontal circumference SDS + 0.7, final occipitofrontal circumference SDS -0.2). In contrast, over a similar period all patients, who previously had received cranial irradiation in the dosage range 2700-4750 centi-Geigy, irrespective of the radiation schedule or GH treatment, showed a decrease in occipitofrontal circumference SDS (mean delta -0.9), a significant difference to the expected head growth of normal children over a similar period (p less than 0.01). We have noted that restricted head growth occurs in the years following cranial irradiation and is unaffected by GH therapy. Earlier work has shown that cranial irradiation may impair intelligence. The exact relationship between intellectual impairment and stunted head growth remains to be determined.

  10. Sex and growth effect on pediatric hip injuries presenting to sports medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Yen, Yi-Meng; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Lewis, Cara L; Sugimoto, Dai

    2016-07-01

    To compare sports-related hip injuries on the basis of sex and age in a cohort of young athletes. A 5% random probability sample of all new patients' charts over a 10-year time period was selected for investigation. The most common hip injury diagnoses, sport at time of injury, mechanism (acute/traumatic vs. overuse), and types (bony vs. soft tissue) were compared by sex and age (preadolescent vs. adolescent). Descriptive and χ-analyses were carried out. The interaction of sex and age with respect to hip injury over time was examined by two-way (sex, age) analysis of variance. A total of 2133 charts were reviewed; N=87 hip injuries. The main diagnoses for males included labral tear (23.1%), avulsion fracture (11.5%), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (11.5%), dislocation (7.7%), and tendonitis (7.7%). The main diagnoses for females were labral tear (59.0%), tendonitis (14.8%), snapping hip syndrome (6.6%), strain (4.9%), and bursitis (4.9%). The five most common sports/activities at the time of hip injury were dancing/ballet (23.0%), soccer (18.4%), gymnastics (9.2%), ice hockey (8.1%), and track and field (6.9%). Age by sex comparisons showed a greater proportion of the total hip injuries (38.5%) in males compared with females (8.2%) during preadolescence (5-12 years). However, in adolescence (13-17 years), the hip injury proportion was significantly higher in females (91.8%) compared with males (61.5%; PInjury mechanism and type differed by sex, with females sustaining more chronic/overuse (95.1%) and soft tissue type injuries (93.4%) compared with males (50.0 and 53.8%, respectively; Pinjury proportion as they progressed through puberty compared with males (analysis of variance sex-by-age interaction; Pinjury mechanism and type differed significantly between males and females during growth. Notably, the proportion of hip injuries in the young female athletes showed a significantly greater increase with advancing age compared with males. Hip injuries in children

  11. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  12. Expatriate clinics and medical evacuation companies are a growth industry worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Roselieb, Marcus; Hanvesakul, Rekha; Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Pruksapong, Chumsak

    2003-01-01

    Globalization and the growth of tourism, which now includes "adventure" visits to very remote regions, has created new employment but also new problems. For example, elderly tourists break their hips where there is no competent orthopedic surgeon, a traveler gets bitten by a cobra in rural Cambodia where there is not even an "Ambu" bag to keep him oxygenated, and a tour guide develops high-altitude cerebral edema on a remote Nepalese mountain. What would we do without organizations that are capable of removing such victims rapidly and safely to a place able to provide appropriate medical care? Fortunately, several well-staffed and well-equipped air ambulance companies stand ready almost worldwide to help 24 hours a day. Medical assistance firms, which sell their own travel insurance and/or act as agents of large insurance companies, are also at hand and have offices in major cities worldwide. They have 24-hour telephone numbers and are prepared to advise a sick or injured traveler where he or she should go to obtain competent medical care. Most of these firms have regional medical advisors in strategic locations who maintain a network of contacts. They can ensure that an ill traveler is receiving appropriate care and will act as quality controllers. They are also able to advise whether medical evacuation to a higher level of care is needed and where the traveler should be evacuated to.

  13. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in Ecuador: clinical and biochemical phenotype in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Fielder, P J; Diamond, F B; Rosenfeld, R G

    1993-02-01

    We have identified 56 patients with GH receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from two provinces in southern Ecuador, one group of 26 (Loja province) with a 4:1 female predominance and 30 patients from neighboring El Oro province with a normal sex ratio. There were no significant differences between the Loja and El Oro populations in stature (-5.3 to -11.5 standard deviation score), other auxologic measures, or in biochemical measures. GH binding protein, the circulating extracellular domain of the GH receptor, was measured by ligand immunofunction assay and found to be comparably low in children and adults. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and the GH-dependent IGF binding protein-3 (measured by RIA) were significantly greater, and GH and IGF binding protein-2 levels significantly lower in adults than children. Levels of IGF-I (adults) and IGF binding protein-3 (children and adults) correlated inversely with statural deviation from normal (P < 0.01). School performance was at an exceptionally high level, 41 out of 47 who had attended school being in the top 3 in classes of 15-50 persons.

  14. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guimin; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Peisong; Lin, Shan; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Chen, Guang

    2013-08-01

    To examine expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene in human thyroid cancer and establish whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinicopathological parameters of the disease. CTGF protein expression was investigated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of CTGF protein levels in thyroid tumour tissue. Associations between immunohistochemical score and several clinicopathological parameters were examined. In total, 131 thyroid tissue specimens were included. High levels of CTGF protein were observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue; benign thyroid tumour tissue scored negatively for CTGF protein. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, there was a significant relationship between high CTGF protein levels and Union for International Cancer Control disease stage III-IV, and presence of lymph node metastasis. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, CTGF protein levels were not significantly associated with sex or age. These findings suggest that the CTGF protein level is increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells compared with benign thyroid tumours. CTGF expression might play a role in the development of malignant tumours in the thyroid.

  15. The Efficacy of "Catch-Up Programmes" in South African High Schools: A Legal Jinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Jabulani

    2013-01-01

    The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body, in…

  16. Catching Up: Gender Values at a Canadian Independent School for Girls, 1978-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Candace B.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the 15-year transformation in gender values at a Canadian independent school for girls and their effect on the students and the school structures. Gender-stereotyped, outside-world realities are still influencing the school environment and students' thinking. The author believes single-sex schools for girls are an important antidote to…

  17. Gender parity and drug use: are girls catching up with boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbergier, André; Cardoso, Luciana Roberta Donola; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the association between gender and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in adolescents aged 10 to 18 years in the municipalities of Jacareí and Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 971 adolescents completed the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). In our sample, 55% of adolescents were male, 33.8% reported having made use in the previous month of alcohol, 13.5% of cigarettes, and 6.4% of illicit drugs. There was no significant difference between genders in the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in any of the analysis (p > 0.05). The use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs was associated with the city, age, educational level, school failure, and relationship with parents (p genders. This result should be taken into account by public health professionals in developing policies for this problem.

  18. Education Catching up with Science: Preparing Students for Three-Dimensional Literacy in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…

  19. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…

  20. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW - WILL THE ROMANIAN DOCTRINE FINALLY CATCH UP WITH IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA-FLORENTINA POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.

  1. ENTRERPRENEURIAL CATCH UP AND NEW INDUSTRIAL COMPETENCE BLOC FORMATION IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar; Braunerhjelm, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has been an institutionally homogeneous economy, integrated economically and culturally through the sea lanes of the Baltic. After WWII the BSR was broken up into a dual economy, consisting of a poor Soviet block of centrally planned economies, on the one hand, and the industrially advanced BSR economies Finland, Denmark, Germany and Sweden, on the other. 1990 saw the break up of the soviet political system. The liberated, but poor formerly planned ec...

  2. Catching up with the Past: A Small Contribution to a Long History of Interactive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fox

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the evolution of my thinking in the area of interactive architecture over the past 15 years with students and my office. The work is framed within an overview of a long history of work in the area by others. My personal development has taken a number of clear steps in a relatively logical progression.In summary, the work began with kinetics as a means to facilitate adaptation. Work in this area led to integrating computation as a means of controlling the kinetics. The combination of these two areas led to the use of discrete mechanical assemblies as a systems approach to interaction design, which led to the thinking of control as bottom-up and emergent. Consequently I became fascinated with modular autonomous robotics and the notion that actual architectural space could be made of such systems. This in turn led to the exploration of biomimetics in terms of the processes, which eventually led to the idea that the parts in a system should get smaller to the point that they make up the matter itself.The paper concludes with an explanation of how technical advancements in manufacturing, fabrication and computational control will continue to expand the parameters of what is possible in robotics, and consequently influence the scale by which we understand and construct our environments. The future of interactive environments will most certainly involve re-examining the scale by which things operate to the extent that much of the operations happen within the materials themselves. This scaling down is beginning to force a reinterpretation of the mechanical paradigm of adaptation.

  3. Violent Women: Are They Catching Up To Violent Men or Have They Surpassed Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…

  4. Chemistry: Who are you? Where are you going? How do we catch up with you?

    OpenAIRE

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a personal reflection on the nature of Chemistry, its potential areas of development in the 21st century, and the corresponding implications for chemistry education. Beyond reflecting about basic characteristics of Chemistry as a science and speculating on future research trends in this discipline, the central goal of this essay is to motivate chemistry teachers and instructors, as well as chemical educators, to question the relevance and validity of the current general ch...

  5. Attachment and Emotional Development in Institutional Care: Characteristics and Catch-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Steele, Howard; Zeanah, Charles H.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Vorria, Panayiota; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment has been assessed in the extreme environment of orphanages, but an important issue to be addressed in this chapter is whether in addition to standard assessment procedures, such as the Strange Situation, the lack of a specific attachment in some institutionalized children should be taken into account given the limits to the development of stable relationships in institutionalized care. In addition, this chapter discusses disinhibited or indiscriminately friendly behavior that is often seen in institutionalized children. Enhanced caregiving quality alone appears to be insufficient to diminish indiscriminate behavior, at least in some children, as evidenced by the persistence of indiscriminate behavior in children adopted out of institutions into adoptive families. We suggest that the etiology and function of indiscriminate friendly behavior may be different for institutionalized versus not-institutionalized children. In the first case it may reflect a distortion or disruption of early attachment relationships, in the latter case it is likely to result from the lack of expected input in the form of contingent interactions with a stable caregiver in early life. We try to delineate infant and caregiver characteristics that are associated with secure attachment in institutional settings, given the inevitable fact that large numbers of infants worldwide are being raised, and will be raised, in contexts of institutional care. We conclude that much further study is needed of the development of children’s attachments following adoption out of an institutional setting. PMID:25242826

  6. Education catching up with science: preparing students for three-dimensional literacy in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course.

  7. Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  9. Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Barry M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The phenomenon of substance abuse during pregnancy has fostered much controversy, specifically regarding treatment vs. punishment. Should the pregnant mother who engages in substance abuse be viewed as a criminal or as someone suffering from an illness requiring appropriate treatment? As it happens, there is a noticeably wide range of responses to this matter in the various states of the United States, ranging from a strictly criminal perspective to one that does emphasize the importance of the mother's treatment. This diversity of dramatically different responses illustrates the failure to establish a uniform policy for the management of this phenomenon. Just as there is lack of consensus among those who favor punishment, the same lack of consensus characterizes those states espousing treatment. Several general policy recommendations are offered here addressing the critical issues. It is hoped that by focusing on these fundamental issues and ultimately detailing statistics, policymakers throughout the United States will consider the course of action that views both pregnant mother and fetus/child as humanely as possible.

  10. A novel pre-clinical in vivo mouse model for malignant brain tumor growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Laura M; Mukherjee, Purna; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Urits, Ivan; Rosenberg, Joshua A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressive disease of morbidity and mortality and is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults. Lack of appropriate in vivo models has been a major roadblock to developing effective therapies for GBM. A new highly invasive in vivo GBM model is described that was derived from a spontaneous brain tumor (VM-M3) in the VM mouse strain. Highly invasive tumor cells could be identified histologically on the hemisphere contralateral to the hemisphere implanted with tumor cells or tissue. Tumor cells were highly expressive for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 and could be identified invading through the pia mater, the vascular system, the ventricular system, around neurons, and over white matter tracts including the corpus callosum. In addition, the brain tumor cells were labeled with the firefly luciferase gene, allowing for non-invasive detection and quantitation through bioluminescent imaging. The VM-M3 tumor has a short incubation time with mortality occurring in 100% of the animals within approximately 15 days. The VM-M3 brain tumor model therefore can be used in a pre-clinical setting for the rapid evaluation of novel anti-invasive therapies.

  11. Renewed growth in hospital inpatient cost since 1998: variation across metropolitan areas and leading clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard S; Wong, Herbert S; Steiner, Claudia A

    2006-03-01

    To use disaggregated data about metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and clinical conditions to better describe the variation in cost increases and explore some of the hypothesized influences. The study uses the state inpatient databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, containing all discharges from hospitals in 172 MSAs in 1998 and 2001. The discharge summary information was combined with standardized hospital accounting files, surveys of managed care plans, MSA demographics, and state data pertaining to caps on medical malpractice awards. The analysis used descriptive comparisons and multivariate regressions of admission rate and cost per case in 9 leading disease categories across the MSAs. The increase in hospital input prices and changes in severity of illness were controlled. Metropolitan statistical areas with higher HMO market penetration continued to show lower admission rates, no less so in 2001 than in 1998. A cap on malpractice awards appeared to restrain admissions, but the net effect on hospital cost per adult eroded for those states with the most experience with award caps. Higher admission rates and increase in cost were found in several disease categories.

  12. Clinical significance of transforming growth factor β1 in the diagnosis of the severity of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Викторович Клименко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the clinical-diagnostic and prognostic value of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 at different degrees of severity of acute pancreatitis (AP on the basis of studying the characteristics of content of anti-inflammatory cytokine in serum to create a diagnostic algorithm severity and course of AP.Methods. It is analyzed the data for the study of nature of the transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 content in the serum of 94 patients with AP varying severity (mild case of AP-20 patients, average case - 12, severe case -62 in the first 24-48 hours and 7-10 days of hospitalization.Results. Analysis of the data can reliably assert that the value of TGF-ß1 in the first 48 hours of admission to correlate with AP severity. It is proposed the use of TGF-ß1 level in clinical and diagnostic complex of diagnostic of AP severity in the first 48 hours of hospitalization. If the patient has TGF-β1≤70.0 ng / ml it is mild AP. If the level of cytokine ≥70.1 ng / ml produce differentiation between moderate and severe AP. At the level of cytokine ≥120.1 ng / ml it is severe AP and diagnosis is completed. In the case of the definition of TGF-β1 in the range of> 80.1 - <120.0 ng / ml AP degree uncertain and requires further observation and examination.Conclusions. Diagnostic thresholds of AP severity are determined. It is allowed use of TGF-β1 in a modern complex AP diagnostics. It is proven a diagnostic and prognostic significance level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß1

  13. Platelet growth factors from allogeneic platelet-rich plasma for clinical improvement in split-thickness skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonker, Atul; Dubey, Anju; Bhatnagar, Ankur; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are a source of numerous growth factors which facilitate repair and healing. Thus platelet rich plasma has been increasingly used as a treatment modality in the field of reconstructive surgeries for wound healing. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether platelet growth factors from platelet rich plasma could be used for enhancement of split thickness skin graft survival. Twenty patients (13 males and 7 females) requiring split thickness skin graft for various clinical reasons were enrolled in the study. Platelet rich plasma was collected by apheresis and frozen at -80° C. It was thawed at room temperature immediately before its intended application. PRP was applied only on one half of the wound, while another half served as control. Patient was followed for 6 weeks. The effect was assessed at first dressing in terms of graft uptake and subsequently as time taken for complete healing. There was 100% uptake of the graft in the area where platelet rich plasma was applied. In the control area, there was complete graft loss in 4 cases, partial loss in 7 cases and complete uptake in 9 cases. This study demonstrated promising results on application of PRP to split thickness skin grafts. Further randomized studies with greater sample size may be undertaken to establish platelet rich plasma as a validated treatment modality.

  14. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ming Jang; Arnold, Megan S J; Xu, Weijun; Lancelot, Julien; Lamotte, Suzanne; Späth, Gerald F; Prina, Eric; Pierce, Raymond J; Fairlie, David P; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Andrews, Katherine T

    2017-04-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin) that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC 50 9-370 nM), with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8-45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF) or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC 50  > 20 μM) or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC 50  > 10 μM), however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC 50 ∼10 μM). Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days), with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4-7 and 4-10 after infection (P < 0.05), respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Jang Chua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC50 9–370 nM, with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8–45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC50 > 20 μM or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC50 > 10 μM, however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC50 ∼10 μM. Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days, with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4–7 and 4–10 after infection (P < 0.05, respectively.

  16. Behaviour of postnatally growth-impaired mice during malnutrition and after partial weight recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Kolb, Andreas F.; Lillico, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Early malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in developing countries. Different rodent models of postnatal early malnutrition have been used to approach the subject experimentally, inducing early malnutrition by maternal malnutrition, temporal maternal separation, manipulation...... of litter size or the surgical nipple ligation to impair lactation. Studies on the behaviour of (previously) malnourished animals using animal models have produced sometimes contradictory results regarding the effects of early postnatal malnutrition and have been criticized for introducing potential...... confounding factors. The present paper is a first report on the behavioural effects of early malnutrition induced by an alternative approach: mice nursed by a-casein-deficient knockout dams showed a severe growth delay during early development and substantial catch-up growth after weaning when compared...

  17. Is subfertility or fertility treatment associated with long-term growth in the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSION(S): There were no differences in child anthropometrics at 5 years between children conceived after fertility treatment or by subfertile parents compared with that of children born to fertile parents. However, children born after fertility treatment may show catch-up growth during childhood.......(S): A total of 3,478 mother-child pairs were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort, and 1,773 completed the outcome measurements. A total of 69 children were born after fertility treatment, whereas 132 were born to subfertile parents conceiving spontaneously but after a time to pregnancy of more than......OBJECTIVE: To study whether fertility treatment or subfertility is associated with long-term growth in the offspring. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study including 1,773 singletons participating in the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study at the age of 5. SETTING: Research centers. PATIENT...

  18. Aberrant overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with aggressive clinical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Y Jiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Y Jiang1, Bruce A Woda2, Liping Zhang2, Suyang Hao2, Karen A Dresser2, Di Lu21Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USAAbstract: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. In this study, we studied vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in ­pancreatic adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemical staining. Clinical follow-up and survival data were analyzed. We determined that VEGF was aberrantly overexpressed in a subset of primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Statistically, VEGF overexpression was associated with higher stage, higher grade, and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001, P = 0.012, and P < 0.005, respectively. Additionally, patients of this subset had a much shorter overall survival than patients without VEGF overexpression, as evidenced by Kaplan–Meier plots and the log-rank test (P = 0.001. The 5-year overall survival rate was 17% in patients with VEGF overexpression compared to 52% in patients without VEGF overexpression. The median survival was only 13 months for patients with VEGF overexpression compared to 65 months for patients without. In conclusion, VEGF is a biomarker that identifies a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with aggressive clinical behavior.Keywords: pancreatic adenocarcinoma, VEGF, cancer

  19. Oliveria decumbens essential oil: Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity against the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Vasiee, Alireza; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Oliveria decumbens as a valuable medicinal plant is extensively used in traditional medicine. clinical and standard strains causing infection resistance to antimicrobial agents, is one of the important problems in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Oliveria decumbens essential oil on the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection (Pseudomonas aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Oliveria decumbens essential oil composition was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, saponins, flavone and phenolic) essential oil of the Oliveria decumbens were appraised based on qualitative methods. Several methods (disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)) were used to appraise the antibacterial activity of the Oliveria decumbens essential oil. Thymol (28.45%) was the major compound of Oliveria decumbens essential oil. The total phenolics content (TPC) of the essential oil positively correlated with antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA of Oliveria decumbens essential oil was equal to 92.45 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg and 164.45 ± 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil ranged from 1 to 8 mg/ml depending on the type of bacteria (clinical and standard strains). The MBC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil varied from 1 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The smallest inhibition zone diameter (IZD) on different Oliveria decumbens essential oil concentrations on P. aeruginosa. Results indicate that Oliveria decumbens essential oil can prove to be an important source of AA and antibacterial and may be used for the treatment of infection diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals...... was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...... to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth)....

  1. Complementary feeding with cowpea reduces growth faltering in rural Malawian infants: a blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kevin B; Agapova, Sophia E; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend. Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old). The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in EED, as measured by percentage of lactulose excretion (%L). %L Cowpea and common bean added 4.6-5.2 g protein/d and 4-5 g indigestible carbohydrate/d to the diet. LAZ and weight-for-height z score were reduced in all 3 groups from 6 to 12 mo of age. The changes in LAZ [mean (95% CI)] for the cowpea, common bean, and control groups from 6 to 9 mo were -0.14 (-0.24, -0.04), -0.27 (-0.38, -0.16), and -0.27 (-0.35, -0.19), respectively. LAZ was reduced less in infants receiving cowpea than in those receiving control food from 6 to 9 mo ( P = 0.048). The absolute value of %L did not differ between the dietary groups at 9 mo of age (mean ± SD: 0.30 ± 0.43, 0.23 ± 0.21, and 0.26 ± 0.31 for cowpea, common bean, and control, respectively), nor did the change in %L from 6 to 9 mo. Conclusion: Addition of cowpea to complementary feeding in Malawian infants resulted in less linear growth faltering. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472262. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (Serotype 2)-Nerve Growth Factor for Patients With Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Tuszynski, Mark H; Thomas, Ronald G; Barba, David; Brewer, James B; Rissman, Robert A; Siffert, Joao; Aisen, Paul S

    2018-03-26

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic factor that prevents the death and augments the functional state of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, a cell population that undergoes extensive degeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 2)-nerve growth factor (AAV2-NGF) are well tolerated and exhibit preliminary evidence of impact on cognitive decline in mild to moderate AD-associated dementia. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, 49 participants with mild to moderate AD were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of AAV2-NGF or sham surgery. Participants were enrolled between November 2009 and December 2012. Analyses began in February 2015. The study was conducted at 10 US academic medical centers. Eligibility required a diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia due to AD and individuals aged 55 to 80 years. A total of 39 participants did not pass screening; the most common reason was Mini-Mental State Examination scores below cutoff. Analyses were intention-to-treat. Stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of AAV2-NGF into the nucleus basalis of Meynert of each hemisphere or sham surgery. Change from baseline on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale at month 24. Among 49 participants, 21 (43%) were women, 42 (86%) self-identified as white, and the mean (SD) age was 68 (6.4) years. AAV2-NGF was safe and well-tolerated through 24 months. No significant difference was noted between the treatment group and placebo on the primary outcome measure, the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (mean [SD] score, 14.52 [4.66] vs 9.11 [4.65], P = .17). This multicenter randomized clinical trial demonstrated the feasibility of sham-surgery-controlled stereotactic gene delivery studies in patients with AD. AAV2-NGF delivery was well-tolerated but did not

  3. Clinical significance of changes of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level before and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingping; Sun Zhiqiang; Ni Xinchu; Wang Jian; Li Yi; Hu Lijun; Li Dongqing; Sun Suping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes and clinical value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level before, during and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods: The sera of 67 esophageal carcinoma patients and 30 healthy control cases were collected. The VEGF level in serum samples were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The relations among VEGF level changes,clinical stages and radiotherapy effect were analyzed. Results: The VEGF levels of patients with esophagus cancer before, during and after radiotherapy were significantly higher than those in control group (F=11.65, P<0.01). The VEGF level after radiotherapy was significant lower than that before radiotherapy (F=10.72, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with T 3 and T 4 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=14.10, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with N 1 and N 2 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=8.64, P<0.01). In 62 patients,the serum VEGF level increased in 21 cases but decreased in 41 cases after radiotherapy. With difference in radiotherapy efficiency of 61.90% and 90.24%, respectively (χ 2 =6.08, P<0.05). The average VEGF level during and after radiotherapy for 50 cases of CR + PR were significantly lower than that before radiotherapy (F=7.98, P<0.01). Conclusions: Monitoring the serum VEGF level of patients with esophagus cancer can help evaluate the radiosensitivity, which has a significance in predicting the prognosis of radiotherapy. (authors)

  4. [The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin as a growth factor. II. The changes in various endocrine status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M; Odagaki, E; Morioka, T; Nakagawa, K

    1987-05-20

    The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin (Tf) in patients with hypophysial disorders was reported in our previous papers. In the present study, we determined plasma Tf levels in 55 patients with various endocrine states and considered their clinical significance compared with plasma somatomedin-C (SM-C) levels. Plasma Tf levels decreased significantly in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.02), hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.05), primary hypothyroidism (p less than 0.05) and Cushing's syndrome (p less than 0.05), while they were elevated significantly in pregnancy (p less than 0.01) or females using estrogens (p less than 0.05). The former two declines were considered a reflection of the malnutritional state of the patients since a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma Tf levels and the percentile deficit from the ideal body weight in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.01), or between plasma Tf levels and elevated T3 levels which induce hypermetabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the SM-C and Tf levels in these subjects (including normal controls and patients with hypophysial disorders) as a whole (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001). These data indicate that plasma Tf is changeable according to the endocrinological and nutritional conditions with good correlation to the SM-C, and it is suggested that Tf also operates as a growth factor in vivo.

  5. Growth Potential of Subdural Hematomas Under Clinical Observation: Which Subdural Hematomas Tend to Grow and Why They Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Ziya

    2018-05-01

    To study the prognoses of patients with subdural hematoma (SDH) who were not operated on at the time of the first diagnosis and the causes of enlarged hematomas in some patients during the follow-up period. The records, service files, and radiologic examination results of the patients with diagnoses of SDH were reviewed. The SDH patients were recorded under 5 different categories: acute SDH (ASDH), subacute SDH (SSDH), chronic SDH (CSDH), acute component with chronic SDH (A-CSDH), and subacute component with chronic SDH (S-CSDH). The symptoms, clinical findings, and progression in the patients were correlated with radiologic examinations. A total of 291 patients received diagnoses of SDHs: 80 patients with acute, 29 patients with subacute, and 163 patients with chronic hematoma. Thirty-five patients had diagnoses of SDH with a combination of different components. It was determined that in the follow-up period, patients with A-CSDH showed the greatest increase in hematoma size over time and required surgical intervention the most often. SDHs reveal different prognoses in different age groups. Multicomponent SDHs are within the group that shows the greatest increase in size in the follow-up period. SDHs and CSDHs cause recurrent hemorrhages by sustaining the tension on the bridging veins. The greater the hematoma volume, the greater the growth potential of the hematoma tends to be. CSDHs that do not manifest changes in volume for a long time can be monitored without surgical intervention as long as the clinical picture remains stable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth trajectory and pubertal tempo from birth till final height in a girl with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Jia Xuan; Yap, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0-4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0-17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed. Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

  7. Uso clínico de los factores de crecimiento hematopoyético Clinical use of hematopoietic growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Torres Hernández

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los factores de crecimiento hematopoyético (FCH son producto de la excitante y prometedora industria de la biología molecular y la Ingeniería gen ética. Se hace una revisión de la farmacología del Factor Estimulador de Colonias de Granulocitos y del Factor Estimulador de Colonias de Granulocitos-Macrófagos, como también de su uso clínico en neutropenia aguda post-quimioterapia mielotóxica anticancerosa, trasplante de médula ósea, leucemia aguda, síndromes mielodisplásicos, anemia aplástica, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y neutropenia crónica.

    Hematopoietic growth factors are one of the products of the exciting and promising molecular biology and genetic engineering industries. Two of these factors are the recombinant human - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and the recombinant human-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; a review Is presented on their pharmacology and clinical uses in acute neutropenia after myelotoxic anticancer therapy, bone marrow transplantion, acute leukemia, myelodyplastic syndromes, aplastic anemia, AIDS and chronic neutropenia.

  8. The Efficacy of Fibroblast Growth Factor for the Treatment of Chronic Vocal Fold Scarring: From Animal Model to Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Myung Jin; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Seung Won

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the regenerative efficacy of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in a rabbit model of chronic vocal fold scarring and then confirmed its utility and safety in a prospective trial of patients with this condition. FGF was injected three times, at 1-week intervals, into a chronic vocal fold scar created in a rabbit model. After 1 month, mRNA level of procollagen I, hyaluronic acid synthetase 2 (HAS 2), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The relative densities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen were examined 3 months post-injection. From April 2012 to September 2014, a prospective clinical trial was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Korea. FGF was injected into the mild vocal fold scar of 17 consecutive patients with a small glottic gap. The patients underwent perceptual, stroboscopic, acoustic aerodynamic test, and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) survey prior to and 3, 6, and 12 months after FGF injection. FGF injection of the vocal fold scar decreased the density of collagen and increased mRNA level of HAS 2 and MMP 2 expression significantly compared to the control group injected with phosphate buffered solution in a rabbit model (Pvocal fold injections of FGF in patients with mild chronic vocal fold scarring can significantly improve voice quality for as long as 1 year and without side effects. Our results recommend the use of FGF vocal fold injection as an alternative treatment modality for mild chronic vocal fold scarring.

  9. Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Different Clinical SubtypeS of Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mardani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with a poorly understood etiology. The role of angiogenesis in the development of different chronic inflammatory diseases is of great concern. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important regulator of angiogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the serum level of VEGF in patients with oral lichen planus compared with normal individuals and consider its clinical significance.Methods: In this case-control study, 36 serum samples from patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus admitted to the Oral Medicine Department of the School of Dentistry at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (14 men, 22 women, mean [±SD] age: 38.8 [±6.07] years and 23 serum samples from healthy individuals (9 men, 14 women, mean [±SD] age: 38.7 [±4.9] years were collected. VEGF concentration was measured using the ELISA method. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results: The serum VEGF level was significantly higher in patients with oral lichen planus compared with the healthy controls (112.97 [±63.2] vs. 66.21 [±56.2] ngr/ml, P<0.001. A similar difference was also observed between the two types of oral lichen planus, being more pronounced in the erosive form (P<0.001.Conclusion: Serum VEGF can be used as a useful and suitable marker to scrutinize the disease activity.

  10. [Expression and clinical significance of kisspeptin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in tissue of colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Xu, Qian; Ren, Haipeng

    2016-03-01

    To detect the expression of kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissue of colon cancer, and analyze the relativity between KISS-1, MMP-2, VEGF and pathological characteristics of colon cancer. A total of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 patients with benign colorectal disease who received surgical treatment in our hospital from January 2009 to June 2010 were selected as observation group and control group respectively. The cancer tissue samples and excision samples collected from them were used to detect KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF with immunohistochemistry. The positive rates of KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF were 31.7%, 58.3% and 78.3% in observation group, and 73.3%, 16.7% and 33.3% in control group. The positive rate of KISS-1 in observation group was lower than that in control group (χ(2)=23.489, Pcolon cancer (χ(2)=8.997, P=0.011; χ(2)=6.163, P=0.013; χ(2)=8.519, P=0.014; χ(2)=9.160, P=0.002; χ(2)=16.577, Pclinical stage of colon cancer and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction by detecting KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF.

  11. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Schwartz, Jared N.; Hagerty, Karen L.; Allred, D. Craig; Cote, Richard J.; Dowsett, Mitchell; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L.; Hanna, Wedad M.; Langer, Amy; McShane, Lisa M.; Paik, Soonmyung; Pegram, Mark D.; Perez, Edith A.; Press, Michael F.; Rhodes, Anthony; Sturgeon, Catharine; Taube, Sheila E.; Tubbs, Raymond; Vance, Gail H.; van de Vijver, Marc; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an expert panel,

  12. Impact of a nutrition intervention program on the growth and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley

    2007-06-01

    This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p nutritional knowledge (p hemoglobin data revealed a significant decrease which may be due to specific environmental factors and pubertal changes. This research has implications concerning the development of successful adolescent focused nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.

  13. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate, a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbertz S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Herbertz,1 J Scott Sawyer,2 Anja J Stauber,2 Ivelina Gueorguieva,3 Kyla E Driscoll,4 Shawn T Estrem,2 Ann L Cleverly,3 Durisala Desaiah,2 Susan C Guba,2 Karim A Benhadji,2 Christopher A Slapak,2 Michael M Lahn21Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab

  14. [Relationship of plasma ghrelin, IGF-1 and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaying; Song, Guangyao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Baoping; Zhao, Xiumian; Yin, Jianying

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship of Ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age (SGA) at birth. The levels of ghrelin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin and glucose were measured in the children with preterm SGA and term SGA and compared with the children with preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and term AGA. The correlation of ghrelin with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin was analyzed. Plasma ghrelin in preterm SGA was higher than that in term SGA (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin in preterm AGA and term SGA was higher than that in term AGA (P development of preterm and SGA children, regardless of the magnitude of their catch up growth. As a re-regulatory factor to insulin, ghrelin regulates the energy metabolism in a form of negative feedback.

  15. Predicting refeeding hypophosphataemia: insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic biochemical marker for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyale, Atul; Ashley, Sarah L; Taylor, David R; Elnenaei, Manal O; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Sherwood, Roy A; le Roux, Carel W; Vincent, Royce P

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a potentially fatal condition that can occur following the re-introduction of nutrition after a period of starvation. Hypophosphataemia following the reintroduction of nutrition is often the only reliable biochemical marker of RS. Refeeding index (RI) generated from baseline insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and leptin has been proposed as a useful biochemical marker for the identification of patients at risk of developing refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH). A prospective study included 52 patients referred for parenteral nutrition (PN). The sensitivity and specificity of IGF-1 measured using a sensitive assay was compared to the RI in predicting the development of RH (a ≥ 30% drop in PO4 during the first 36-h of PN administration). Leptin and IGF-1 were analysed on baseline samples using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay. Daily blood samples were collected from all patients for routine biochemistry for the full duration of PN administration. High sensitivity IGF-1 measurement alone was comparable with the RI, using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, with areas under the curve being 0.79 and 0.80, respectively, and superior to leptin alone (0.72) for predicting ≥ 30% drop in PO4. The cut-off value for IGF-1 that gave best sensitivity (91% [95% CI 75-98%]) and specificity (65% [95% CI 41-85%]) was 63.7 µg/L, with a likelihood ratio of 2.59. Baseline IGF-1 is an objective, sensitive and specific biochemical marker in identifying patients who are at high risk of developing RH prior to PN administration and therefore may have a role in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Assessing the clinical utility of measuring Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in tissues and sera of melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Michael T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers in several types of tumors. In this study, we examined both IGFBP-3 and -4 levels in tissues and sera of melanoma patients representing different stages of melanoma progression. Methods The study cohort consisted of 132 melanoma patients (primary, n = 72; metastatic, n = 60; 64 Male, 68 Female; Median Age = 56 prospectively enrolled in the New York University School of Medicine Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (NYU IMCG between August 2002 and December 2006. We assessed tumor-expression and circulating sera levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 using immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays. Correlations with clinicopathologic parameters were examined using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Spearman-rank correlation coefficients. Results Median IGFBP-4 tumor expression was significantly greater in primary versus metastatic patients (70% versus 10%, p = 0.01 A trend for greater median IGFBP-3 sera concentration was observed in metastatic versus primary patients (4.9 μg/ml vs. 3.4 μg/ml, respectively, p = 0.09. However, sera levels fell within a normal range for IGFBP-3. Neither IGFBP-3 nor -4 correlated with survival in this subset of patients. Conclusion Decreased IGFBP-4 tumor expression might be a step in the progression from primary to metastatic melanoma. Our data lend support to a recently-described novel tumor suppressor role of secreting IGFBPs in melanoma. However, data do not support the clinical utility of measuring levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 in sera of melanoma patients.

  17. Effect Sizes for Growth-Modeling Analysis for Controlled Clinical Trials in the Same Metric as for Classical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The use of growth-modeling analysis (GMA)--including hierarchical linear models, latent growth models, and general estimating equations--to evaluate interventions in psychology, psychiatry, and prevention science has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, an effect size associated with the difference between the trajectories of the…

  18. Review article: The clinical importance of growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease: is it important to the gastroenterologist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease is often compromised. To explore the origins of growth retardation in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and to consider management strategies. Relevant literature was identified and reviewed. A combination of the following factors results in

  19. How are growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 reported as markers for drug effectiveness in clinical acromegaly research? A comprehensive methodologic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esdonk, Michiel J.; Van Zutphen, Eline J. M.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M.; Van Der Graaf, Piet H.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Stevens, Jasper; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2018-01-01

    Objective. In rare disease research, most randomized prospective clinical trials can only use limited number of patients and are comprised of highly heterogeneous populations. Therefore, it is crucial to report the results in such a manner that it allows for comparison of treatment effectiveness and

  20. Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sik; Han, Jungho; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soon Min; Eun, Ho Seon; Park, Min-Soo; Park, Kook-In; Namgung, Ran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved. We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24 months. Growth failure was defined as weight and height below the 10th percentile at 24 months. For the subgroup analysis, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants were evaluated. The growth patterns based on the Korean, World Health Organization (WHO), or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard were serially compared over time. At postconception age (PCA) 40 weeks, 47 (58%) and 45 infants (55%) showed growth failure in terms of weight and height, respectively. At PCA 24 months, 20 infants (24%) showed growth failure for weight and 14 (18%) for height. Growth failure rates were higher for the SGA infants than for the appropriate-weight-for-gestational age infants at PCA 24 months ( P =0.045 for weight and P =0.038 for height). Growth failure rates were higher for the ELBW infants than for the non-ELBW infants at PCA 24 months ( P <0.001 for weight and P =0.003 for height). Significant differences were found among the WHO, CDC, and Korean standards ( P <0.001). Advancements in neonatal care have improved the catch-up growth of VLBW infants, but this is insufficient. Careful observation and aggressive interventions, especially in SGA and ELBW infants, are needed.

  1. Biological-clinical study of radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Growth and regression rates, dynamic histology, and cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Nervi, C.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of combined methotrexate and radiotherapy were studied in 22 patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the upper air passages. Studies included clinical growth rate of tumor volume prior to treatment, cell kinetics before treatment, electron microscope studies of serial biopsies, response of tumor to methotrexate and radiation, and time and rate of recurrences. Case histories are described for four different types of tumors and results are discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Sex differences in early growth during the first three years of life in offspring from mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Masuyama, Hisashi; Eguchi, Takeshi; Tamada, Shoko; Eto, Eriko; Hayata, Kei; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    Newborns born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) are thought to be at high risk for lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and hypertension, in adulthood. A longitudinal study of 78 pregnant women with PIH and their newborns, who visited Okayama University Hospital from 2009 to 2013. We investigated the change in growth of offspring born to mothers with PIH and compared it with the standard growth curve in Japanese to examine whether there was rapid catch-up growth during the first 3years of life. Subjects were 78 pregnant women with PIH and their offspring, who visited Okayama University Hospital from 2009 to 2013. Valid responses were obtained from 29 of 78 (37.1%) women. Body weight and length at birth were at the third percentile or less in females, and at the 10th percentile or less, in males. When body weight and length were compared at 6months, 18months, and 3years old between male and female toddlers, male toddlers slowly caught up until 3years old, but female toddlers rapidly caught up in the first 6months. Furthermore, in newborns with fetal growth restriction caused by the intrauterine environment of PIH, differences in physical development between male and female toddlers were more remarkable. There is a significant sex difference in catch-up growth during the first 3years, which might be involved in lifestyle-related diseases in adulthood, suggesting continuous follow-up is necessary, especially for female offspring. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Postdischarge growth and development in a predominantly Hispanic, very low birth weight population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, George C; Ramamurthy, Rajam; Schoolfield, John; Matula, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    The goals were to assess postdischarge growth and developmental progress of very low birth weight (birth weight: population and to identify predictors for neurodevelopmental impairment at 3 years of age. A cohort of 135 very low birth weight infants (gestational age: 23 to 35 weeks) were monitored to 3 years of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, anthropometric z scores, and developmental performance (using corrected age until 24 months) were analyzed collectively and according to gestational age groups. Specific criteria for failure to thrive and microcephaly were used. A characteristic pattern of poor weight gain in the first 12 months was followed by accelerated weight gain starting at 18 months, whereas head growth decreased at 18 months, with recovery beginning at 30 months of age. Infants born at gestational age of growth-impaired at 3 years of age, whereas infants born at gestational age of >or=27 weeks achieved catch-up growth by 30 months of age. Mean developmental scores also decreased in infancy, with improvements in motor development emerging at 18 months and cognitive skills at 30 months. Growth z scores, particularly for head growth, correlated with developmental scores. Infants born at gestational age of growth patterns that coincided with developmental progress in the first 3 years of life. Birth at gestational age of

  4. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets...... and active caspase 3 in mid-jejunum epithelium of HP and LP non-IUGR neonates were significantly lower as compared to C non-IUGRs whilst in IUGRs the respective expressions were as high as in C non-IUGRs. The postnatal dynamics of brush border enzyme activities and vacuolated enterocytes disappearance showed...... significant drop in enterocyte maturation in IUGR as compared to non-IUGR neonates. In conclusion, both HP and LP diets led to retarded development of non-IUGR piglets. In IUGR piglets both HP and LP diets resulted in delayed catch-up growth, without adaptive changes in brush border digestive enzymes....

  5. [Clinical application of artificial dermis combined with basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of cicatrix and deep skin wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yilan; Huang, Yalan; Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yan, Hong; Luo, Qizhi; Zhang, Jiaping; Wu, Jun; Peng, Daizhi

    2016-04-01

    To observe the effects of artificial dermis combined with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the treatment of cicatrix and deep skin wounds. The clinical data of 72 patients with wounds repaired with artificial dermis, hospitalized in our unit from October 2010 to April 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. The types of wounds were wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone, in a total number of 102. Wounds were divided into artificial dermis group (A, n=60) and artificial dermis+ bFGF group (B, n=42) according to whether or not artificial dermis combined with bFGF. In group A, after release and resection of cicatrices or thorough debridement of deep skin wounds, artificial dermis was directly grafted to wounds in the first stage operation. After complete vascularization of artificial dermis, wounds were repaired with autologous split-thickness skin grafts in the second stage operation. In group B, all the procedures were exactly the same as those in group A except that artificial dermis had been soaked in bFGF for 30 min before grafting. Operation area, complete vascularization time of artificial dermis, survival of skin grafts, and the follow-up condition of wounds in the two groups were recorded. Data were processed with t test and Fisher's exact test. (1) Operation areas of wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone in the two groups were about the same (with t values from -1.853 to -0.200, P values above 0.05). Complete vascularization time of artificial dermis in wounds after resection of cicatrices, deep burn wounds without exposure of tendon or bone, and wounds with exposure of small area of tendon or bone in group B were respectively (15.6 ± 2.9), (14.7 ± 2.7), and (20.3 ± 4.4) d, and they were shorter by an

  6. Selecting short-statured children needing growth hormone testing: Derivation and validation of a clinical decision rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bréart Gérard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous short-statured children are evaluated for growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD. In most patients, GH provocative tests are normal and are thus in retrospect unnecessary. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in children seen for short stature, and to construct a very sensitive and fairly specific predictive tool to avoid unnecessary GH provocative tests. GHD was defined by the presence of 2 GH concentration peaks Results The initial study included 167 patients, 36 (22% of whom had GHD, including 5 (3% with certain GHD. Independent predictors of GHD were: growth rate Conclusion We have derived and performed an internal validation of a highly sensitive decision rule that could safely help to avoid more than 2/3 of the unnecessary GH tests. External validation of this rule is needed before any application.

  7. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Lafzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods. In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were selected. The test group received bone graft combined with PRGF, while the control group was treated with bone graft only. Clinical parameters included clinical probing depth (CPD, vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL, horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL, location of gingival margin (LGM, surgically exposed horizontal probing depth of bony defect (E-HPD, vertical depth of bone crest (V-DBC, vertical depth of the base of bony defect (V-DBD, and length of the intrabony defect (LID. After six months, a re-entry surgery was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using Kolmogorov, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-test. Results. After 6 months, both treatment methods led to significant improvement in V-CAL and H-CAL and significant decreases in CPD, E-HPD, V-DBD and LID; there was no significant difference in LGM and V-DBC in any of the treated groups compared to the baseline values. Also, none of the parameters showed significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion. Although autogenous bone grafts, with or without PRGF, were successful in treating grade II furcation involvement, no differences between the study groups were observed.

  8. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Jabali, Sahar; Shayan, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were selected. The test group received bone graft combined with PRGF, while the control group was treated with bone graft only. Clinical parameters included clinical probing depth (CPD), vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL), horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL), location of gingival margin (LGM), surgically exposed horizontal probing depth of bony defect (E-HPD), vertical depth of bone crest (V-DBC), vertical depth of the base of bony defect (V-DBD), and length of the intrabony defect (LID). After six months, a re-entry surgery was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using Kolmogorov, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-test. Results After 6 months, both treatment methods led to significant improvement in V-CAL and H-CAL and significant decreases in CPD, E-HPD, V-DBD and LID; there was no significant difference in LGM and V-DBC in any of the treated groups compared to the baseline values. Also, none of the parameters showed significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion Although autogenous bone grafts, with or without PRGF, were successful in treating grade II furcation involvement, no differences between the study groups were observed. PMID:23486928

  9. Practical application of linear growth measurements in clinical research in low-and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jan Maarten; Himes, John H.; Van Buuren, Stef; Denno, Donna M.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low-and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions

  10. Cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome). Compiled data of 22 cases. Analysis of clinical features, growth and plasma somatomedin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J. M.; Beemer, F. A.; Barth, P. G.; Oorthuys, J. W.; Dijkstra, P. F.; van den Brande, J. L.; Leschot, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    An in depth study on growth, bone age, cranial CT scans and plasma somatomedin activity (SM-act) was made of 22 children with Sotos syndrome. In addition to the known characteristics of the syndrome, thin and brittle nails were found in three adolescent patients. The mean body stature, expressed as

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, E; Villatoro, J C; Agüero, A; Lopez, R; Matiñó, E; Argemi, J; Girabent-Farrés, M

    2018-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common problem among children and is recognized as a cause of significant medical morbidity. Since the 1980s, it has been suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a risk factor for growth failure in children. In many cases, it has been shown that growth failure is reversible once the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is resolved. The objectives of this study were to analyze and compare growth failure prevalence in a Mediterranean population of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and healthy children matched in age and sex, and to assess the effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in resolving growth retardation. We compared 172 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3) who had undergone tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy with 172 healthy controls in terms of key anthropometric parameters. Most of the criteria used for growth failure were higher to a statistically significant degree in the study group vs the control group: height-for-age ≤ 3rd percentile (7.56% vs 2.91%; p = 0.044), weight-for-age ≤ 5th percentile (9.30% vs 2.33%; p = 0.005), weight-for-age ≤ 3rd percentile (8.14% vs 2.33%; p = 0.013) and height and/or weight for-age ≤ 5th percentile (13.95% vs 5.81%; p = 0.009). The height-for-age ≤ 5th percentile was almost at the limit of statistical significance (8.72% for the study group vs 4.65% for the control group; p = 0.097). At one-year post-surgery follow-up, 10 of 15 children with height-for-age ≤ 5th percentile had achieved catch-up growth (66.6%), and 14 of 24 children with height- and/or weight-for-age ≤ 5th percentile had normalized growth (58.33%). For children with failure to thrive or who have growth failure, physicians should consider the possibility of obstructive sleep apnea. A significant number of children with obstructive sleep apnea concurrent with growth failure could benefit from

  12. Growth hormone/IGF-1 axis longitudinal evaluation in clinically isolated syndrome patients on interferon β-1b therapy: stimulation tests and correlations with clinical and radiological conversion to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, R; Di Somma, C; Quarantelli, M; Carotenuto, A; Pivonello, C; Moccia, M; Cianflone, A; Marsili, A; Puorro, G; Saccà, F; Russo, C V; De Luca Picione, C; Ausiello, F; Colao, A; Brescia Morra, V

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest their role in its pathogenesis. Interferon β (IFN-β) efficacy could be mediated also by an increase of IGF-1 levels. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed to estimate the prevalence of GH and/or IGF-1 deficiency in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and their correlation with conversion to MS in IFN treated patients. Clinical and demographic features of CIS patients were collected before the start of IFN-β-1b. IGF-1 levels and GH response after arginine and GH releasing hormone + arginine stimulation tests were assessed. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluations were performed at baseline, 1 year and 2 years. Thirty CIS patients (24 female) were enrolled. At baseline, four patients (13%) showed a hypothalamic GH deficiency (GHD), whilst no one had a pituitary GHD. Baseline demographic, clinical and radiological data were not related to GHD, whilst IGF-1 levels were inversely related to age (P IGF-1 serum mean levels were not significantly modified after 1 and 2 years of treatment in the whole group, although 3/4 GHD patients experienced a normalization of GH levels, whilst one dropped out. After 2 years of treatment 13/28 (46%) patients converted to MS. The presence of GHD and GH and IGF-1 levels were not predictive of relapses, new T2 lesions or conversion occurrence. Growth hormone/IGF-1 axis function was found to be frequently altered in CIS patients, but this was not related to MS conversion. Patients experienced an improvement of GHD during IFN therapy. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess its impact on disease progression. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Novel role of NPY in neuroimmune interaction and lung growth after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaratnarajah, Chansutha; Dinger, Katharina; Vohlen, Christina; Klaudt, Christian; Nawabi, Jawed; Lopez Garcia, Eva; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Dobner, Julia; Nüsken, Kai D; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Silke; von Hörsten, Stephan; Dötsch, Jörg; Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at risk for chronic lung disease. Using a rat model, we showed in our previous studies that altered lung structure is related to IL-6/STAT3 signaling. As neuropeptide Y (NPY), a coneurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, regulates proliferation and immune response, we hypothesized that dysregulated NPY after IUGR is linked to IL-6, impaired myofibroblast function, and alveolar growth. IUGR was induced in rats by isocaloric low-protein diet; lungs were analyzed on embryonic day (E) 21, postnatal day (P) 3, P12, and P23. Finally, primary neonatal lung myofibroblasts (pnF) and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were used to assess proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and IL-6 expression. At E21, NPY and IL-6 expression was decreased, and AKT/PKC and STAT3/AMPKα signaling was reduced. Early reduction of NPY/IL-6 was associated with increased chord length in lungs after IUGR at P3, indicating reduced alveolar formation. At P23, however, IUGR rats exhibited a catch-up of body weight and alveolar growth coupled with more proliferating myofibroblasts. These structural findings after IUGR were linked to activated NPY/PKC, IL-6/AMPKα signaling. Complementary, IUGR-pnF showed increased survival, impaired migration, and reduced IL-6 compared with control-pnF (Co-pnF). In contrast, NPY induced proliferation, migration, and increased IL-6 synthesis in fibroblasts. Additionally, NPY -/- mice showed reduced IL-6 signaling and less proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study presents a novel role of NPY during alveolarization: NPY regulates 1 ) IL-6 and lung STAT3/AMPKα signaling, and 2 ) proliferation and migration of myofibroblasts. These new insights in pulmonary neuroimmune interaction offer potential strategies to enable lung growth. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Early drug development of inhibitors of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor pathway: lessons from the first clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodon, Jordi; DeSantos, Victoria; Ferry, Robert Jean; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2008-09-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) was first cloned in 1986. Since then, intense work has defined classic phosphorelays activated via the IGF-IR, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and fate. The understanding of the roles of hormones in cancer and the growth hormone-IGF-IGF-binding protein axis specifically has yield to a second wave of development: the design of specific inhibitors that interrupt the signaling associated with this axis. The ability to manipulate these pathways holds not only significant therapeutic implications but also increase the chance of deeper insight about the role of the axis in carcinogenesis and metastasis. Nowadays, >25 molecules with the same goal are at different stages of development. Here, we review the clinical and preclinical experience with the two most-investigated strategies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, and the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, as well as other alternatives and possible drug combinations. We also review the biomarkers explored in the first clinical trials, the strategies that have been explored thus far, and the clinical trials that are going to explore their role in cancer treatment.

  15. Effect of General Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation During Endovascular Therapy on Infarct Growth and Clinical Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Yoo, Albert J; Sørensen, Leif Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 18 (interquartile range [IQR], 14-21). Four patients (6.3%) in the CS group were converted to the GA group. Successful reperfusion was significantly higher in the GA arm than in the CS arm (76.9% vs 60.3%; P = .04). The difference in the volume of infarct growth......Importance: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is the standard of care for select patients who had a stroke caused by a large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, but there is uncertainty regarding the optimal anesthetic approach during EVT. Observational studies suggest that general anesthesia...... was a single-center prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point evaluation that enrolled patients from March 12, 2015, to February 2, 2017. Although the trial screened 1501 patients, it included 128 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusions in the anterior...

  16. Inflammatory Markers in the Second Trimester Prior to Clinical Onset of Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Sofie; Salvig, Jannie Dalby; Aabye, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C-reactive prot......Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C...... to normotensive healthy pregnant controls (n = 127). We found no statistically significant difference in CRP, IP-10, or suPAR in second trimester plasma samples from pregnant women with later PE, IUGR, and SPB when compared to normotensive healthy controls. Second trimester plasma samples of CRP, IP-10, and su...

  17. Interrelación entre hormonas tiroideas y crecimiento: importancia clínica Interrelation between thyroid hormones and growth: clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi A. Navarro Despaigne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la práctica clínica correspondiente a la endocrinología pediátrica, los trastornos del crecimiento son motivo frecuente de consulta y es la hipofunción tiroidea su causa más común. Por esta razón nos propusimos revisar aspectos teóricos relacionados con la función tiroidea, que pudieran explicar el mecanismo mediante el cual las hormonas tiroideas intervienen en el desarrollo del cartílago de crecimiento y del sistema nervioso central. Se revisa brevemente el mecanismo de regulación de las hormonas tiroideas y del efecto de los factores de crecimiento, tanto en la vida intrauterina como en la etapa posnatal. Se expone una hipótesis para explicar cómo ocurre la interrelación entre hormonas tiroideas (factores de crecimiento. Al final se hace referencia al impacto clínico del déficit de hormonas tiroideas durante la infancia.In the clinical practice of pediatric endocrinology, growth disorders is the most frequent reason to go to the doctor´s , being thyroid hypofunction the most common cause of this problem. For this reason, we intended to review theoretical aspects of thyroid function that could explain the mechanism by which thyroid hormones intervene in the development of growth cartilage and of the central nervous system. The regulating thyroid hormone mechanism along with the effect of growth factors on both intrauterine and postnatal life stages was briefly examined. A hypothesis of how the interrelation between thyroid hormones (growth factors occurs was presented. Finally, reference was made on the clinical impact of thyroid hormone deficit in childhood.

  18. The Vicious Cycle of Myostatin Signaling in Sarcopenic Obesity: Myostatin Role in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Insulin Signaling and Implications for Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consitt, L A; Clark, B C

    2018-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) is a major health concern as it is associated with physical disability, metabolic impairments, and increased mortality. The coexistence of sarcopenia with obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity', contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes, a disease prevalent with advancing age. Despite this knowledge, the mechanisms contributing to sarcopenic obesity remain poorly understood, preventing the development of targeted therapeutics. This article will discuss the clinical and physiological consequences of sarcopenic obesity and propose myostatin as a potential candidate contributing to this condition. A special emphasis will be placed on examining the role of myostatin signaling in impairing both skeletal muscle growth and insulin signaling. In addition, the role of myostatin in regulating muscle-to fat cross talk, further exacerbating metabolic dysfunction in the elderly, will be highlighted. Lastly, we discuss how this knowledge has implications for the design of myostatin-inhibitor clinical trials.

  19. The Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Wound Healing: Histological Analyses and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Matsumoto, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF using gelatin sheet is effective for promoting wound healing. Such therapeutic strategy was considered to offer several clinical advantages including rapid healing and reduction of the dressing change with less patient discomfort.

  20. Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Janas, Roman; Demmelmair, Hans; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Verduci, Elvira; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Perrin, Emmanuel; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited. This study examined the influence of protein intake in infancy on serum amino acids, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and its possible relation to growth in the first 2 y of life. In a multicenter European study, 1138 healthy, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive cow-milk-based infant and follow-on formulas with lower protein (LP; 1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal) or higher protein (HP; 2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal) contents for the first year. Biochemical variables were measured at age 6 mo in 339 infants receiving LP formula and 333 infants receiving HP formula and in 237 breastfed infants. Essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, IGF-I, and urinary C-peptide:creatinine ratio, were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the HP group than in the LP group, whereas IGF-binding protein (IGF-BP) 2 was lower and IGF-BP3 did not differ significantly. The median IGF-I total serum concentration was 48.4 ng/mL (25th, 75th percentile: 27.2, 81.8 ng/mL) in the HP group and 34.7 ng/mL (17.7, 57.5 ng/mL) in the LP group; the urine C-peptide:creatinine ratios were 140.6 ng/mg (80.0, 203.8 ng/mg) and 107.3 ng/mg (65.2, 194.7 ng/mg), respectively. Most essential amino acids, IGF-I, C-peptide, and urea increased significantly in both the LP and HP groups compared with the breastfed group. Total IGF-I was significantly associated with growth until 6 mo but not thereafter. HP intake stimulates the IGF-I axis and insulin release in infancy. IGF-I enhances growth during the first 6 mo of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689.

  1. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  2. Clinical evidence on the magnitude of change in growth pathway activity in relation to Tamoxifen resistance is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Sepideh; Farahmand, Leila; Teymourzadeh, Azin; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2017-08-08

    Despite prolonged disease-free survival and overall survival rates in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients undergoing adjuvant treatment, Tamoxifen therapy tends to fail due to eventual acquisition of resistance. Although numerous studies have emphasized the role of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the development of Tamoxifen resistance, inadequate clinical evidence is available regarding the alteration of biomarker expression during acquired resistance, thus undermining the validity of the findings. Results of two meta-analyses investigating the effect of HER2 status on the prognosis of Tamoxifen-receiving patients have demonstrated that despite HER2-negative patients having longer disease-free survival; there is no difference in overhaul survival between the two groups. Furthermore, due to the intricate molecular interactions among estrogen receptors including ERα36, ERα66, and also RTKs, it is not surprising that RTK suppression does not restore Tamoxifen sensitivity. In considering such a complex network, we speculate that by the time HER2/EGFR is suppressed via targeted therapies, activation of ERα66 and ERα36 initiate molecular signaling pathways downstream of RTKs, thereby enhancing cell proliferation even in the presence of both Tamoxifen and RTK inhibitors. Although clinical findings regarding the molecular pathways downstream of RTKs have been thoroughly discussed in this review, further clinical studies are required in determining a consistency between preclinical and clinical findings. Discovering the best targets in preventing tumor progression requires thorough comprehension of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent pathways during Tamoxifen resistance development. Indeed, exploring additional clinically-proven targets would allow for better characterized treatments being available for breast cancer patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Clinical and Metabolic Response to Selenium Supplementation in Pregnant Women at Risk for Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Rahavi, Azam; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-07-01

    Data on the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic profiles in women at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce. This study was designed to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in pregnant women at risk for IUGR. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 women at risk for IUGR according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Participants were randomly assigned to intake either 100 μg selenium supplements as tablet (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 10 weeks between 17 and 27 weeks of gestation. After 10 weeks of selenium administration, a higher percentage of women in the selenium group had pulsatility index (PI) of women at risk for IUGR resulted in improved PI, TAC, GSH, hs-CRP, and markers of insulin metabolism and HDL-C levels, but it did not affect MDA, NO, FPG, and other lipid profiles.Clinical trial registration number http://www.irct.ir : IRCT201601045623N64.

  4. Prevention of early postnatal hyperalimentation protects against activation of transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein and interleukin-6 signaling in rat lungs after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Miguel Angel Alejandre; Dinger, Katharina; Rother, Eva; Östreicher, Iris; Vohlen, Christina; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is intimately linked with postnatal catch-up growth, leading to impaired lung structure and function. However, the impact of catch-up growth induced by early postnatal hyperalimentation (HA) on the lung has not been addressed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prevention of HA subsequent to IUGR protects the lung from 1) deregulation of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, 2) activation of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, and 3) profibrotic processes. IUGR was induced in Wistar rats by isocaloric protein restriction during gestation by feeding a control (Co) or a low-protein diet with 17% or 8% casein, respectively. On postnatal day 1 (P1), litters from both groups were randomly reduced to 6 pups per dam to induce HA or adjusted to 10 pups and fed with standard diet: Co, Co with HA (Co-HA), IUGR, and IUGR with HA (IUGR-HA). Birth weights in rats after IUGR were lower than in Co rats (P < 0.05). HA during lactation led to accelerated body weight gain from P1 to P23 (Co vs. Co-HA, IUGR vs. IUGR-HA; P < 0.05). At P70, prevention of HA after IUGR protected against the following: 1) activation of both TGF-β [phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1)] and BMP signaling [pSMAD1; inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)] compared with Co (P < 0.05) and Co or IUGR (P < 0.05) rats, respectively; 2) greater mRNA expression of interleukin (Il) 6 and Il13 (P < 0.05) as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling (P < 0.05) after IUGR-HA; and 3) greater gene expression of collagen Iα1 and osteopontin (P < 0.05) and increased deposition of bronchial subepithelial connective tissue in IUGR-HA compared with Co and IUGR rats. Moreover, HA had a significant additive effect (P < 0.05) on the increased enhanced pause (indicator of airway resistance) in the IUGR group (P < 0.05) at P70. This study demonstrates

  5. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) to 15 years: a study of growth and asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of grammaticality judgments of questions. Three groups of children participated: 20 SLI, 20 age controls, and 18 language-matched controls, followed from ages 6-15 years. An experimental grammaticality judgment task was administered with BE copula/auxiliary and DO auxiliary in wh- and yes/no questions for 9 times of measurement. Predictors were indices of vocabulary, nonverbal intelligence, and maternal education. Growth curve analyses show that the affected group performed below the younger controls at each time of measurement, for each variable. Growth analyses show linear and quadratic effects for both groups across variables, with the exception of BE acquisition, which was flat for both groups. The control children reached ceiling levels; the affected children reached a lower asymptote. The results suggest an ongoing maturational lag in finiteness marking for affected children with promise as a clinical marker for language impairment in school-aged and adolescent children and probably adults as well.

  7. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modelling of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and kill rates is predictive of clinical treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Jenkins, Victoria A; Sharma, Raman; Ardrey, Alison; Donnellan, Samantha; Ward, Stephen A; Biagini, Giancarlo A

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and complex, typically involving a combination of drugs taken for 6 months. Improved drug regimens to shorten and simplify treatment are urgently required, however a major challenge to TB drug development is the lack of predictive pre-clinical tools. To address this deficiency, we have adopted a new high-content imaging-based approach capable of defining the killing kinetics of first line anti-TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) residing inside macrophages. Through use of this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approach we demonstrate that the killing dynamics of the intracellular Mtb sub-population is critical to predicting clinical TB treatment duration. Integrated modelling of intracellular Mtb killing alongside conventional extracellular Mtb killing data, generates the biphasic responses typical of those described clinically. Our model supports the hypothesis that the use of higher doses of rifampicin (35 mg/kg) will significantly reduce treatment duration. Our described PK-PD approach offers a much needed decision making tool for the identification and prioritisation of new therapies which have the potential to reduce TB treatment duration.

  8. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Dedifferentiated fat cells: Potential and perspectives for their use in clinical and animal science purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M S; Bueno, R; Silva, W; Campos, C F; Gionbelli, M P; Guimarães, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S; Hausman, G J; Dodson, M V

    2017-05-01

    An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Additionally, recent studies showed the ability of isolated mature adipocytes to dedifferentiate in vivo and the capacity of the progeny cells to redifferentiate into mature adipocytes, contributing to the increase of body fatness. These findings shed light on the potential for use of DFAT cells, not only for clinical purposes but also within the animal science field, because increasing intramuscular fat without excessive increase in other fat depots is a challenge in livestock production. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of DFAT cells will allow the development of strategies for their use for clinical and animal science purposes. In this review, we highlight several aspects of DFAT cells, their potential for clinical purposes, and their contribution to adipose tissue mass in livestock.

  9. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  10. Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958-1959, Nagasaki. Report 2. Growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hamilton, H B; Hrubec, Z; Amamoto, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Fumie; Brill, A B

    1964-04-23

    A group of 286 adolescent children, all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nasasaki, were examined as part of a long-term program to determine possible differences in growth and development that might be attributable to exposure to ionizing radiation. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I, whose mothers were within 2000 m from the hypocenter; Group II, whose mothers were located between 3000 to 4999 m; Group III, whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. Group I was further subdivided into high and low dose categories as judged by direct dose estimates, whether or not the mother experienced the acute radiation syndrome, or whether she was more or less than 1500 m from the hypocenter. The age at menarche and degree of epiphyseal closure in the wrist were determined. In addition, measurements were made of head circumference, standing and sitting heights, weight, and chest circumference.

  11. Routine ultramicro-measurement of human growth hormone in plasma by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norio; Takahara, Jiro; Ofuji, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    The development and application of the method for the ultramicromeasurement of human growth hormone (HGH) in plasma based on the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by using antibody-coated disposable microtiter trays was reported. There was no statistical significance between the basal HGH level obtained from this method and that from the double-antibody RIA in normal subjects. On the other hand, the mean basal plasma HGH level after an overnight fasting in 21 hypopituitary patients was 484 pg/ml (+-282; 1 SD) by this method, and this was significantly lower (P<0.001) than 1376 pg/ml (+-498; 1 SD) by the double-antibody RIA. These data show that determination of basal plasma HGH levels by this method is of much value in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism. (JPN)

  12. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Ranjbar, Elham; Kooshesh, Seyed Mohammad-Ali; Keshavarz, Seyed-Ali

    2012-01-01

    It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms. After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight) combined with ritalin (1mg/kg) and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg) in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children's appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17. Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047) and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000) before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029). Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000) and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005) were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial. Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  13. Improved growth velocity of a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH) without growth hormone deficiency by low-dose growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kei; Takishima, Shigeru; Morioka, Chikako; Nishioka, Masato; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Aoki, Yoko; Shimohira, Masayuki; Kashimada, Kenichi; Morio, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH; OMIM 607721) is caused by a heterozygous c.4A>G mutation in SHOC2. Most cases exhibit both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) and thus require a high dose of growth hormone (GH) therapy (e.g., 35-40 µg/kg/day). We report on a genetically diagnosed NS/LAH patient manifesting severe short stature (-3.85 SDs) with low serum level of IGF1, 30 ng/ml. The peak levels of GH stimulation tests were within the normal range, and GHI was not observed in the IGF1 generation test. However, with low-dose GH therapy (25 µg/kg/day) for two years, IGF1 level and height were remarkably improved (IGF1: 117 ng/ml, height SDs: -2.20 SDs). Further, catch-up of motor development and improvement of the proportion of extending limbs to trunk were observed (the Developmental Quotient score increased from 68 to 98 points, and the relative sitting height ratio decreased from 0.62 to 0.57). Our results suggest that endocrinological causes for short stature are variable in NS/LAH and that GH therapy should be considered as a possible treatment for delayed development in NS/LAH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Alves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL, Vatairea macrocarpa (VML, Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL, Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL, and Hypnea musciformis (HML showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units. The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins.

  16. Flexible treatment of gestational diabetes modulated on ultrasound evaluation of intrauterine growth: a controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, M; Cetin, I; Pisoni, M P; Faden, D; Mion, E; Taricco, E; Nobile de Santis, M; Radaelli, T; Motta, G; Costa, M; Solerte, L; Morabito, A

    2004-06-01

    In order to prevent abnormalities of fetal growth still characterizing pregnancies complicated by Gestational Diabetes (GDM), in the present study we evaluated a therapeutic strategy for GDM based on ultrasound (US) measurement of fetal insulin-sensitive tissues. All GDM women diagnosed before 28th week immediately started diet and self-monitoring of blood glucose; after 2 weeks they were randomized to conventional (C) or modified (M) management. In C the glycemic target (GT) was fixed at 90 fasting/120 post-prandial mg/dl; in M GT varied, according to US measurement of the Abdominal Circumference (AC) centile performed every 2 weeks: 80/100 if AC > or =75th, 100/140 if AC or =75th c. Mean metabolic data were similar in the 2 groups, but in M a tightly-optimized subgroup, resulting from the lowering of GT due to AC > or =75th, coexisted with a less-controlled one, whose higher GT was justified by ACgrowth, with clear advantages on global pregnancy outcome.

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor II and adrenomedulion levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were measured in 62 cases of hypertension and 40 controls with RIA. Results: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were significantly bigger in hypertensive patients than those in the controls (t = 4.454, p < 0.01; t = 3.992, p < 0.01). The serum IGF II level was significantly positively correlated to the serum ADM levels (r = 0.379, p < 0.05) and both were significantly positively correlated to the mean arterial pressure (r = 0.346, r = 0.353, p < 0.05) but not with BMI. Serum ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressed from stage I to stage III (p < 0.05) with levels in stage III markedly higher than those in stage I (p < 0.01). In EH patients with heart and/or brain and/or renal complications the serum ADM levels were significantly higher than those in EH patients without complications (t = 2.050, p < 0.05). Such differences did not exist in the case of IGF II. Conclusion: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were increased markedly in hypertensive patients. These two factors were mutually positively correlated and both were positively correlated to mean arterial pressure. ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressing but IGF II levels remained stable

  18. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hitoshi; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Imoto, Issei; Tamai, Seiichi; Shiotani, Akihiro; Iwaya, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Masaru; Sekiya, Takao; Matsubara, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of several human malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate CTGF protein expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Surgical specimens from 76 primary HNSCC were obtained with written informed consents and the expression level of CTGF was immunohistochemically evaluated. The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of CTGF in cancer cells was semiquantitatively classified into low and high expression. Among all 76 cases with or without neoadjuvant therapy, low CTGF showed significantly longer (P = 0.0282) overall survival (OS), but not disease-free survival (DFS) than high CTGF. Although low CTGF in patients with stage I, II and III did not result in any significant difference of the OS and DFS, stage IV HNSCC patients with low CTGF showed significantly longer OS (P = 0.032) and DFS (P = 0.0107) than those with high CTGF. These differences in stage IV cases were also confirmed using multivariate analyses. These results suggest that low CTGF in stage IV HNSCC is an independent prognostic factor, despite with or without neoadjuvant therapy.

  19. [Clinical usefulness of the determination of fibroblast growth factor 23 in the evaluation of patients with osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifre, Laia; Martínez de Osaba, Maria Jesús; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2014-05-20

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the usefulness of the determination of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a regulatory hormone of phosphate metabolism, in the evaluation of patients with osteomalacia of different causes. Seventeen patients with osteomalacia were included: 12 hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (by several causes), 4 vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia and one with hypophosphatasia. Plasma C-terminal FGF23 was determined in all patients. FGF23 levels were increased in 6/12 (50%) of patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2 X-linked, one autosomal dominant, one related HIV therapy and 2 not elucidated). No patient with vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia or hypophosphatasia presented increased FGF23 levels. The determination of FGF23 could be useful in the evaluation of the different types of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and also in the identification of their associated etiopathogenic mechanisms. Thus, depending on the cause, 50% of the patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia showed increased FGF23 values, whereas in vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia and in hypophosphatasia FGF23 levels were normal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Anger as a Basic Emotion and Its Role in Personality Building and Pathological Growth: The Neuroscientific, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Williams

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?, especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts. Developmental studies have confirmed the psychophysiological, cognitive and social acquisition that hesitate in the pre-determined sequence appearance of anger and rage in the first 2 years of life. The so-called affective neurosciences have shown the phylogenetic origin of the two circuits underlying the emergence of anger along with its evolutionary role for promoting survival. This view has been integrated by the psychodynamic theory of motivational systems that attribute a double role to anger: on the one hand, this affect works as an inwardly directed signal concerning a pressure to overcome an obstacle or an aversive situation; on the other hand, anger is also an outwardly directed communicative signal establishing differentiation and conflict within interpersonal relationships and affective bonds. Of course, human peculiar mental functioning requires the appraisal of such signals by higher cortical functions and, there is little doubt that the meaning that orientates individual behaviors is, eventually, construed on a social and cultural level. At the same time, everyday life experiences as well as clinical insights into psychopathic, narcissistic and borderline personality pathology clearly illustrate the necessity to correctly interpret and give answers to the basic questions raised around the topic of

  1. Anger as a Basic Emotion and Its Role in Personality Building and Pathological Growth: The Neuroscientific, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?), especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts. Developmental studies have confirmed the psychophysiological, cognitive and social acquisition that hesitate in the pre-determined sequence appearance of anger and rage in the first 2 years of life. The so-called affective neurosciences have shown the phylogenetic origin of the two circuits underlying the emergence of anger along with its evolutionary role for promoting survival. This view has been integrated by the psychodynamic theory of motivational systems that attribute a double role to anger: on the one hand, this affect works as an inwardly directed signal concerning a pressure to overcome an obstacle or an aversive situation; on the other hand, anger is also an outwardly directed communicative signal establishing differentiation and conflict within interpersonal relationships and affective bonds. Of course, human peculiar mental functioning requires the appraisal of such signals by higher cortical functions and, there is little doubt that the meaning that orientates individual behaviors is, eventually, construed on a social and cultural level. At the same time, everyday life experiences as well as clinical insights into psychopathic, narcissistic and borderline personality pathology clearly illustrate the necessity to correctly interpret and give answers to the basic questions raised around the topic of anger as a basic

  2. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung A; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Han, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Goh, Ri Young; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Ki Jae

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process in which many growth factors and cytokines have an essential role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic agent that acts as a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells through specific cell surface receptors. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is another mechanism linking angiogenesis to malignancy. C-reactive protein (CRP), a representative marker for inflammation, is known for its association with disease progression in many cancer types. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative serum levels of VEGF, IL-6, and CRP in colorectal carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis. A 132 of 143 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. 11 patients with resection margin positive were excluded. Factors considered in analysis of the relationship between VEGF, IL-6, and CRP and histological findings. Patient prognosis was investigated. Serum levels of VEGF and IL-6 were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured using immunoturbidimetry. Median follow-up duration was 18.53 months (range 0.73-43.17 months) and median age of the patients was 62 years (range, 26-83 years). Mean and median levels of VEGF and CRP in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in the normal control group; 608 vs. 334 pg/mL and 528 (range 122-3242) vs. 312 (range 16-1121) (p < 0.001); 1.05 mg/dL vs. 0.43 mg/dL and 0.22 (range 0.00-18.40) vs. 0.07 (range 0.02-6.94) (p = 0.002), respectively. However mean and median level of IL-6 in patients were not significantly higher than in control; 14.33 pg/mL vs. 5.65 pg/mL and 6.00 (range 1.02-139.17) vs. 5.30 (4.50-13.78) (p = 0.327). Although IL-6 and CRP levels were not correlated with other pathological findings, VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.012) and CEA (p = 0.038). When we established the cutoff value for VEGF (825 pg/mL), IL-6 (8

  3. Inhibition of growth and biofilm formation of clinical bacterial isolates by NiO nanoparticles synthesized from Eucalyptus globulus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Samia; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably. The synthesized NiO-NPs were pleomorphic varying in size between 10 and 20 nm. The XRD analysis revealed the average size of NiO-NPs as 19 nm. The UV-Vis spectroscopic data showed a strong SPR of NiO-NPs with a characteristic spectral peak at 396 nm. The FTIR data revealed various functional moieties like C=C, C-N, C-H and O-H which elucidate the role of leaf biomolecules in capping and dispersal of NiO-NPs. The bioactivity assay revealed the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of NiO-NPs against ESβL (+) E. coli, P. aeruginosa, methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus. Growth inhibition assay demonstrated time and NiO-NPs concentration dependent decrease in the viability of treated cells. NiO-NPs induced biofilm inhibition was revealed by a sharp increase in characteristic red fluorescence of PI, while SEM images of NiO-NPs treated cells were irregular shrink and distorted with obvious depressions/indentations. The results suggested significant antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of NiO-NPs which may play an important role in the management of infectious diseases affecting human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AMP kinase-related kinase NUAK2 affects tumor growth, migration, and clinical outcome of human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Takeshi; Tanemura, Atsushi; Valencia, Julio C; Coelho, Sergio G; Passeron, Thierry; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Vieira, Wilfred D; Ishikawa, Masashi; Nishijima, Wataru; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yin, Lanlan; Polley, Eric C; Liu, Hongfang; Kawakami, Yutaka; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Eishi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Hearing, Vincent J

    2011-04-19

    The identification of genes that participate in melanomagenesis should suggest strategies for developing therapeutic modalities. We used a public array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) database and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to identify the AMP kinase (AMPK)-related kinase NUAK2 as a candidate gene for melanomagenesis, and we analyzed its functions in melanoma cells. Our analyses had identified a locus at 1q32 where genomic gain is strongly associated with tumor thickness, and we used real-time qPCR analyses and regression analyses to identify NUAK2 as a candidate gene at that locus. Associations of relapse-free survival and overall survival of 92 primary melanoma patients with NUAK2 expression measured using immunohistochemistry were investigated using Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank tests, and Cox regression models. Knockdown of NUAK2 induces senescence and reduces S-phase, decreases migration, and down-regulates expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In vivo analysis demonstrated that knockdown of NUAK2 suppresses melanoma tumor growth in mice. Survival analysis showed that the risk of relapse is greater in acral melanoma patients with high levels of NUAK2 expression than in acral melanoma patients with low levels of NUAK2 expression (hazard ratio = 3.88; 95% confidence interval = 1.44-10.50; P = 0.0075). These data demonstrate that NUAK2 expression is significantly associated with the oncogenic features of melanoma cells and with the survival of acral melanoma patients. NUAK2 may provide a drug target to suppress melanoma progression. This study further supports the importance of NUAK2 in cancer development and tumor progression, while AMPK has antioncogenic properties.

  5. Clinical significance of serum circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, S; Duranyıldız, D; Tas, F; Gezer, U; Akyüz, F; Serilmez, M; Ozgür, E; Yasasever, C T; Vatansever, S; Aykan, N F

    2014-03-01

    The principal aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of serum protein and circulating mRNA of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-four HCC patients and age- and sex-matched 20 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA were determined by the solid-phase sandwich ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR method, respectively. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years, range 36-77 years; where majority of group were male (n = 48, 88.8%). All patients had cirrhotic history. Forty-six percent (n = 25) of patients had Child-Pugh score A, 30% (n = 16) had score B or C. All of the patients were treated with local therapies and none of them received sorafenib. The baseline serum IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in HCC patients than in the control group (p = 0.04), whereas no significant difference was observed for IGF-1 protein levels between the two group (p = 0.18). Patients with history of HBV infection, who were not treated, and who received multiple palliative treatment for HCC had higher serum IGF-1 mRNA levels (p = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.05, respectively). Poor performance status (p IGF-1 nor serum IGF-1 mRNA had significantly adverse effect on survival (p = 0.53 and 0.42, respectively).

  6. Critical review of the clinical relevance of growth hormone and its measurement in the nuclear medicine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.; Kirpalani, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    A wide variety of metabolic and stressful stimuli, both physical and psychologic, produce rapid elevation of plasma growth hormone (GH). In addition, spontaneous elevation of GH occurs during the day, and a rise in GH occurs in association with the initial slow-wave sleep episode at night. Although the identity of the GH releasing factor has not yet been established, a hypothalamic factor inhibiting GH release named somatostatin identified and synthesized. Most, if not all, of the GH rises are mediated by neural mechanisms, and therefore they may be disrupted by many disease processes affecting the pituitary or the hypothalamus. In acromegaly, hypersecretion of GH occurs, and remnants of hypothalamic control can frequently be demonstrated, suggesting a hypothalamic origin for at least some cases. Provocative stimuli commonly used to assess adequacy of GH responses include hypoglycemia, arginine infusion, and exercise. Administration of L-dopa or apomorphine also produces GH elevation, and since these agents may activate specific dopamine mechanisms, they are of particular interest. Two comprehensive commercial kits have been evaluated, and three major defects have been identified. The literature provided in both kits was inadequate. Both kits required an initial dilution without any replication, so that dilution error would be undetected. One of the kits did not provide a full complement of materials. Quantities of HGH antigen and antisera sufficient for large numbers of assays are also available commercially. However, no commercial source was found for control sera containing known quantities of HGH. Individual laboratories to provide their own supply of sera to use for quality control. It is now known that GH exists in multiple forms in plasma and that antisera may differ in ability to bind these forms. It will, therefore, be necessary for laboratories to revalidate the assay if a different antiserum is used. (U.S.)

  7. Globalization, the rise of biotechnology and catching up in agricultural innovation: The case of Bt technology in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iizuka, M.; Thutupalli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural sector has played an important role in the provision of food, foreign exchange and sustainable energy to many developing countries. This sector, however, has not been considered as a driving force of innovation as compared to other productive sectors. However, recent economics and

  8. "The Mind Has to Catch Up on Sex": Sexual Norms and Sex Education in the Hull House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    From its beginning in 1885, the Hull House was beacon for social progress and urban reform. Founders Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr recruited talented, passionate partners from diverse fields to address issues from street sanitation to education in Chicago's immigrant communities. Among residents' many projects, their involvement in the…

  9. How to improve the national innovation systems of catching-up economies? / Urmas Varblane, Davis Dyker, Dorel Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Urmas, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade innovatsioonisüsteemide arengust Euroopa Liidu uutes üleminekuriikides. Rahvusliku innovatsioonisüsteemi mõiste arengust, põhilistest probleemidest rahvuslike innovatsioonisüsteemide rajamisel, soovitused innovatsioonipoliitika kujundamiseks

  10. Catching up with wonderful women: The women-are-wonderful effect is smaller in more gender egalitarian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krys, Kuba; Capaldi, Colin A; van Tilburg, Wijnand; Lipp, Ottmar V; Bond, Michael Harris; Vauclair, C-Melanie; Manickam, L Sam S; Domínguez-Espinosa, Alejandra; Torres, Claudio; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Teyssier, Julien; Miles, Lynden K; Hansen, Karolina; Park, Joonha; Wagner, Wolfgang; Yu, Angela Arriola; Xing, Cai; Wise, Ryan; Sun, Chien-Ru; Siddiqui, Razi Sultan; Salem, Radwa; Rizwan, Muhammad; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Nader, Martin; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Malbran, María; Javangwe, Gwatirera; Işık, İdil; Igbokwe, David O; Hur, Taekyun; Hassan, Arif; Gonzalez, Ana; Fülöp, Márta; Denoux, Patrick; Cenko, Enila; Chkhaidze, Ana; Shmeleva, Eleonora; Antalíková, Radka; Ahmed, Ramadan A

    2017-03-14

    Inequalities between men and women are common and well-documented. Objective indexes show that men are better positioned than women in societal hierarchies-there is no single country in the world without a gender gap. In contrast, researchers have found that the women-are-wonderful effect-that women are evaluated more positively than men overall-is also common. Cross-cultural studies on gender equality reveal that the more gender egalitarian the society is, the less prevalent explicit gender stereotypes are. Yet, because self-reported gender stereotypes may differ from implicit attitudes towards each gender, we reanalysed data collected across 44 cultures, and (a) confirmed that societal gender egalitarianism reduces the women-are-wonderful effect when it is measured more implicitly (i.e. rating the personality of men and women presented in images) and (b) documented that the social perception of men benefits more from gender egalitarianism than that of women. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  13. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2012), s. 981-999 ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : panel-data * transition economies * privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2012

  14. Final storage of radioactive waste - how soon will we be able to catch up again with international developments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the final storage of radioactive waste from the beginning has been a topic very much influenced by the political debate, especially by party politics. The development initiated after the 1998 change in government has greatly contributed to Germany clearly losing contact with cutting edge international developments in final storage. Here are some proposals for improving the present situation: - The political demand for a single-repository concept should be given up. - Preparatory work on the Konrad repository should be started. - Underground exploration of the Gorleben salt dome should be resumed without any strings attached. - A TSPA should be conducted for the Gorleben project. - After completion of the TSPA, an international peer review should be carried out of the Gorleben project. - An underground laboratory in salt should be established in Germany. - Repository activities should be transferred to a company organized and operating along industrial lines. - Competence for licensing radioactive waste repositories should be concentrated on a national level. (orig.)

  15. Product matrix: materiel management information systems. A look into the 90s: software catches up with hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, P

    1991-01-01

    As always, you'll have to fight for the dollars to buy systems, competing with departments who produce revenue. Financial managers and hospital boards respond most favorably to a good return on investment (ROI) presentation. Join forces with your software vendor of choice and give your board the best ROI argument they'll hear this year. Keep two things in mind: 1) today's innovations, particularly in reducing inventory, interfacing and lower hardware costs will help you make your case and 2) make sure the system is growing consistent with the industry to ensure you won't be asking for a similar purchase three years from now.

  16. Catching Up or Falling Behind? Continuing Wealth Disparities for Immigrants to Canada by Region of Origin and Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle; Aylsworth, Laura

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates wealth disparities among first-generation immigrants using data from the 2012 Survey of Financial Security. We apply logistic and linear regression models to estimate disparities in homeownership and household equivalent net worth by immigrant status, region of origin, and time since arrival. By focusing on immigrant families from different regions who entered Canada at different points in time, this research applies theories related to assimilation, human capital, and structural barriers to wealth. Our findings demonstrate that even though many immigrant families transition into homeownership and grow their wealth over time, certain first-generation immigrant groups continue to experience wealth disparities many years after their arrival to Canada. In particular, immigrant families from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries experienced the largest wealth gaps. Cet article examine les disparités de richesse entre les immigrants de première génération en utilisant les données de l'Enquête 2012 sur la sécurité financière. Nous appliquons des modèles de régression logistique et linéaire pour estimer les disparités dans la propriété et valeur nette des ménages équivalente par le statut d'immigrant, la région d'origine, et le temps écoulé depuis leur arrivée. En se concentrant sur les familles d'immigrants de différentes régions qui sont entrés au Canada à différents points dans le temps, cette recherche applique les théories liées à l'assimilation, le capital humain, et les obstacles structurels à la richesse. Nos résultats démontrent que même si de nombreuses familles d'immigrants transition vers la propriété et de croître leur richesse au fil du temps, certains groupes d'immigrants de première génération continuent d'éprouver des disparités de richesse de nombreuses années après leur arrivée au Canada. En particulier, les familles d'immigrants d'Afrique, d'Asie, et les pays du Moyen-Orient ont connu les plus grands écarts de richesse. © 2016 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  17. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....

  18. Catching up and Falling behind: An Appraisal of Brazilian Industrial Policy in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kasahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amidst analyses of industrial policy’s renaissance in Latin America, Brazil is often hailed as the paragon of this movement. The mix of old and new institutions and instruments would constitute a unique effort in promoting industrial development in the post-neoliberal period. However, this experience has been followed by middling results of industrial performance. Reviewing an emerging literature about the institutionalization and results of the Brazilian industrial policy, we argue that important aspects of path-dependency have been ignored. Organizational and ideational resistance have led to a much more traditional and conservative industrial policy than would be expected. Grounded historical analysis about intra-government conflicts, combined with studies about policy and sectoral developments, could give us elements to better assess the failures and achievements of the Brazilian case. Resumen: Avances y retrocesos: Una evaluación de la política industrial brasileña en el siglo XXI A la luz de diversos análisis sobre el renacimiento de la política industrial en América Latina, Brasil es frecuentemente alabado como el país arquetipo de la mencionada coyuntura. La combinación de instituciones e instrumentos antiguos y modernos constituiría un singular esfuerzo para promover el desarrollo industrial en el periodo post-neoliberal.  Sin embargo, la consecución de dicha experiencia fueron mediocres resultados de actividad industrial. Habiendo efectuado un examen de reciente literatura sobre la institucionalización y los resultados de la política industrial brasileña, sostenemos que, en dicho material, han sido ignorados importantes aspectos de la dependencia de la trayectoria (path-dependency. Resistencia organizativa y de formación de ideas han conducido a la implementación de una política industrial mucho más tradicional y conservadora de lo que se hubiera esperado. Un profundo análisis histórico acerca de conflictos intergubernamentales, combinado con estudios sobre política y evoluciones sectoriales pueden ofrecernos instrumentos para evaluar más eficazmente los fallos y los logros del caso brasileño.

  19. Supporting Transition or Playing Catch-Up in Grade 4? Implications for Standards in Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an intervention programme that was originally intended to support transition to English as language of learning and teaching (LoLT) in Grade 4 in a township school, using a pre- and post-test design. Because the pre-tests revealed very poor literacy levels in both Zulu home language and English, the intervention programme was…

  20. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova, K. Z.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-63 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * corporate ownership * economic development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/21610

  1. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 72 (2005), s. 1-62 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * economic development * productivity * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/61179

  2. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 4868 (2005), s. 1-63 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : productivity * economic development * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4868.asp

  3. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2012), s. 981-999 ISSN 0034-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : panel-data * transition economies * privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2012

  4. Catching-up trajectories in the wine sector: a comparative study of Chile, Italy and South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusmano, L.; Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, R.

    2010-01-01

    From a development perspective an investigation of the changes that have occurred in the wine industry is of particular interest because it provides evidence on how emerging economies have been able to acquire significant shares of the international market in a dynamic sector. Based on novel

  5. Simultaneous functional and fixed appliance therapy for growth modification and dental alignment prior to prosthetic habilitation in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Sunjay; Carmichael, Robert P; Tompson, Bryan D

    2004-11-01

    This clinical report describes the simultaneous use of functional and fixed appliances to modify the pattern of dentofacial development and align teeth in preparation for prosthodontic habilitation of a growing child with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The treatment objective was to create a more favorable starting point for the prosthodontic phase of habilitation by improving the sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships and facial esthetics. This was accomplished through growth modification with functional appliances conducted simultaneously with eruption of maxillary and mandibular molars, dental arch expansion, alignment, and space management using fixed orthodontic appliances. Orthodontic retention was accomplished by means of removable partial dentures. A second phase of orthodontics conducted closer to the age of skeletal maturation will aim at definitive tooth alignment in preparation for dental implant-supported restorations.

  6. Prognostic significance of equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results and clinical utility of alternative chromosome 17 genes in patients with invasive breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneige, Nour; Hess, Kenneth R; Multani, Asha S; Gong, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2017-04-01

    The 2013 testing guidelines for determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status include new cutoff points for the HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio and the average HER2 copy number per cell, and they recommend using a reflex test with alternative chromosome 17 probes (Ch17Ps) to resolve equivocal HER2 results. This study sought to determine the clinical utility of alternative Ch17Ps in equivocal cases and the effects of equivocal results and/or a change in the HER2 status on patients' outcomes. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database of HER2 dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization results from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of invasive breast cancer with HER2/CEP17 ratios Cancer 2017;123:1115-1123. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  8. Clinical significance of determination of serum insulin-like growth factor II levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic obstruive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum IGF-II levels was determined with radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with COPD and 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-II levels in patients with COPD were significantly higher than those in controls (0.65 ± 0.22μg/L vs 0.51±0.18μg/L, P<0.01). There were no significant differences among the levels in patients of different stages (stages I, II, III). Levels of IGF-II were significantly higher in patients succumbed to the dis- ease than those in patients recoverd (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD, especially in those succumbed. (authors)

  9. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael; Romero, Sara; Díez, Juan J

    2012-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions. It acts through the interaction with specific FGF receptors and a cofactor called β-Klotho, whose expression is predominantly detected in metabolically active organs. FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter-1. This action is additive and independent of insulin. β-Cell function and survival are preserved, and glucagon secretion is reduced by this protein, thus decreasing hepatic glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity. Lipid profile has been shown to be improved by FGF21 in several animal models. FGF21 increases energy expenditure in rodents and induces weight loss in diabetic nonhuman primates. It also exerts favorable effects on hepatic steatosis and reduces tissue lipid content in rodents. Adaptive metabolic responses to fasting, including stimulation of ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, seem to be partially mediated by FGF21. In humans, serum FGF21 concentrations have been found elevated in insulin-resistant states, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 levels are correlated with hepatic insulin resistance index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. A relationship between FGF21 levels and long-term diabetic complications, such as nephropathy and carotid atheromatosis, has been reported. FGF21 levels decreased in diabetic patients after starting therapy with insulin or oral agents. Increased FGF21 serum levels have also been found to be associated with obesity. In children, it is correlated with BMI and leptin levels, whereas in adults, FGF21 levels are mainly related to several components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum FGF21 levels have been found to be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease. In patients with renal disease, FGF21 levels exhibited a progressive increase as

  10. Isolating the role of elevated Phlda2 in asymmetric late fetal growth restriction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Tunster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene whose elevated expression has been linked to fetal growth restriction in a number of human studies. In mice, Phlda2 negatively regulates placental growth and limits the accumulation of placental glycogen. We previously reported that a three-copy transgene spanning the Phlda2 locus drove a fetal growth restriction phenotype late in gestation, suggesting a causative role for PHLDA2 in human growth restriction. However, in this mouse model, Phlda2 was overexpressed by fourfold, alongside overexpression of a second imprinted gene, Slc22a18. Here, we genetically isolate the role of Phlda2 in driving late fetal growth restriction in mice. We furthermore show that this Phlda2-driven growth restriction is asymmetrical, with a relative sparing of the brain, followed by rapid catch-up growth after birth, classic features of placental insufficiency. Strikingly, fetal growth restriction showed strain-specific differences, being apparent on the 129S2/SvHsd (129 genetic background and absent on the C57BL6 (BL6 background. A key difference between these two strains is the placenta. Specifically, BL6 placentae possess a more extensive endocrine compartment and substantially greater stores of placental glycogen. Taken together, these data support a direct role for elevated Phlda2 in limiting fetal growth but also suggest that growth restriction only manifests when there is limited placental reserve. These findings should be taken into account in interpreting the results from human studies.

  11. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  12. The impact of plasma rich in growth factors on clinical and biological factors involved in healing processes after third molar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Martinasso, Germana; Pol, Renato; Polastri, Carolina; Cristiano, Antonio; Muzio, Giuliana; Canuto, Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar is a common surgical procedure, although it still leads to several postoperative symptoms and complications. The study assessed the efficacy of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in the healing process by checking the difference of tissue cytokines and other healing factors produced by the mucosa after extraction between sites treated with PRGF and control sites and, at the same time, by evaluating the clinical efficacy of PRGF in terms of reduced pain and facial swelling. This study was a split-mouth study, in which the patient becomes his/her own control, to eliminate any individual response differences toward PRGF treatment. The parameters regarding inflammation and subsequent wound healing were all significantly higher at PRGF sites than at control sites. The increase at PRGF sites of the two proinflammatory cytokines evaluated, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, was accompanied by the increase of two anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Furthermore, IL-1β and IL-6 induce fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, important events in wound healing. Postoperative pain and the swelling, measured at all experimental times, were reduced in the presence of PRGF. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  13. Investigation of the prognostic value of the apoptotic marker p53 gene and vascular endothelial growth factor in evaluating the clinical course of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Abdurakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prognostic value of the apoptotic markers (p53 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in evaluating the clinical course of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 43 patients with primary JNA (a study group and 20 with its relapses (a control group. The expression of VEGF and mutant p53 (mtp53 gene was immunohistochemically determined using DAKO kits (Denmark. The results of reactions with antibodies to VEGF-A and mtp53 located in the nuclei and membranes were expressed as percentages in terms of stained cell counts per 100 cells examined in different visual fields.Results. An associative analysis showed that both study and control group patients with high mtp53 gene expression in the tumor cells had clinical stages IIIA–B and IV and those in whom the expression of this gene in the tumor cells was weak or absent were found to have clinical stages I and II. The high (3+ and moderate (2+ mtp53 gene expressions suggest that the disease is severe. Consequently, this is of prognostic value and a poor predictor and the absence of mutations or the decreased expression of this gene is associated with a favorable disease outcome.Our investigations indicated that the high expression of the VEGF gene was detected in none of the tumor specimens. In the study group, the tumor cell expression of this gene was found to be moderate (2+ in 18 (41.9 % patients, weak in 6 (13.9 % and absent in 19 (44.2 % of the 43 patients. In the control group, the absence of VEGF gene expression in the tumor specimens was 9 times lower than that in the study group.A comparison with the clinical characteristics of the patients demonstrated that in both the study and control groups, the VEGF expression was observed to be moderate, or weak and absent in those with clinical stages IIIA–B and IV or in those with stage II and I, respectively.Conclusion. The associative analysis showed that both

  14. Institutions, regulatory role and economic growth of national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vedriš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present time, characterized by the rapid disturbances in all time more connected global economy, territorially as well as structurally, the role of the state’s influence and responsibility with the adequate institutional addresses and procedures, defined in larger context, becomes the essential point not only of the further growth but also of the existing relations viability. It is simply because the encirclement does not function on the principle of status quo situation any more. Therefore, the role and significance of institutions, adequate regulatory role of these addresses, in the context of demand of permanent and stable economic growth, are of particular interest in the creation of this model. This analysis gains in importance studying the realized accelerated economic growth of states from some parts of the world, notably in the period after WW II. This question turned out to be exceptionally essential during the analysis of national strategies of accelerated economic growth (catch up strategy. On the other side of analysis are the transition period and the processes realized on the territory of the East and Central European states up to 1990 that were under the strong influence of the USSR. The attempts and mistakes in the quest for adequate balance of the market role were initially indoctrinated and led by the predominant conviction that the principles of Washington consensus will lead up to accelerated and efficient change of the entire structure of national economies and new frames for future behaviour. The problems that appeared very soon led to the establishment of significantly more balanced first the understanding and then to establishing significantly, more appropriate concept of balance and complementarity of market development with the permanently present role and responsibility of the state in this process and on this road.

  15. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Height outcome of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment in patients with SHOX gene haploinsufficiency: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Francesco; Bizzi, Martina; Baggiani, Angelo; Miccoli, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Patients with mutations or deletions of the SHOX gene present variable growth impairment, with or without mesomelic skeletal dysplasia. If untreated, short patients with SHOX haplodeficiency (SHOXD) remain short into adulthood. Although recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment improves short-term linear growth, there are episodic data on the final height of treated SHOXD subjects. After a thorough search of the published literature for pertinent studies, we undertook a meta-analysis evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rhGH treatment in SHOXD patients. In SHOXD patients, administration of rhGH progressively improved the height deficit from baseline to 24 months, although the major catch-up growth was detected after 12 months. The rhGH-induced growth appeared constant until final height. Our meta-analysis suggested rhGH therapy improves height outcome of SHOXD patients, though future studies using carefully titrated rhGH protocols are needed. Original submitted 29 October 2012; Revision submitted 22 February 2013.

  17. Clinical features and treatment outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with uncommon or complex epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassan, Matteo; Indraccolo, Stefano; Calabrese, Fiorella; Favaretto, Adolfo; Bonanno, Laura; Polo, Valentina; Zago, Giulia; Lunardi, Francesca; Attili, Ilaria; Pavan, Alberto; Rugge, Massimo; Guarneri, Valentina; Conte, PierFranco; Pasello, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the best treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with common exon 19 deletion or exon 21 epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm). This is an observational study investigating epidemiology, clinical features and treatment outcome of NSCLC cases harbouring rare/complex EGFRm. Results Among 764 non-squamous NSCLC cases with known EGFRm status, 26(3.4%) harboured rare/complex EGFRm. Patients receiving first-line TKIs (N = 17) achieved median Progression Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) of 53 (IC 95%, 2–105) and 84 (CI 95%, 27–141) weeks respectively, without significant covariate impact. Response Rate and Disease Control Rate (DCR) were 47% and 65%, respectively. Uncommon exon 19 mutations achieved longer OS and PFS and higher DCR compared with exon 18 and 20 mutations. No additional gene mutation was discovered by MassARRAY analysis. TKIs were globally well tolerated. Materials and methods A retrospective review of advanced non-squamous NSCLC harbouring rare/complex EGFRm referred to our Center between 2010 and 2015 was performed. Additional molecular pathways disregulation was explored in selected cases, through MassARRAY analysis. Conclusions Peculiar clinical features and lower TKIs sensitivity of uncommon/complex compared with common EGFRm were shown. Exon 19 EGFRm achieved the best TKIs treatment outcome, while the optimal treatment of exon 18 and 20 mutations should be further clarified. PMID:28427238

  18. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight combined with ritalin (1mg/kg and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children’s appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17.Results: Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047 and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000 before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029. Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000 and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005 were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  19. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  20. MicroRNA‑133b inhibits connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and correlates with the clinical stage of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yihang; Li, Xiaorong; Lin, Changwei; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Gui; Zhou, Jianyu; Du, Juan; Gao, Kai; Gan, Yi; Deng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNA‑133b (miR‑133b) is an important step in the development of certain types of human cancer and contributes to tumorigenesis. Altered expression of miR‑133b has been reported in colon carcinoma, but its association with clinical stage in colorectal cancer (CRC) has remained elusive. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a potentially promising candidate gene for interaction with miR‑133b, was screened using microarray analysis. The expression of miR‑133b and CTGF was evaluated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The regulatory effects of miR‑133b on CTGF were evaluated using a dual‑luciferase reporter assay. CTGF was identified as a functional target of miR‑133b. The results demonstrated low expression of miR‑133b in CRC specimens with poor cell differentiation (P=0.011), lymph node metastasis (P=0.037) and advanced clinical stages (stage III or IV vs. I or II; P=0.036). Furthermore, there was a significant association between a high level of expression of CTGF mRNA and an advanced clinical stage (stage III or IV vs. I or II; P=0.015) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034). CTGF expression was negatively regulated by miR‑133b in the human colorectum, suggesting that miR‑133b and CTGF may be candidate therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.

  1. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  2. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. A randomized clinical trial evaluating plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) versus hyaluronic acid in the short-term treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Fiz, Nicolás; Azofra, Juan; Usabiaga, Jaime; Aduriz Recalde, Enmanuel; Garcia Gutierrez, Antonio; Albillos, Javier; Gárate, Ramón; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    This multicenter, double-blind clinical trial evaluated and compared the efficacy and safety of PRGF-Endoret (BTI Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain), an autologous biological therapy for regenerative purposes, versus hyaluronic acid (HA) as a short-term treatment for knee pain from osteoarthritis. We randomly assigned 176 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to receive infiltrations with PRGF-Endoret or with HA (3 injections on a weekly basis). The primary outcome measure was a 50% decrease in knee pain from baseline to week 24. As secondary outcomes, we also assessed pain, stiffness, and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; the rate of response using the criteria of the Outcome Measures for Rheumatology Committee and Osteoarthritis Research Society International Standing Committee for Clinical Trials Response Criteria Initiative (OMERACT-OARSI); and safety. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years, and 52% were women. Compared with the rate of response to HA, the rate of response to PRGF-Endoret was 14.1 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 27.6; P = .044). Regarding the secondary outcome measures, the rate of response to PRGF-Endoret was higher in all cases, although no significant differences were reached. Adverse events were mild and evenly distributed between the groups. Plasma rich in growth factors showed superior short-term results when compared with HA in a randomized controlled trial, with a comparable safety profile, in alleviating symptoms of mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee. Level I, randomized controlled multicenter trial. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A phase I/II exploratory clinical trial for intracordal injection of recombinant hepatocyte growth factor for vocal fold scar and sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Tateya, Ichiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Suzuki, Ryo; Kaneko, Mami; Naito, Yasushi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    Vocal fold scar and sulcus are intractable diseases with no effective established treatments. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has preclinically proven to have potent antifibrotic and regenerative effects on vocal fold scar. The current Phase I/II clinical trial aims to examine the safety and effectiveness of intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug for patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. This is an open-label, dose-escalating, first-in-human clinical trial. Eighteen patients with bilateral vocal fold scar or sulcus were enrolled and divided into three groups: Step I received 1 μg of HGF per vocal fold; Step II received 3 μg of HGF; and Step III received 10 μg of HGF. Injections were administered once weekly for 4 weeks. The protocol treatment was performed starting with Step I and escalating to Step III. Patients were followed for 6 months post-treatment. Local and systemic safety aspects were examined as primary endpoints, and therapeutic effects were assessed as secondary endpoints using voice handicap index-10; maximum phonation time; vocal fold vibratory amplitude; grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale; and jitter. The results indicated no serious drug-related adverse events in either the systemic or local examinations. In whole-subject analysis, voice handicap index-10, vocal fold vibratory amplitude, and grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale were significantly improved at 6 months, whereas maximum phonation time and jitter varied. There were no significant differences in phonatory data between the step groups. In conclusion, intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug was safe, feasible, and potentially effective for human patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on growth and craniofacial proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions

  6. Radiotherapy for asymptomatic brain metastasis in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer without prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment: a retrospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, SongRan; Qiu, Bo; Chen, LiKun; Wang, Fang; Liang, Ying; Cai, PeiQiang; Zhang, Li; Chen, ZhaoLin; Liu, ShiLiang; Liu, MengZhong; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BM) harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation shows good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study is to assess the appropriate timing of brain radiotherapy (RT) for asymptomatic BM in EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. There were 628 patients diagnosed with EGFR mutant NSCLC between October 2005 and December 2011. Treatment outcomes had been retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with asymptomatic BM without prior TKI treatment. 39 patients received first-line brain RT, 23 patients received delayed brain RT, and 34 patients did not receive brain RT. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year OS was 40.6 %. Univariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status (p = 0.006), other distant metastases (p = 0.002) and first line systemic treatment (p = 0.032) were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses revealed that other sites of distant metastases (p = 0.030) were prognostic factor. The timing of brain RT was not significantly related to OS (p = 0.246). The 2-year BM progression-free survival (PFS) was 26.9 %. Brain RT as first-line therapy failed to demonstrate a significant association with BM PFS (p = 0.643). First-line brain RT failed to improve long-term survival in TKI-naïve EGFR mutant NSCLC patients with asymptomatic BM. Prospective studies are needed to validate these clinical findings

  7. Results and evaluation of non-invasive brain perfusion characteristics with 99m Tc pertechnetate in clinically neurologically healthy persons as well as in patients with intracranial growths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, M.

    1981-01-01

    For an estimation of regional brain perfusion after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-pertechneate, the author followed the registration of the initial perfusion input in ventrosagittal or lateral setting of the scintillation camera in 74 patients. The time-activity characteristics were obtained across standardized regions, the mode of evaluation was applied as mentioned. A mean value of 49.1 for the perfusion of the right hemisphere was determined, for the left one it was 49.7 ml/100g/min. The regional mean values lay between 44.4 (parietal region) and 39.6 (temporal region) ml/100g for the lateral position. Thirtyone patients with intracronical growths were examined either directly before surgery or one year before it. In 22 of the patients examined before surgery a significantly lower regional perfusion could be computet for the ventral position; whereas the lateral perfusion values corresponded to values of healthy persons. The orienting calculation of regional brain perfusion at longer intervals after tumor extirpation did not show a significant difference to the clinically-neurologically inconspicuous patient collective in lateral exposure position normal patients. In 12 cases the calculation of the regional perfusion followed directly via the tumour. On an average, the values were about 8.2 ml/100g/min lower than in normal cases. (orig./MG) [de

  8. INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1 (IGF-1: DEMOGRAPHIC, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY DATA IN 120 CONSECUTIVE ADULT PATIENTS WITH THALASSAEMIA MAJOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Sanctis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is a key peptide involved in cell growth and protein turnover, acting as the primary mediator of many of the responses regulated by growth hormone (GH in tissues. Signs and symptoms of adult GH deficiency (AGHD in patients with β-thalassaemia major (TM  may be subtle and overlap with those of the disease itself; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed or delayed, with potentially serious consequences. The diagnosis of AGHD requires an appropriate clinical setting and is confirmed through biochemical testing. The  aim of this study  was  to measure IGF-1 values and other clinical data in a large number of adult  patients with TM and to  evaluate whether an  IGF-1 concentration 2 SDs below normative values  could be used as an effective index supporting  the probable presence of  AGHD. Patients and Methods: A cohort of 120 adult patients with TM was studied for plasma levels of IGF-1. Plasma total IGF-1 was determined by chemiluminescent immunometric assay (CLIA method. In eleven patients (4 males the GH response during glucagon stimulation test (GST was also evaluated.  Results:  Fifty percent of patients (33 males and 27 females had IGF-1 levels   -2SDs. In multivariate regression analyses,  height, weight, BMI, serum ferritin, ALT, HCV serology and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF were not significantly related to IGF-1,  but a significant correlation was found in females between HCV-RNA positivity and IGF-1, ALT and serum ferritin (p= 0.043. AGHD was diagnosed in 6 (4 males out of 11 patients (54.5% who had glucagon stimulation tests and in 5 out of 8 (62.5% with IGF-1 <-2SD. The mean age of patients with GHD was 39.3 years (range: 25-49 years versus 35.8 years (range: 27-45 years in non-GHD patients. A positive correlation between GH peak after GST and IGF-1 level was found (r: 0.6409; p: < 0.05. Conclusions: On the basis of the present results and data from the

  9. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Comparative Effectiveness Trial for Diabetic Macular Edema: Additional Efficacy Post Hoc Analyses of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampol, Lee M; Glassman, Adam R; Bressler, Neil M; Wells, John A; Ayala, Allison R

    2016-12-01

    Post hoc analyses from the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network randomized clinical trial comparing aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME) might influence interpretation of study results. To provide additional outcomes comparing 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for DME. Post hoc analyses performed from May 3, 2016, to June 21, 2016, of a randomized clinical trial performed from August 22, 2012, to September 23, 2015, of 660 participants comparing 3 anti-VEGF treatments in eyes with center-involved DME causing vision impairment. Randomization to intravitreous aflibercept (2.0 mg), bevacizumab (1.25 mg), or ranibizumab (0.3 mg) administered up to monthly based on a structured retreatment regimen. Focal/grid laser treatment was added after 6 months for the treatment of persistent DME. Change in visual acuity (VA) area under the curve and change in central subfield thickness (CST) within subgroups based on whether an eye received laser treatment for DME during the study. Post hoc analyses were performed for 660 participants (mean [SD] age, 61 [10] years; 47% female, 65% white, 16% black or African American, 16% Hispanic, and 3% other). For eyes with an initial VA of 20/50 or worse, VA improvement was greater with aflibercept than the other agents at 1 year but superior only to bevacizumab at 2 years. Mean (SD) letter change in VA over 2 years (area under curve) was greater with aflibercept (+17.1 [9.7]) than with bevacizumab (+12.1 [9.4]; 95% CI, +1.6 to +7.3; P grid laser treatment was performed for DME, the only participants to have a substantial reduction in mean CST between 1 and 2 years were those with a baseline VA of 20/50 or worse receiving bevacizumab and laser treatment (mean [SD], -55 [108] µm; 95% CI, -82 to -28 µm; P grid laser treatment, ceiling and floor effects, or both may account for mean thickness reductions noted only in bevacizumab-treated eyes between 1 and 2 years

  10. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  11. Memory functions of children born with asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Leitner, Yael; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Harel, Shaul

    2006-10-30

    Learning difficulties are frequently diagnosed in children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Models of various animal species with IUGR were studied and demonstrated specific susceptibility and alterations of the hippocampal formation and its related neural structures. The main purpose was to study memory functions of children born with asymmetric IUGR in a large-scale cohort using a long-term prospective paradigm. One hundred and ten infants diagnosed with IUGR were followed-up from birth to 9 years of age. Their performance was compared with a group of 63 children with comparable gestational age and multiple socioeconomic factors. Memory functions (short-term, super- and long-term spans) for different stimuli types (verbal and visual) were evaluated using Visual Auditory Digit Span tasks (VADS), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey-AVLT), and Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). Children with IUGR had short-term memory difficulties that hindered both serial verbal processing system and simultaneous processing of high-load visuo-spatial stimuli. The difficulties were not related to prematurity, neonatal complications or growth catch-up, but were augmented by lower maternal education. Recognition skills and benefits from reiteration, typically affected by hippocampal dysfunction, were preserved in both groups. Memory profile of children born with IUGR is characterized primarily by a short-term memory deficit that does not necessarily comply with a typical hippocampal deficit, but rather may reflect an executive short-term memory deficit characteristic of anterior hippocampal-prefrontal network. Implications for cognitive intervention are discussed.

  12. Longitudinal growth in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Comparison between unirradiated and irradiated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marky, I.; Samuelsson, B.O.; Mellander, L.; Karlberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    Longitudinal growth was studied in children treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the study was to compare these children's growth velocity with findings in a previous study we performed on age-matched children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received cranial irradiation. Nine children with NHL with an onset time of treatment between 4 and 9 years of age (mean 6.5 years) were studied with annual body measurements taken from the time of the diagnosis and thereafter annually during the following 4 years. None of the children received cranial irradiation. During the first treatment year a significantly low mean height velocity was observed (-1.4 standard deviation score [SDS]) for the NHL group. The consecutive two 1 year periods showed a normalization of the mean height velocity. For the group of children with ALL, there was a more prominent negative effect on height during the first 2 years of treatment than for the NHL group in the present study. After the cessation of therapy, the children with NHL showed a reduced catch-up growth compared with the children with ALL. The explanation offered is that cranial irradiation has a heavier impact on growth than chemotherapy during the first 2 years of treatment, but an intense chemotherapy during the maintenance period could have a considerable impact in blunting growth

  13. Prenatal Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (m TORC1) Inhibition by Rapamycin Treatment of Pregnant Mice Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Alters Postnatal Cardiac Growth, Morphology, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Maria; Fiedler, Saskia; Jux, Christian; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Drenckhahn, Jörg-Detlef

    2017-08-04

    Fetal growth impacts cardiovascular health throughout postnatal life in humans. Various animal models of intrauterine growth restriction exhibit reduced heart size at birth, which negatively influences cardiac function in adulthood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates nutrient and growth factor availability with cell growth, thereby regulating organ size. This study aimed at elucidating a possible involvement of mTORC1 in intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal heart growth. We inhibited mTORC1 in fetal mice by rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams in late gestation. Prenatal rapamycin treatment reduces mTORC1 activity in various organs at birth, which is fully restored by postnatal day 3. Rapamycin-treated neonates exhibit a 16% reduction in body weight compared with vehicle-treated controls. Heart weight decreases by 35%, resulting in a significantly reduced heart weight/body weight ratio, smaller left ventricular dimensions, and reduced cardiac output in rapamycin- versus vehicle-treated mice at birth. Although proliferation rates in neonatal rapamycin-treated hearts are unaffected, cardiomyocyte size is reduced, and apoptosis increased compared with vehicle-treated neonates. Rapamycin-treated mice exhibit postnatal catch-up growth, but body weight and left ventricular mass remain reduced in adulthood. Prenatal mTORC1 inhibition causes a reduction in cardiomyocyte number in adult hearts compared with controls, which is partially compensated for by an increased cardiomyocyte volume, resulting in normal cardiac function without maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Prenatal rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams represents a new mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction and identifies an important role of mTORC1 in perinatal cardiac growth. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  15. Clinical 3D printing: A protected health information (PHI) and compliance perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Henry; Kamali, Parisa; Lin, Samuel J; Halamka, John D

    2018-07-01

    Advanced manufacturing techniques such as 3-dimensional (3D) printing, while mature in other industries, are starting to become more commonplace in clinical care. Clinicians are producing physical objects based on patient clinical data for use in planning care and educating patients, all of which should be managed like any other healthcare system data, except it exists in the "real" world. There are currently no provisions in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) either in its original 1996 form or in more recent updates that address the nature of physical representations of clinical data. We submit that if we define the source data as protected health information (PHI), then the objects 3D printed from that data need to be treated as both (PHI), and if used clinically, part of the clinical record, and propose some basic guidelines for quality and privacy like all documentation until regulatory frameworks can catch up to this technology. Many of the mechanisms designed in the paper and film chart era will work well with 3D printed patient data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A predictive score for retinopathy of prematurity by using clinical risk factors and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Coşkun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and other risk factors for the early prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and to establish a scoring system for ROP prediction by using clinical criteria and serum IGF-1 levels. METHODS: The study was conducted with 127 preterm infants. IGF-1 levels in the 1st day of life, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of life was analyzed. The score was established after logistic regression analysis, considering the impact of each variable on the occurrences of any stage ROP. A validation cohort containing 107 preterm infants was included in the study and the predictive ability of ROP score was calculated. RESULTS: Birth weights (BW, gestational weeks (GW and the prevalence of breast milk consumption were lower, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC were more frequent, the duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation was longer in patients with ROP (P<0.05. Initial serum IGF-1 levels tended to be lower in newborns who developed ROP. Logistic regression analysis revealed that low BW (<1250 g, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and formula feeding increased the risk of ROP. Afterwards, the scoring system was validated on 107 infants. The negative predictive values of a score less than 4 were 84.3%, 74.7% and 79.8% while positive predictive values were 76.3%, 65.5% and 71.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to BW <1250 g and IVH, formula consumption was detected as a risk factor for the development of ROP. Breastfeeding is important for prevention of ROP in preterm infants.

  17. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Haghanifar, Sina; Ehsani, Hodis; Zahedi, Ehsan; Haghpanah, Masumeh

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of furcation area defects remained as a challenging issue in periodontal treatments. Regeneration treatment of furcation defects is the most discussed periodontal treatment. Although not completely hopeless in prognosis, the presence of the furcation involvement significantly increases the chance of tooth loss. The current research was conductedeto compare theeadditive effect of combined guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) on the treatment of furcation bony defects. A randomized, triple-blinded, split-mouth study was designed. It included patients with a moderate to severe chronic periodontitis with bilateral Grade II furcation involvement of first or second mandibular molars. Each side of mouth was randomly allocated for the treatment with either Bio-Gide American Society of Anesthesiologists GTR or a PRGF or PRGF by itself. Plaque index, gingival index, vertical clinical attachment level, vertical probing depth, recession depth (REC), horizontal probing depth, fornix to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), furcation vertical component and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were recorded. The current research was conducted to compare the additive effect of combined GTR and PRGF on treatment of furcation bony defects. Altman's nomogram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test, general linear model, repeated measures, and paired t -test were used as statistical analysis in this research. P PRGF group ( P = 0.02). A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  18. Clinical impact of minocycline on afatinib-related rash in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ayano; Ozawa, Yuichi; Koda, Keigo; Akahori, Daisuke; Koyauchi, Takashi; Amano, Yusuke; Kakutani, Takuya; Sato, Yoshiko; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Matsui, Takashi; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2018-03-01

    The management of skin toxicity is crucial for efficient afatinib treatment, but the role of tetracycline class antibiotics (TCs) in managing these rashes is relatively unknown. We reviewed the clinical records of patients who were administered afatinib for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations between October 2014 and November 2016. Twenty-five patients, who received TCs for the management of afatinib-related skin disorders, were enrolled. Minocycline was administered orally to participants. Afatinib-related toxic effects, such as rash, diarrhea, and paronychia, were observed in 92%, 92%, and 40% of cases, respectively. Although 24% of diarrhea and 4% of paronychia cases were rated grade 3 or higher, no severe cases of rash were observed during afatinib treatment. Of the 18 afatinib dose reductions, 14 (78%), three (17%), and one (6%) resulted from diarrhea, paronychia, and stomatitis, respectively; no patients required a dose reduction because of rash. When minocycline treatment started, 21 patients (84%) had a rash of grade 1 or less, and three patients had a grade 2 rash. A response to afatinib was observed in 18 patients (72%) and the median duration of afatinib administration was 501 days. An adverse event related to minocycline (grade 1 nausea) was observed in one patient. A large proportion of the study patients started minocycline before grade 2 rash development and the severity of afatinib-related rash was lower than that previously reported. Oral TCs may be beneficial, especially if started early. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana da Silva Rezende; Huf, Gisele; Vieira, Maria Armanda; Fonseca, Leila; Ricks, Monica; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu

    2013-01-01

    In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]) In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]).

  20. Clinical utilization of anti-vascular endothelial growth-factor agents and patient monitoring in retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss S

    2014-08-01

    .03; IVTA, 3.3 versus 3.0, P<0.05.Conclusion: During the study period (2008–2011, bevacizumab was the main anti-VEGF therapy used in clinical practice for BRVO, CRVO, and DME. Patients treated with bevacizumab were monitored less frequently and received fewer injections than patients in major clinical trials of ranibizumab. Keywords: anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion, intravitreal

  1. Growth and clinical variables in nitrogen-restricted piglets fed an adjusted essential amino acid mix: Effects using partially intact protein-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current recommendations for protein levels in infant formula ensure that growth matches or exceeds growth of breast-fed infants, but may provide a surplus of amino acids (AA). Recent studies in infants using AA-based formulas support specific adjustment of the essential AA (EAA) composition allowing...

  2. Everolimus Plus Endocrine Therapy for Postmenopausal Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Melanie; Bachelot, Thomas; Villanueva, Cristian; Özgüroglu, Mustafa; Azevedo, Sergio J; Cruz, Felipe Melo; Debled, Marc; Hegg, Roberto; Toyama, Tatsuya; Falkson, Carla; Jeong, Joon; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Gradishar, William J; Arce, Christina; Ridolfi, Antonia; Lin, Chinjune; Cardoso, Fatima

    2018-03-22

    Cotargeting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and estrogen receptor may prevent or delay endocrine resistance in patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer. To investigate the combination of everolimus plus endocrine therapy in first-line and second-line treatment settings for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. In the multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 BOLERO-4 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus) clinical trial, 245 patients were screened for eligibility; 202 were enrolled between March 7, 2013, and December 17, 2014. A median follow-up of 29.5 months had been achieved by the data cutoff date (December 17, 2016). Patients received first-line treatment with everolimus, 10 mg/d, plus letrozole, 2.5 mg/d. Second-line treatment with everolimus, 10 mg/d, plus exemestane, 25 mg/d, was offered at the investigator's discretion upon initial disease progression. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the first-line setting per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least 1 dose of study medication and at least 1 postbaseline safety assessment. A total of 202 women treated in the first-line setting had a median age of 64.0 years (interquartile range, 58.0-70.0 years) with metastatic (194 [96.0%]) or locally advanced (8 [4.0%]) breast cancer. Median progression-free survival was 22.0 months (95% CI, 18.1-25.1 months) with everolimus and letrozole. Median overall survival was not reached; 24-month estimated overall survival rate was 78.7% (95% CI, 72.1%-83.9%). Fifty patients started second-line treatment; median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 1.9-7.4 months). No new safety signals were observed. In the first-line setting, the most common all-grade adverse event was stomatitis (139 [68.8%]); the most common grade 3 to 4

  3. Causal Links among Saving, Investment and Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between saving, investment and GDP still remains an empirical issue. In their aspiration to catch up the rest of the world, developing countries provides a special place on this matter. This paper tried to investigate the main determinants of saving and the connection among saving, investment and GDP in the ...

  4. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  5. [Concordance between a head circumference growth function and intellectual disability in relation with the cause of microcephaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, R; Macaya Ruíz, A; Giraldo Arjonilla, J; Roig-Quilis, M

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between patterns of head growth and intellectual disability among distinct aetiological presentations of microcephaly. 3,269 head circumference (HC) charts of patients from a tertiary neuropediatric unit were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants selected. Using the Z-scores of registered HC measurements we defined the variables: HC Minimum, HC Drop and HC Catch-up. We classified patients according to the presence or absence of intellectual disability (IQ below 71) and according to the cause of microcephaly (idiopathic, familial, syndromic, symptomatic and mixed). Using Discriminant Analysis a C-function was defined as C=HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cut-off level of C=-4.32 Z-score. In our sample 95% of patients scoring below this level, severe microcephaly, were classified in the disabled group while the overall concordance was 66%. In the symptomatic-mixed group the concordance between HC function and outcome reached 82% in contrast to only 54% in the idiopathic-syndromic group (P-value=0.0002). We defined a HC growth function which discriminates intellectual disability of microcephalic patients better than isolated HC measurements, especially for those with secondary and mixed aetiologies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  7. Explaining Success and Failure in Development

    OpenAIRE

    Szirmai, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Since 1950, there has been considerable diversity in developing country experiences. Some countries and some regions have experienced rapid growth and catch up, others have fallen behind. At a global level there is an increasing inequality of per capita incomes. However, within the framework of increasing inequality, some countries have experienced accelerated catch up. The speed of catch up in the successful countries is more rapid than in previous historical periods. This paper analyses the...

  8. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  9. The effect of thyroxine treatment started in the neonatal period on development and growth of two-year-old Down syndrome children: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van Rozenburg-Marres, Susanne L. Rutgers; van Baar, Anneloes L.; Ridder, Jeannette C. D.; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Young Down syndrome children appear to have a mild form of congenital hypothyroidism that is rarely detected by neonatal screening and usually left untreated. Objective: To investigate the effects of thyroxine treatment on development and growth of young Down syndrome children. Design,

  10. Growth and clinical variables in nitrogen-restricted piglets fed an adjusted essential amino acid mix: Effects using free amino acid-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet, protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAA), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Using a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AA), our objective...

  11. Effect on Clinical Outcome and Growth Factor Synthesis With Adjunctive Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Fifth Metatarsal Nonunion Fracture: A Double-Blind Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adam; Watson, B Collier; Granata, Jaymes D; Philbin, Terrence M; Lin, Hsuan-Ni; O'Connor, J Patrick; Lin, Sheldon

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic bone growth stimulators have been found to biologically enhance the bone healing environment, with upregulation of numerous growth factors. The purpose of the study was to quantify the effect, in vivo, of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on growth factor expression and healing time in fifth metatarsal nonunions. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of patients, cared for by 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients between 18 and 75 years old who had been diagnosed with a fifth metatarsal delayed or nonunion, with no progressive signs of healing for a minimum of 3 months. Eight patients met inclusion criteria and were randomized to receive either an active stimulation or placebo PEMF device. Each patient then underwent an open biopsy of the fracture site and was fitted with the appropriate PEMF device. The biopsy was analyzed for messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels using quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QT-RT-PCR). Three weeks later, the patient underwent repeat biopsy and open reduction and internal fixation of the nonunion site. The patients were followed at 2- to 4-week intervals with serial radiographs and were graded by the number of cortices of healing. All fractures healed, with an average time to complete radiographic union of 14.7 weeks and 8.9 weeks for the inactive and active PEMF groups, respectively. A significant increase in placental growth factor (PIGF) level was found after active PEMF treatment (P = .043). Other factors trended higher following active PEMF including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -7, and BMP-5. The adjunctive use of PEMF for fifth metatarsal fracture nonunions produced a significant increase in local placental growth factor. PEMF also produced trends toward higher levels of multiple other factors and faster average time to radiographic union

  12. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  13. [Long-term outcome in context of intra uterine growth restriction and/or small for gestational age newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, G; Flamant, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate long-term outcome after history of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or birth small for gestational age (SGA). This systematic evidence review is based on Pubmed search, Cochrane library and experts recommendations. Neurodevelopmental evaluation at 2 years is lower in those infants, born premature or not. SGA is associated with a high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies, hyperactivity or attention deficit disorders at 5 years or scholar difficulties at 8 years. Those infants are at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Most of them will catch up at 6 months for weight and 12 months for height. Even if IUGR is associated with high risk of bronchodysplasia, up to this day, the review of literature did not permit to evaluate respiratory outcome. Adults born SGA have good quality of live and normal professional insertion. One cohort study and more and more animal studies suggest potential trans generational effects. Infants born SGA and/or with history of IUGR are at high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies and scholar difficulties. They are also at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. However, prematurity seems to have a higher effect than IUGR and/or SGA on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum CA199 and tumor specific growth factor (TSGF) contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jiancheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum TSGF and CA199 contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. Methods: Serum CA199 (with IRMA) and TSGF (with biochemistry method) contents were determined in 33 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma and 35 controls. Results: Serum CA199 and TSGF contents were significantly higher in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma than those in controls (P<0.01) and their levels were significantly positively correlated with those of serum AFP. Conclusion: Determination of serum TSGF and CA199 contents was of clinical diagnostic value in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. (authors)

  15. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body ...

  16. Clinical proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Frederiksen, Hanne; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2018-01-01

    Clinical proteomics aims to deliver cost-effective multiplexing of potentially hundreds of diagnostic proteins, including distinct protein isoforms. The analytical strategy known as targeted proteomics is particularly promising because it is compatible with robust mass spectrometry (MS)-platforms...... standards and calibrants. The present challenge is to examine if targeted proteomics of IGF-I can truly measure up to the routine performance that must be expected from a clinical testing platform.......Clinical proteomics aims to deliver cost-effective multiplexing of potentially hundreds of diagnostic proteins, including distinct protein isoforms. The analytical strategy known as targeted proteomics is particularly promising because it is compatible with robust mass spectrometry (MS......)-platforms already implemented in many clinical laboratories for routine quantitation of small molecules (i.e. uHPLC coupled to triple-quadrupole MS). Progress in targeted proteomics of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) have provided valuable insights about tryptic peptides, transitions, internal...

  17. Growth in Children with Cerebral Palsy during five years after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy: a practice-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight is reported as a side effect of SDR. The aims were to study the development of weight, height and body mass index (BMI during five years after SDR. Methods This prospective, longitudinal and practice-based study included all 56 children with CP spastic diplegia undergoing SDR from the start in March 1993 to April 2003 in our hospital. The preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels were I-II in 17, III in 15, IV-V in 24 children. Median age at SDR was 4.3 years (range 2.4-7.4 years. Weight and height/recumbent length were measured. Swedish growth charts for typically developing children generated weight, height and BMI z-scores for age and gender. Results The preoperative median z-scores were for height -1.92 and for body mass index (BMI -0.22. Five years later, the median BMI z-score was increased by + 0.57 (p + 2 SD increased (p The individual growth was highly variable, but a tendency towards increasing stunting with age was seen in severe gross motor dysfunction (GMFCS levels IV-V and the opposite, a slight catch-up of height in children with walking ability (GMFCS levels I-III. Conclusions These are the first available subtype- and GMFCS-specific longitudinal growth data for children with CP spastic diplegia. Their growth potential according to these data should be regarded as a minimum, as some children were undernourished. It is unknown whether the spasticity reduction through SDR increased the weight gain velocity, or if the relative weight increase was part of the general "obesity epidemic". For some children the weight increase was highly desirable. In others, it resulted in overweight and obesity with risk of negative health effects. Weight and height should be monitored to enable early prevention of weight aberrations also causing problems with mobility, activity and participation.

  18. Baseline demographic characteristics of subjects enrolled in international quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, Jorma

    2008-06-01

    In Phase II/III trials, administration of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and non-invasive cervical cancer in women aged 16-26 years who were naïve to these HPV types at enrollment. However, the makeup and extent of catch-up vaccination programs among young women is unclear, because a proportion of this population will likely already have been exposed to one or more vaccine-HPV-types. Herein we analyze baseline data from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program to investigate variables which may help shape catch-up vaccine implementation policies. Female adolescents and young adults aged 16-26 years were randomized into five clinical trials. Baseline data regarding demographics, sexual history, pregnancy history, and other characteristics were collected at enrollment. At the baseline gynecological examination during enrollment, specimens were obtained for Pap testing. Swabs of external genital, lateral vaginal, and cervical sites for HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were taken, and serum samples were obtained for HPV serology testing. Regional analyses of data were conducted. Overall, 72% of subjects enrolled worldwide were naïve by both serology and PCR to all four vaccine HPV types. Few subjects were seropositive and/or PCR positive for more than two vaccine-related HPV types. Of all subjects with HSIL at enrollment, 78% were positive to at least one vaccine-related HPV type at enrollment. Regional differences in HPV and STD prevalence were evident. Study limitations included under-representation of women with >/=4 sexual partners and possible underestimation of prior HPV exposure. Our findings demonstrate that sexually active 16-26 year-old women with America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific are generally naïve to most or all types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine

  19. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2017-01-01

    Results: Eight patients were finally enrolled for this study. Overly, general and specific clinical and furcation parameters were improved except REC that was deteriorated insignificantly and FAC improved not significantly. Intergroup comparison revealed better improvement of FHC in GTR/PRGF group (P = 0.02. Conclusion: A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  20. [Body composition and metabolic risk in small for gestational age children treated with growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2016-09-16

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate changes in body composition produced by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A group of 28 SGA children without catch-up growth and undergoing treatment with GH was selected for evaluation. Over the course of 3 years from the beginning of the treatment with GH, the children's body composition variables (bone mineral density [BMD], fat and lean body mass proportion) were evaluated annually with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A study of correlation between metabolic and body composition variables was also made. Treatment with GH produces a reduction in fat mass proportion in relation to lean body mass, decreasing from 25.94±6.09 to 22.88±5.38% (P=.034). In the abdominal regions we observe an increase in lean mass, from 1,356,91±426,71 to 2,570,96±814,36g (P=.000) and a tendency for visceral fat deposits to decrease. BMD in lumbar vertebrae improved from -1.55±0.68 to -0.90±0.79Z (P=.019). Treatment with GH produces changes in body composition, improving BMD and increasing the proportion of lean body mass with a reduction in fat mass. If these changes persisted into adulthood, they may cause a reduction in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL TEAR AND ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY IN EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: Clinical Course and Long-Term Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, Britta; Farecki, Marie-Louise; Bartels, Sina; Barrelmann, Anna; Gutfleisch, Matthias; Spital, Georg; Lommatzsch, Albrecht; Pauleikhoff, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To document the long-term outcome in cases of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears after treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. A retrospective analysis of the long-term outcome of a consecutive series of eyes with RPE tear developed during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for pigment epithelial detachment associated with choroidal neovascularization or retinal angiomatous proliferation (vascularized pigment epithelial detachment) was performed. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and autofluorescence images and also fluorescein angiograms were analyzed to determine the functional and morphologic development over time. The long-term outcome of 22 eyes (21 patients, 13 women and 8 men; 65-85 years; mean: 76 years) with RPE tear was performed with minimal follow-up of 3 years (range: 3-5 years, mean: 44 months) and re-treatment with different therapeutic strategies. The eyes were differentiated in 2 groups according to the course of BCVA after the first 2 years of follow-up: Group 1 (11 eyes) demonstrated a stabilized or improved BCVA after 2 years and Group 2 (11 eyes) demonstrated a decrease in BCVA after 2 years. The initial BCVA between both groups was comparable. Also the mean initial size of the RPE tear was the same between the 2 groups, the area of the RPE tear decreased continuously during follow-up in Group 1, whereas this was the case in Group 2 only at the beginning of treatment with a further increase of the size of the RPE tear with longer follow-up. This corresponded with a different morphologic development between the two groups. In Group 1, increasing recovery of autofluorescence at the RPE-free area was visible beginning from the outer border, whereas in Group 2, further growth of the neovascular complex in the area of the RPE tear was observed resulting in larger fibrovascular scars. In addition, in both groups

  2. Hyposecretion of adrenal androgens and the relation of serum adrenal steroids, serotonin and insulin-like growth factor-1 to clinical features in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessein, P H; Shipton, E A; Joffe, B I; Hadebe, D P; Stanwix, A E; Van der Merwe, B A

    1999-11-01

    Neuroendocrine deficiencies have been implicated in fibromyalgia (FM). In the present study, adrenal androgen metabolites and their relationship with health status in FM were investigated. For comparison, serum levels of other implicated neuroendocrine mediators were correlated with health status. Fifty-seven consecutive women with FM completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), free testosterone (T), cortisol, serotonin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Normal value for DHEAS and T were obtained from 114 controls. DHEAS levels were decreased significantly in pre- and postmenopausal patients (PBMI correlated positively with pain (PBMI, the correlation between age adjusted DHEAS and pain was no longer significant. Hyposecretion of adrenal androgens was documented in FM. This was more pronounced in obese patients. Low serum androgen levels correlated with poor health status in FM. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether these are cause and/or effect relationships.

  3. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone with or without rosiglitazone on hepatic fat content in HIV-1-infected individuals: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P; He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S; Albu, Jeanine B; Glesby, Marshall J

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat is related to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV+ and uninfected individuals. Growth hormone (GH) reduces VAT but increases IR. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) and rosiglitazone (Rosi) on hepatic fat in a substudy of a randomized controlled trial. HIV+ subjects with abdominal obesity and IR (QUICKI≤0.33) were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, Rosi 4 mg twice daily, the combination or double placebo. Hepatic fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, visceral fat by MRI and IR by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests at baseline and week 12. 31 subjects were studied at both time points. Significant correlations between hepatic fat and VAT (r=0.41; P=0.02) and QUICKI (r=0.39; P<0.05) were seen at baseline. IR rose with rhGH but not Rosi. When rhGH treatment groups were combined, hepatic fat expressed as percentage change decreased significantly (P<0.05) but did not change in Rosi (P=0.71). There were no correlations between changes in hepatic fat and VAT (P=0.4) or QUICKI (P=0.6). In a substudy of 21 subjects, a trend was noticed between changes in hepatic fat and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; P=0.09). Hepatic fat correlates significantly with both VAT and IR, but changes in hepatic fat do not correlate with changes in VAT and glucose metabolism. Hepatic fat content is reduced by rhGH but Rosi has no effect. These results suggest an independent effect of GH or IGF-1 on hepatic fat. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00130286).

  4. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone with or without rosiglitazone on hepatic fat content in HIV-1 infected individuals; a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P; He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S; Albu, Jeanine B; Glesby, Marshall J

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatic fat is related to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV+ and uninfected individuals. Growth hormone (GH) reduces VAT but increases IR. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) and rosiglitazone (Rosi) on hepatic fat in a substudy of a randomized controlled trial. Methods HIV+ subjects with abdominal obesity and IR (QUICKI ≤ 0.33) were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, Rosi 4 mg twice daily, the combination, or double placebo. Hepatic fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), visceral fat by MRI, and IR by frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests at baseline and week 12. Results 31 subjects were studied at both time points. Significant correlations between hepatic fat and VAT (r = 0.41, p=0.02) and QUICKI (r = 0.39, p<0.05) were seen at baseline. Insulin resistance rose with rhGH but not Rosi. When rhGH treatment groups were combined, hepatic fat expressed as percent change decreased significantly (p<0.05) but did not change in Rosi (p=0.71). There were no correlations between changes in hepatic fat and VAT (p=0.4) or QUICKI (p=0.6). In a substudy of 21 subjects, a trend was noticed between changes in hepatic fat and serum IGF-1 (p=0.09). Conclusions Hepatic fat correlates significantly with both VAT and IR, but changes in hepatic fat do not correlate with changes in VAT and glucose metabolism. Hepatic fat content is reduced by rhGH but Rosi has no effect. These results suggest an independent effect of growth hormone or IGF-1 on hepatic fat. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00130286). PMID:25536669

  5. Treatment of clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Jerry R

    2012-07-01

    In summary, culture-based therapy and severity levels are key to management of clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy should be strongly considered for gram-positive clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for mild-to-moderate gram-negative clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy is warranted for practically all severe clinical mastitis as well as fluids and anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical mastitis cases due to yeast and fungal pathogens or no growth isolates do not warrant antibiotic therapy.

  6. Additive Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors With Guided Tissue Regeneration in Treatment of Intrabony Defects in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis: A Split-Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sheethalan; Malaiappan, Sankari; Varghese, Sheeja; Jayakumar, Nadathur D; Prakasam, Gopinath

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal regeneration can be defined as complete restoration of lost periodontal tissues to their original architecture and function. A variety of treatment modalities have been proposed to achieve it. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is a concentrated suspension of growth factors that promotes restoration of lost periodontal tissues. The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of PRGF associated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) versus GTR only in the treatment of intrabony defects (IBDs) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Patients with CP (n = 14) with 42 contralateral 2- and 3-walled defects were randomly assigned to test (PRGF+GTR) and control (GTR alone) treatment groups. Clinical and radiographic assessments performed at baseline and after 6 months were: 1) gingival index (GI), 2) probing depth (PD), 3) clinical attachment level (CAL), 4) radiologic defect depth, and 5) bone fill. Comparison of parameters measured at baseline and after 6 months showed mean PD reduction of 3.37 ± 1.62 mm in the control group (P <0.001) and 4.13 ± 1.59 mm in the test group (P <0.001). There was a significant difference in mean change in CAL (P <0.001) in the control group (5.42 ± 1.99) and the test group (5.99 ± 1.77). Mean change in GI was 1.89 ± 0.32 and 1.68 ± 0.58 in the control group and test group, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.001). When compared between groups, clinical parameters did not show any statistically significant variations. Mean radiographic bone fill was 1.06 ± 0.81 and 1.0 ± 0.97 in the control group and test group, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. PRGF with GTR, as well as GTR alone, was effective in improving clinical and radiographic parameters of patients with CP at the 6-month follow-up. There was no additive effect of PRGF when used along with GTR in the treatment of IBDs in patients with CP in terms of both clinical and

  7. Does Problem-Solving Training for Family Caregivers Benefit Their Care Recipients With Severe Disabilities? A Latent Growth Model of the Project CLUES Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jack W.; Elliott, Timothy R.; Grant, Joan S.; Edwards, Gary; Fine, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether an individualized problem-solving intervention provided to family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities provides benefits to both caregivers and their care recipients. Design Family caregivers were randomly assigned to an education-only control group or a problem-solving training (PST) intervention group. Participants received monthly contacts for 1 year. Participants Family caregivers (129 women, 18 men) and their care recipients (81 women, 66 men) consented to participate. Main Outcome Measures Caregivers completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, the Satisfaction with Life scale, and a measure of health complaints at baseline and in 3 additional assessments throughout the year. Care recipient depression was assessed with a short form of the Hamilton Depression Scale. Results Latent growth modeling was used to analyze data from the dyads. Caregivers who received PST reported a significant decrease in depression over time, and they also displayed gains in constructive problem-solving abilities and decreases in dysfunctional problem-solving abilities. Care recipients displayed significant decreases in depression over time, and these decreases were significantly associated with decreases in caregiver depression in response to training. Conclusions PST significantly improved the problem-solving skills of community-residing caregivers and also lessened their depressive symptoms. Care recipients in the PST group also had reductions in depression over time, and it appears that decreases in caregiver depression may account for this effect. PMID:22686549

  8. Comparison of numerical change of epidermal growth factor receptor gene among pre- and postradiation glioma, and gliosis, and its clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Chihiro; Ueki, Keisuke; Ogino, Masahiro; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Kim, Phyo

    2007-01-01

    Surgery with following chemoradiotherapy is the mainstream glioma treatment. In the course of postradiation events, however, it is sometimes difficult for neurosurgeons, radiologists, and pathologists to discriminate tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, on chromosome 7, is known to gain in copy number frequently in high-grade gliomas. The authors applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method to observe the gene's numerical status in pre- and postradiation glioma samples to elucidate whether this technique is useful in the discrimination of glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis. When 15 postradiation glioma samples and 4 postradiation nonglioma samples were tested, all the recurrent glioma tissue harbored numerical aberrations of the gene, whereas no abnormality could be observed in necrosis or in nonglioma gliosis. FISH could even prove a residual glioma cell in a gliotic tissue taken by needle biopsy after gamma-knife radiosurgery, which had been executed on a supposed metastatic brain tumor. FISH is considered to be of help in accurate diagnosis, especially when the usual histopathological diagnosis is difficult because of radiation effects or small sample size. (author)

  9. Impact of evolving strategy on clinical outcomes and central pulmonary artery growth in patients with bilateral superior vena cava undergoing a bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Osami; Tran, Kim-Chi D; Hua, Zhongdong; Sapra, Priya; Alghamdi, Abdullah A; Russell, Jennifer L; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2010-09-01

    We reported a high incidence of thrombosis, central pulmonary artery hypoplasia, and mortality for bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary shunts. We hypothesized that technical modifications in the cavopulmonary anastomosis and anticoagulation would limit thrombus and central pulmonary artery hypoplasia, and thereby improve outcomes. Sixty-one patients (median age, 8.4 months; weight, 6.6 kg) underwent bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt from 1990 to 2007. The cohort was divided into 2 groups: 1) the conventional group (1990-1999, n = 37) and 2) the V-shaped group, with a hemi-Fontan or modification in which the cavae were anastomosed to the pulmonary artery adjacent to each other so they formed the appearance of a V (1999-2007, n = 24). Central and branch pulmonary artery growth, survival, and reinterventions were determined. The pre-Fontan study showed equivalent superior venae cavae and Nakata indices. The central pulmonary artery index and central pulmonary artery/Nakata index ratio were significantly higher in the V-shaped group (P analysis showed anastomotic strategy, low saturation, and thrombosis were predictors for death. Anastomotic strategy, lack of anticoagulation, thrombosis, and small superior venae cavae were predictors for reintervention (P strategy affected reintervention. Anastomotic strategy and postoperative thrombus affected mortality. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unanticipated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture inhibition by immune modulators, immune suppressants, a growth enhancer, and vitamins A and D: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Robert J; Su, Liya; Shahidi, Azra; Brown, William D; Clifford, Anya; Brown, Sheldon T

    2014-09-01

    The development of novel antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is time-consuming and expensive. Multiple immune modulators, immune suppressants, anti-inflammatories, and growth enhancers, and vitamins A and D, inhibit Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in culture. We studied the culture inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by these agents. Biosafety level two M. tuberculosis complex (ATCC 19015 and ATCC 25177) was studied in radiometric Bactec or MGIT culture. Agents evaluated included clofazimine, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine A, rapamycin, tacrolimus, monensin, and vitamins A and D. All the agents mentioned above caused dose-dependent inhibition of the M. tuberculosis complex. There was no inhibition by the anti-inflammatory 5-aminosalicylic acid, which causes bacteriostatic inhibition of MAP. We conclude that, at a minimum, studies with virulent M. tuberculosis are indicated with the agents mentioned above, as well as with the thioamide 5-propothiouricil, which has previously been shown to inhibit the M. tuberculosis complex in culture. Our data additionally emphasize the importance of vitamins A and D in treating mycobacterial diseases. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Preoperative administration of polysaccharide Kureha and reduced plasma transforming growth factor-β in patients with advanced gastric cancer: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMASHITA, KEISHI; SAKURAMOTO, SHINICHI; MIENO, HIROAKI; NEMOTO, MASAYUKI; SHIBATA, TOMOTAKA; KATADA, NATSUYA; OHTSUKI, SHIGEAKI; SAKAMOTO, YASUTOSHI; HOSHI, KEIKA; WANG, GUOQIN; HEMMI, OSAMU; SATOH, TOSHIHIKO; KIKUCHI, SHIRO; WATANABE, MASAHIKO

    2015-01-01

    Systemic abrogation of TGF-β signaling results in tumor reduction through cytotoxic T lymphocytes activity in a mouse model. The administration of polysaccharide-Kureha (PSK) into tumor-bearing mice also showed tumor regression with reduced TGF-β. However, there have been no studies regarding the PSK administration to cancer patients and the association with plasma TGF-β. PSK (3 g/day) was administered as a neoadjuvant therapy for 2 weeks before surgery. In total, 31 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients were randomly assigned to group A (no neoadjuvant PSK; n=14) or B (neoadjuvant PSK therapy; n=17). Plasma TGF-β was measured pre- and postoperatively. The allocation factors were clinical stage (cStage) and gender. Plasma TGF-β ranged from 1.85–43.5 ng/ml (average, 9.50 ng/ml) in AGC, and 12 patients (38.7%) had a high value, >7.0 ng/ml. These patients were largely composed of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with pathological stage III/IV. All the six elevated cases in group B showed a significant reduction of plasma TGF-β (from 21.6 to 4.5 ng/ml, on average), whereas this was not exhibited in group A. The cases within the normal limits of TGF-β remained unchanged irrespective of PSK treatment. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant reduction in the difference of plasma TGF-β between groups A and B (P=0.019). PSK reduced the plasma TGF-β in AGC patients when the levels were initially high. The clinical advantage of PSK may, however, be restricted to specific histological types of AGC. Perioperative suppression of TGF-β by PSK may antagonize cancer immune evasion and improve patient prognosis in cases of AGC. PMID:26137253

  12. Clinical validation of a software for quantitative follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysm maximal diameter and growth by CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An; Dugas, Alexandre; Therasse, Eric; Oliva, Vincent; Soulez, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the reproducibility and accuracy of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software, with manual measurement on double-oblique MPR as a reference standard. Materials and methods: The local Ethics Committee approved this study and waived informed consent. Forty patients (33 men, 7 women; mean age, 72 years, range, 49-86 years) had previously undergone two CT angiography (CTA) studies within 16 ± 8 months for follow-up of AAA ≥35 mm without previous treatment. The 80 studies were segmented twice using the software to calculate reproducibility of automatic D-max calculation on 3D models. Three radiologists reviewed the 80 studies and manually measured D-max on double-oblique MPR projections. Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility were calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Systematic errors were evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. Differences in D-max growth were analyzed with a paired Student's t-test. Results: The ICC for intra-observer reproducibility of D-max measurement was 0.992 (≥0.987) for the software and 0.985 (≥0.974) and 0.969 (≥0.948) for two radiologists. Inter-observer reproducibility was 0.979 (0.954-0.984) for the three radiologists. Mean absolute difference between semi-automated and manual D-max measurements was estimated at 1.1 ± 0.9 mm and never exceeded 5 mm. Conclusion: Semi-automated software measurement of AAA D-max is reproducible, accurate, and requires minimal operator intervention.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Linezolid and Meropenem Against Clinical Isolates of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis By Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I. A.; Satti, L.; Khan, F. A.; Khan, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of multiple breakpoint concentrations of newer antituberculosis agents (Linezolid and Meropenem) against Multi Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. Study Design: Adescriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from September 2011 to August 2013. Methodology: Atotal of 100 MDR-TB isolates recovered during the study period were subjected to susceptibility testing against multiple breakpoint concentrations of Linezolid (LZD) and Meropenem (MER). The breakpoint concentration used for LZD were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 micro g/ml, while for MER were 4.0, 8.0 and 16 micro g/ml. Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was used to carry out drug susceptibility testing as per recommended protocol. Results: At break point concentration of 0.5 micro g/ml, 80 out of 100 (80%) MDR-TB isolates were susceptible to LZD while at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml and 2.0 micro g/ml, 96/100, (96%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. For MER, at breakpoint concentrations of 4.0 micro g/ml no MDR-TB isolate was susceptible, while at 8.0 micro g/ml 3/100, (3%) and at 16.0 micro g/ml 11/100, (11%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. Conclusion: LZD was found to have excellent in vitroefficacy as 96% of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml or more. In case of MER it was found that in vitrosusceptibility improved as the break point concentrations were increased. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Growth Control Properties of Nonoscale Structure Produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis Extract on Clinical Isolates of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad; Hosseiny, Hossein

    2017-07-31

    The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial properties of microemulsion structure produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis extract as a new tool of nanoscale drug-like materials. Aloe vera var. littoralis ( A. littoralis ) extract was prepared by distillation method. A nonocarrier structure in the microemulsion system was prepared from the extract. Serial concentrations were prepared from 8 mg/mL extract and the nonocarrier containing 0.1 mg/mL pure extract and were evaluated by a disk diffusion method for 35 Salmonella clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microbroth dilution assay using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) Microplate Reader apparatus. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. From 35 clinical isolates of Salmonella , 17 isolates-including resistant isolates of S.E.1103 and S.E.49-had a zone of inhibition (ZI) of 7 to 32 mm in 0.007 mg/mL of the extract. S.E.76 isolate exposed to 30 µg/mL ceftazidime disk had a ZI of 12 mm but had 10 mm in 7µg/mL of A. littoralis extract. The inhibitory effect of a nanocarrier at a concentration of 25 µg/mL by 20 mm ZI was comparable by the ceftazidime (30 µg/mL) effect. MIC 50 was 0.25 mg/mL and MBC 50 was 0.5 mg/mL by MTT method for the extract. It was shown that A.littoralis extract had antioxidant activity of 31.67 µM/mg that could be increased based on concentration. It was concluded that the nanocarrier had a significant effect on the studied isolates in comparison with ordinary antibiotics and had potential for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material in complementary medicine.

  15. CHANGES IN THE LEVELS OF ANGIOTENSIN II, ALDOSTERONE, AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN RELATION TO CLINICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Komarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF stimulate neoangiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, and elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn contributes to increased pannus mass and the development of joint tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to establish the specific features of changes in the blood levels of angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF in patients with RA in relation to the duration and severity of the disease.Subjects and methods. Examinations were made in 194 patients diagnosed with RA without comorbidity; the patients’ mean age was 47.7±10.2 years; the disease duration was 3.82±3.43 years. DAS28 scores for RA were calculated based on C-reactive protein levels. An enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCPA, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF.Results and discussion. All the examinees were ascertained to have increases in the concentration of angiotensin II and aldosterone in blood by twice and in that of FGF by 2.5 times compared to the controls (p < 0.05. In patients with a RA duration of < 2 years, the blood level of angiotensin II was 25% higher than in those with a RA duration of > 5 years and the concentrations of aldosterone and FGF in patients with long-term RA were twice as high as in those with early RA. In patients with high RA activity, the blood level of angiotensin II was 1.5-fold higher than in those with low and moderate disease activity (p < 0.05. In patients with a high blood ACCPA level, the concentrations of angiotensin II, aldosterone, and FGF were 20, 30, and 25%, respectively, higher than in those with low ACCPA levels. The correlation of DAS28 with blood angiotensin II levels increased with enhanced RA activity. The high aldosterone and FGF values in RA patients are associated with the progression of joint radiographic changes.

  16. Expression and clinical significance of extracellular matrix protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in lymphatic metastasis of human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiu-Wan; She, Hong-Qiang; Liang, Jing; Huang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Qing-Mo; Yang, Qiao-Lu; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) are secretory glycoproteins that are associated with lymphangiogenesis; these proteins could, therefore, play important roles in the lymphatic dissemination of tumors. However, very little is known about their potential roles in lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether correlations exist between ECM1 and VEGF-C in human breast cancer, lymphangiogenesis, and the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA and protein expression levels in 41 patients were investigated using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue, matched noncancerous breast epithelial tissues, and suspicious metastatic axillary lymph nodes. D2-40 labelled lymph vessels and lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) were counted. Correlations between ECM1 or VEGF-C protein expression levels, LMVD, and clinicopathological parameters were statistically tested. The rate of ECM1 positive staining in breast cancer tissues was higher (31/41, 75.6%) than that in the corresponding epithelial tissues (4/41, 9.8%, P < 0.001) and lymph nodes (13/41, 31.7%, P < 0.001). Similarly, the VEGF-C expression rate in cancer specimens was higher (33/41, 80.5%) than in epithelial tissues (19/41, 46.3%, P < 0.01) or lymph nodes (15/41, 36.6%, P < 0.01). Higher ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA expression levels were also detected in the tumor tissues, compared to the non-cancerous tissue types or lymph nodes (P < 0.05). ECM1 protein expression was positively correlated with the estrogen receptor status (P < 0.05) and LMVD (P < 0.05). LMVD in the ECM1- and VEGF-C-positive tumor specimens was higher than that in the tissue types with negative staining (P < 0.05). Both ECM1 and VEGF-C were overexpressed in breast cancer tissue samples. ECM1 expression was positively correlated with estrogen responsiveness and the

  17. Low prevalence of vaccine-type HPV infections in young women following the implementation of a school-based and catch-up vaccination in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, P; Sauvageau, C; Gilca, V; Defay, F; Lambert, G; Mathieu-C, S; Guenoun, J; Comète, E; Coutlée, F

    2018-01-02

    In Quebec, Canada, a school-based HPV vaccination for girls has been offered since 2008. The vaccine used in the program targets HPV16/18, responsible for ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV6/11, responsible for the majority of anogenital warts. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women aged 17-29 years were eligible to participate. Participants' age, vaccination status and diverse risk factors were assessed by a computer-assisted questionnaire. Biological specimens were obtained by self-sampling. HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array. A total of 2,118 women were recruited. 2,042 completed the questionnaire and 1,937 provided a vaginal sample. Vaccination coverage varied from 83.5% in women aged 17-19 to 19.1% in those aged 23-29. The overall prevalence of HPV in sexually active women was 39.4% (95%CI: 37.0-41.7) and 56.7% of infected women had multiple type infections. The prevalence of vaccine HPV types varied by age and vaccination status except for women aged 23-29 for whom similar results were observed. Vaccine HPV types were detected in 0.3%, 1.4% and 10.5% of vaccinated women aged 17-19, 20-23, and 23-29 (pHPV16 or HPV18 were detected in 10 women having received at least one dose of vaccine. Nine of these women were already sexually active at the time of vaccination. Infections with HPV types included in the vaccine are rare in women aged less than 23 years and are virtually absent in those who received at least one dose of vaccine before sexual debut.

  18. Catching up is hard to do. Science feeds development, and in Africa more countries are looking to beat the odds and gain benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingu, E.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific advancement cannot occur without quality education; to achieve that quality, Africa will require significant investment at all educational levels.Worldwide, competitors have become collaborators and have enhanced their economic, technological, or academic statures by forming alliances and partnerships. For African countries to significantly advance, they must collaborate regionally or internationally. The success of those partnerships will depend on having a well-endowed leading member. Examples of partnerships include the African Materials Research Society, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Working Group on Space Sciences in Africa, and African Laser Centre. Those initiatives, in which South Africa plays a leading role, carry the hope that expertise will be developed to create a science and technology infrastructure in Africa. The IAEA funds important activities in the fields of radiation protection and safety, nuclear medicine, and maintenance of scientific instruments, all undertaken by a consortium of countries in Africa under the African Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA). Through regional participation, intellectual and physical resources are coordinated, capabilities in the diversified areas of nuclear technology are enhanced, and the development of expertise is facilitated

  19. High-risk human papillomavirus clearance in pregnant women: trends for lower clearance during pregnancy with a catch-up postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Nobbenhuis, M A E; Helmerhorst, T J M; van den Brule, A J C; Rozendaal, L; Bezemer, P D; Voorhorst, F J; Meijer, C J L M

    2002-01-01

    We followed 353 women referred with abnormal cervical cytology in a non-intervention cohort study. In 91 pregnant women we compared high-risk human papilloma virus rates in the subsequent trimesters and postpartum in comparison to 262 non-pregnant women. High-risk human papilloma virus clearance was compared with 179 high-risk human papilloma virus positive non-pregnant women. Our main questions were: (1) do high-risk human papilloma virus rates change during pregnancy?; and (2) is there any ...

  20. Catching Up: Impact of the Talent Development Ninth Grade Instructional Interventions in Reading and Mathematics in High-Poverty High Schools. Report 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie; Jordan, Will

    2004-01-01

    Concerns that higher standards and demanding high-stakes tests will disadvantage students who have attended weak, unsuccessful, or under-resourced schools have typically been met with the counter-claim that poorly prepared students will be provided with the extra help and support they need to succeed. Efforts to provide extra help are in their…

  1. Catching Up: Effect of the Talent Development Ninth-Grade Instructional Interventions in Reading and Mathematics in High-Poverty High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie; Jordan, Will

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the feasibility and rapidity with which the academic learning of students who enter high school multiple years behind grade level can be accelerated. This study uses multiple regression analyses of standardized test and survey data from high-poverty high schools in two large urban districts to evaluate initial effects of the…

  2. Women even the odds. Healthcare isn't an "old boys' network" anymore, as women catch up to men in leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, Alison

    2005-04-18

    Women are increasingly taking influential jobs in healthcare, whether it's Carolyn Clancy at the AHRQ helping lead the way on improving quality through IT or Risa Lavizzo-Mourey helping dole out millions of dollars in grants at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Both won spots on Modern Healthcare's inaugural list of the Top 25 Women in Healthcare.

  3. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  4. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  5. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  6. Texas Medication Algorithm Project, phase 3 (TMAP-3): clinical results for patients with a history of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Trisha; Rush, A John; Dennehy, Ellen B; Crismon, M Lynn; Kashner, T Michael; Toprac, Marcia G; Carmody, Thomas J; Brown, E Sherwood; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Witte, Bradley P; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Miller, Alexander L; Altshuler, Kenneth Z; Shon, Steven P

    2003-04-01

    The Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) assessed the clinical and economic impact of algorithm-driven treatment (ALGO) as compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in patients served in public mental health centers. This report presents clinical outcomes in patients with a history of mania (BD), including bipolar I and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, during 12 months of treatment beginning March 1998 and ending with the final active patient visit in April 2000. Patients were diagnosed with bipolar I disorder or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, according to DSM-IV criteria. ALGO was comprised of a medication algorithm and manual to guide treatment decisions. Physicians and clinical coordinators received training and expert consultation throughout the project. ALGO also provided a disorder-specific patient and family education package. TAU clinics had no exposure to the medication algorithms. Quarterly outcome evaluations were obtained by independent raters. Hierarchical linear modeling, based on a declining effects model, was used to assess clinical outcome of ALGO versus TAU. ALGO and TAU patients showed significant initial decreases in symptoms (p =.03 and p <.001, respectively) measured by the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-24) at the 3-month assessment interval, with significantly greater effects for the ALGO group. Limited catch-up by TAU was observed over the remaining 3 quarters. Differences were also observed in measures of mania and psychosis but not in depression, side-effect burden, or functioning. For patients with a history of mania, relative to TAU, the ALGO intervention package was associated with greater initial and sustained improvement on the primary clinical outcome measure, the BPRS-24, and the secondary outcome measure, the Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M). Further research is planned to clarify which elements of the ALGO package contributed to this between-group difference.

  7. Acute HIV infection (AHI) in a specialized clinical setting: case-finding, description of virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammassari, Adriana; Abbate, Isabella; Orchi, Nicoletta; Pinnetti, Carmela; Rozera, Gabriella; Libertone, Raffaella; Pierro, Paola; Martini, Federico; Puro, Vincenzo; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection during early stages is mandatory to catch up with the challenge of limiting HIV viral replication and reservoirs formation, as well as decreasing HIV transmissions by immediate cART initiation. Aims were to describe (a) virological characteristics of AHI identified, (b) epidemiological and clinical factors associated with being diagnosed with AHI. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. All individuals diagnosed with AHI according to Fiebig's staging between Jan 2013 and Mar 2014 at the INMI "L. Spallanzani" were included. Serum samples reactive to a fourth generation HIV-1/2 assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Abbott) were retested with another fourth generation assay (VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Biomérieux) and underwent confirmation with HIV-1 WB (New Lav I Bio-Rad) and/or with Geenius confirmatory assay (Bio-Rad). WHO criteria (two env products reactivity) were used to establish positivity of confirmatory assays. In case of clinically suspected AHI, HIV-1 RNA (Real time, Abbott) and p24 assay (VIDAS HIV P24 Bio-Rad) were also performed. Avidity test was carried out, on confirmed positive samples lacking p31 reactivity, to discriminate between recent (true Fiebig V phase) and late infections; to avoid possible misclassifications, clinical data were also used. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are routinely, and anonymously recorded in the SENDIH and SIREA studies. During the study period, we observed 483 newly HIV diagnosed individuals, of whom 40 were identified as AHI (8.3%). Fiebig classification showed: 7 stage II/III, 13 stage IV, 20 stage V. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients are shown in the Table. Overall, the study population had a median S/Co ratio at fourth generation EIA (Architect) of 49.50 (IQR, 23.54-98.05): values were significantly lower in Fiebig II-IV than in Fiebig V (38.68 [IQR, 20.08-54.84] vs 75.72 [IQR, 42.66-249.80], p=0.01). Overall, median HIV-1 RNA was 5

  8. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test measuring thyroid ... not affect intelligence or brain function. The cause of growth hormone ...

  9. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the changes your body goes through during puberty. Puberty is the stage of your life when sexual development happens, like breast development and menstrual periods in girls and growth of the penis and testicles in boys. One of the body ...

  10. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  11. Laboratory compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology/college of American Pathologists guidelines for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing: a College of American Pathologists survey of 757 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E; Grimm, Erin E; Idowu, Michael O; Souers, Rhona J; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L

    2010-05-01

    To ensure quality human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines were introduced with expected compliance by 2008. To assess the effect these guidelines have had on pathology laboratories and their ability to address key components. In late 2008, a survey was distributed with the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) proficiency testing program. It included questions regarding pathology practice characteristics and assay validation using fluorescence in situ hybridization or another IHC laboratory assay and assessed pathologist HER2 scoring competency. Of the 907 surveys sent, 757 (83.5%) were returned. The median laboratory accessioned 15 000 cases and performed 190 HER2 tests annually. Quantitative computer image analysis was used by 33% of laboratories. In-house fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in 23% of laboratories, and 60% of laboratories addressed the 6- to 48-hour tissue fixation requirement by embedding tissue on the weekend. HER2 testing was performed on the initial biopsy in 40%, on the resection specimen in 6%, and on either in 56% of laboratories. Testing was validated with only fluorescence in situ hybridization in 47% of laboratories, whereas 10% of laboratories used another IHC assay only; 13% used both assays, and 12% and 15% of laboratories had not validated their assays or chose "not applicable" on the survey question, respectively. The 90% concordance rate with fluorescence in situ hybridization results was achieved by 88% of laboratories for IHC-negative findings and by 81% of laboratories for IHC-positive cases. The 90% concordance rate for laboratories using another IHC assay was achieved by 80% for negative findings and 75% for positive cases. About 91% of laboratories had a pathologist competency assessment program. This survey demonstrates the extent and characteristics of HER2 testing. Although some American Society of

  12. Linear growth patterns in small for gestational age and preterm infants after zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Nancy Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW infants are at risk for growth disturbances due to intrauterine zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation is expected to improve the linear growth of LBW babies. Objective To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in preterm and small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study had a pre- and post-test design. Subjects were LBW infants hospitalized in Kariadi Hospital during March-December 2011, consisted of SGA and preterm neonates. All subjects were given 5 mg of zinc syrup daily for 3 months. Subjects’ head circumference, weight, and length were measured monthly. Serum zinc levels were measured before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent T-test, and general linear model repeated measure. Results A total of 61 subjects were enrolled consisted of 31 preterm and 30 SGA neonates. Mean serum zinc levels in the preterm group were 168.2 (SD 54.5 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 163.6 (SD 50.7 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.049, while mean serum zinc levels in the SGA group were 174.8 (SD 46.6 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 167.4 (SD 49.4 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.271. Median percentage preterm weight and length increased from 87.3 to 102.4% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 95.8 to 103.9% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Median percentage SGA weight and length increased from 73.5 to 98.3% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 94.5 to 102.2% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Both, the preterm and SGA infants exhibit catch-up growth after three months of zinc supplementation. [

  13. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  14. Clinical Usefulness of a One-Tube Nested Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Evaluating Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 mRNA Overexpression in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, SeungIl; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the two main methods used to analyze human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification or overexpression have a limited accuracy and high costs. These limitations can be overcome by the development of complementary quantitative methods. In this study, we analyzed HER2 mRNA expression in clinical formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples using a one-tube nested reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We measured expression relative to 3 reference genes and compared the results to those obtained by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays with 226 FFPE breast cancer tissue samples. The one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay proved to be highly sensitive and specific based on comparisons with IHC (96.9 and 97.7%, respectively) and FISH (92.4 and 92.9%, respectively) obtained with the validation set. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed significant associations between HER2 overexpression and TNM stage (p < 0.01), histological type (p < 0.01), ER status (p < 0.001), PR status (p < 0.05), HER2 status (p < 0.001), and molecular subtypes (p < 0.001). Based on these findings, our one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay is a potentially useful and complementary screening tool for the detection of HER2 mRNA overexpression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Prospective study of the impact of the Prosigna assay on adjuvant clinical decision-making in unselected patients with estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor negative, node negative early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; González-Rivera, Milagros; Morales, Serafín; de la Haba-Rodriguez, Juan; González-Cortijo, Lucía; Manso, Luis; Albanell, Joan; González-Martín, Antonio; González, Sónia; Arcusa, Angels; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Rojo, Federico; Vidal, María; Galván, Patricia; Aguirre, Elena; Morales, Cristina; Ferree, Sean; Pompilio, Kristen; Casas, Maribel; Caballero, Rosalía; Goicoechea, Uxue; Carrasco, Eva; Michalopoulos, Steven; Hornberger, John; Prat, Aleix

    2015-06-01

    Improved understanding of risk of recurrence (ROR) is needed to reduce cases of recurrence and more effectively treat breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine how a gene-expression profile (GEP), identified by Prosigna, influences physician adjuvant treatment selection for early breast cancer (EBC) and the effects of this influence on optimizing adjuvant treatment recommendations in clinical practice. A prospective, observational, multicenter study was carried out in 15 hospitals across Spain. Participating medical oncologists completed pre-assessment, post-assessment, and follow-up questionnaires recording their treatment recommendations and confidence in these recommendations, before and after knowing the patient's ROR. Patients completed questionnaires on decision-making, anxiety, and health status. Between June 2013 and January 2014, 217 patients enrolled and a final 200 were included in the study. Patients were postmenopausal, estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth hormone factor negative, and node negative with either stage 1 or stage 2 tumors. After receiving the GEP results, treatment recommendations were changed for 40 patients (20%). The confidence of medical oncologists in their treatment recommendations increased in 41.6% and decreased in 6.5% of total cases. Patients reported lower anxiety after physicians made treatment recommendations based on the GEP results (p anxiety about the selected adjuvant therapy decreased with use of the GEP.

  16. Clinical Translation and Validation of a Predictive Biomarker for Patritumab, an Anti-human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 3 (HER3) Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Jeanne; Freeman, Daniel J; Feng, Wenqin; Hettmann, Thore; Schneider, Matthias; Blum, Sabine; Ruhe, Jens; Bange, Johannes; Nakamaru, Kenji; Chen, Shuquan; Tsuchihashi, Zenta; von Pawel, Joachim; Copigneaux, Catherine; Beckman, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    During early clinical development, prospective identification of a predictive biomarker and validation of an assay method may not always be feasible. Dichotomizing a continuous biomarker measure to classify responders also leads to challenges. We present a case study of a prospective-retrospective approach for a continuous biomarker identified after patient enrollment but defined prospectively before the unblinding of data. An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and the challenges encountered in its practical application are also provided. HERALD (NCT02134015) was a double-blind, phase 2 study in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized to erlotinib with placebo or with high or low doses of patritumab, a monoclonal antibody targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3). While the primary objective was to assess safety and progression-free survival (PFS), a secondary objective was to determine a single predictive biomarker hypothesis to identify subjects most likely to benefit from the addition of patritumab. Although not identified as the primary biomarker in the study protocol, on the basis of preclinical results from 2 independent laboratories, expression levels of the HER3 ligand heregulin (HRG) were prospectively declared the predictive biomarker before data unblinding but after subject enrollment. An assay to measure HRG mRNA was developed and validated. Other biomarkers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, were also evaluated in an exploratory fashion. The cutoff value for high vs. low HRG mRNA levels was set at the median delta threshold cycle. A maximum likelihood analysis was performed to evaluate the provisional cutoff. The relationship of HRG values to PFS hazard ratios (HRs) was assessed as a measure of internal validation. Additional NSCLC samples were analyzed to characterize HRG mRNA distribution. The subgroup of patients with high HRG mRNA levels ("HRG

  17. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  18. Giant cardiac fibroma: an unusual cause of failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Susanne; Latzin, Philipp; Kadner, Alexander; Carrel, Thierry; Hutter, Damian

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac fibromas are extremely rare in the general pediatric population and may present with a wide spectrum of clinical signs, including life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. We report a 14-month-old boy who presented with failure to thrive as the only symptom. Echocardiography showed a large cardiac fibroma in the right ventricle. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. After complete surgical tumor resection, the boy showed normal catch-up growth. This case underlines the diversity of clinical features of cardiac tumors, which implies that they should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of infants with failure to thrive.

  19. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... questions and clinical trials. Optimizing our Clinical Trials Enterprise NHLBI has a strong tradition of supporting clinical ... multi-pronged approach to Optimize our Clinical Trials Enterprise that will make our clinical trials enterprise even ...

  20. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance ...

  1. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...

  2. Clinical effects of prior trastuzumab on combination eribulin mesylate plus trastuzumab as first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from a Phase II, single-arm, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhalla S

    2016-12-01

    treatment with eribulin plus trastuzumab for metastatic disease (median time between neo/adjuvant and study treatment: 23 months. In trastuzumab-naïve patients (n=31 compared with those who had received prior trastuzumab, objective response rate was 77.4% versus 61.9%, respectively; duration of response was 11.8 versus 9.5 months, respectively; clinical benefit rate was 87.1% versus 81.0%, respectively; and median progression-free survival was 12.2 versus 11.5 months, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (occuring in ≥5% of patients in patients who received prior trastuzumab versus trastuzumab naïve patients, respectively, were neutropenia (47.6% vs 32.3%, peripheral neuropathy (14.3% vs 25.8%, febrile neutropenia (14.3% vs 3.2%, fatigue (9.5% vs 6.5%, nausea (9.5% vs 0%, vomiting (9.5% vs 3.2%, and leukopenia (9.5% vs 3.2%. In patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive metastatic breast cancer, first-line eribulin/trastuzumab treatment demonstrated substantial antitumor activity and was well tolerated, regardless of prior neo/adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. Keywords: oncology, breast neoplasms, advanced breast cancer, chemotherapy, eribulin mesylate, trastuzumab, HER2

  3. The Lemna minor growth inhibition test as basis to evaluate radiation or radionuclide-induced effects on freshwater plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Van Hoeck, A.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The setting of radiation protection criteria for wildlife is based on tiered Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) methods. At various points in such a tiered ERA robust and transparent benchmark values are needed to indicate the levels of exposure that are considered safe to the environment. Although not ideal these benchmark values are today mainly based on laboratory-based experiments in which the toxic effects of radiation or radionuclides to one selected species exposed under standardised growth conditions is studied. As such an eco-toxicity test has been developed for the floating macrophyte Lemna minor that can be used to test the effect of different chemicals in freshwater. Here the use of this test to estimate effects of radiation or radionuclides and its relevance to the environment will be discussed. First single dose response curves are shown that were set up according to the guidelines for gamma, uranium and as a reference also cadmium. According to the guidelines growth inhibition can be calculated on different endpoints like frond number and frond area. The choice of this endpoint seems to be of major importance as dependent on the stressor significant shifts in the EC50 values, the concentration giving 50% effect, were observed. For gamma radiation a recovery experiment was set up in irradiated plants were allowed to grow again for 7 days in control conditions. It was shown that plant growth rate did not catch up with that of the non-irradiated group. On the contrary, plant cultures that showed a growth inhibition above 40% immediately after irradiation completely collapsed during the recovery period indicating no recovery from the gamma induced damage and resulting in a 3-fold lower EC50 value after 7 days recovery. The relevance of these data to the environment will be further discussed. Finally the influence of different cations on the uranium speciation and toxicity are studied. These experiments are the first steps to set up a biotic ligand

  4. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  5. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001), respectively (between subjects P  = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients' satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  6. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF versus hyaluronic acid (HA on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001, and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001, respectively (between subjects P  = .631. There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  7. Analytic performance studies and clinical reproducibility of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donnell, Patrick; Shieh, Felice; Wei, Wen; Lawrence, H Jeffrey; Wu, Lin; Schilling, Robert; Bloom, Kenneth; Maltzman, Warren; Anderson, Steven; Soviero, Stephen; Ferguson, Jane; Shyu, Johnny; Current, Robert; Rehage, Taraneh; Tsai, Julie; Christensen, Mari; Tran, Ha Bich; Chien, Sean Shih-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a high likelihood of benefiting from treatment with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sanger sequencing is widely used for mutation detection but can be technically challenging, resulting in longer turn-around-time, with limited sensitivity for low levels of mutations. This manuscript details the technical performance verification studies and external clinical reproducibility studies of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay designed to detect 41 mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. The assay’s limit of detection was determined using 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived and plasmid DNA blends. Assay performance for a panel of 201 specimens was compared against Sanger sequencing with resolution of discordant specimens by quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). Internal and external reproducibility was assessed using specimens tested in duplicate by different operators, using different reagent lots, instruments and at different sites. The effects on the performance of the cobas EGFR test of endogenous substances and nine therapeutic drugs were evaluated in ten FFPET specimens. Other tests included an evaluation of the effects of necrosis, micro-organisms and homologous DNA sequences on assay performance, and the inclusivity of the assay for less frequent mutations. A >95% hit rate was obtained in blends with >5% mutant alleles, as determined by MPP analysis, at a total DNA input of 150 ng. The overall percent agreement between Sanger sequencing and the cobas test was 96.7% (negative percent agreement 97.5%; positive percent agreement 95.8%). Assay repeatability was 98% when tested with two operators, instruments, and reagent lots. In the external reproducibility study, the agreement was > 99% across all sites, all operators and all reagent lots for 11/12 tumors tested. Test

  8. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  9. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI's Children and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to ...

  10. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a ... will be done during the clinical trial and why. Each medical center that does the study uses ...

  11. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often ... participants. Children and Clinical Studies Learn about the importance of children in clinical studies and get answers ...

  12. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ...

  13. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®: rationale, design, and methodology of two international pharmacoepidemiological registry-based studies monitoring long-term clinical and safety outcomes of growth hormone therapy (Norditropin®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höybye, Charlotte; Sävendahl, Lars; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Lee, Peter; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Schlumpf, Michael; Germak, John; Ross, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) and the American Norditropin® Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program®) are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data. The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians. The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of reallife treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of the studies, as well as their governance and validity, strengths, and limitations. The NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER Program® studies will provide valid insights into the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment across a diverse and large patient population treated in accordance with real-world clinical practice and following the Good Pharmacoepidemiological Practice and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines.

  14. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  15. Birth weight and postnatal growth in preterm born children are associated with cortisol in early infancy, b